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Security Analysis and Portfolio Management



SECTION A
Beta is dead! Long live alpha Critically assess whether absolute returns are now more
important than relative performance in investment management.
Even though the thought has come up for a while, firm investing returns is becoming more important
recently due to some mutual funds being begun lately with absolute returns targets. Via method of
contrary, the conventional mutual fund wishes to manufacture superior relative investing returns in
comparison to a reasonable standard. The target of absolute returns is to prove margins in the whole time
durations and over a broad variety of market states. Pankin (2008) cited an instance that throughout a
year whilst stocks drop by 10%, a characteristic mutual fund with a relative returns target will be taken
into consideration to have got a great year it gets dropped by just 7%; however that would be bad
absolute returns. Nevertheless, if the market increases by 15% per year, a fund attempting for absolute
returns achieves 10% will be persistent with its target whilst a fund assessed on a relative returns
fundamental with that returns would be taken into consideration to have got bad operation in that year.
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.
Warren Buffett and his mentor, Benjamin Graham, argued that market risk was less important
than company specific risk in share valuation and investment management. Critically analyse the
basis and evidence for this viewpoint, and its implications
Warren Buffets Investment Philosophy
Economic reality, not accounting reality:
Discounted cash flow (DCF):
Opportunity Cost:
Risk-free approach:
Portfolio diversification:
Performance measurement:
Investment strategy:
Corporate governance:
Comparing Warren Buffetts investment philosophy with the theory of finance
Analyzing and comparing Warren Buffetts investment philosophy with his investment practices
SECTION B
Q2: Explain why you agree or disagree with the following statements:
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It is always better to have a portfolio with more convexity than one with less convexity
It is not always nicer to get a portfolio with being more convex than one being less convex. Even
though with all other stuffs equivalent it is nicer to be more convex than less, the market pays for being
convex in the type of a higher tariff or a lower margin. Yet the advantage of the bigger convexity is
dependent of how much margins vary. As can be understood from the second column of Table 1, if
market profits vary by less than 100 basis marks (more or less), the bullet portfolio, which gets less
convexity, will offer a nicer total returns.
A bullet portfolio will often outdo a barbell portfolio with the similar dollar period if the
margin curve steepens.
Q3: Calculate Macaulays duration, the modified duration, and the convexity of the following
bonds (annualize the parameters). Assume all of the bonds pay principal at their maturity.
a) Four-year, 9% coupon bond with a principal of 1000 and annual coupon payments trading at
par.
b) Four-year, zero coupon bond with a principal of 1000 and priced at 708.42 to margin 9%.
c) Five-year, 9% coupon bond with a principal of 1000 and annual coupon payments trading at
par.
d) Ten-year, 7% coupon bond with a principal of 1000 and semi-annual coupon payments
(3.5%) and priced at par.
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e) Three-year, 7% coupon bond with a principal of 1000 and semi-annual coupon payments
(3.5%) and priced at par.
f) Three-year zero-coupon bond with a principal of 1000 and priced at 816.30 to yield 7%.
As per the above statistics the input data for the measurement is as follows:
Table 2 Input data
Bond A Bond B Bond C Bond D Bond E Bond F Unit
Payment per year (n) 1 1 1 2 2 1
Coupon (C) 90 0 90 35 35 0 USD
Yield to maturity (y) 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.035 0.035 0.07 %
Maturity 4 4 5 20 6 3 year
Par 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 USD
Price 1,000 708.42 1,000 1,000 1,000 816.30 USD

Inserting these values into the present value of the coupon payments formula:

Computing the present value of the par or maturity value of $1,000 gives:
( )
1
n
M
r +

The outcomes get the below observation:
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Table 3 Present value (PV)

t Bond A Bond B Bond C Bond D Bond E Bond F
1 82.5688 0.0000 82.5688 33.8164 33.8164 0.0000
2 75.7512 0.0000 75.7512 32.6729 32.6729 0.0000
3 69.4965 0.0000 69.4965 31.5680 31.5680 0.0000
4 63.7583 0.0000 63.7583 30.5005 30.5005
5 58.4938 29.4691 29.4691
6 28.4725 28.4725
7 27.5097
8 26.5794
9 25.6806
10 24.8122
11 23.9731
12 23.1624
13 22.3791
14 21.6224
15 20.8912
16 20.1847
17 19.5021
18 18.8426
19 18.2054
20 17.5898
Par 708.4252 708.4252 649.9314 502.5659 813.5006 816.2979
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P 1000.0000 708.4252 1000.0000 1000.0000 1000.0000 816.2979

The Macaulay duration is a calculation of the rough shift in rate for a tiny shift in margin.
Macaulay duration =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
1 2
1 1 1 1
n n
C C nC nM
+ +. . .+ +
y y y y
P
+ + + +

Where P = price of the bond, C = semi-annual coupon interest (in dollars), y = one-half the yield to
maturity or required yield, n = number of semi-annual periods (number of years times 2), and M =
maturity value (in dollars).
The observation of the outcomes is illustrated as follows:
Table 4 Value calculated by t*(PV/P)
t Bond A Bond B Bond C Bond D Bond E Bond F
1 0.0826 0.0000 0.0826 0.0338 0.0338 0.0000
2 0.1515 0.0000 0.1515 0.0653 0.0653 0.0000
3 0.2085 0.0000 0.2085 0.0947 0.0947 0.0000
4 0.2550 0.0000 0.2550 0.1220 0.1220
5 0.2925 0.1473 0.1473
6 0.1708 0.1708
7 0.1926
8 0.2126
9 0.2311
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10 0.2481
11 0.2637
12 0.2779
13 0.2909
14 0.3027
15 0.3134
16 0.3230
17 0.3315
18 0.3392
19 0.3459
20 0.3518
Par 2.8337 4.0000 3.2497 10.0513 4.8810 3.0000
Total 3.5313 4.0000 4.2397 14.7098 5.5151 3.0000

The Macaulay duration of listed bonds get the below calculation:
Table 5 Macaulay Duration
Bond A Bond B Bond C Bond D Bond E Bond F
Macaulay Duration 3.5313 4.0000 4.2397 7.3549 2.7575 3.0000

Investors imply to the ratio of Macaulay duration to 1 + y as the modified duration. The calculation is
as below:
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Modified Duration =
1
Macaulay duration
y +

The observation of the outcomes is as below:
Table 6 Modified Duration
Bond A Bond B Bond C Bond D Bond E Bond F
Modified Duration -3.2397 -3.6697 -3.8897 -7.1062 -2.6643 -2.8037

It is probably resulting in another formula which does not get the wide measurements of the
Macaulay period and the varied period. This gets accomplished via the rewriting of the rate of a bond
regarding its two elements: (i) the present value of an annuity, in which the annuity is the total of the
coupon payments, and (ii) the present value of the par value. By taking the first derivative and dividing
by P, we achieve another formula for modified period given by:
Modified Duration =
( )
( )
( )
1 2
100
1
1 1
n n
n C / y
C 1

y
y y
P
+

(
+
(
+ +


In which the rate with the expression as a ratio of par value.
Bond A Bond B Bond C Bond D Bond E Bond F
Macaulay Duration -3.2397 -3.6697 -3.8897 -3.5531 -1.3321 -2.8037
Double check OK OK OK OK OK OK

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In half years, the convexity measure =
P
dy
P
d
1

2
2
. Noting that

2
2
dy
P
d
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
3 1 2
2
( 1) 100 /
2 1 2
1
1 1
1
n n n
n n C y
C Cn
y y y
y y
+ +
(
(
+
( + (
( + +
( +


,
It is able to insert this amount to convexity portion (half year) formula to achieve:
Convexity Measure (half year) =
( )
( )
( )
( )
3 1 2
2
( 1) 100 /
2 1 2
1
1 1
1
n n n
n n C y
C Cn
y y y
y y
+ +
(
(
+
( + (
( + +
( +


1
P
(
(


Convexity measure (years) =
year per period m in measure convexity

2
m

The observation of the outcomes are as below:
Table 7 Convexity measure (half year)
Bond A Bond B Bond C Bond D Bond E Bond F
Part 1 24691.36 0.00 24691.36 163265.31 163265.31 0.00
Part 2 0.29 0.29 0.35 0.50 0.19 0.18
Part 3 5777.17 0.00 6625.19 55493.82 26948.26 0.00
Part 4 0.00 1192.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 855.58
Part 5 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Convexity measure 14.2221 16.8337 20.1848 257.1992 35.0061 10.4812

Table 8 Convexity measure (in years)
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Bond A Bond B Bond C Bond D Bond E Bond F
Convexity measure 14.2221 16.8337 20.1848 64.2998 8.7515 10.4812

Q4: Given you duration and convexity calculations in Question 3, answer the following:
a) Which bond has the greatest price sensitivity to interest rate changes?
Bond d has the biggest duration and thus gets the biggest rate sensitiveness to interest rate shifts.
b) For an annualized 1% decrease in rates what would be the approximate percentage change in
the prices of Bond d and Bond e?
Employing the modified period, a 1% decline in margins would result in a nearly 7% rise in the tariff
for Bond d and 2.66% rise in tariff for Bond e.
c) Which bond has the greatest non-symmetrical capital gain and capital loss feature?
Bond d has the biggest convexity and thus non-asymmetrical achievement and failure characteristic.
If you were a speculator and expected yields to decrease in the near futures by the same amount
across all maturities (a parallel downward shift in the yield curve), which bond would you select?
It is better to choose bond d - the one with the biggest period; if margins raise, bond d would get the
biggest ratio rise in rate.
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d) If you were a bond portfolio manager and expected yields to increase in the near future by the
same amount across all maturities (a parallel upward shift in the yield curve), which bond
would you select?
It is better to choose bond e the one with the most minor period; if margins raise, bond e would get
the least ratio decline in rate.
e) Comment on the relation between maturity and a bonds price sensitivity to interest rate
changes.
The bigger a bond's maturity, the bigger its period, and thus the bigger its rate sensitiveness to
interest prices shifts.
f) Comment on the relation between coupon rate and a bonds price sensitivity to interest rate
changes.
The less a bonds coupon price, the bigger its period, and thus the bigger its rate sensitiveness to
interest price shifts.
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