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Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed
PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

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DOI 10.1007/s12205-013-0599-z

518

www.springer.com/12205

Load Rating and Assessment of Bridges

Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed

PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

Dae-Sung Jung* and Chul-Young Kim**

Received December 3, 2012/Revised January 6, 2013/Accepted January 11, 2013

Abstract

Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (HGA) which combines the genetic algorithm as a global optimization and the simplex method as a

local optimization is proposed for a finite element model updating of a real prestressed concrete bridge structure. In order to minimize

the updating error between the measurement and the finite element model updating result, objective functions which are

combinations of fitness functions based on the natural frequency, the mode shape and the static displacement are introduced. And an

interface tool is also developed in order to utilize various element library and numerical analysis tools which are provided by

commercial finite element and numerical analysis programs. A simply supported skewed PSC girder bridge which has 30 m span

length is selected for the verification of the proposed FE model updating algorithm. Static vehicle loading test and forced vibration

test by traveling vehicle as well as ambient vibration test were carried out to obtain the reference measurement data for numerical

updating. A grillage model is used for the finite element analysis. Effect of the spring element to simulate the realistic support

condition which is not perfectly free or restrained in real situation as well as that of the objective function on the updating accuracy

are studied. From the result of parametric study, it is investigated that the use of spring element for support condition is effective to

minimize the updating error for natural frequency and mode shape. Furthermore, including the static displacement fitness function

together with those of dynamic properties may improve the global behavior of updated finite element model. It is concluded that the

hybrid genetic algorithm proposed in this study is a very effective finite element model updating method to find an accurate result in

updating real bridge structure based on measured data.

Keywords: finite element model updating, hybrid genetic algorithm, genetic algorithm, simplex method, PSC girder bridge

1. Introduction

It is very important to build a refined finite element model for

system identification, damage detection and assessment of load

carrying capacity of real structures. Generally, numerical simulation

is quite different from measured behavior due to various reasons,

such as assumed material properties, construction discrepancy,

deterioration and structural damage, etc. In order to reduce this

difference, many finite element model updating method have

been proposed. While approaches which update directly mass

and stiffness matrices were proposed in the past, updating

methods based on optimization algorithm have been widely

studied recently (Imregun and Visser, 1991; Mottershead and

Friswell, 1993; Friswell and Mottershead, 1995; Farhat and

Hemez, 1993).

Among conventional methods, direct method which directly

modifies system matrices and sensitivity-based parameter updating

method based on the sensitivity of parameters may be the most

common ones. The direct method, which finds change of mass

and stiffness matrices by solving the equation of motion, is hard

to find an accurate result and cannot guarantee the sparseness,

positive-definiteness and symmetry of updated system matrices

since the change of mass and stiffness matrices are always

coupled. Furthermore, it often discloses numerical instability

problem in reverse analysis due to measurement error and lack of

measurement points. Sensitivity-based parameter updating method

has advantage over direct method since it is efficient to update

parameters which are more sensitive to dynamic properties of

structures and can solve the numerical instability problem of

direct method. It is hard to apply this method to complicated real

structures since it requires sensitivity matrices for all parameters

to which the dynamic response of real structures does not change

proportionally.

Recently, approaches such as the Genetic Algorithm (GA), the

Simulated Annealing (SA) and the trust region Newton method

which directly modifies the finite element model based on the

optimization theory have been proposed. These methods can

solve above-mentioned problems and give updated result which

may have physical meaning. Levin and Lieven (1998) applied

the genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing independently

on the updating problem of thin-walled wing structure. Modak

and Kundra (2000) proposed an updating method for nonlinear

*Member, Research Professor, Hybrid Structural Testing Center, Myongji University, Gyeonggi-do 449-728, Korea (E-mail: dsjung@ mju.ac.kr)

**Member, Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Myongji University, Gyeonggi-do, 449-728, Korea (Corresponding Author, E-mail: cykim@mju.ac.kr)

Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

Vol. 17, No. 3 / April 2013 519

optimization problem with constraints and applied it to a simply

supported reinforced concrete beam based on laboratory test

data. Jaishi and Ren (2006) proposed an updating method using

trust region Newton method based on sensitivity method and

damage detection algorithm using modal flexibility residual.

Rafiq et al. (2005) studied model updating method which used

both genetic algorithm and regression analysis together for

updating of a masonry wall structure. Zhu and Hao (2006)

applied conventional sensitivity-based method, neural network

and genetic algorithm to experimental result of 5 story steel

frame structure and compared the result to estimate the

efficiency of each method. Zhang et al. (2000) studied FE model

updating of 1/150 scaled suspension bridge model using the

eigenvalue sensitivity-based updating approach based on the

first-order Taylor-series. In this study, the sum of weighted

frequency error norms and weighted perturbation norms of the

parameters was used as an objective function. Sanayei et al.

(2012) carried out load rating of a 47 m continuous three-span

concrete slab on steel stringer bridge by nondestructive load

testing as well as manual model updating. SAP2000 was used for

finite element analysis and an error function between the

experimental strain and the analysis result was adopted as an

objective function. Yang and Ou (2009) studied model updating

by the laboratory test of a 1/40 scaled model of Shandong

Binzhou Yellow River Highway Bridge (cable-stayed bridge)

which has two symmetric main spans. Finite element model was

analyzed by MATLAB and ANSYS, and the residual of both

natural frequency and mode shape was used as an objective

function. Zhao (2011) investigated model updating of Yangtze

River Bridge which is 1040m long cable-stayed bridge using

ANSYS optimization tool. Updating variables were the elastic

modulus, moment of inertia and mass density of main girder,

diaphragm, pylon and cable elements. Only the error function of

natural frequency was used as an objective function. Merce et al.

(2007) studied model updating of Clifton Suspension Bridge with

an objective function considering MAC value as well as natural

frequency error function. ANSYS optimization tool was utilized

and manual updating and automatic updating were used together.

Updating variables, which were elastic modulus and mass density,

were selected by sensitivity analysis using ANSYS gradient tool.

In previous publication of authors, Jung and Kim (2009) proposed

Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (HGA) which combined the genetic

algorithm as a global optimization together with the simplex

method as a local optimization. An interface tool which integrated

commercial finite element library and numerical analysis toolbox

was also developed so that the model updating problem on

complicated structural models can be solved. In addition, for

verification purpose, numerical parametric study on the grillage

model of a 2-span continuous bridge model as well as

experimental study by laboratory test of a simply supported

small scale bridge model were carried out and proved its validity

and efficiency.

In this study, the proposed HGA method was applied to the

field measurement data of a prestressed concrete girder bridge to

verify its applicability to real bridge structures. Parametric study

on the effect of spring elements for simulating support conditions

and that of fitness function to be considered was also carried out.

This paper will start with the introduction of basic theoretical

background of the proposed HGA method followed by the

description about field measurement and the discussion about the

result of parametric study.

2. Theoretical Background

2.1 Genetic Algorithm

The genetic algorithm is a stochastic random search technique

in global space based on the evolutionary theory such as

evolution and natural selection. Since GA can define objective

function with various design variables and searches solution

randomly from multiple stating points in the problem which has

multiple local minima, it is more flexible and efficient to find the

global minimum or maximum than other updating methods such

as gradient-based method (SQP - Sequential Quadratic Program)

and conjugate gradient method which uses single starting point.

Generally, the genetic algorithm calculates the fitness of objective

function regarding each chromosome of randomly generated

parent population and reproduces next population by crossover

and mutation. In reproduction process, usually roulette wheel

selection, ranking selection, tournament selection, ranking selection

and elitist preserving selection are used to select the best fitness

chromosome. For crossover process, scattered crossover, single

point crossover and 2 points crossover are the most common

ones. Mutation process is to change specific gene information of

chromosome randomly in the given solution space and is very

useful in the sense that it can make up for the missing gene

information in initially generated parent population. However, the

frequency of mutation, thus the probability of mutation, is very

small compared with that of crossover.

2.2 Modified Simplex Method by Nelder and Mead

The simplex method used in this study is based on the

algorithm proposed by Nelder and Mead in 1965. This method

converges fast and is very efficient to find local optimum point,

especially when the number of updating variables is relatively

small. The simplex method falls in the general category of direct

search method and is widely used for unconstrained nonlinear

optimization problem. In this method, updating direction is

decided by comparing function values at nearby points instead of

improving objective function value by mathematical calculation

or approximation of gradient. In the search space with N

variables, after N+1 initial vertices are defined, iterative calculation

is performed to find the optimum vertex which minimizes

objective function by simplex operation.

The weighting factors of simplex operators proposed by

Barton and Ivey (1996) were used in this study. The values of

weight factors on simplex operators such as reflection, expansion,

contraction and shrinkage as in Fig. 1 are 1.0, 2.0, -0.5 and 0.5,

respectively. The stopping condition in iterative operation as was

Dae-Sung Jung and Chul-Young Kim

520 KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

proposed by Dennis and Woods (1987) was used as in Eq. (1).

(1)

where, (2a)

(2b)

where is the relative difference between the evaluation value

of the kth simplex and k-1th simplex, and is the convergence

tolerance. indicates the Euclidian norm of the kth worst

point on the simplex x.

2.3 Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

Hybrid model updating algorithm uses global and local

optimization consecutively to find the best optimum solution. In

this study, the hybrid genetic algorithm which adopts the genetic

algorithm as a global optimization method and the modified

simplex method proposed by Nelder and Mead as a local

optimization method is proposed. In order to solve complicated

model updating problem of real bridge structures systematically,

an interface tool for integrating a commercially developed finite

element analysis program which has a versatile element library

and a numerical analysis toolbox which has very accurate solver

routines is also developed. ABAQUS (Simulia Dassault Systems,

2007) and gads toolbox of MatLAB (The Mathworks, Inc., 2006)

are integrated by the developed program code. Model updating

procedure by the proposed HGA method is shown in Fig. 2.

2.4 Objective Function and Fitness Function

Equation (3) shows the objective function proposed in this

study, which is a linear combination of fitness functions with

respect to natural frequency, mode shape and static displacement.

The fitness functions in Eqs. (4a)~(4c) are error functions in

which measured data and analysis result are one-to-one

correspondence. The fitness function with respect to natural

frequency is the proportion of the difference between measured

and calculated values. Normalized Modal Difference (NMD)

which represents the difference between normalized mode

shapes was used as the fitness function w.r.t. mode shape. In

order to consider the phase information during updating process,

absolute value was not taken for the denominator of Modal

Assurance Criterion (MAC) which is an index of correlation of

mode shapes. This helps to distinguish bending and torsional

mode so that the order of modes is also taken into consideration.

To prevent numerical difficulties when the denominator becomes

zero or very small value, summation of displacements at all

nodes was taken for the fitness function w.r.t. static displacement.

(3)

, (num. of modes)

(4a)

, (num. of modes) (4b)

,

k

k

k 1

s

< =

k

1

k

----- x

i

k

x

w

k

i 1 n 1 + , , =

x

i

k

x

w

k

lim = max

k

max 1 x

w

k

, ( ) =

s

x

w

k

f

min

fitness

1

f ( ) fitness

2

( ) fitness

3

u ( ) + + =

fitness

1

f ( )

1

m

----

i

f

i

e

f

i

a

f

i

e

--------------

i 1 =

m

= i 1 m , , =

fitness

2

( )

1

m

----

i

NMD

i 1 =

m

= i 1 m , , =

fitness

3

u ( )

1

N

--- -

p

u

j

e

u

j

a

j 1 =

n

u

j

e

j 1 =

n

-----------------------

p 1 =

N

= j 1 n , , =

Fig. 1. Simplex Operators (N=3): (a) Initial Simplex, (b) Reflection, (c) Expansion, (d) Contraction, (e) Shrinkage

Fig. 2. Flowchart of the HGA-based FE Model Updating Method

Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

Vol. 17, No. 3 / April 2013 521

(num. of measuring pts.), (load cases) (4c)

In Eqs. (4a)~(4c), fitness

1

(f), fitness

2

() and fitness

3

(u) represent

the fitness functions w.r.t. natural frequency, mode shape and

static deflection. The superscripts a and e stands for the analytical

and experimental result of the updating model, respectively. In

addition,

i

,

i

and

p

are the weighting factors for the fitness

function at the ith mode and pth load case, which are all set to 1.0

in this study. NMD and MAC can be defined as follows:

(5)

(6)

where, and are ith mode shape vector from experiment

and analysis, respectively.

3. Dynamic Properties of Simply Supported PSC

Girder Bridge

3.1 Keum Dang Bridge

Keum Dang Bridge is a simply supported bridge which has

post-tensioning prestressed concrete girders and is skewed by 15

degree. This bridge is located on the test road in Chung-bu inland

expressway, where many newly developed technologies are

adopted for try-out purpose and normal traffic does not pass

through over the bridge. It is 5 m apart from the main

expressway so that ambient vibration is caused by the traffic on

the main expressway even though the magnitude is very small.

The first northbound span was tested, which is 30 meters long

and 12.6 meters wide and has 4 PSC-I type girders as is shown in

Fig. 3.

3.2 Evaluation of Dynamic Properties by Vehicle Loading

Test

Input parameters for FEM analysis were evaluated from

various field tests such as static vehicle loading test, forced

vibration test by traveling vehicle and ambient vibration test.

Loading vehicle and its specification is shown in Fig. 4 and

Table 1.

Sensor locations are shown in Fig. 5. Displacement sensors

were located at L/2 point of each girder and accelerometers were

placed at L/4, L/2 and 3L/4 point at each side of slab. Only

vertical component was measured for both displacement and

acceleration.

Three static load cases are shown in Fig. 6 and 7 and speeds for

vehicle loading test are 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 40, 80 and 100 km/

hr.

p 1 N , , =

NMD

i

e

{ }

i

a

{ } , ( )

1 MAC

i

MAC

i

---------------------- =

MAC

i

i

e

{ }

T

i

a

{ } ( )

2

i

e

{ }

T

i

e

{ } ( )

i

a

{ }

T

i

a

{ } ( )

---------------------------------------------------------- =

i

e

{ }

i

a

{ }

Fig. 3. Test Span of Keum Dang Bridge

Fig. 4. Loading Vehicle

Table 1. Dimension and Weight of Loading Vehicle

Dimension (m) Weight (kN)

L

1

L

2

L

3

L

4

Front Middle Rear Total

3.2 1.3 2.0 1.85 70.66 98.98 91.73 261.37

Fig. 5. Sensor Location

Fig. 6. Static Vehicle Loading

Fig. 7. Load Cases of Static Vehicle Loading Test: (a) Load Case 1, (b) Load Case 2, (c) Load Case 3

Dae-Sung Jung and Chul-Young Kim

522 KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

3.3 Test Result

Static deflections for each load case are listed in Table 2, where

averaged values are used for input parameters on model updating.

Typical acceleration time histories by loading vehicle, that of

ambient vibration and their corresponding power spectral densities

are shown in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. Natural frequencies in

Table 3 were estimated from peaks of Averaged Normalized

Power Spectral Density (ANPSD) functions. In addition, mode

shapes in Fig. 10 were derived from transfer functions and phase

angle information. The first mode is a bending mode and the

second is a torsional mode. The third mode, even though it looks

like the first bending mode due to the lack of measuring points, is a

transverse bending mode coupled with longitudinal bending. This

may be caused by the fact that this bridge is skewed. Dynamic

property resulted from ambient vibration test was used for the

reference at model updating since more refined result could be

acquired by averaging large number of sampled signals.

4. Finite Element Model Updating

4.1 FE Model and Updating variables

Keum Dang Bridge was modeled as a grillage composed of

Table 2. Static Displacement (unit: mm)

Girder

LC1 LC2 LC3

1

st

2

nd

AVE. 1

st

2

nd

AVE. 1

st

2

nd

AVE.

G1 -1.72 -1.62 -1.67 -0.88 -0.91 -0.90 -0.4 -0.44 -0.42

G2 -0.96 -0.94 -0.95 -1.12 -1.12 -1.12 -0.85 -0.86 -0.86

G3 -0.23 -0.25 -0.24 -0.64 -0.65 -0.65 -1.04 -1.00 -1.02

G4 0.00 0.01 0.01 -0.24 -0.22 -0.23 -0.52 -0.50 -0.51

Fig. 8. Acceleration Time History: (a) Vehicle Loading Test (ACC-2, v=40 km/h), (b) Ambient Vibration (ACC-2)

Fig. 9. ANPSD: (a) Vehicle Loading Test (ACC-2, v=40 km/h), (b) Ambient Vibration (ACC-2)

Table 3. Natural Frequency

Natural frequency (Hz)

Testing Method

1

st

mode 2

nd

mode 3

rd

mode

AVT (ambient vibration test) 5.88 7.15 9.99

FVT

(traveling

vehicle test)

10 km/h

1

st

5.96 7.15 9.89

2

nd

6.03 7.15 9.89

20 km/h

1

st

6.05 7.15 9.96

2

nd

6.23 7.03 9.89

30 km/h

1

st

5.91 7.18 9.89

2

nd

5.96 7.28 9.91

40 km/h

1

st

6.18 7.13 9.89

2

nd

5.93 7.10 9.81

50 km/h

1

st

5.93 7.10 9.86

2

nd

5.83 7.13 9.94

60 km/h

1

st

5.86 7.25 9.94

2

nd

5.91 7.25 9.84

70 km/h

1

st

5.83 7.20 9.84

2

nd

5.98 7.15 9.84

80 km/h

1

st

5.83 7.18 9.81

2

nd

6.03 7.18 9.94

100 km/h

1

st

5.83 7.08 9.96

2

nd

5.83 7.10 9.74

AVE. 5.95 7.16 9.88

Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

Vol. 17, No. 3 / April 2013 523

319 beam elements and 24 spring elements which were as shown

in Fig. 11 and was analyzed by commercial FEA program,

ABAQUS. Model updating using commercial FEA program has

an advantage of utilizing versatile element and material property

library. On the other hand, modeling a fine mesh with a large

number of elements may lead to a very long analysis time. In this

study, in order to reduce analysis time, the number of updating

variables was reduced by classifying the section property of

girders and cross beams into 6 groups (SECT01 through SECT06)

according to tendon profiles and sectional properties. Slab

together with cross beams was divided into many strips to

simulate transverse load distribution.

Support conditions were simulated by springs. While vertical

restraints were taken into account by discarding corresponding

degrees of freedom, translational springs in both x and y

directions as well as rotational springs about y-axis were

attached at all supports regardless of their restraint conditions.

And then, large spring constant was assigned to actually

restrained DOF and small value to unrestrained DOF. This

approach takes into consideration the fact that even though the

shoes and bearings are supposed to move freely along

unrestrained DOF it does have a certain amount of friction

especially in old bridges. This affects overall structural stiffness

and behavior and eventually estimated structural properties as

well. From experiences of previous test cases, it has been

investigated that this affects dynamic properties, especially

estimated from small magnitude vibration, a lot more than

variation of stiffness and mass distribution of main structural

components do. Thus, if restraint condition is not considered as

updating variable, the model updating may lead to erroneous

result with unrealistic stiffness and mass distribution for main

structural members.

Updating variables and their initial values for HGA model

updating are listed in Table 4. The initial values for spring

constants used in this study were decided by preliminary

analysis. Since these initial values are assumed and lack of

physical meaning, the updated values may be quite different

from the initial ones. Thus the range between upper and lower

bounds were set relatively larger than that of other updating

variables such as the moment of inertia.

4.2 Parametric Study

Parametric study was carried out in order to verify the

applicability of the proposed updating method to a real bridge

structure and to make an optimal FE model for the PSC girder

bridge based on field measurement data. This parametric study

mainly focuses on two subjects: the effect of updating spring

elements being used to simulate support restraint condition and

the effect of using static displacement fitness function in addition

to those of dynamic properties such as natural frequency and

mode shape. Eq. (7) and (8) show two objective functions where

first one has fitness function w.r.t. static displacement in addition

Fig. 10. Mode Shape (AVT)

Fig. 11. Finite Element Model of Keum Dang Bridge

Table 4. Updating Variable and Initial Value

Member Group Updating Variable Initial Value Description

SECT01 I

yy

1.003E+12 mm

4

Moment of inertia

SECT02 I

yy

9.411E+11 mm

4

SECT03 I

yy

1.139E+11 mm

4

SECT04 I

yy

1.640E+09 mm

4

SECT05 I

yy

1.033E+12 mm

4

SECT06 I

yy

9.666E+11 mm

4

Spring

supports

K

x,fixed

1.000E+08 N/mm Restrained along x-dir.

K

x,free

1.000E+04 N/mm Unrestrained along x-dir.

K

y,fixed

1.000E+08 N/mm Restrained alongy-dir.

K

y,free

1.000E+04 N/mm Unrestrained along y-dir.

K

r

1.000E+04 Nmm/rad Rotational spring abouty-axis (unrestrained)

Dae-Sung Jung and Chul-Young Kim

524 KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

to those w.r.t. dynamic properties.

(7)

(8)

The size of population was set to 10 times the number of

updating variables and generation size equal to it as analysis

conditions. For evolution to next generation, 4 elite chromosomes

which showed the best fitness among population were used. For

crossover and mutation function, scattered function and uniform

function with 75% and 25% probability were used, respectively.

Scattered crossover function is a traditional crossover function

which exchanges mutually related single or multi-gene information

when two parent chromosomes crosses over to children

chromosomes. On the other hand, uniform crossover function

uniformly changes specific genetic information of children

chromosomes. When each updating variable is normalized as

1.0, the range of population which is lower and upper bounds of

updating variables was set from 0.1 to 2.0 for beam elements and

from 0.01 to 10.0 for spring elements. For Simplex method, the

initial value was set to the final result of the GA method and 5%

of each updating variable was considered as initial mesh size.

4.3 Updating Result

Figures 12 and 13 show the converging process of the updating

variable, the fitness function and the objective function for case 3

and the final updated result of objective functions. Updating

variables are listed in Table 6 and 7. For genetic algorithm

analysis, only the smallest objective function values out of 100

generations are shown. This genetic algorithm has slow

convergence speed and takes long analysis time compared with

the simplex method since fixed number of iterations should be

carried out for every generation. On the other hand it gives result

which is very close to global optimum based on the fact that the

variation of updating variables is minimal during the simplex

optimization process.

As is shown in Table 6, from the result of initial analysis for

both FE model with and without support spring, the degree of

convergence of the model with support spring is much better

than the model without spring for dynamic property fitness

functions, while there is no difference for static displacement

fitness function. Objective function considering fitness function

w.r.t. static displacement as well results in better convergence.

Especially in case 4, the fitness function w.r.t. natural frequency

becomes zero so that the updated value exactly coincides with

the measurement. If the error in static displacement is also taken

into consideration even for case 2 and case 4, the overall degree

of convergence is the best in case 3 where support restraints are

modeled with spring elements and static displacement fitness

function is included in the objective function.

From the converged values of updating variables in Table 7, it

can be seen that overall stiffness of girders increases up to 70%

from initial values although there are little differences from case

to case. This might be resulted from the fact that for the initial

model reinforcing steels and tendon forces were not taken into

account and the strength of concrete were assumed as the design

Obj. f

1 min ,

fitness

1

f ( ) fitness

2

( ) fitness

3

u ( ) + + =

Obj. f

2 min ,

fitness

1

f ( ) fitness

2

( ) + =

Table 5. Cases of Parameter Study

Cases

Support Condition Objective Function

w/o spring w/ spring f

1,min

f

2,min

Case1 x x

Case2 x x

Case3 x x

Case4 x x

Fig. 12. Convergence of Updating Variables (Case 3)

Fig. 13. Convergence of Objective Function (Case 3)

Table 6. Value of Fitness and Objective Function

Fit. & Obj. function

w/o spring w/ spring

Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4

0.275 0.168 0.169 0.165 0.049 0.000

0.599 0.083 0.092 0.136 0.127 0.123

0.509 0.109 (0.150) 0.509 0.114 (0.183)

f

min

(sum) 1.383 0.360 0.261 0.810 0.290 0.123

fitness

1

f ( )

fitness

2

( )

finess

3

u ( )

Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

Vol. 17, No. 3 / April 2013 525

value lower than the real one. Especially for case 3, the stiffness

of the middle section of outside girder increases 75%. This

occurs because the barrier at the side of the bridge deck

contributes considerably to the stiffness of outside girder. In

general, the stiffness of beam elements contributes to convergence

of displacement in a large degree while support springs contribute

much to that of dynamic properties. It should be noted that large

differences between initial and updated values for spring

constants can be obtained since the initial values does not have

any physical meaning but are completely assumed values.

Natural frequencies are listed in Table 8. Mostly, models with

support springs give better convergence and especially case 4 in

which only the fitness functions w.r.t. dynamic properties are

considered shows almost perfect convergence in all the 3 modes

under consideration. Case 3 which includes the displacement

fitness function in addition, also shows good convergence. Mode

shapes for initial analysis, case 1 and case 3 are shown in Fig. 15.

The 3

rd

mode turned out to be the lateral mode as in case 1 for the

model without support spring, and the results of all cases were

similar to that of case 3.

As it can be seen in Table 10, the same displacement was

resulted in for both cases since the degrees of freedom were

eliminated instead of using spring elements for vertical restraints

of the model with spring elements. The displacement of the

girder which has relatively large displacement at each load case

has improved better since the static displacement fitness function

is the ratio of the sum of errors to the sum of displacements at all

measurement points. The error ratios for G1 at LC1, G2 at LC2

and G3 at LC3, which have relatively large displacement at each

load case, are 51.1%, 22.5% and 30.2% for the initial model,

-0.3%, -5.5% and 0.4% for case 1, -2.5%, -16.4% and -11.0% for

case 2, -1.3%, -7.4% and -1.4% for case 3 and -22.5%, -2.4%

and 4.7% for case 4, respectively. In general, as it can be

expected, case 1 and case 3 in which the static displacement

fitness function is considered in addition to the dynamic property

fitness function show better updating result. Regarding the lateral

stiffness distribution and its resulting lateral displacement as

shown in Fig. 16, case 3 has the best updating result with the

maximum error ratio of 5.6%.

Table 7.Value of Updating Variable

Updating var. Initial Value

w/o spring w/ spring

Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4

SECT01 1.003E+12 mm

4

1.0 1.088 2.074 1.0 1.243 1.178

SECT02 9.411E+11 mm

4

1.0 1.389 1.277 1.0 1.249 0.723

SECT03 1.139E+11 mm

4

1.0 0.645 1.946 1.0 1.055 1.445

SECT04 1.640E+09 mm

4

1.0 1.441 1.965 1.0 1.314 0.676

SECT05 1.033E+12 mm

4

1.0 1.117 1.007 1.0 1.251 1.990

SECT06 9.666E+11 mm

4

1.0 1.747 1.784 1.0 1.756 2.572

K

x,fixed

1.000E+08 N/mm - - - 1.0 0.149 4.510

K

x,free

1.000E+04 N/mm - - - 1.0 9.416 6.546

K

y,fixed

1.000E+08 N/mm - - - 1.0 3.767 3.425

K

y,free

1.000E+04 N/mm - - - 1.0 2.907 8.993

K

r

1.000E+04 Nmm/rad - - - 1.0 1.733 2.079

Table 8. Initial and Updated Natural Frequency (Hz)

Mode No. Exp.

w/o spring w/ spring

Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4

1 5.884 4.892 5.896 5.908 4.892 5.842 5.884

2 7.153 4.990 6.094 6.086 4.990 6.145 7.153

3 9.985 6.445 6.445 6.445 9.753 9.984 9.985

Table 9. Errors for Updated Natural Frequency (%)

Mode No.

w/o spring w/ spring

Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4

1 -16.9 0.2 0.4 -16.9 -0.7 0.0

2 -30.2 -14.8 -14.9 -30.2 -14.1 0.0

3 -35.5 -35.5 -35.5 -2.3 0.0 0.0

Note) Err. % ( ) f

i

e

f

i

a

( ) f

i

e

{ } 100% =

Fig. 14. Comparison of Natural Frequency

Dae-Sung Jung and Chul-Young Kim

526 KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

4.4 Modal and Static correlation

In Table 11 and 12, correlation results about mode shape and

static displacement are listed.

As it can be seen in Table 11, high correlation was resulted from

model updating with MAC values greater than 0.972 in all modes.

The degree of correlation for static displacement was investigated

Fig. 15. Mode Shapes: (a) Initial Model without Spring, (b) Case1 without Spring, (c) Initial Model with Spring, (d) Case3 with Spring

Table 10. Static Displacement (mm)

Load case Girder Exp.

w/o spring w/ spring

Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4

LC1

G1 -1.67 -2.52 -1.67 -1.63 -2.52 -1.65 -1.29

G2 -0.95 -1.41 -0.91 -0.96 -1.41 -0.95 -0.88

G3 -0.24 -0.47 -0.30 -0.35 -0.47 -0.34 -0.43

G4 0.01 0.28 0.14 0.17 0.28 0.14 0.01

LC2

G1 -0.9 -1.17 -0.70 -0.80 -1.17 -0.76 -0.69

G2 -1.12 -1.37 -1.06 -0.94 -1.37 -1.04 -1.09

G3 -0.65 -1.08 -0.83 -0.75 -1.08 -0.83 -0.92

G4 -0.23 -0.51 -0.28 -0.38 -0.51 -0.34 -0.38

LC3

G1 -0.42 -0.61 -0.35 -0.44 -0.61 -0.40 -0.43

G2 -0.86 -1.12 -0.87 -0.78 -1.12 -0.86 -0.95

G3 -1.02 -1.33 -1.02 -0.91 -1.33 -1.01 -1.07

G4 -0.51 -1.07 -0.64 -0.74 -1.07 -0.70 -0.65

Fig. 16. Comparison of Static Displacement: (a) Load Case 1, (b) Load Case 2, (c) Load Case 3

Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

Vol. 17, No. 3 / April 2013 527

based on DAC (Displacement Assurance Criterion) and NDD

(Normalized Displacement Difference) in Eq. (9a) and (9b). The

absolute error, percent error, scale error and correlation coefficient in

Table 13 as proposed in the reference (BRIDGE DIAGNOSTICS,

Inc., 2001) were also analyzed and the result is listed in Table 14.

It is suggested that the updating result can be acceptable when

the percent error is less than 10% and the correlation coefficient

is greater than 0.9.

(9a)

(9b)

Based on DAC values in Table 12, the objective function

including displacement fitness function gives more correlated

result in general. Since the static deformed shape by loading

vehicle is quite similar with the first bending mode shape, strong

correlation is resulted in for both initial and updated model. In

Table 14, it is clearly shown that error function values are greatly

reduced after updating for all analysis cases especially for case 1

through 4 where percent errors are less than 4.1% and correlation

coefficient larger than 0.979.

From all the previous discussions, it can be summarized that

considering support restraints by support spring improves

updating result for natural frequency and mode shape as well as

static displacement. In case 4 where only the dynamic property

fitness functions are considered in the objective function,

although perfect correlation is resulted in for natural frequencies

of the first 3 modes, relatively poor correlation is acquired for

static displacement. Furthermore, the 3

rd

mode shape of the

initial model appeared differently from the measurement result

when support spring is not considered. However, the updating

results for mode shape as well as natural frequency can be

improved by considering it.

In cases of FE models considering support spring, the most

correlated result is acquired in case 3 where spring element is

used to simulate realistic restraint condition and static displacement

fitness function is also considered in objective function. For this

DAC u

m

u

a

, ( )

u

m

{ }

T

u

a

{ }

2

u

a

{ }

T

u

a

{ } ( ) u

m

{ }

T

u

m

{ } ( )

------------------------------------------------------------ =

NDD u

k

m

{ } u

k

a

{ } , ( )

1 DAC

kk

DAC

kk

----------------------- =

Table 11. Comparison of NMD and MAC

Mode No.

w/o spring w/ spring

Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4

MAC

1 0.970 0.977 0.976 0.971 0.979 0.983

2 0.996 0.996 0.996 0.996 0.996 0.996

3 0.291 0.999 0.997 0.972 0.972 0.972

NMD

1 0.175 0.155 0.158 0.175 0.145 0.132

2 0.063 0.065 0.065 0.063 0.065 0.068

3 1.560 0.029 0.052 0.170 0.170 0.169

Table 12. Comparison of DAC and NDD

Load Case

w/o spring w/ spring

Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4

DAC

LC1 0.991 0.994 0.990 0.991 0.993 0.974

LC2 0.978 0.969 0.973 0.978 0.972 0.947

LC3 0.968 0.991 0.967 0.968 0.986 0.996

NDD

LC1 0.097 0.076 0.102 0.097 0.085 0.164

LC2 0.150 0.179 0.166 0.150 0.170 0.237

LC3 0.182 0.096 0.184 0.182 0.117 0.065

Table 13. Error Functions

Error Function Equation

Absolute Error

Percent Error

Scale Error

Correlation Coefficient

m

a

m

a

( )

2

m

( )

m

a

max gage

m max gage

m

m

( )

a

a

( )

m

m

( )

2

a

a

( )

2

Error function

w/o spring w/ spring

Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4

Absolute error 4.368 0.937 1.290 4.368 0.980 1.572

Percent error 0.233 0.014 0.022 0.233 0.016 0.041

Scale error 0.485 0.120 0.150 0.485 0.129 0.206

Correlation coefficient 0.993 0.992 0.992 0.993 0.994 0.979

Dae-Sung Jung and Chul-Young Kim

528 KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

model updating study of Keum Dang Bridge, updated results of

updating variables show reasonable values compared with design

values.

5. Conclusions

In this study, hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed, which

uses sequentially the genetic algorithm as a global search method

and the simplex method as a local search method and its

verification of applicability was carried out with field measurement

data of a prestressed concrete bridge. The objective function

including static displacement fitness function as well as fitness

function with respect to natural frequency and mode shape was

also investigated. A modified MAC without absolute value was

used to consider the phase information.

Parametric study was performed to investigate the effect of

spring element which is used to simulate realistic support

restraint condition. It could be seen that the use of spring element

greatly improves updating result especially for dynamic properties,

while there is no big improvement for static displacement. Also,

the effect of the fitness function was also studied by including

static displacement fitness function in addition to the fitness

functions with respect to natural frequency and mode shape. In

the case only dynamic property fitness functions are considered

with the spring element, updated natural frequency converged

exactly the same as the reference value up to the 3

rd

mode under

consideration, but it was less effective for the static displacement. In

this case, percent error was improved from initial value of 23.3%

to 4.1%and DAC and correlation coefficient became 0.947 and

0.979, respectively. On the other hand, in the case the static

displacement fitness function was also included and the spring

element is used, the displacements showed good agreement with

1.6% percent error and DAC and correlation coefficient greater

than 0.972 and 0.994, respectively, while natural frequencies

were updated within 1% error except the 2

nd

mode. Overall, for

the grillage model studied in this paper, the use of spring element

and the static displacement fitness function gives better updating

result. In case 3, among the updating variables, the moments of

inertia of girder elements increased about 25% except at the

middle portion of outside girder. This can be deduced from the

fact that the initial percent error was 23.3% for displacement.

From all the investigation and discussion in this study, it can be

concluded that the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm can be

applied for the model updating of real bridge structures based on

the field measurement and can be used as a good basis for further

system identification, assessment and load rating.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by Korea Expressway Corporation

and a grant (10TIB01-Modular Bridge Research Centre) from

Construction Technological Innovation Programme funded by

Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs of Korean

government. The authors sincere appreciation goes to Korea

Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) on the

usage of Korea Research Environment Open NETwork

(KREONET).

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