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The State of Youth in Singapore

1997 National Youth Council


and
Centre for Business Research & Development
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission of
the National Youth Council and Centre for Business Research & Development.
ISBN 981-00-9765-4
Published by
National Youth Council and Centre for Business Research & Development
113 Somerset Road, #01-02 Faculty of Business Administration
National Youth Centre National University of Singapore
Singapore 238165 10 Kent Ridge Crescent
Singapore 119260
Cover painting by Wong Heqin submitted for the competition What Singapore Means
to Me by Young Singaporeans
Cover design by Inc Communications
Printed in Singapore by Integrated Press Pte Ltd
Preface
In 1995, there were 683,100 youths aged between 15 and 29 years in
Singapore, a decrease of 5.3% from 737,400 in 1990. Youths currently make up a
sizeable 23% of the total population in Singapore.
For a small nation like Singapore, its economic progress and ultimately its
survival are intrinsically dependent on the quality of its population. Our Government
recognises this and pays special attention to the well-being and concerns of the future
leaders of our nation. The National Youth Council, together with the Centre for
Business Research & Development, have jointly prepared this comprehensive
publication documenting the various aspects of youth in Singapore. It aims to be a
useful reference for all concerned in monitoring youth development and progress in
Singapore.
This publication is the first monograph in a quinquennial series of publication
on the state of youth in Singapore. It presents a macro picture, covering both
demographic and psychographic characteristics of youth. It also contains information
on their aspirations and views on national and global issues. Of particular interest
would be the directions and trends in which the youths are heading for in comparison
to their counterparts overseas.
We would like to express our sincere appreciation to all who have contributed
in making this publication possible.
National Youth Council
December 1997
i
The State of Youth in Singapore
Contents
Page
I INTRODUCTION 1
II PROFILE OF SINGAPORE YOUTH 1
A) Demographics
i) Population
ii) Marital Status
iii) Ethnic Group
iv) Education
v) Labour Force Participation
vi) Death Causes
vii) Crime Rates
viii)Religion
B) Psychographics
(1) Values & Major Concerns 9
i) Life-Goal
ii) Personal Satisfaction
iii) Success Factors
iv) Worries & Concerns
v) Advisors
(2) Family Life & Marriage 16
i) Marriage
ii) Qualities Important in Marriage
iii) Sex before Marriage
(3) Jobs 21
i) Part-time Jobs: Students
ii) Working Youth
(4) Singapore Identity 26
i) Image of Singapore
ii) Attributes of Singaporeans
III SUMMARY 28
Appendix I: Research Methodology and Scope of Study 30
Appendix II: Youth Statistics 40
A) Demographics
B) Psychographics
Appendix III: NYC Depository of Youth Research 70
A) Singapore Publications
B) Overseas Publications
ii
The State of Youth in Singapore
THE STATE OF YOUTH I N SI NGAPORE
I INTRODUCTION
Young people are a countrys valuable resource. They are a vital part of a
countrys future, determining its rate of economic-social growth and development.
The United Nations designated 1985 as the International Youth Year (IYY) in
recognition of the role of youth in society. In 1995, the world celebrated the tenth
anniversary of IYY with the theme, Participation, Development and Peace.
What are Singapore youth like? What is the profile of young people in
Singapore? What are their aspirations? How do they view life? What gives them
personal satisfaction? And how do they perceive Singapore and Singaporeans?
These are some of the questions that this book, The State of Youth in Singapore,
attempts to answer. In providing an overview on Singapore youth and focussing on
specific issues important to young people, this book hopes to give a better
understanding of the younger generation in Singapore. It will be the first of a series
documenting and capturing changes in the profile of the Singapore youth.
II PROFILE OF SINGAPORE YOUTH
A) Demographics
The demographic profile of Singapore youth is drawn from published statistics
from various government organizations.
i) Population
Almost one-quarter (23%) of Singapores population belong to the youth group,
defined as young people aged 15-29 years. There are more older youth. Among the
three age sub-groups, 30% of youth are of 15-19 years, 34% are aged 20-24 years and
36% are 25-29 years. For every 100 female youth, there are 104 male youth.
Youth Population
200
0
400
600
800
Thousand
221.4
211.0
232.3
229.1
283.7
243.0
737.4
683.1
15-19 years 20-24 years 25-29 years Total
1990 1995
1
The State of Youth in Singapore
The youth population has declined from 737,400 in 1990 to 683,100 in 1995.
This phenomenon could most probably be due to the successful implementation of
the earlier family planning campaign and declining birth rates over the years.
The Singapore youth population is likely to decrease gradually over the next
ten years. Based on projections on Singapore population, the youth population will
fall to 655,000 in the year 2000 and to 653,000 in 2005, but rise to 693,000 in 2010.
As a proportion of total population, it will decrease from the current 23% to 20%-
21% during 2000-2010. There will be more younger youth in the next decade. Among
the three age sub-groups of youth, the older youth comprising 36% in 1995 is most
likely to drop to 31% in 2010 while the younger youth comprising 30% in 1995 is
most likely to reach 37% in 2010.
ii) Marital Status
Youth & Martial Status
20
0
40
60
80
%
77.0
80.1
22.4
19.5
0.3
0.1
0.4 0.4
Single Married Widowed Divorced
1990 1995
100
Projected Population
5
0
10
15
20
%
7.1
7.4
7.7
6.3
8.1
7.4
20
22.9
15-19 years 20-24 years 25-29 years % of total population
25
7.2
7.5
6.5 6.7
6.1
6.4
20.7
20.9
1995 2000 2010 2005
2
The State of Youth in Singapore
In terms of ethnic composition, Malay and Indian youth have declined
proportionately. The percentage of Malay youth has decreased from 16% in 1990 to
14% in 1995. Similarly, Indian youth constituted one percentage point less in the
five-year period. In contrast, Chinese youth population grew from 76% to 79%.
iv) Education
The percentage of single youth has increased from 77% in 1990 to 80% in
1995 while married youth have declined from 22% to 20% over the same period.
Widowed and divorced youth have remained at less than 1%.
The total number of marriages registered (under the Womens Charter and
Muslim Act Law) in 1995 was 24,965, an increase of 4% over that of 23,953 in 1990.
The mean age at first marriage has been rising gradually, from 28.7 years in 1990 for
grooms to 29.4 years in 1995 and from 25.9 years in 1990 for brides to 26.3 years in
1995.
iii) Ethnic Group
Youth & Ethnic Group
20
0
40
60
80
%
76.3
79.4
15.8
13.6
7.1
6.1
0.9
0.9
Chinese Malays Indians Others
15-29 yrs 1990 15-29 yrs 1995
100
Student Enrolment
500
0
520
540
560
Thousand
520.8
521.5
525.6
531.2
538.8
558.7
1990 1991 1992 1993
580
1994
1995
3
The State of Youth in Singapore
Education is highly valued by todays youth. The importance of education
can be seen from the rise in the number of student enrolment in the past five years
despite the fall in youth population. Student enrolment in 1995 increased by 7% over
that in 1990.
In terms of the level of educational qualification, youth are becoming better
educated. The percentage of youth with primary education has decreased by half
while that with tertiary education has gone up by almost half. For instance, 12% of
youth aged 15-29 years have university education in 1995 as compared to 7% in
1990. Correspondingly, those with a polytechnic or junior college (JC) qualification
have increased from 21% to 34% while those possessing only a primary education
have decreased from 32% to 16%.
v) Labour Force Participation
Youth Education
5
0
10
15
20
%
31.9
15.7
39.7
38.1
21.2
33.8
7.2
12.5
Primary Secondary JC/Poly University
1990 1995
35
40
45
30
25
Youth Labour Participation
20
0
40
60
80
%
30.9
19.9
82.5
76.7
86.4
86.6
64.9
64.3
15-19 yrs 20-24 yrs 25-29 yrs Total
1990 1995
100
4
The State of Youth in Singapore
With a diminishing youth population, there are proportionately fewer youth in
the workforce. The overall percentage of youth in the labour force has decreased
very slightly from 65% to 64% over the period of 1990 to 1995. However, those in
the 15-19 years and 20-24 years age groups have experienced a sharp decline from
31% to 20% and 83% to 77% respectively over the same period. Possible reasons for
lower labour force participation rates in these two younger age groups are the
importance placed on higher education and fewer dropouts from school.
In contrast to the total labour force in which male workers outnumber female
workers, there are more female working youth than male youth. Both have declined
between 1990 and 1995 from 35% to 27% for male youth and from 48% to 40% for
female youth. Better education has led to some changes in occupation structure.
There are more youth now being employed in professional, managerial or technical
positions; the proportion of which has increased sharply from 18% in 1990 to 30% in
1995. Correspondingly, the proportions of working youth with tertiary education
have increased (28% for polytechnic and 13% for university in 1995 versus 15% and
5% in 1990 respectively), while the proportion with primary education has declined
sharply (25% in 1995 versus 45% in 1990). Similar to 1990, most youth tend not to
run their own business as evidenced by the virtually unchanged self-employment rate
of 2%.
Employed Youth
10
0
20
30
40
%
18.2
29.9
16.8 16.8
11.0
44.6
32.6
Professionals Clerical Sales/services Production
1990 1995
45
15
5
25
35
8.5
9.7
12.0
Others
5
The State of Youth in Singapore
Primarily a result of higher educational qualification and employment positions,
the wage levels of young workers have risen. For instance, 26% of working youth
aged 20-24 years in 1990 earned a monthly wage of S$1,000-1,499. Five years later,
the proportion has risen to 41%.
vi) Death Causes
Major Causes of Death
20
0
40
60
80
No
36
34
37
44
98
108
79
50
Heart Pneumonia Traffic Cancer
1990 1995
100
120
99
80
Suicide
The major causes of death among Singapore youth are motor traffic accidents
(20%) and suicides (15%). Compared to 1990, the suicide rate in 1995 has declined
slightly by two percentage points whereas deaths due to motor traffic accidents have
risen by three percentage points.
Male youth are more prone to be victims of motor vehicle traffic accidents
(24%), while female youth are more likely to commit suicide (22%).
Wage Level of 20-24 years old
10
0
20
30
40
%
24
4
24
11
26
41
$600-799 $800-999 $1000-1499
1990 1995
45
15
5
25
35
50
6
The State of Youth in Singapore
Young Offenders
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
No.
1,892
1,484
2,574
2,239
1993 1995
Number arrested
No of students
vii) Crime Rates
The number of young offenders arrested has increased sharply by 114% from
1,205 in 1990 to 2,574 in 1995. Student offenders rose by 51% between 1993 and
1995. Out of the total arrests in 1995, student offenders accounted for almost nine-
tenths (87%). Another concern is the rise in girl offenders. Girl offenders arrested
have risen from 21% of total arrests in 1993 to 28% in 1995 and to 29% in 1996.
However, in 1996, the number of young offenders and number of student offenders
decreased by 18% and 21% respectively as compared to the previous year.
The most common offence committed by the young is shoplifting, accounting
for 41% of total crimes in 1995 compared to the previous years 33%. The second
highest incidence of offence committed is simple theft, which has decreased from
18% in 1994 to 14% in 1995.
Another problem is the increase in violent crimes (such as rioting and extortion)
committed by one-fifth of offenders in the age group of 7-15 years. Extortion by
threat increased by three times from 8 cases in Jan-June 1994 to 24 cases in Jan-June
1995.
One observation on these problem youth is that they often come from homes
lacking in parental guidance, and are usually low-achievers in school with low self-
esteem. Because of this, they are easily influenced by negative peer pressure (Straits
Times, 17 February 1996).
7
The State of Youth in Singapore
viii) Religion
Reflecting changes in ethnic composition, Buddhism among Singapore youth
has increased. The percentage of Buddhist youth rose from 29% in 1990 to 31% in
1995. Hinduism and Christianity, on the other hand, have declined slightly between
1990 and 1995 whereas Islam has decreased by almost the same proportion as Malay
youth.
B) Psychographics
The psychographic findings are obtained from a survey conducted in mid-
1997 of a representative sample of 600 Singapore youth. The survey findings are
compared with those of eleven countries on similar topics from the Fifth World Youth
Survey 1993. Given that values and attitudes change slowly, the survey findings
from the two separate studies provide indications of similarities and differences
between Singapore youth and youth of other countries.
Youth & Religion
10
0
20
30
%
29.1
31.4
Buddhism Taoism Islam
1990 1995
15
5
25
35
18.5
18.8
18.0
15.7
3.8
3.2
13.5
13.1
16.6
16.8
0.6 0.6
Hinduism Christianity No religion Others
8
The State of Youth in Singapore
To live as I like is the life-goal of 44% of Singapore youth, followed by To
get rich for 32% of Singapore youth. As the majority of youth are single, they have
more freedom to do what they want.
Given that the goals of Singapore youth are To live as I like and To get
rich, the least mentioned life-goal is To improve society and the world. Less than
one in ten (8%) states that as their life-goal.
Youth of different age groups, ethnic background and educational qualifications
view their life-goal differently. The findings indicate that the older Singapore youth
tend to be more practical whereas the younger youth are more idealistic. For instance,
the most frequently cited life-goal of older youth aged 25-29 years is To get rich
(39%) whereas that of younger groups of 15-19 years and 20-24 years is To live as
I like (50% and 45% respectively). Interestingly, proportionately more younger
youth aged 15-19 years (13%) choose To improve society and the world as their
life-goal while proportionately more older youth aged 20-29 years (13%) aim To
acquire social position.
In terms of educational background of youth, the life-goal of those with primary
education is To get rich (48%), while the life-goal of those with at least secondary
school education is To live as I like (39%-53%). Youth with polytechnic or university
education however aim To achieve social position (17%). Youth with vocational
education tend to be less self-centred, aiming To improve society and the world
(24% as against 5% for youth with university education).
(1) Values & Major Concerns
i) Life-Goal
Youth Life-Goal
To acquire social position
12%
To improve society & the
world 8%
Others
4%
To get rich 32%
To live as I like
44%

9
The State of Youth in Singapore
Singapore youth are similar to youth in eleven developed and developing
countries covered by the Fifth World Youth Survey. Firstly, the largest proportion of
youth in Singapore (44%) have the life-goal of To live as I like. Similarly youth in
other countries cite this life-goal most frequently, ranging from the Philippines (40%)
to Sweden (82%).
The second most common life-goal among Singapore youth is To get rich
(32%). This is also the second most cited life-goal of youth in Japan (28%), South
Korea (24%), Thailand (17%), the United Kingdom (15%), the United States (14%)
and Sweden (10%).
With the exception of Philippine youth, the life-goal of To work on behalf of
society is selected by proportionately fewer youth. Whereas 30% of Philippine
youth express the desire to work for society, few youth from the other countries possess
this life-goal, ranging from Swedens 2% to Singapores 8% and Brazils 16%.
World Youth: Life-goal
Sweden
U.K.
Thailand
U.S.A.
Germany
Russia
Korea
Japan
Brazil
France
Philippines
Singapore
To live as I like
50% 0% 100%
2.1
1.1
10.3 82.0 4.5
7.2
1.7
8.9 14.6 67.7
10.9
0.1
4.7 17.0 67.3
9.6
3.8
7.4 14.1 65.2
6.1
6.0
16.9 6.4 64.5
3.6
1.9
20.3 12.3 62.0
11.8
0.0
6.4 24.3 57.5
6.5
4.5
4.5 28.3 56.3
15.6
0.2
20.3 10.7 53.2
7.5
1.5
28.2 10.3 52.6
29.9
0.4
8.0 21.5 40.2
8.4
4.1
11.8 31.6 44.1
To get rich
To acquire social
position
To work
on
behalf of
society Others
10
The State of Youth in Singapore
ii) Personal Satisfaction
Youth apparently derive the most personal satisfaction when they are with
their friends (28%). Being with friends reaffirms each others ideas and gives a sense
of belonging. A smaller proportion (16%) of youth get personal satisfaction when
with family, when at work or when concentrating on sports/hobbies. Since being
with friends gives the most satisfaction, very few youth like being alone (3%).
Youth, 24 years old or younger, prefer the companionship of friends (35% for
those 15-19 years and 29% for 20-24 years) while those above 24 years old are more
satisfied when with family (28%) or at work (27%).
This finding is rather similar to that of the Fifth World Youth Survey. The most
cited form of personal satisfaction is when with friends for youth in seven countries
(Japan, USA, UK, Germany, France, Sweden and Russia). Youth in the Philippines,
Thailand and Brazil derive the most satisfaction when with family while Korean
youth gather the most satisfaction when engrossed in work.
Family
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Work
Sports/Hobbies
Make society better
Study
Alone
28.1
16.2
16.0
15.6
7.2
2.8
Personal Satisfaction
Percentage
8.6
Friends
11
The State of Youth in Singapore
iii) Success Factors
* Multiple answers are allowed in the Fifth World Youth Survey while the Singapore youth survey allows
only one answer.
Korea
0% 50%
100%
Thailand
Brazil
Philippines
Singapore
Russia
World Youth Personal Satisfaction: Top 2 Choices*
Work
Friends
Family
Friends
Family
Friends
Family
Friends
Family
Friends
Friends
Family
Friends
Sports
Friends
Sports
Friends
Friends
Family
Family
Friends
Family
Family
Friends
Germany
Japan
France
U.S.A.
U.K.
Sweden
Success Factors
Good education 12%
Luck 10%
Social status 4%
Right connections 4%
Others 1%
Personal effort 32%
Personal abilities 22%
Opportunity 15%

12
The State of Youth in Singapore
Personal effort (32%) is recognised by Singapore youth as the most important
factor for becoming successful. Personal abilities (22%) is considered as the next
most important factor for success. Success factors associated with luck, social status
and right connections are perceived by much smaller groups of youth to be important.
Apparently, youth of today are realistic and are aware that hard work is necessary for
success.
iv) Worries & Concerns
More than half (55%) of Singapore youth are worried over money. Work is
another main concern of youth (44%). The least concern is over political/social
problem (6%), and is to some extent consistent with the behaviour of apolitical
Singaporeans in general.
There are some differences between male and female youth perceptions of
various concerns and worries. While female youth are more concerned than male
youth over matters concerning family (48% vs 36%), friends (40% vs 28%),
appearance (28% vs 13%), personality (18% vs 11%), male youth tend to be more
concerned than female youth about political problems (9% vs 3%).
O
t
h
e
r
s
Major Concerns
0
20
40
60
%
55.2
44.3
41.7
33.8
29.5
28.2
25.3
22.3
20.3
14.7
8.3
8.2
7.3
6.0
1.2
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13
The State of Youth in Singapore
Similarly, in the Fifth World Youth Survey, money is also ranked first in all
surveyed countries except Korea. Getting a job is the top problem for Korean youth
(37.5%), and the second most cited worry for youth in seven countries, Sweden
(41.7%), Philippines (41.5%), UK (35.8%), France (34.7%), USA (31%), Thailand
(24.5%), and Brazil (17.3%). In contrast, getting a job is not ranked as a top-five
worry by Singapore youth, reflecting the tight labour market conditions in Singapore.
v) Advisors
%
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
60.5
60.3
55.5
55.2
54.1
53.1
47.7
37.3
34.9
28.4
20.3
P
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Major Concern-Money
Club/group
Friends
Girlfriends/
boyfriends
Neighbourhood/
school friends
Older school
friends
Mother
Brothers/sisters
Top Advisors
35 40 45 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
41.8
36.0
17.8
4.8
23.8
21.8
Percentage
Wife/husband
F
r
i
e
n
d
s
12.7
14
The State of Youth in Singapore
When youth have problems, they often approach someone to talk to for advice.
The most popular advisor (cited by all respondents) is friends; i.e. friends from own
group/ club (42%), girlfriends/ boyfriends (36%), neighbourhood/school friends (18%)
or friends older than them (5%). The next most common advisor whom youth approach
is their mother (24%), followed by brothers/sisters (22%). Despite the fact that most
students spend many hours in school, they hardly approach their teachers to confide
their troubles (1%).
Male and female youth do not differ much in the choice of advisors. The
slight difference is that female youth are more likely to seek their boyfriends (43%)
or mother (28%) for advice while male youth would rather not speak to anyone (12%)
when in trouble.
The findings of the Fifth World Youth Survey on this question differ from that
of the Singapore survey. Proportionately more youth in the eleven countries approach
their mother for advice. Mother is ranked first in nine countries, whereas in Japan
and South Korea, neighbourhood/school friends are the preferred advisors youth talk
to. Another distinct person whom the overseas youth approach is their father who is
constantly ranked within the top five advisors. In comparison, Singapore youth rather
go to no one for advice (10%) than to their father (9%).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
%
77.2
72.2
67.9
54.9
53.8
53.5
53.1
50.0
43.0
37.7
29.6
23.8
Philippines U.K. U.S.A. Singapore Sweden Russia Thailand France Japan Germany Brazil Korea
Mother as advisor
15
The State of Youth in Singapore
(2) Family Life & Marriage
i) Marriage
A majority (75%) of Singapore youth are for marriage and only less than one-
fifth (17%) do not view marriage favourably. On the degree of support for marriage,
close to half of youth feel strongly that One should marry (46%) and a smaller
proportion are of the view that It is better to marry (28%). Amongst the youth who
do not view marriage favourably, only a handful of them (2%) are of the view that It
is better not to marry.
Views on marriage vary across educational qualification and ethnic groups.
While a large proportion (44%) of university graduates are of the opinion that It is
better to marry, a majority of those with junior college (52%) or secondary (54%)
education feel strongly that One should marry. Almost three-tenths (28%) of youth
with junior college education, however, feel that It is not necessary to marry. Indian
and Malay youth are stronger advocates of marriage than Chinese youth. Close to
two-thirds of Indian and Malay youth believe that One should marry (62% and
63% respectively) while less than half (42%) of Chinese youth opine likewise.
Comparing the results with those of the Fifth World Youth Survey, Singapore
ranks second (75%) after the Philippines (83%) in terms of support for marriage
while youth from the United Kingdom are the least likely to agree with this view
(32%). It is observed that youth from the west tend to view marriage as not necessary.
For instance, the United Kingdom (61%) and Sweden (60%) have the highest incidence
of youth not for marriage as opposed to youth in Singapore (15%) or Japan (16%).
Views on Marriage
Dont know
8%
For Marriage
75%
Against
Marriage 17%

16
The State of Youth in Singapore
ii) Qualities Important in Marriage
Qualities Important in Marriage
Commitment
38%
Financial
independence
4%
Companionship
12%
Others
2%
Fidelity
3%
Mutual trust
41%

World Youth Views on Marriage


Philippines
Japan
Russia
Thiland
Korea
U.S.A.
Brazil
France
Germany
Sweden
U.K.
Singapore
Should marry
50% 0% 100%
2.8 10.4 36.4
46.2
4.1
0.9
9.8 16 55.3 17
2.8 6.4 19.2 37.9 32.5
3.6 4.5 24.4 27.2 37.3
1.5
5.8 28.7 49.3 14.7
3.1 8.3 39.3 26.1 21.5
12.6
1.0
42.1 25.1 18.7
6.4
1.2
51.7 32.4 7.7
6.6 9.5 42.5 23.2 14.4
3.0
2.4
59.9 17.4 16.8
61.2
1.5
4.1 19.6 12.3
15 8.2 28.2 46.3
Better to marry
Not
necessary
to marry
Better
not to
marry
Dont
know
1.7
17
The State of Youth in Singapore
A high proportion of youth feel that mutual trust (41%) and commitment (38%)
are important qualities in a marriage. Youth do not consider financial independence
(4%) or fidelity (3%) as important factors in a marriage.
The following significant differences are detected. The older youth of 25-29
years view commitment (41%) as the most important quality in marriage. In contrast,
those below 25 years old consider mutual trust (43%-48%) as the most important
quality for marriage. Primary and vocational educated youth tend to emphasise
commitment (50% and 41% respectively) while secondary, junior college, polytechnic
and university educated youth look upon mutual trust (39%-47%) as being the most
important. University and vocational graduates place more importance on financial
independence as compared to the others (6% vs 2% for the primary). And youth with
primary education perceive companionship relatively more important than other youth
(29% vs 8%-18%).
iii) Divorce
More than half (54%) of Singapore youth approve of divorce either regardless
of whether there are children or when mutual love does not exist in the marriage.
Only one-fifth (20%) of them feel very strongly that once married, divorce should
never be allowed for any reason at all.
Female youth tend to support divorce more than the males. More than half
(51%) of male youth are against divorce as compared to female youth (41%). Financial
independence could be the reason that females are stronger supporters of divorce.
Views on Divorce
Approved
54%
Disapproved
46%


18
The State of Youth in Singapore
From the Fifth World Youth Survey, those approving divorce exceed those
disapproving in nine countries: Sweden (88% approve), UK (83%), France (81%),
Germany (80%), USA (77%), Brazil (76%), Russia (76%), Japan (52%) and Thailand
(51%). In the Philippines, youth who disapprove of divorce (61%) exceed those who
approve (39%), while Korean youth are equally split between approval and disapproval
of divorce. Singapore youth, therefore, hold similar views on divorce as Japanese
and Thai youth.
World Youth Views on Divorce
Sweden
U.K.
France
Germany
U.S.A.
Brazil
Russia
Japan
Thailand
Korea
Philippines
Singapore
Should divorce if no
love
50% 0% 100%
5.2 48.4 39.4 4.3
6.4 8.1 41.7 41.5
3.1
14.5 30.4 50.7
1.8
11 53.1 26.9
10.4 8.1 45.5 31.8
9.6 13.3 22.2 54
4.9 13.1 26.4 49.4
8.8 36
41.6 10.6
24.6 22.9 12.6 38.4
30.9 19.2 40.1 9.7
48.1 12.7 10.7 27.8
25.3 34.1 20.2
Unavoidable under certain
circumstances
Should not divorce if
children
Should not divorce
20.4
19
The State of Youth in Singapore
iv) Sex before Marriage
On the issue of sex before marriage, a slim majority (51%) perceive it as
wrong and feel that it should be avoided. About two-fifths (41%) of youth, however,
look upon sex before marriage as acceptable if mutual love exists and that marriage is
the ultimate goal. Singapore youth are still conservative with only less than one-
tenth (9%) of them viewing pre-marital sex as not a problem even if there is no love.
More than half of the female youth (59%) express strong disapproval against
sex before marriage. On the other hand, more males than females perceive it as
alright if there is mutual love (26% vs 17%) or even if there is no love (11% vs 6%).
In terms of age differences, the younger youth aged 15-19 years feel strongly against
sex before marriage (61%) while slightly more than one-third (37%) of those aged
25-29 years old are strongly against such practice. The older youth are also more
liberal in that more than one-tenth (13%) of them believe that pre-marital sex is alright
even if there is no love. Apparently views on pre-marital sex become more liberal as
youth grow older.
The findings of the Fifth World Youth Survey show that Singapore youth are
second to Philippine youth in believing pre-marital sex should be avoided. In eight
other countries, a majority of youth condone pre-marital sex when there is mutual
love [France (73%), Japan (71%), Sweden (66%), Germany (59%), Brazil (58%),
UK (57%), Russia (54%), and USA (51%)].
Should be
avoided
(51%)
Sex before Marriage
No
problem
if there is
mutual
love (22%)
No
problem if
marriage
is ultimate
goal (19%)
No
problem
even if
no love
(9%)
20
The State of Youth in Singapore
(3) Jobs
i) Part-time Jobs: Students
World Youth Views on Sex before Marriage
Philippines
Thailand
Korea
Brazil
U.S.A.
Russia
Japan
U.K.
Sweden
Germany
France
Singapore
Should be avoided
50% 0% 100%
2.3
15.4 63.5 18.4
6.1 26.2 16.6 46.9
0.6
38.9 20.7 39.6
10.7 14.4 16.3
13.8 51.3 16.1 14
17.3 53.5 18.3 6.3
3.8
70.8 15.4 5.3
30.6 57.2 7.1 4
26.2 65.9 3 3.2
22.1
58.9 8.2
1.9
16.5 73.2
1.7
21.9 18.7 50.8
OK if marriage
goal OK if mutual love
OK if no
love
8.6
58.2
7.4
Part time job
Vacation
(68%)
No
(38%)
Regular
(19%)
Both
(14%)
Yes
(62%)

21
The State of Youth in Singapore
A majority (62%) of students have been engaged in part-time jobs in the past
one year. Two-thirds (68%) of working students are involved in vacation jobs while
slightly more than one-tenth (14%) are involved in both vacation as well as regular
jobs and almost two-tenths (19%) in regular work. Hence one-fifth of students work
regularly and almost two-fifths do not do any part-time work even during vacation.
Part-time jobs
10
0
20
30
40
%
28.6
19.8
8.7
39.2
13.7
11.8
Clerical Sales F & B/
banquet
Tuition
50
Fast food Clerical
Vacation Regular
To pay for my
education
To occupy my spare
time
To gain experience
To earn money for pocket
money
17.1
53.2
56.3
81.6
Reasons for working
Female youth are more likely to take up part-time jobs than male youth (70%
vs 56%). Part-time work tends to increase with age and educational qualification.
Youth 20 years and older are more inclined to work than those below 20 years (75%
vs 56%). Similarly, the percentage of youth undertaking part-time job increases from
25% for those with primary education to 88% for vocational educated. Among ethnic
groups, Indian youth (60%) are more likely to be involved in regular part-time jobs.
Of those who work regularly, more than one-third (36%) work less than 6
hours per week while about a quarter (26%) work between 6-10 hours.
22
The State of Youth in Singapore
The two most common vacation part-time jobs that students undertake are
clerical (29%) and sales related jobs (20%). On the other hand, tuition is the most
common regular part-time job (39%). Smaller proportions undertake regular part-
time clerical jobs (14%) and service jobs in the fast food (12%) industry.
The main reason why students work part-time is to earn pocket money (82%).
Quite a substantial number also work to gain experience (56%) and to occupy their
spare time (53%).
The survey findings indicate that many students are not required to work in
order to cover their education fees. This could be because there are already other
forms of loans available to the students. For instance, one in four undergraduates
takes tuition fees loans while a quarter of the students use their parents Central
Provident Fund (CPF) to cover up to 80% of fees (Straits Times, 21 April 1997).
Many youth (71%) take up part-time work just to earn extra cash to support
their lifestyle which covers daily expenses, food, clothes and on anything they want.
A very small portion of youth put their part-time earnings into savings (12%) or
education (4%).
ii) Working Youth
A large majority (81%) of working youth are satisfied with their workplace.
In this respect, Singapore youth are similar to youth in the USA, Sweden, France,
Thailand, Germany and Brazil (with 81%-89% satisfied working youth according to
the Fifth World Youth Survey).
Most Satisfaction
Social
environment
16%
Job
satisfaction
24%
Status of job
2%
Others
2%
Job prospects
18%
Monetary
rewards
38%

23
The State of Youth in Singapore
Almost two-fifths (38%) of the working youth derive most satisfaction from
monetary rewards. Apparently, job status does not give working youth much
satisfaction (2%).
Job prospects provide the second most satisfaction to male youth (25%) while
to female youth, it is job satisfaction (26%). There is also a significant difference by
educational qualification. Youth with junior college education or below obtain most
satisfaction from monetary rewards (62% for primary, 45% for secondary and 50%
for junior college) while those with higher qualification obtain most satisfaction on
the job (34% for polytechnic, 40% for vocational and 33% for university).
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Why Work
Percentage
67.5
20.1
3.2
2.5
2.5
1.9
To contribute to society
To occupy his/her time
To do his/her duty
To earn money and pursue
self-fulfillment
To pursue self-fulfillment
To earn money
The main reason why youth work is to earn money (68%), followed by pursuing
self-fulfillment (20%). Socialisation (1%) does not constitute the main reason for
working for most youth.
One-third (33%) of working youth have not changed jobs while another third
have experienced one job change (31%). A handful of the working youth (9%) have
changed jobs four times or more.
24
The State of Youth in Singapore
Many youth (62%) have been working for less than five years while almost a
third (31%) have been working between 5 to 10 years.
The Fifth World Youth Survey shows that a large proportion (63%) of Japanese
youth have never changed jobs. On the other hand, youth who have changed jobs are
the most numerous in the USA (87%) and Brazil (74%).
Job Changes
Four times or more
9%
Twice 21%
None 33%
Three times 6%
Once 31%

World Youth on Job Changes


Japan
Germany
Philippines
Thailand
Russia
Korea
France
Sweden
U.K.
Brazil
U.S.A.
Singapore
Never
44.1
50% 0% 100%
4.4 17.1 62.7 7.1
4.1
10.2 26.6 54.1
6.4 10.4 21.8 52.9
9.1 14.9 22.9
4.8 5.2 26.1 47.5
6.8
18.2 27.1 39.4
18.6 10.4 18 39.3
11.4 6.7 25.1 36.5
18.1 11.6 22.2 31.7
20.5 21.2 16.5 26.2
35.7 17.4 13.2
6 31 33.2
One Twice
3
times
8.5
4.2
15.2
3.3
3.6
8.6
48.6
15.2
7.9
13.3
18.6
16.2
15.1
17.5
21.3
>4 times
25
The State of Youth in Singapore
(4) Singapore Identity
i) Image of Singapore
Almost all youth perceive Singapore as a very safe country (95%). They are
also proud that the country is socially stable (91%). A large number of them (89%)
are of the opinion that the standard of living in Singapore is another aspect to be
proud of. However, many of them (78%) do not think highly of the sports scene in
Singapore.
This finding is similar to another survey, ST Survey on Young Singaporeans,
conducted by the Straits Times (Straits Times, 27 June 96). A representative sample
of 418 young Singaporeans were polled, of whom 95% view the country as being a
safe place to live.
Image of Singapore
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
%
94.5
90.6
89.3
82.2
76.6
57.1
49
46.5
34.3
21.8
Safe
country
Science
&
technology
Standard
of
education
Standard
of
living
Contribution
to
international
community
Social
stability
Goverment Sports Historical,
cultural
heritage
Culture
&
art
100
26
The State of Youth in Singapore
ii) Attributes of Singaporeans
Materialistic
0 50 100%
Practical
Diligent
Progressive
Intellectual
Impatient
87.6
81.5
80.3
80.2
75.0
69.4
Singaporeans Attributes
68.9
61.7
49.6
38.0
Peace-loving
Arrogant
Courteous
Broad-minded
What type of attributes do youth perceive Singaporeans to possess? Nine in
ten youth (88%) describe Singaporeans to be materialistic. The other attributes are
practical, diligent and progressive, as seen by 80%-82% of youth. The negative
attributes are impatient (69%) and arrogant (62%). Less than half (38%) of the youth
think that Singaporeans are broad-minded, while only half of them (50%) describe
Singaporeans as courteous.
27
The State of Youth in Singapore
III SUMMARY
Singapore youth, aged 15-29 years, constitute almost a quarter of the Singapore
population. The youth population has declined and stood at 683,100 in 1995. For
every 100 female youth, there are 104 male youth. Not only are there proportionately
more older youth, there are also more single youth. The youth population is projected
to drop further to 653,000 in 2005 but to rise to 693,000 in 2010 with a greater
proportion of younger youth.
Singapore youth are better educated with student enrolment increasing 7%
between 1990 and 1995. This has led to some occupational structural changes, in
which youth employed in professional, managerial or technical positions have risen
from 18% in 1990 to 30% in 1995. As a result, the average wage levels of young
workers have risen substantially. The proportion of youth aged 20-24 years earning
a monthly wage of S$1,000-1,499 rose from 26% in 1990 to 41% in 1995.
In Singapore, the major cause of death for male youth is motor vehicle accidents
while the incidence of suicide is high among female youth. The number of young
offenders arrested has risen sharply to 2,574 in 1995. Student and girl offenders have
increased rapidly. Offences committed are also getting more violent.
The life-goal of most Singapore youth is to live as they like or to get rich.
Friends play an important role in the lives of youth. Youth derive the greatest personal
satisfaction when with friends; and friends are also the most preferred advisors for
youth.
Although proportionately more youth are remaining single, a large majority
of them are for marriage. A high proportion (80%) of youth feel that mutual trust and
commitment are important qualities in a marriage. A majority are also for divorce
either regardless whether there are children or when mutual love does not exist. On
the issue of sex before marriage, Singapore youth are still conservative and feel that
it should be avoided.
Singapore youth are realistic. They recognise that personal effort and abilities
are the two most important factors for success. Money, on the other hand, is a main
focus in the life of many Singapore youth. For instance, a major concern of youth is
money; monetary reward is a main aspect that gives job satisfaction; and the main
reason why youth work is to earn money.
28
The State of Youth in Singapore
Three out of every five students are involved in part-time jobs with one-fifth
engaged in regular part-time work. Clerical and sales are popular vacation jobs while
tuition is the most common regular part-time job. Students undertake part-time jobs
to earn extra pocket money for daily expenses, food, clothes and anything else they
want. Only a very small proportion of youth save their part-time earnings or use it
for education.
Most working youth (81%) are satisfied with their workplace with top
satisfaction being monetary rewards for over one-third of working youth. Almost
two-thirds (62%) have been working for less than five years and one-third of working
youth have not changed jobs.
Nine in ten Singapore youth are proud of Singapore being a safe country and
a socially stable country. Singapore culture and sports, however, lag far behind as
aspects of Singapore that youth are proud of. Most youth perceive Singaporeans to
be materialistic, practical, diligent and progressive. A majority also describe
Singaporeans as impatient, arrogant and narrow-minded.
Singapore youth are not much different from youth of 11 other countries
surveyed in the Fifth World Youth Survey. For instance, the life-goal of To live as I
like; deriving personal satisfaction from friends; the major concern over money;
approval of divorce; and satisfaction with workplace are also cited by large proportions
of youth in the other countries as well as in Singapore. On the other hand, advisors
whom youth approach when in trouble differ. Mother and father are often ranked
among the top five by youth in other countries, compared to Singapore youth who
prefer to turn to their friends instead. Youth from developed countries are less likely
to support marriage and more likely to condone pre-marital sex when there is mutual
love. Moreover, many youth in the other countries do not change their jobs often. A
large proportion of Japanese youth never change jobs while youth who have changed
jobs are the most numerous in the USA and Brazil.
29
APPENDIX I
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
AND
SCOPE OF STUDY
30
The State of Youth in Singapore
A) Research Methodology
The study utilizes existing published data pertaining to youth. As far as possible,
the latest available data are obtained from sources such as General Household Survey
1995, Yearbook of Statistics; annual reports of the Central Provident Fund and Ministry
of Health; Registry of Births and Deaths; Statistics on Marriages and Divorces; and
various newspaper articles.
Besides the compilation and analysis of secondary data, the study also conducts
a survey during the period May-June 1997 to obtain some psychographics of Singapore
youth. Face-to-face interviews of a representative sample of 600 youth (15-29 years
old) were carried out at four main areas in Singapore, namely the Central area (e.g.
Orchard, Bukit Timah & National Youth Centre); East zone (e.g. Bedok & Tampines);
North-East zone (e.g. Ang Mo Kio & Hougang) and North zone (e.g. Woodlands &
Yishun); and West zone (e.g. Clementi & Jurong). The interviews were conducted at
various locations, such as MRT stations, bus interchanges and outside shopping centres.
Respondents are either Singaporeans or permanent residents, aged between 15-29
years old. The interviewers were given guidelines on the sampling units by sex, age
groups, race and educational qualification.
A three-page interview questionnaire, designed in consultation with the
National Youth Council (NYC), captures the attitudes and perceptions of Singapore
youth on the following aspects:
a) Their goals in life
b) What gives them personal satisfaction
c) Their major concerns and worries and to whom do they seek advice
d) Their views on marriage, divorce and pre-marital sex
e) Students involvement in part-time work
f)Aspects of job satisfaction of working youth
g) Their image of Singapore and their fellow Singaporeans.
The survey questionnaire is attached. The profile of respondents is given in
Tables 1 and 2. Table 1 shows that the survey sample is roughly representative of
Singapore youth population.
B) Scope
The monograph briefly presents the general state of Singapore youth as drawn
from secondary data. The survey findings are analysed next. The survey results are
compared to those from the Fifth World Youth Survey 1993. Although done four
years ago, this survey results are used for comparison purposes, partly because it is
31
The State of Youth in Singapore
the most recent survey conducted based on similar questions. The next survey will be
conducted in 1998. Launched in 1972, the Fifth World Youth Survey is conducted
every five years by Japans Youth Affairs Administration, Management and
Coordination Agency, to study the views on life of youth in various countries. The
Fifth World Youth Survey covers 11 countries, namely Japan, USA, UK, Germany,
France, Sweden, South Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Brazil and Russia. Each country
has a sample size of at least 1,000 respondents aged 18-24 years. This definition of
youth is slightly narrower than that used for Singapore.
Table 1: Profile of Respondents Survey vs National Statistics
Survey 1995 National
% (Number) Statistics (%)
Gender
Male 50.8 (304) 51.0
Female 49.2 (295) 49.0
Age
15-19 years 31.7 (190) 30.9
20-24 years 35.1 (210) 33.5
25-29 years 33.2 (199) 35.6
Marital Status
Single 85.5 (509) 80.1
Married, no kids 7.1 (42) }
Married with kids 7.1 (42) } 19.5
Divorced 0.3 (2) 0.4
Race
Chinese 78.8 (473) 79.4
Malays 13.3 (80) 13.6
Indians 6.2 (37) 6.1
Others 1.7 (10) 0.9
Education
Primary 9.3 (56) 15.7
Secondary/Vocational 40.4 (224) 38.1
JC/Poly 36.0 (216) 33.8
University 14.2 (85) 12.5
32
Table 2: Profile of Respondents Survey
Survey 1990 Census of
% (Number) Population (%)
Economic Status
Schooling 40.3 (237) 30.4
Working 57.5 (338) 68.1
Job seeking 2.2 (13) 1.5
Occupation
Professional/Technical 11.2 (67) 11.0
Managerial/Administrative 12.1 (72) 1.6
Clerical 9.4 (56) 11.6
Sales/Service 11.9 (71) 16.7
Production 6.2 (37) 22.3
National Service 6.2 (37)
Housewife 1.7 (10) 5.4
Student 39.7 (237) 20.4
Others 1.7 (10) 11.0
Residence
HDB 1-2 room 2.5 (15) 5.9
HDB 3 room 26.4 (158) 34.8
HDB 4 room 30.4 (182) 28.1
HDB 5 room 22.6 (135) } 11.0
HDB exec 4.8 (29) }
HUDC 1.2 (7) 2.0
Private condo 3.5 (21) 4.2
Terrace 4.3 (26) 3.6
Semi-D 2.0 (12) 2.4
Bungalow 1.7 (10) 1.4
Others 1.5 (3) 6.6
Place of interviews
Central 22.2 (115) 37.9
East 24.5 (127) 16.6
North/North east 13.1 (68) 25.4
West 34.1 (177) 20.1
National Youth Council 6.2 (32)
33
CBRD
Centre for Business Research & Development
Faculty of Business Administration
National University of Singapore
Survey On Singapore Youth
PART I: VALUES & MAJOR CONCERNS
Q1. People have different goals in life. Which of the following is closest to yours ?
[ 1 ] To get rich [ 4 ] To improve society and the world
[ 2 ] To acquire social position [ 5 ] Others (please specify) _______________
[ 3 ] To live as I like
Q2. From which of the following do you get personal satisfaction ?
[ 1 ] When doing something to make society [ 5 ] When with family
better off [ 6 ] When with friends
[ 2 ] When engrossed in work [ 7 ] When alone
[ 3 ] When engrossed in study [ 8 ] Others (please specify) _______________
[ 4 ] When concentrating on sports
or hobbies
Q3. Which of the following do you think is the most important factor for becoming successful ?
[ 1 ] Social status [ 5 ] Luck
[ 2 ] Personal abilities [ 6 ] Opportunity
[ 3 ] Personal effort [ 7 ] Right connections
[ 4 ] Good education [ 8 ] Others (please specify) _______________
Q4. What are your major concerns/worries/troubles? (Choose as many as applicable)
[ 1 ] School work [ 9 ] Money
[ 2 ] Getting into the school of my choice [ 10 ] Political/social problems
[ 3 ] Getting a job [ 11 ] Personality problems
[ 4 ] Work [ 12 ] Health
[ 5 ] Family [ 13 ] Personal appearance
[ 6 ] Friends [ 14 ] There is nothing troubling me
[ 7 ] Relations with opposite sex [ 15 ] Others (please specify)
[ 8 ] Sex _______________
34
Q5. To whom do you talk with for advice when you have worries/troubles? (Choose as many as
applicable)
[ 1 ] Father [ 8 ] Superiors/friends who are older than me
[ 2 ] Mother [ 9 ] Colleagues at work
[ 3 ] Brothers/sisters [ 10 ] Friends in my club or group
[ 4 ] Wife/husband [ 11 ] Girlfriends/boyfriends
[ 5 ] Teacher [ 12 ] Professional/school/religious counselors
[ 6 ] Neighbourhood/school friends [ 13 ] I go to no one for advice
[ 7 ] School friends who are older than me [ 14 ] Others (please specify) _______________
PART II: FAMILY LIFE & MARRIAGE
Q6. How do you feel about marriage ?
[ 1 ] One should marry [ 4 ] It is better not to marry
[ 2 ] It is better to marry [ 5 ] Dont know
[ 3 ] It is not necessary to marry
Q7. Which of the following qualities do you think is the most important in a marriage ?
[ 1 ] Commitment [ 4 ] Financial independence
[ 2 ] Mutual trust [ 5 ] Fidelity
[ 3 ] Companionship [ 6 ] Others (please specify) _______________
Q8. How do you feel about divorce ?
[ 1 ] Once married, divorce should not be allowed for any reason.
[ 2 ] It is better not to divorce if there are children.
[ 3 ] Regardless of whether there are children, certain circumstances can make divorce a better
option.
[ 4 ] Divorce should be opted if there is no mutual love in the marriage.
Q9. How do you feel about sex before marriage ?
[ 1 ] Should be avoided.
[ 2 ] Not a problem as long as it is agreed that marriage is the ultimate goal.
[ 3 ] Not a problem as long as there is mutual love.
[ 4 ] Not a problem even if there is no love.
35
PART III: JOBS (excluding industrial attachments)
(A) FOR STUDENTS
Q10. Have you done any part-time jobs (including tuition) in the past 12 months ? Yes No
Q11. What kind of part-time job are you doing ? Vacation Regular Both
Q12. How many hours do you work regularly per week ? __________________________________
Q13. Which type of part-time work are you doing ?
Vacation part-time Regular part-time
[ 1 ] Tuition
[ 2 ] Fast food
[ 3 ] Departmental stores
[ 4 ] Clerical
[ 5 ] Sales
[ 6 ] Others (please specify)
Q14. Why do you work part-time ? (Choose as many as applicable)
[ 1 ] To earn money to help family [ 5 ] To gain experience
[ 2 ] To earn money for pocket money [ 6 ] To pay for my education
[ 3 ] My friends are working too [ 7 ] Others (please specify) _______________
[ 4 ] To occupy my spare time
Q15. How do you normally spend the money that you earned ?
________________________________________________________________________
(B) FOR THOSE WORKING
Q16. How satisfied are you with your workplace ?
[ 1 ] Satisfied [ 3 ] More or less dissatisfied
[ 2 ] More or less satisfied [ 4 ] Dissatisfied
36
Q17. Which aspect of the job gives you the most satisfaction ?
[ 1 ] Job satisfaction [ 4 ] Job prospects
[ 2 ] Social environment [ 5 ] Status of job
[ 3 ] Monetary rewards [ 6 ] Others (please specify) ___________
Q18. Why do you think a person works ?
[ 1 ] To earn money [ 5 ] To contribute to society
[ 2 ] To do his/her duty [ 6 ] To socialise
[ 3 ] To pursue self-fulfillment [ 7 ] Others (please specify) ___________
[ 4 ] To occupy his/her time
Q19. How many times have you changed jobs ?
[ 1 ] I have never changed jobs [ 4 ] Three times (this is my 4th job)
[ 2 ] Once (this is my 2nd job) [ 5 ] Four times or more
[ 3 ] Twice (this is my 3rd job)
Q20. How long have you been working ? _______________________________ years
PART IV: SINGAPORE IDENTITY
Q21. Which of the following can Singapore be proud of ?
YES NO
[ 1 ] Historical, cultural heritage
[ 2 ] A safe country
[ 3 ] Culture & art
[ 4 ] Sports
[ 5 ] Science & technology
[ 6 ] Standard of education
[ 7 ] Standard of living
[ 8 ] Social stability
[ 9 ] Government
[10] Contribution to international community
[11] Others (please specify)
37
Q22. Do Singaporeans have the following attributes ?
PART V: ABOUT YOURSELF
Q23. Sex [ 1 ] Male [ 2 ] Female
Q24. Age [ 1 ] 15-19 years [ 3 ] 20-24 years
[ 2 ] 25-29 years
Q25. Marital [ 1 ] Single [ 3 ] Married, no kids
status [ 2 ] Divorced [ 4 ] Married with kids
Q26. Race [ 1 ] Chinese [ 3 ] Malays
[ 2 ] Indians [ 4 ] Others
Q27. Economic [ 1 ] Schooling [ 3 ] Job seeking
status [ 2 ] Working [ 4 ] Others (please specify) ______________
Q28. Education [ 1 ] Primary school [ 4 ] Polytechnic
Attained [ 2 ] Secondary school [ 5 ] Vocational
[ 3 ] Junior college [ 6 ] University
YES NO
[ 1 ] Diligent
[ 2 ] Intellectual
[ 3 ] Practical
[ 4 ] Broad-minded
[ 5 ] Courteous
[ 6 ] Arrogant
[ 7 ] Progressive
[ 8 ] Peace-loving
[ 9 ] Impatient
[10] Materialistic
[11] Others (please specify)
38
Q29. Occupation [ 1 ] Professional/Technical [ 6 ] National Service
[ 2 ] Managerial/ [ 7 ] Housewife
Administrative
[ 3 ] Clerical [ 8 ] Student
[ 4 ] Sales/Service [ 9 ] Others (please specify) _____________
[ 5 ] Production
Q30. Residence [ 1 ] HDB 1-2 room [ 7 ] Private condo
[ 2 ] HDB 3 room [ 8 ] Terrace
[ 3 ] HDB 4 room [ 9 ] Semi-D
[ 4 ] HDB 5 room [ 10 ] Bungalow
[ 5 ] HDB exec [ 11 ] Others (please specify) ______________
[ 6 ] HUDC
Thank You for Your Co-operation
39
APPENDIX II: YOUTH STATISTICS
A) DEMOGRAPHICS
Table A.1 Population of Youth
Table A.2 Youth and Marital Status
Table A.3 Marriages by Age Group of Grooms & Brides, 1990 and 1995
Table A.4 Youth and Ethnic Group Distribution
Table A.5 Enrolment in Educational Institutions
Table A.6 Students in Educational Institutions, 1995
Table A.7 Youth Education
Table A.8 Youth Labour Force Participation
Table A.9 Employed Youth & Occupational Structure
Table A.10 Profile of Employed Youth
Table A.11 Employed Youth by Monthly Wage Level and Age Group
Table A.12 Major Causes of Death of Young People (10-29 years)
Table A.13 Number of Young Offenders Arrested
Table A.14 Types of Crimes Committed
Table A.15 Selected Violent Offences Committed
Table A.16 Youth and Religion
Table A.17 Population Projections
Chart 1 Singapore Education System
B) PSYCHOGRAPHICS
Table B.1 Youth Life-Goal by Demographics
Table B.2 Youth Life-Goal Fifth World Youth Survey
Table B.3 Personal Satisfaction of Youth
Table B.4 Personal Satisfaction of Youth by Age
Table B.5 Top 5 Personal Satisfaction of Youth Fifth World Youth Survey
Table B.6 Important Factor for Becoming Successful
Table B.7 Youth Major Concerns
Table B.8 Youth Major Concerns by Gender
Table B.9 Top 5 Youth Major Concerns Fifth World Youth Survey
Table B.10 Advisors Whom Youth Approach
Table B.11 Top 5 Advisors Whom Youth Approach Fifth World Youth Survey
Table B.12 Youth Views on Marriage
Table B.13 Youth Views on Marriage by Demographics
40
Table B.14 Youth Views on Marriage Fifth World Youth Survey
Table B.15 Qualities Important in a Marriage
Table B.16 Qualities Important in a Marriage by Demographics
Table B.17 Youth Views on Divorce
Table B.18 Youth Views on Divorce by Gender
Table B.19 Youth Views on Divorce Fifth World Youth Survey
Table B.20 Youth Views on Sex before Marriage
Table B.21 Youth Views on Sex before Marriage by Demographics
Table B.22 Youth Views on Sex before Marriage Fifth World Youth Survey
Table B.23 Part-time Jobs (for Students) by Demographics
Table B.24 Types of Part-time Jobs (for Students) by Demographics
Table B.25 Hours Worked for Regular Job (for Students)
Table B.26 Types of Part-time Jobs Undertaken (for Students)
Table B.27 Reasons for Working Part-time (for Students)
Table B.28 How Students Spent their Earned Money
Table B.29 Satisfaction with Workplace Fifth World Youth Survey
Table B.30 Aspect of Job Satisfaction
Table B.31 Aspect of Job Satisfaction by Demographics
Table B.32 Reasons for working?
Table B.33 Number of Times Person Changes Job
Table B.34 Number of Times Person Changes Job Fifth World Youth Survey
Table B.35 Years of Working
Table B.36 Can Singapore be Proud of the Following?
Table B.37 Attributes of Singaporeans
41
Table A.2: Youth and Marital Status (%)
15-19 yrs 20-24 yrs 25-29 yrs Total
1990 1995 1990 1995 1990 1995 1990 1995
Single 29.8 30.8 27.2 30.2 20.0 19.1 77.0 80.1
Married 0.2 0.1 4.2 3.2 18.0 16.1 22.4 19.5
Widowed 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.0
Divorced 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4
Table A.1: Population of Youth (000)
1990 1995
Males Females Total Males Females Total
Age group
15-19 106.9 221.4 114.5 108.8 102.2 211.0
20-24 113.9 232.3 118.4 118.4 110.7 229.1
25-29 140.0 283.7 143.7 121.0 122.0 243.0
Total 360.8 376.6 737.4 348.2 334.9 683.1
(48.9%) (51.1%) (100%) (51.0%) (49.0%) (100%)
Total Population 1517.8 1498.6 3016.4 1502.9 1483.7 2986.5
(50.3%) (49.7%) (100%) (50.3%) (49.7%) (100%)
% Youth Population (12.0%) (12.5%) (24.4%) (11.7%) (11.2%) (22.9%)
42
Table A.4: Youth and Ethnic Group Distribution (%)
15-19 yrs 20-24 yrs 25-29 yrs Total
1990 1995 1990 1995 1990 1995 1990 1995
Chinese 23.6 24.7 23.7 26.8 29.0 27.9 76.3 79.4
Malays 4.3 4.0 5.2 4.6 6.3 5.0 15.8 13.6
Indians 1.9 1.9 2.3 2.0 2.9 2.3 7.1 6.1
Others 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.9
Table A.3: Marriages by Age Group of Grooms & Brides, 1990 and 1995 (%)
Womens Charter Muslim Act Law
1990 1995 1990 1995
Grooms (19191) (20553) (4762) (4412)
Under 20 0.4 0.3 1.4 1.5
20-24 15.6 12.8 24.4 19.9
25-29 45.1 43.0 46.2 39.5
30-34 25.2 25.8 15.7 20.5
35-39 8.7 10.7 6.2 8.9
40 and over 5.0 7.4 6.1 9.7
Brides (19191) (20553) (4762) (4412)
Under 20 4.0 2.4 11.7 9.5
20-24 37.3 35.3 44.3 40.9
25-29 40.0 41.0 27.4 26.4
30-34 12.8 13.7 8.5 11.2
35-39 4.1 4.9 4.7 6.5
40 and over 1.8 2.7 3.4 5.5
NB: Figures in brackets are absolute numbers for total Statistics on Marriage and Divorce
43
Table A.6: Students in Educational Institutions, 1995
Institutions Students
Total Male Female
Primary schools 199 261,648 136,651 124,997
Secondary schools 155 181,548 94,810 86,738
Pre-U and Centralised institutes 9 2,994 1,064 1,930
Junior colleges 14 19,120 8,991 10,129
Institute of Technical Education 11 9,476 6,656 2,820
Polytechnics 4 46,841 27,258 19,583
National Institute of Education 1 2,482 658 1,824
NUS & NTU 2 34,591 18,843 15,748
TOTAL 395 558,700 294,931 263,769
Table A.5: Enrolment in Educational Institutions (Number)
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
Primary schools 257,932 260,286 262,599 261,534 251,097 261,648
Secondary schools 161,029 157,282 156,362 155,834 174,483 181,548
Pre-U 30,430 28,431 25,787 24,895 23,498 22,114
ITE 15,769 15,181 15,117 15,168 12,492 9,476
Tertiary institutions 55,672 60,369 65,771 73,772 77,215 83,914
TOTAL 520,832 521,549 525,636 531,203 538,785 558,700
NB: Chart 1 depicts the education system in Singapore.
44
Table A.8: Youth Labour Force Participation (%)
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
15-19 yrs 30.9 30.4 29.3 25.3 23.3 19.9
Male 30.0 31.1 30.0 25.1 23.6 20.5
Female 31.8 29.8 28.6 25.6 23.0 19.1
20-24 yrs 82.5 82.9 81.2 80.2 79.0 76.7
Male 82.8 83.1 82.3 81.0 79.0 76.2
Female 82.2 82.6 80.2 79.4 79.0 77.2
25-29 yrs 86.4 86.0 87.0 86.5 87.5 86.6
Male 94.8 97.0 97.0 96.0 96.2 94.6
Female 77.9 75.6 77.8 77.6 79.4 78.9
Total 64.9 64.8 65.3 64.5 64.9 64.3
Male 79.2 79.8 79.9 79.1 79.6 78.4
Female 50.3 50.5 51.3 50.6 50.9 50.0
Table A.7: Youth Education (%)
Primary Secondary JC/Poly University Total
15-19 yrs
1990 5.38 15.03 8.97 0.64 30.02
1995 2.38 16.40 11.40 0.66 30.85
20-24 yrs
1990 10.58 10.16 7.58 3.52 31.80
1995 5.03 10.17 12.87 6.01 34.08
25-29 yrs
1990 15.94 14.51 4.61 3.08 38.14
1995 8.25 11.49 9.55 5.78 35.07
Total
1990 31.90 39.7 21.15 7.24 100.0
1995 15.66 38.06 33.83 12.45 100.0
45
Table A.9: Employed Youth & Occupational Structure
% of workforce aged 15-29 years old
1990 1995
Professionals 18.2 29.9
Legislators, senior officials & managers (2.3) (3.5)
Professionals (3.7) (7.8)
Technicians & associate professionals (12.2) (18.6)
Clerical workers 16.7 16.8
Sales and services workers 12.0 11.0
Production & related workers 44.6 32.6
Agricultural & fishery workers (0.1) (0.01)
Production craftsmen & related workers (12.1) (6.8)
Plant & machine operators & assemblers (20.2) (11.1)
Cleaners, labourers, & related workers (12.1) (14.7)
Workers not classifiable by occupation 8.5 9.7
Table A.10: Profile of Employed Youth
% of workforce aged 15-29 years old
1990 1995
% of economic active youth with:
Primary education 45.1 25.3
Secondary education 34.4 33.8
Polytechnic education 15.4 28.2
University education 5.1 12.7
% of working youth who are:
Self-employed 2.0 2.3
Employees 97.2 97.0
Unpaid family workers 0.8 0.7
% of total workforce
Male 35 27
Female 48 40
46
Table A.12: Major Causes of Death of Young People (10-29 years) (Number)
1990 1995
M F T M F T
All causes 402 181 583 388 161 549
Disease of pulmonary circulation 27 9 36 26 8 34
and other forms of heart disease
Pneumonia 23 14 37 25 19 44
Motor vehicle traffic accidents 85 13 98 92 16 108
Cancer 47 32 79 30 20 50
Suicides 58 41 99 44 36 80
Table A.11: Employed Youth by Monthly Wage Level and Age Group (Number)
Under 20 yrs 20-24 yrs 25-29 yrs
Monthly wage level (S$) 1990 1995 1990 1995 1990 1995
<200 6,914 6,150 2,087 1,931 1,550 853
200-299 4,462 3,519 2,613 1,644 3,228 1,248
300-399 3,952 2,744 3,440 1,669 3,535 1,428
400-499 3,853 2,230 5,755 1,766 5,204 1,523
500-599 4,450 2,046 8,966 2,321 8,924 2,580
600-799 10,350 4,007 34,299 6,112 28,552 6,218
800-999 5,187 5,650 34,011 14,507 34,108 11,071
1,000-1,499 2,562 6,522 37,754 56,379 61,574 49,170
1,500-1,999 148 854 10,378 33,645 30,131 51,304
2,000-2,499 34 100 2,424 10,438 15,403 33,888
2,500-2,999 9 32 564 2,832 6,848 19,346
3,000-3,499 2 8 241 1,002 3,497 9,879
3,500-3,999 0 3 119 412 1,599 4,987
4,000-4,499 2 1 47 228 891 2,746
4,500-4,999 2 1 11 130 487 1,377
5,000-5,499 0 2 58 75 337 1,124
5,500-5,999 0 1 7 34 191 584
>5,999 1 3 53 99 545 1,600
Unspecified 849 2,023 207 897 264 1,090
All Groups 42,783 35,896 143,034 136,121 206,868 202,016
47
Proportion of violent crimes: 7-15 yrs 20%
16-19 yrs 31%
> 20 yrs 50%
Table A.15: Selected Violent Offences Committed (Number)
Jan-June 1994 Jan-June 1995
Rioting 64 76
Vandalism 25 30
Extortion by threat 8 24
Robbery with hurt 11 16
Simple robbery 12 14
Causing hurt with dangerous weapon 2 6
Criminal intimidation 1 5
Snatch theft 1 5
Table A.14: Types of Crimes Committed (%)
1994 1995
Shoplifting 33 41
Simple theft 18 14
Rioting 6 7
Bicycle theft 7 5
Motor vehicle theft 4 4
Housebreaking & theft 5 3
Robbery 4 3
Vandalism 3 3
Extortion 2 3
Others 18 17
Table A.13: Number of Young Offenders Arrested
1993 1995 1996
Number arrested 1,892 2,574 2,101
No of students arrested 1,484 2,239 1,773
% of girls arrested 21% 28% 29%
In 1995, those aged 7-15 accounted for 10% of all arrests.
48
Table A.16: Youth and Religion (%)
15-19 yrs 20-24 yrs 25-29 yrs 15-29 yrs
1990 1995 1990 1995 1990 1995 1990 1995
Buddhism 8.95 9.68 8.98 10.42 11.13 11.32 29.06 31.42
Taoism 5.91 5.90 5.74 6.79 6.81 6.12 18.46 18.81
Islam 4.99 4.79 5.89 5.24 7.11 5.65 17.99 15.68
Hinduism 0.98 0.88 1.26 0.97 1.53 1.30 3.77 3.15
Christianity 3.93 3.63 4.20 4.32 5.38 5.14 13.51 13.09
No religion 5.11 5.39 5.25 5.58 6.28 5.84 16.64 16.81
Others 0.15 0.18 0.18 0.22 0.22 0.19 0.55 0.59
49
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51
Table B.1: Youth Life-Goal by Demographics (%)
To get rich To acquire To live as I To improve Others
social like society &
position the world
Age
15-19 yr 25.1 9.1 50.3 12.8 2.7
20-24 yr 30.6 12.4 45.0 7.2 4.8
25-29 yr 39.0 13.8 36.9 5.6 4.6
Race
Chinese 31.6 11.1 46.6 6.4 4.3
Indians 50.0 19.4 19.4 11.1 -
Malays 21.3 13.8 41.3 18.8 5.0
Others 50.0 - 37.5 12.5 -
Education
Primary 48.2 7.1 30.4 7.1 7.1
Secondary 35.5 7.7 39.1 13.6 4.1
Junior college 34.7 10.2 49.0 4.1 2.0
Polytechnic 23.5 16.9 53.0 3.6 3.0
Vocational 11.8 11.8 47.1 23.5 5.9
University 27.7 16.9 45.8 4.8 4.8
Table B.2: Youth Life-Goals Fifth World Youth Survey (%)
To live as I To get rich To acquire To work on NA/Others
like social behalf of
position society
Sweden 82.0 10.3 4.5 2.1 1.1
U.K. 67.7 14.6 8.9 7.2 1.7
Thailand 67.3 17.0 4.7 10.9 0.1
U.S.A 65.2 14.1 7.4 9.6 3.8
Germany 64.5 6.4 16.9 6.1 6.0
Russia 62.0 12.3 20.3 3.6 1.9
Korea 57.5 24.3 6.4 11.8 0.0
Japan 56.3 28.3 4.5 6.5 4.5
Brazil 53.2 10.7 20.3 15.6 0.2
France 52.6 10.3 28.2 7.5 1.5
Philippines 40.2 21.5 8.0 29.9 0.4
Singapore 44.1 (261) 31.6 (187) 11.8 (70) 8.4 (50) 4.1 (24)
NB: Figure in brackets refers to number of respondents.
52
Table B.4: Personal Satisfaction of Youth by Age (%)
Make Work Study Sports / Family Friends Alone Others
society hobbies
better
off
Age
15-19 yr 10.4 4.9 13.2 22.0 7.1 34.6 3.3 4.4
20-24 yr 9.6 15.7 7.1 14.6 13.1 29.3 4.0 6.6
25-29 yr 5.9 27.1 1.6 10.6 27.7 20.7 1.1 5.3
Table B.3: Personal Satisfaction of Youth
% (Number)
When with friends 28.1 (160)
When with family 16.2 (92)
When engrossed in work 16.0 (91)
When concentrating on sports or hobbies 15.6 (89)
When doing something to make society better off 8.6 (49)
When engrossed in study 7.2 (41)
Alone 2.8 (16)
Others 5.4 (31)
When with family & friends/lovers 1.9 (11)
When concentrating on sports & with friends 0.7 (4)
All of the above options 0.7 (3)
53
Table B.5: Top 5 Personal Satisfaction of Youth Fifth World Youth Survey (%)
Order 1 2 3 4 5
Country
Japan F D B E G
70.8 59.5 27.0 23.5 17.3
U.S.A F E A D B
79.0 76.8 44.6 37.0 33.8
U.K. F E D B G
81.0 67.0 43.0 39.2 31.6
Germany F D E B C
70.6 47.2 44.1 28.1 19.5
France F E D B C
77.6 64.2 48.9 28.9 26.7
Sweden F E D G A
91.0 67.3 59.2 40.0 18.4
Korea B F A D E
55.9 37.5 33.9 28.0 27.6
Philippines E F A B C
84.8 50.3 36.7 33.6 21.3
Thailand E F B A C
62.2 48.7 46.6 44.1 38.1
Brazil E F A D B
71.6 43.4 32.5 19.0 14.1
Russia F E D G B
65.3 43.4 32.5 22.2 20.9
Singapore F E B D A
28.1 16.2 16.0 15.6 8.6
A: When doing something
on behalf of society
B: When engrossed in work
C: When engrossed in study
D: When concentrating
on sports or hobbies
E: When with family
F: When with friends
G: When alone, not being
bothered by others
NB: Singapore survey pertains to single answer only unlike the Fifth World Youth Survey
which allows multiple answers.
54
Table B.7: Youth Major Concerns
% (Number)
Money 55.2 (331)
Work 44.3 (266)
Family 41.7 (250)
Friends 33.8 (203)
Relation with opposite sex 29.5 (177)
Health 28.2 (169)
School work 25.3 (152)
Getting a job 22.3 (134)
Personal appearance 20.3 (122)
Personality problems 14.7 (88)
Sex 8.3 (50)
Getting into the school of my choice 8.2 (49)
There is nothing troubling me 7.3 (44)
Political/social problems 6.0 (36)
Others 1.2 (7)
Table B.6: Important Factor for Becoming Successful
% (Number)
Personal effort 32.4 (189)
Personal abilities 22.1 (129)
Opportunity 15.2 (89)
Good education 11.8 (69)
Luck 10.3 (60)
Social status 3.9 (23)
Right connections 3.6 (21)
Others 0.7 (4)
55
Table B.8: Youth Major Concerns by Gender (%)
Male Female
Family Yes 35.5 47.8
No 64.5 52.2
Friends Yes 27.6 40.0
No 72.4 60.0
Sex Yes 5.9 10.8
No 94.1 89.2
Political / social Yes 8.9 3.1
No 91.1 96.9
Personality Yes 11.2 18.0
No 88.8 82.0
Appearance Yes 13.2 27.5
No 86.8 72.5
56
Table B.9: Top 5 Youth Major Concerns Fifth World Youth Survey (%)
Order 1 2 3 4 5
Country
Japan G D C F J
34.9 26.8 21.5 18.8 16.6
U.S.A G C H F A
55.5 31.0 27.9 25.9 23.0
U.K. G C H D J
60.3 35.8 23.4 18.9 14.8
Germany G H C D J
28.4 26.1 17.0 12.0 11.0
France G C A H J
37.3 34.7 32.7 20.2 16.0
Sweden G C H B D
54.1 41.7 23.2 19.7 15.3
Korea C A B G I
37.5 33.9 30.9 28.3 25.9
Philippines G C E J I
60.5 41.5 19.4 18.7 18.3
Thailand G C D A B
47.7 24.5 17.8 16.0 15.1
Brazil G C J D H
20.3 17.3 10.2 9.7 9.6
Russia G J E D C
53.1 31.4 27.8 23.8 17.4
Singapore G D E K F
55.2 44.3 41.7 33.8 29.5
A: School work
B: Getting into the school
of my choice
C: Getting a job
D: Work
E: Family
F: Relations with the
opposite sex
G: Money
H: Political and social
problems
I: Personality problems
J: Health
K: Friends
57
Table B.10: Advisors Whom Youth Approach
% (Number)
Friends 100.4 (603)
Friends in my club or group (41.8%)
Girlfriends/boyfriends (36.0%)
Neighbourhood/school friends (17.8%)
School friends who are older than me (4.8%)
Mother 23.8 (143)
Brothers/sisters 21.8 (131)
Wife/husband 12.7 (76)
Colleagues at work 11.8 (71)
I go to no one for advice 9.5 (57)
Father 8.8 (53)
Superiors/friends who are older than me 8.5 (51)
Professional/school/religious counselors 3.2 (19)
Teacher 1.2 (7)
Others 0.5 (3)
58
Table B.11: Top 5 Adivsors Whom Youth Approach Fifth World Youth Survey (%)
Order 1 2 3 4 5
Country
Japan E B H A C
51.9 37.7 21.1 18.8 17.7
U.S.A B H E A C
54.9 39.2 32.4 30.1 29.5
U.K. B H A C F
53.5 37.2 27.9 26.7 26.6
Germany B H A E C
50.0 45.4 28.2 27.7 21.6
France B E H C A
53.8 37.0 35.4 28.8 22.5
Sweden B A E C H
67.9 47.3 42.8 35.8 27.7
Korea E B C A G
63.6 29.6 24.6 13.4 10.7
Philippines B A C E F
77.2 50.7 33.3 25.6 16.6
Thailand B A F C E
72.2 60.0 36.2 26.5 16.9
Brazil B H E C A
43.0 23.6 22.6 17.6 16.5
Russia B F D A H
53.1 28.4 26.1 19.6 16.5
Singapore F H B C E
40.5 36.0 23.8 21.8 17.8
A: Father
B: Mother
C: Brothers and sisters
D: Wife / husband
E: Neighborhood or
school friends
F: Friends in my club
or group
G: School friends who
are older than me
H: Lover
59
Table B.13: Youth Views on Marriage by Demographics (%)
Should Better to Not necessary Better not Dont know
marry marry to marry to marry
Education
Primary 42.9 35.7 14.3 3.6 3.6
Secondary 53.6 20.5 11.6 1.8 12.5
Junior college 52.0 16.0 28.0 2.0 2.0
Polytechnic 42.8 34.9 16.3 0.6 5.4
Vocational 44.4 22.2 11.1 - 22.2
University 32.9 43.5 15.3 2.4 5.9
Race
Chinese 42.3 31.3 16.5 1.5 8.5
Indians 62.2 18.9 5.4 5.4 8.1
Malays 62.5 17.5 11.3 1.3 7.5
Others 50.0 40.0 10.0 - -
Table B.12: Youth Views on Marriage
% (Number)
For marriage 74.5 (451)
One should marry 46.3 (278)
It is better to marry 28.2 (173)
Against marriage 16.7 (100)
It is not necessary to marry 15.0 (90)
It is better not to marry 1.7 (10)
Dont know 8.2 (49)
60
Table B.15: Qualities Important in a Marriage
% (Number)
Mutual trust 40.6 (240)
Commitment 38.1 (225)
Companionship 12.4 (73)
Financial independence 3.6 (21)
Fidelity 3.2 (19)
Others 2.2 (13)
Table B.14: Youth Views on Marriage Fifth World Youth Survey (%)
Should Better to Not Better Dont NA
marry marry neccessary not to know
to marry marry
Philippines 46.2 36.4 4.1 2.8 10.4 0.1
Japan 17.0 55.3 16.0 0.9 9.8 0.9
Russia 32.5 37.9 19.2 2.8 6.4 1.1
Thailand 37.3 27.2 24.4 3.6 4.5 3.0
Korea 14.7 49.3 28.7 1.5 5.8 -
U.S.A. 21.5 26.1 39.3 3.1 8.3 1.7
Brazil 18.7 25.1 42.1 12.6 1.0 0.5
France 7.7 32.4 51.7 6.4 1.2 0.7
Germany 14.4 23.2 42.5 6.6 9.5 3.7
Sweden 16.8 17.4 59.9 3.0 2.4 0.5
U.K. 12.3 19.6 61.2 4.1 1.5 1.2
Singapore 46.3 28.2 15.0 1.7 8.2 -
61
Table B.18: Youth Views on Divorce by Gender (%)
Not allowed Not to if there A better option Should be opted if
are children under certain there is no mutual
circumstances love
Gender
Male 25.4 25.4 27.4 21.8
Female 15.3 25.2 40.8 18.7
Table B.17: Youth Views on Divorce
% (Number)
For divorce 54.3 (325)
Regardless of whether there are children, certain 34.1 (204)
circumstances can make divorce a better option
Divorce should be opted if there is no mutual love in the 20.2 (121)
marriage
Against divorce 45.7 (273)
It is better not to divorce if there are children 25.3 (151)
Once married, divorce should not be allowed for any 20.4 (122)
reason
Table B.16: Qualities Important in a Marriage by Demographics (%)
Commit- Mutual Compani Financial Fidelity Others
ment trust on-ship Independence
Age
15-19 yr 38.2 42.5 11.8 2.2 1.6 3.8
20-24 yr 35.1 47.6 8.7 4.3 3.4 1.0
25-29 yr 40.8 31.6 16.8 4.1 4.6 2.0
Education
Primary 50.0 14.3 28.6 1.8 3.6 1.8
Secondary 35.7 44.3 11.8 3.6 1.8 2.7
Junior college 36.7 46.9 8.2 4.1 2.0 2.0
Polytechnic 39.6 44.5 7.9 2.4 3.0 2.4
Vocational 41.2 35.3 17.6 5.9 - -
University 32.5 38.6 13.3 6.0 8.4 1.2
62
Table B.21: Youth Views on Sex before Marriage by Demographics (%)
Should be OK if marriage OK if there is OK even
avoided is the ultimate mutual love there is no
goal love
Gender
Male 42.8 19.4 26.4 11.4
Female 59.0 18.1 17.1 5.8
Age
15-19 yr 61.2 12.2 20.7 5.9
20-24 yr 54.8 16.3 21.6 7.2
25-29 yr 36.7 27.0 23.5 12.8
Table B.20: Youth Views on Sex before Marriage
% (Number)
Should be avoided 50.8 (301)
Not a problem as long as there is mutual love 21.9 (130)
Not a problem as long as it is agreed that marriage is the ultimate goal 18.7 (111)
Not a problem even if there is no love 8.6 (51)
Table B.19: Youth Views on Divorce Fifth World Youth Survey (%)
Should Unavoidable Should not Should not NA
divorce if under certain divorce if there divorce
no love circumstances are children
Sweden 39.4 48.4 4.3 5.2 2.7
U.K. 41.5 41.7 8.1 6.4 2.3
France 50.7 30.4 14.5 3.1 1.3
Germany 26.9 53.1 11.0 1.8 7.3
U.S.A. 31.8 45.5 8.1 10.4 4.2
Brazil 54.0 22.2 13.3 9.6 0.9
Russia 49.4 26.4 13.1 4.9 6.1
Japan 10.6 41.6 36.0 8.8 2.9
Thailand 38.4 12.6 22.9 24.6 1.5
Korea 9.7 40.1 19.2 30.9 0.1
Philippines 27.8 10.7 12.7 48.1 0.7
Singapore 20.2 34.1 25.3 20.4 -
63
Table B.22: Youth Views on Sex before Marriage Fifth World Youth Survey (%)
Should be OK if OK if there OK even if NA
avoided marriage is is mutual there is no
ultimate goal love love
Philippines 63.5 15.4 18.4 2.3 0.4
Thailand 46.9 16.6 26.2 6.1 4.2
Korea 39.6 20.7 38.9 0.6 0.2
Brazil 16.3 14.4 58.2 10.7 0.4
U.S.A 14.0 16.1 51.3 13.8 4.9
Russia 6.3 18.3 53.5 17.3 4.6
Japan 5.3 15.4 70.8 3.8 4.7
U.K. 4.0 7.1 57.2 30.6 1.1
Sweden 3.2 3.0 65.9 26.2 1.7
Germany 1.9 8.2 58.9 22.1 8.8
France 1.7 7.4 73.2 16.5 1.3
Singapore 50.8 18.7 21.9 8.6 -
Table B.23: Part-time Jobs (for Students) by Demographics (%)
Yes No
Part-time jobs 62.3 (157) 37.7 (95)
Gender
Male 56.0 44.0
Female 69.5 30.5
Age
15-19 yr 56.1 43.9
20-24 yr 75.4 24.6
25-29 yr 75.0 25.0
Education
Primary 25.0 75.0
Secondary 53.3 46.7
Junior college 66.7 33.3
Polytechnic 71.0 29.0
Vocational 87.5 12.5
University 70.7 29.3
NB: Figures in brackets refer to number of respondents
64
Table B.26: Types of Part-time Jobs Undertaken (for Students)
Vacation % (Number) Regular % (Number)
Clerical 28.6 (36) Tuition 39.2 (20)
Sales 19.8 (25) Clerical 13.7 (7)
F & B/banquet 8.7 (11) Fast food 11.8 (6)
Tuition 7.9 (10) F & B/banquet 7.8 (4)
Department stores 6.3 (8) Department stores 3.9 (2)
Fast food 5.6 (7) Sales 3.9 (2)
Factory related 4.8 (6) Airport/passenger service 3.9 (2)
Design/computer 4.0 (5) Delivery/production 3.9 (2)
Others 14.3 (18) Others 11.9 (6)
Table B.24: Types of Part-time Jobs (for Students) by Demographics (%)
Vacation Regular Both
% involved 67.5 (106) 18.5 (29) 14.0 (22)
Age
15-19 yr 77.1 14.6 8.3
20-24 yr 53.8 21.2 25.0
25-29 yr 44.4 44.4 11.1
Race
Chinese 68.9 13.9 17.2
Indians 20.0 60.0 20.0
Malays 69.2 30.8 -
Others 75.0 25.0 -
NB: Figures in brackets refer to number of respondents
Table B.25: Hours Worked for Regular Job (for Students)
% (Number)
1 - 5 hours 36.2 (17)
6 - 10 hours 25.5 (12)
11 - 15 hours 12.8 (6)
16 - 20 hours 6.4 (3)
21 - 30 hours 2.1 (1)
30 - 40 hours 10.6 (5)
40 and above 6.4 (3)
NB: 4 non-respondents
65
Table B.27: Reasons for Working Part-time (for Students)
% (Number)
To earn money for pocket money 81.6 (129)
To gain experience 56.3 (89)
To occupy my spare time 53.2 (84)
To pay for my education 17.1 (27)
To earn money to help family 12.0 (19)
My friends are working too 12.0 (19)
Others 1.9 (3)
Table B.28: How Students Spent their Earned Money
% (Number)
Daily expenses 34.2 (47)
Clothes 14.6 (26)
Entertainment 12.3 (17)
Savings 11.7 (16)
On what I want 10.2 (14)
Food 8.0 (11)
Education 4.4 (6)
Cant remember 4.3 (6)
Table B.29: Satisfaction with Workplace Fifth World Youth Survey (%)
More or less Satisfied More or less Dissatisfied
satisfied dissatisfied
Brazil 29.3 60.1 4.6 5.7
Germany 38.0 49.6 8.0 3.7
Thailand 30.5 55.2 12.9 1.3
France 32.2 50.9 9.8 6.5
Sweden 35.2 46.9 9.0 7.4
U.S.A. 35.2 45.5 8.5 10.2
U.K. 32.0 48.4 9.0 9.7
Philippines 22.5 48.6 10.7 18.2
Russia 33.5 36.4 16.4 9.3
Korea 32.5 27.4 29.8 9.6
Japan 41.8 16.2 27.8 8.5
Singapore 50.8 (165) 30.2 (98) 11.7 (38) 7.4 (24)
66
Table B.31: Aspect of Job Satisfaction by Demographics (%)
Job Social Monetary Job Status of Others
satisfaction environment rewards prospects job
Gender
Male 21.3 11.0 39.4 25.2 1.3 1.9
Female 26.4 20.8 36.5 10.7 3.1 2.5
Education
Primary 8.9 8.9 62.2 20.0 - -
Secondary 14.7 16.7 45.1 18.6 2.0 2.9
Junior college 29.2 8.3 50.0 8.3 2.2 4.2
Polytechnic 34.4 21.1 23.3 17.8 - 1.1
Vocational 40.0 20.0 30.0 10.0 7.0 -
University 32.6 14.0 20.9 20.9 - 4.7
Table B.32: Reasons for working ?
% (Number)
To earn money 67.5 (212)
To pursue self-fulfillment 20.1 (63)
To earn money and pursue self-fulfillment 3.2 (10)
To do his/her duty 2.5 (8)
To occupy his/her time 2.5 (8)
To contribute to society 1.9 (6)
To socialize 0.6 (2)
Others 1.6 (5)
Table B.30: Aspect of Job Satisfaction
% (Number)
Monetary rewards 37.8 (119)
Job satisfaction 24.1 (76)
Job prospects 17.8 (56)
Social environment 15.9 (50)
Status of job 2.2 (7)
Others 2.2 (7)
None 1.0 (3)
67
Table B.33: Number of Times Person Changes Job
% (Number)
I have never changed jobs 33.2 (106)
Once (this is 2nd job) 31.0 (99)
Twice (this is 3rd job) 21.3 (68)
Three times (this is 4th job) 6.0 (19)
Four times or more 8.5 (27)
Table B.34: Number of Times Person Changes Job Fifth World Youth Survey
Never Once Twice Three Four times
times or more
Japan 62.7 17.1 7.1 3.3 4.4
Germany 54.1 26.6 10.2 3.6 4.1
Philippines 52.9 21.8 10.4 6.4 8.6
Thailand 48.6 22.9 14.9 4.2 9.1
Russia 47.5 26.1 15.2 5.2 4.8
Korea 39.4 27.1 18.2 6.8 7.9
France 39.3 18.0 13.3 10.4 18.6
Sweden 36.5 25.1 18.6 6.7 11.4
U.K. 31.7 22.2 16.2 11.6 18.1
Brazil 26.2 16.5 21.1 15.1 20.5
U.S.A. 13.2 15.2 17.5 17.4 35.7
Singapore 33.2 31.0 21.3 6.0 8.5
Table B.35: Years of Working
% (Number)
Less than 1 year 5.3 (17)
1 - less than 2 years 14.1 (45)
2 - less than 3 years 15.7 (50)
3 - less than 4 years 14.0 (45)
4 - less than 5 years 12.5 (40)
5 - less than 10 years 30.6 (98)
10 years or more 7.8 (25)
68
Table B.37: Attributes of Singaporeans
% (Number)
Materialistic 87.6 (494)
Practical 81.5 (462)
Diligent 80.2 (450)
Progressive 80.3 (448)
Intellectual 75.0 (420)
Peace-loving 69.4 (383)
Impatient 68.9 (384)
Arrogant 61.7 (340)
Courteous 49.6 (274)
Broad-minded 38.0 (210)
Others 3.1 (3)
Table B.36: Can Singapore be Proud of the Following ?
% (Number)
A safe country 94.5 (536)
Social stability 90.6 (508)
Standard of living 89.3 (503)
Standard of education 82.2 (465)
Government 76.6 (425)
Science & technology 57.1 (317)
Contribution to international community 49.0 (268)
Historical, cultural heritage 46.5 (255)
Culture & art 34.3 (187)
Sports 21.8 (119)
Others 2.2 (2)
69
APPENDIX III: NYC DEPOSITORY OF YOUTH RESEARCH
A. SINGAPORE PUBLICATIONS
Date Title Researcher Summary
Jun 1988 A Study of Singaporean Research Section Survey on the aspirations
Youth: Their Perceptions Management Information of various groups of
and Aspirations & Planning Division youths.
Ministry of Community
Development
Project Consultant:
AP Eddie CY Kuo
Head, Dept of Sociology,
NUS
1994 Gifted Adolescents Dr Agnes Chang Survey on gifted
Perception of Their Lecturer, National adolescents in their
Roles in Institute of Education perception of
Nation Building expectations from self,
parent, peer, school &
society; their sources of
influences as well as an
assessment on their
breadth of knowledge
and critical thinking.
1994 The Youth Market Radio Corporation Survey compilation
of Singapore to help marketers better
understand the youth
market in Singapore.
Nov 1995 In Search of And Youth Division Survey on attitudes,
Promoting Singapore Singapore Soka values & vision of
Culture - A Survey Association Singapore youth
and A Proposal relating to education,
work, family, social
tolerance/helpfulness,
leisure, arts & culture
70
& global awareness;
prevailing Singapore
culture and
recommendations to
promote a refined
Singapore culture.
Dec 1995 Values in Everyday Dr Ho Chee Lick Paper discussing the
Discourse Dept of English values reflected by
Language and the everyday
Literature, NUS languages used by
teenagers.
1995 Health Risk Jessica Ball, NTU & Survey on prevalence
Behaviours of Kenneth Moselle, and patterns of health
Adolescents in Singapore risk behaviours among
Singapore American School Singapore youth aged
12 to 19 and the
association of these
behaviours with socio-
cultural factors.
1995 Culture Compass Gifted Education Branch, Collection of seminar
Ministry of Education papers & projects
& Faculty of Arts & prepared by students
Social Sciences, NUS on the Humanities
Mentorship Programme.
Examples of projects
related to youth are
Youths at McDonalds,
Interpretation of
Youths Dreams and
The Power of Youth.
Date Title Researcher Summary
71
Date Title Researcher Summary
Feb 1996 Survey on Singapore NUS Students Political Survey on the
Land Transport Association & NUS opinion of
(Political Feedback Political Science
Society Singaporean NUS
Programme) undergraduates and
Singapore overseas
undergraduates in
land transport
policies.
Feb 1996 Social Problems Facing Mr Neville Teo Wei Tang Paper discusses
Singapore Youth Today Silver Award Holder, social problems
National Youth pertaining to
Achievement academic & peer
Award pressure, sports
excellence, choice
of career, etc; and the
benefit of NYAA as
an avenue for self-
discovery and
character
development.
May 1996 The Research Brief National Council Focus Groups.
Volume 2(3), of Social Service,
May 96 Issue Singapore
Jul 1996 National Youth Survey National Youth Survey on identify
Achievement the profile, social
Award Council patterns and interests
of youth aged 11 to
24 years who
frequent shopping
72
centres in
Singapore.
Date Title Researcher Summary
Jul 1996 The Research Brief National Council Getting social
Volume 2(4), of Social Service, service statistics.
July 1996 Issue Singapore
Sep 1996 The Research Brief National Council Dementia in the
Volume 2(5), of Social Service, elderly.
September 1996 Issue Singapore
Oct 1996 Survey on Singles Forbes Research Pte Survey to find
Attitude Ltd (Commissioned out current trends,
(Working Adults) by Social attitudes and
Development Unit) thinking on marriage
among singles
(working adults).
Nov 1996 The Research Brief National Council Stress, coping and
Volume 2(6), of Social Service, psychological
November 1996 Issue Singapore control.
Dec 1996 Report of the National National Youth Survey to measure
Survey on the Achievement the level of students
Environmental Award Council environmental
Knowledge, Attitudes knowledge, attitudes
and Behaviour of and behaviour, as
Youths in Singapore well as to find out the
students source of
environment
knowledge, their
perception of
seriousness of
73
environmental
responsibility and
action.
Date Title Researcher Summary
Dec 1996 Survey on Singles Forbes Research Pte Survey to find out
Attitude (Graduates) Ltd (Commissioned current trends,
by Social attitudes and
Development Unit) thinking on marriage
among singles
(graduates).
1996 Mindscapes * Gifted Education Branch, Collection of
Landscapes Ministry of Education seminar papers &
& Faculty of Arts & projects prepared by
Social Sciences, NUS students on the
Humanities
Mentorship
Programme.
1996 Interpersonal Dr Alfred Choi Paper aims to examine
Communication Sub-Dean, the sociability of young
and Sociability of School of people, both problems
Young People Communication Studies, and solutions.
NTU
1996 Undergraduates Dr Vivien Lim & Survey on
Attitudes Towards Dr Thompson Teo undergraduates general
Money Faculty of Business attitudes towards money,
Administration, NUS their life satisfaction and
concerns about the
future.
1996/1997 Political Consciousness, Nona Lim Yean Hong & Study on the tripartite
Political Discourse and Christine Tan Seok Hong relationship between
74
Internet Usage NTU Undergraduates, political consciousness,
School of internet usage and
Communication Studies political discourse.
Date Title Researcher Summary
1996/1997 Can Kampung TV Foster Bian Hee Kau, Study investigates the
Community Ties Among Chong Yeou Foong & viewership and likely
Youths in Singapore? Angeline Yap Seow Hui rate of participation of
NTU Undergraduates, youths in Tampines
School of GRC for Kampung TV,
Communication Studies the ten-week community
TV trial which ended on
28 February 1997.
April 97 The Delinquent Peer Dr Angeline Thesis investigates
Group: Social Identity Cheok Eng Koh the nature and the
and Self-Categorisation National Institute development of a
Perspectives of Education delinquent social
identity.
July 97 Report on the Survey National Youth Survey aims to find out
of the Knowledge of Achievement how much knowledge
Singapore Youths on Award Council the students have, how
the Background and they feel and what action
Significance of the they would take
Five Selected Historical regarding matters
Objects at the Esplanade pertaining to the history
Park of Singapore.
1997 Values and Lifestyles of Mr Tan Kim Heng, Monograph studying the
Young Singaporeans Mr Mike Leu & values and lifestyles of
Mr Chew Soon Beng young Singaporeans.
1997 How First Year Bizaders Dr Chu Sing Fat Survey of first bizaders
75
C their future? Dept of Decision top priority.
(Press release) Sciences, NUS
Date Title Researcher Summary
1997 Survey on Singapore Final year students of Survey on awareness
Students Ngee Ann Polytechnics and utilisation of
(Press release) Diploma in Banking and financial products and
Financial Services services, financial needs
and aspirations of
tertiary students from
Singapore and China and
their current savings and
expenditure patterns.
1997 The Research Brief National Council of Living arrangements of
Volume 3 (1) Social Services, the elderly.
Singapore
B. OVERSEAS PUBLICATIONS
1992 Statistical Charts and United Nations Statistical and analytical
Indicators on the sourcebook that
Situation of Youth highlights main aspects
1970 to 1990 and trends in the social
and economic situation
of youth from 1970 to
1990.
Apr 1994 Present State of Youth Affairs Report on state of youth
Japanese Youth and Administration including their behaviors
Outline of Youth Management and and recognition as well
Administration Coordination Agency as administrative role of
government offices in
relation to youth
measures.
Oct 1994 The Japanese Youth Youth Affairs Survey on comparison of
-In Comparison with Administration views of Japanese youth
76
the Youth in the World Management and with that of youths in
Coordination Agency various countries.
Date Title Researcher Summary
1994 International Edited by Prof Klaus Survey on the situations
Handbook of Hurrelmann of adolescents in a
Adolescence diverse sample of
countries, which allows
for comparative analysis.
Jan 1996 Young Peoples Views The Hong Kong Survey on Hong Kong
on Savings Federation of youths spending and
Youth Poll Series Youth Groups saving habits, their
No. 30 views on borrowing
money, insurance and
use of credit cards.
Feb 1996 Young Peoples The Hong Kong Survey on Hong Kong
Comments on the Federation of youths attitudes towards
95 Legco Election Youth Groups voting, comments on
Youth Poll Series polling arrangements
No. 29 and 1995 Legco
Election.
Feb 1996 Youth and Careers The Hong Kong Survey on views of
Federation of youths of Hong Kong
Youth Groups and Mainland on career
choice, job evaluation,
work attitudes/value
judgements and future
prospects.
Mar 1996 Japanese Youth Today Centre for International Report on future of
1995 Youth Exchange Japan and perception of
youth; present state of
youth and youth
77
administration policies
of Japan.
Date Title Researcher Summary
Mar 1996 Feeding the Future: The Hong Kong Survey on Hong Kong
A Study on Students Federation of students eating
Eating Arrangements Youth Groups arrangements, the
Youth Study Series existing school facilities
No. 9 and implications on
services and policy
options.
Apr 1996 MasterCard Asian MasterCard A MasterCard Asia
Labels Survey International ideals survey seeking
(Press Release) Asians views on a range
of topics from education
to emigration and
things especially
important.
Jun 1996 Young People and The Hong Kong Research on the
Discrimination Federation of seriousness of
Youth Poll Series Youth Groups discrimination in Hong
No. 32 Kong whether
government
is responsible for
eliminating
discrimination and the
possible measures to be
taken.
Jul 1996 Roads to Future: The Hong Kong Survey on profile of
A study on Internet Federation of youth involved in
and Young People Youth Groups Internet activities; the
Youth Study Series type of data they have
No.10 access to and its effect as
78
well as their implications
on services and policies.
Date Title Researcher Summary
Jul 1996 Young People Views The Hong Kong Survey to gauge young
on Sports and Federation of peoples participation in
Recreation Facilities Youth Groups sports and recreation
Youth Poll Series activities and their views
No. 36 on the facilities
provided.
Aug 1996 Communications The Hong Kong Survey evaluating the
between Parents Federation of relationship between
and Children Youth Groups parents & youth and the
Youth Poll Series state of communication
No. 33 between them, as well as
comparing their views
on communicating with
each other.
Oct 1996 Children and Private The Hong Kong Survey on the situation
Tuition Federation of of students who have
Youth Poll Series Youth Groups private tuition, eg.
No. 34 profile of parents,
reasons for having
private tution, amount
paid, any improvement
in academic
performance, etc.
Oct 1996 Youth and Stress The Hong Kong Survey to study how the
Beijing - Shanghai - Federation of rapidly developing
Guangzhou - Youth Groups society influences young
Hong Kong people in Beijing,
Comparative Youth Shanghai, Guangzhou
Study series. and Hong Kong,
discover what causes
79
them most stress and
how they deal with it.
Date Title Researcher Summary
Nov 1996 Access to Justice: An The Hong Kong Study on personal
Exploratory Study of Federation of experience of juvenile
Juvenile Offenders Youth Groups offenders; available
in the Juvenile Justice support & services and
System practical applicability of
Youth Study Series freedoms to suspects
No. 11 under the rule of law.
Nov 1996 Young People and the The Hong Kong Survey to understand the
Transfer of Sovereignty Federation of feelings of young people
Youth Poll Series Youth Groups on the transfer of
No. 35 sovereignty.
Dec 1996 Students Views On The Hong Kong Survey to understand
Teachers Federation of how secondary school
Youth Poll Series Youth Groups students think about
No. 37 teachers eg. what makes
a good or bad teacher?
In what areas do teachers
influence them most?
1996 Living With Family and Childrens A magazine for parents
Teenagers Services of teenagers. It provides
Government of information about ways
Western Australia of building and
strengthening parenting
skills.
1996 Youth Facts WA: Office of Bulletin providing
A Profile of Youth Affairs information about the
Young People Govenment of situation of young
80
Western Australia people in
Western Australia.
Date Title Researcher Summary
Jan 1997 Young Peoples Views The Hong Kong Survey to understand
on Home Ownership Federation of young peoples views on
Youth Poll Series Youth Groups home ownership.
No. 40
Mar 1997 The Rising Younger National Assembly Report containing basic
Generation in Japan for Youth Development facts about the present
situation of
Japanese youth,
government measures
for youth,
youth activities and
international exchanges.
Apr 1997 Tuning in to Youth: The Hong Kong Study for setting up of
The Setting up of Federation of youth indicators in Hong
Hong Kong Youth Youth Groups Kong in order to
Indicators understand youth
Youth Study Series development and values
No. 12 and to examine policy
and service implications.
81