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Ciobanu M. Ioana Aurelia



The hardware system is the overall of physical elements which compose the electronic
computer:electrical circuits,electronic components(which actually assembled and connected
made a computer system),mechanical devices and other material elements which compose the
physical structure of the computer system.


*central processing unit
*peripheral equipment
*hard disk


The hardware system has a external structure and a internal structure.The external structure
configuration contains all physical elements which need to be connected at the central processing
unit with the ports.These elements are:keyboard,mouse,monitor,printer,etc.The internal structure
is made by assembling a variety of electronic circuit boards(memory modules,units CD-ROM,a
hard-disk-data is stored in sectors within cylinders and is read by a head which passes over the

spinning surface of each disk;a floppy disk drive-as the disk is inserted into the drive,its surface is
exposed to the read-write head,which moves over the spinning disk surface to locate a specific
track. The central processing unit (CPU) executes individual program instructions and controls
the operation of other parts. The CPU has three main components: the arithmetic and logic unit
(ALU), where all calculations and logical operations are carried out; a control unit, which
decodes, synchronizes, and executes program instructions; and the immediate access memory,
which stores the data and programs on which the computer is currently working. All these
components contain registers, which are memory locations reserved for specific purposes. A main
power supply is needed and a cooling system, as the CPU is more efficient when working at
lower temperatures. The computer's interface circuits control the peripheral devices that can be
attached. These will normally be keyboards and VDUs (visual display units) for user input and
output, disk drive units for mass memory storage, and printers.
The motherboard is the main component inside the case.It is a large rectangular board with
integrated circuitry that connects the rest of the parts of the computer including the CPU,yhe
RAM,the disk drives(cd,dvd,hard disk,or any others)as well as any peripherals connected via the
ports or the expansion slots.
Components directly attached to the motherboard include:
1.The central processing unit (CPU) performs most of the calculations which enable a computer
to function, and is sometimes referred to as the "brain" of the computer. It is usually cooled by a
heat sink and fan.
2.The chipset mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the
system, including main memory.
3.RAM Stores all running processes (applications) and the current running OS. RAM Stands for
Random Access Memory
4.The BIOS includes boot firmware and power management. The Basic Input Output System
tasks are handled by operating system drivers.
5.Internal Buses connect the CPU to various internal components and to expansion cards for
graphics and sound.
Removable media devices are:CD,CD-ROM,CD-WRITER,DVD,DVD-ROM,DVD-
WRITER,FLOPPY DISK,USB flash drive,etc.
*Economical informatics