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KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (2013) 17(3):518-529

DOI 10.1007/s12205-013-0599-z
518
www.springer.com/12205
Load Rating and Assessment of Bridges
Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed
PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Dae-Sung Jung* and Chul-Young Kim**
Received December 3, 2012/Revised January 6, 2013/Accepted January 11, 2013

Abstract
Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (HGA) which combines the genetic algorithm as a global optimization and the simplex method as a
local optimization is proposed for a finite element model updating of a real prestressed concrete bridge structure. In order to minimize
the updating error between the measurement and the finite element model updating result, objective functions which are
combinations of fitness functions based on the natural frequency, the mode shape and the static displacement are introduced. And an
interface tool is also developed in order to utilize various element library and numerical analysis tools which are provided by
commercial finite element and numerical analysis programs. A simply supported skewed PSC girder bridge which has 30 m span
length is selected for the verification of the proposed FE model updating algorithm. Static vehicle loading test and forced vibration
test by traveling vehicle as well as ambient vibration test were carried out to obtain the reference measurement data for numerical
updating. A grillage model is used for the finite element analysis. Effect of the spring element to simulate the realistic support
condition which is not perfectly free or restrained in real situation as well as that of the objective function on the updating accuracy
are studied. From the result of parametric study, it is investigated that the use of spring element for support condition is effective to
minimize the updating error for natural frequency and mode shape. Furthermore, including the static displacement fitness function
together with those of dynamic properties may improve the global behavior of updated finite element model. It is concluded that the
hybrid genetic algorithm proposed in this study is a very effective finite element model updating method to find an accurate result in
updating real bridge structure based on measured data.
Keywords: finite element model updating, hybrid genetic algorithm, genetic algorithm, simplex method, PSC girder bridge

1. Introduction
It is very important to build a refined finite element model for
system identification, damage detection and assessment of load
carrying capacity of real structures. Generally, numerical simulation
is quite different from measured behavior due to various reasons,
such as assumed material properties, construction discrepancy,
deterioration and structural damage, etc. In order to reduce this
difference, many finite element model updating method have
been proposed. While approaches which update directly mass
and stiffness matrices were proposed in the past, updating
methods based on optimization algorithm have been widely
studied recently (Imregun and Visser, 1991; Mottershead and
Friswell, 1993; Friswell and Mottershead, 1995; Farhat and
Hemez, 1993).
Among conventional methods, direct method which directly
modifies system matrices and sensitivity-based parameter updating
method based on the sensitivity of parameters may be the most
common ones. The direct method, which finds change of mass
and stiffness matrices by solving the equation of motion, is hard
to find an accurate result and cannot guarantee the sparseness,
positive-definiteness and symmetry of updated system matrices
since the change of mass and stiffness matrices are always
coupled. Furthermore, it often discloses numerical instability
problem in reverse analysis due to measurement error and lack of
measurement points. Sensitivity-based parameter updating method
has advantage over direct method since it is efficient to update
parameters which are more sensitive to dynamic properties of
structures and can solve the numerical instability problem of
direct method. It is hard to apply this method to complicated real
structures since it requires sensitivity matrices for all parameters
to which the dynamic response of real structures does not change
proportionally.
Recently, approaches such as the Genetic Algorithm (GA), the
Simulated Annealing (SA) and the trust region Newton method
which directly modifies the finite element model based on the
optimization theory have been proposed. These methods can
solve above-mentioned problems and give updated result which
may have physical meaning. Levin and Lieven (1998) applied
the genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing independently
on the updating problem of thin-walled wing structure. Modak
and Kundra (2000) proposed an updating method for nonlinear
*Member, Research Professor, Hybrid Structural Testing Center, Myongji University, Gyeonggi-do 449-728, Korea (E-mail: dsjung@ mju.ac.kr)
**Member, Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Myongji University, Gyeonggi-do, 449-728, Korea (Corresponding Author, E-mail: cykim@mju.ac.kr)
Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Vol. 17, No. 3 / April 2013 519
optimization problem with constraints and applied it to a simply
supported reinforced concrete beam based on laboratory test
data. Jaishi and Ren (2006) proposed an updating method using
trust region Newton method based on sensitivity method and
damage detection algorithm using modal flexibility residual.
Rafiq et al. (2005) studied model updating method which used
both genetic algorithm and regression analysis together for
updating of a masonry wall structure. Zhu and Hao (2006)
applied conventional sensitivity-based method, neural network
and genetic algorithm to experimental result of 5 story steel
frame structure and compared the result to estimate the
efficiency of each method. Zhang et al. (2000) studied FE model
updating of 1/150 scaled suspension bridge model using the
eigenvalue sensitivity-based updating approach based on the
first-order Taylor-series. In this study, the sum of weighted
frequency error norms and weighted perturbation norms of the
parameters was used as an objective function. Sanayei et al.
(2012) carried out load rating of a 47 m continuous three-span
concrete slab on steel stringer bridge by nondestructive load
testing as well as manual model updating. SAP2000 was used for
finite element analysis and an error function between the
experimental strain and the analysis result was adopted as an
objective function. Yang and Ou (2009) studied model updating
by the laboratory test of a 1/40 scaled model of Shandong
Binzhou Yellow River Highway Bridge (cable-stayed bridge)
which has two symmetric main spans. Finite element model was
analyzed by MATLAB and ANSYS, and the residual of both
natural frequency and mode shape was used as an objective
function. Zhao (2011) investigated model updating of Yangtze
River Bridge which is 1040m long cable-stayed bridge using
ANSYS optimization tool. Updating variables were the elastic
modulus, moment of inertia and mass density of main girder,
diaphragm, pylon and cable elements. Only the error function of
natural frequency was used as an objective function. Merce et al.
(2007) studied model updating of Clifton Suspension Bridge with
an objective function considering MAC value as well as natural
frequency error function. ANSYS optimization tool was utilized
and manual updating and automatic updating were used together.
Updating variables, which were elastic modulus and mass density,
were selected by sensitivity analysis using ANSYS gradient tool.
In previous publication of authors, Jung and Kim (2009) proposed
Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (HGA) which combined the genetic
algorithm as a global optimization together with the simplex
method as a local optimization. An interface tool which integrated
commercial finite element library and numerical analysis toolbox
was also developed so that the model updating problem on
complicated structural models can be solved. In addition, for
verification purpose, numerical parametric study on the grillage
model of a 2-span continuous bridge model as well as
experimental study by laboratory test of a simply supported
small scale bridge model were carried out and proved its validity
and efficiency.
In this study, the proposed HGA method was applied to the
field measurement data of a prestressed concrete girder bridge to
verify its applicability to real bridge structures. Parametric study
on the effect of spring elements for simulating support conditions
and that of fitness function to be considered was also carried out.
This paper will start with the introduction of basic theoretical
background of the proposed HGA method followed by the
description about field measurement and the discussion about the
result of parametric study.
2. Theoretical Background
2.1 Genetic Algorithm
The genetic algorithm is a stochastic random search technique
in global space based on the evolutionary theory such as
evolution and natural selection. Since GA can define objective
function with various design variables and searches solution
randomly from multiple stating points in the problem which has
multiple local minima, it is more flexible and efficient to find the
global minimum or maximum than other updating methods such
as gradient-based method (SQP - Sequential Quadratic Program)
and conjugate gradient method which uses single starting point.
Generally, the genetic algorithm calculates the fitness of objective
function regarding each chromosome of randomly generated
parent population and reproduces next population by crossover
and mutation. In reproduction process, usually roulette wheel
selection, ranking selection, tournament selection, ranking selection
and elitist preserving selection are used to select the best fitness
chromosome. For crossover process, scattered crossover, single
point crossover and 2 points crossover are the most common
ones. Mutation process is to change specific gene information of
chromosome randomly in the given solution space and is very
useful in the sense that it can make up for the missing gene
information in initially generated parent population. However, the
frequency of mutation, thus the probability of mutation, is very
small compared with that of crossover.
2.2 Modified Simplex Method by Nelder and Mead
The simplex method used in this study is based on the
algorithm proposed by Nelder and Mead in 1965. This method
converges fast and is very efficient to find local optimum point,
especially when the number of updating variables is relatively
small. The simplex method falls in the general category of direct
search method and is widely used for unconstrained nonlinear
optimization problem. In this method, updating direction is
decided by comparing function values at nearby points instead of
improving objective function value by mathematical calculation
or approximation of gradient. In the search space with N
variables, after N+1 initial vertices are defined, iterative calculation
is performed to find the optimum vertex which minimizes
objective function by simplex operation.
The weighting factors of simplex operators proposed by
Barton and Ivey (1996) were used in this study. The values of
weight factors on simplex operators such as reflection, expansion,
contraction and shrinkage as in Fig. 1 are 1.0, 2.0, -0.5 and 0.5,
respectively. The stopping condition in iterative operation as was
Dae-Sung Jung and Chul-Young Kim
520 KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering
proposed by Dennis and Woods (1987) was used as in Eq. (1).
(1)
where, (2a)
(2b)
where is the relative difference between the evaluation value
of the kth simplex and k-1th simplex, and is the convergence
tolerance. indicates the Euclidian norm of the kth worst
point on the simplex x.
2.3 Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Hybrid model updating algorithm uses global and local
optimization consecutively to find the best optimum solution. In
this study, the hybrid genetic algorithm which adopts the genetic
algorithm as a global optimization method and the modified
simplex method proposed by Nelder and Mead as a local
optimization method is proposed. In order to solve complicated
model updating problem of real bridge structures systematically,
an interface tool for integrating a commercially developed finite
element analysis program which has a versatile element library
and a numerical analysis toolbox which has very accurate solver
routines is also developed. ABAQUS (Simulia Dassault Systems,
2007) and gads toolbox of MatLAB (The Mathworks, Inc., 2006)
are integrated by the developed program code. Model updating
procedure by the proposed HGA method is shown in Fig. 2.
2.4 Objective Function and Fitness Function
Equation (3) shows the objective function proposed in this
study, which is a linear combination of fitness functions with
respect to natural frequency, mode shape and static displacement.
The fitness functions in Eqs. (4a)~(4c) are error functions in
which measured data and analysis result are one-to-one
correspondence. The fitness function with respect to natural
frequency is the proportion of the difference between measured
and calculated values. Normalized Modal Difference (NMD)
which represents the difference between normalized mode
shapes was used as the fitness function w.r.t. mode shape. In
order to consider the phase information during updating process,
absolute value was not taken for the denominator of Modal
Assurance Criterion (MAC) which is an index of correlation of
mode shapes. This helps to distinguish bending and torsional
mode so that the order of modes is also taken into consideration.
To prevent numerical difficulties when the denominator becomes
zero or very small value, summation of displacements at all
nodes was taken for the fitness function w.r.t. static displacement.
(3)
, (num. of modes)
(4a)
, (num. of modes) (4b)
,

k

k

k 1

s
< =

k
1

k
----- x
i
k
x
w
k

i 1 n 1 + , , =
x
i
k
x
w
k

lim = max

k
max 1 x
w
k
, ( ) =

s
x
w
k
f
min
fitness
1
f ( ) fitness
2
( ) fitness
3
u ( ) + + =
fitness
1
f ( )
1
m
----
i
f
i
e
f
i
a

f
i
e
--------------
i 1 =
m

= i 1 m , , =
fitness
2
( )
1
m
----
i
NMD
i 1 =
m

= i 1 m , , =
fitness
3
u ( )
1
N
--- -
p
u
j
e
u
j
a

j 1 =
n

u
j
e
j 1 =
n

-----------------------







p 1 =
N

= j 1 n , , =
Fig. 1. Simplex Operators (N=3): (a) Initial Simplex, (b) Reflection, (c) Expansion, (d) Contraction, (e) Shrinkage
Fig. 2. Flowchart of the HGA-based FE Model Updating Method
Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Vol. 17, No. 3 / April 2013 521
(num. of measuring pts.), (load cases) (4c)
In Eqs. (4a)~(4c), fitness
1
(f), fitness
2
() and fitness
3
(u) represent
the fitness functions w.r.t. natural frequency, mode shape and
static deflection. The superscripts a and e stands for the analytical
and experimental result of the updating model, respectively. In
addition,
i
,
i
and
p
are the weighting factors for the fitness
function at the ith mode and pth load case, which are all set to 1.0
in this study. NMD and MAC can be defined as follows:
(5)
(6)
where, and are ith mode shape vector from experiment
and analysis, respectively.
3. Dynamic Properties of Simply Supported PSC
Girder Bridge
3.1 Keum Dang Bridge
Keum Dang Bridge is a simply supported bridge which has
post-tensioning prestressed concrete girders and is skewed by 15
degree. This bridge is located on the test road in Chung-bu inland
expressway, where many newly developed technologies are
adopted for try-out purpose and normal traffic does not pass
through over the bridge. It is 5 m apart from the main
expressway so that ambient vibration is caused by the traffic on
the main expressway even though the magnitude is very small.
The first northbound span was tested, which is 30 meters long
and 12.6 meters wide and has 4 PSC-I type girders as is shown in
Fig. 3.
3.2 Evaluation of Dynamic Properties by Vehicle Loading
Test
Input parameters for FEM analysis were evaluated from
various field tests such as static vehicle loading test, forced
vibration test by traveling vehicle and ambient vibration test.
Loading vehicle and its specification is shown in Fig. 4 and
Table 1.
Sensor locations are shown in Fig. 5. Displacement sensors
were located at L/2 point of each girder and accelerometers were
placed at L/4, L/2 and 3L/4 point at each side of slab. Only
vertical component was measured for both displacement and
acceleration.
Three static load cases are shown in Fig. 6 and 7 and speeds for
vehicle loading test are 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 40, 80 and 100 km/
hr.
p 1 N , , =
NMD
i
e
{ }
i
a
{ } , ( )
1 MAC
i

MAC
i
---------------------- =
MAC
i

i
e
{ }
T

i
a
{ } ( )
2

i
e
{ }
T

i
e
{ } ( )
i
a
{ }
T

i
a
{ } ( )
---------------------------------------------------------- =

i
e
{ }
i
a
{ }
Fig. 3. Test Span of Keum Dang Bridge
Fig. 4. Loading Vehicle
Table 1. Dimension and Weight of Loading Vehicle
Dimension (m) Weight (kN)
L
1
L
2
L
3
L
4
Front Middle Rear Total
3.2 1.3 2.0 1.85 70.66 98.98 91.73 261.37
Fig. 5. Sensor Location
Fig. 6. Static Vehicle Loading
Fig. 7. Load Cases of Static Vehicle Loading Test: (a) Load Case 1, (b) Load Case 2, (c) Load Case 3
Dae-Sung Jung and Chul-Young Kim
522 KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering
3.3 Test Result
Static deflections for each load case are listed in Table 2, where
averaged values are used for input parameters on model updating.
Typical acceleration time histories by loading vehicle, that of
ambient vibration and their corresponding power spectral densities
are shown in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. Natural frequencies in
Table 3 were estimated from peaks of Averaged Normalized
Power Spectral Density (ANPSD) functions. In addition, mode
shapes in Fig. 10 were derived from transfer functions and phase
angle information. The first mode is a bending mode and the
second is a torsional mode. The third mode, even though it looks
like the first bending mode due to the lack of measuring points, is a
transverse bending mode coupled with longitudinal bending. This
may be caused by the fact that this bridge is skewed. Dynamic
property resulted from ambient vibration test was used for the
reference at model updating since more refined result could be
acquired by averaging large number of sampled signals.
4. Finite Element Model Updating
4.1 FE Model and Updating variables
Keum Dang Bridge was modeled as a grillage composed of
Table 2. Static Displacement (unit: mm)
Girder
LC1 LC2 LC3
1
st
2
nd
AVE. 1
st
2
nd
AVE. 1
st
2
nd
AVE.
G1 -1.72 -1.62 -1.67 -0.88 -0.91 -0.90 -0.4 -0.44 -0.42
G2 -0.96 -0.94 -0.95 -1.12 -1.12 -1.12 -0.85 -0.86 -0.86
G3 -0.23 -0.25 -0.24 -0.64 -0.65 -0.65 -1.04 -1.00 -1.02
G4 0.00 0.01 0.01 -0.24 -0.22 -0.23 -0.52 -0.50 -0.51
Fig. 8. Acceleration Time History: (a) Vehicle Loading Test (ACC-2, v=40 km/h), (b) Ambient Vibration (ACC-2)
Fig. 9. ANPSD: (a) Vehicle Loading Test (ACC-2, v=40 km/h), (b) Ambient Vibration (ACC-2)
Table 3. Natural Frequency
Natural frequency (Hz)
Testing Method
1
st
mode 2
nd
mode 3
rd
mode
AVT (ambient vibration test) 5.88 7.15 9.99
FVT
(traveling
vehicle test)
10 km/h
1
st
5.96 7.15 9.89
2
nd
6.03 7.15 9.89
20 km/h
1
st
6.05 7.15 9.96
2
nd
6.23 7.03 9.89
30 km/h
1
st
5.91 7.18 9.89
2
nd
5.96 7.28 9.91
40 km/h
1
st
6.18 7.13 9.89
2
nd
5.93 7.10 9.81
50 km/h
1
st
5.93 7.10 9.86
2
nd
5.83 7.13 9.94
60 km/h
1
st
5.86 7.25 9.94
2
nd
5.91 7.25 9.84
70 km/h
1
st
5.83 7.20 9.84
2
nd
5.98 7.15 9.84
80 km/h
1
st
5.83 7.18 9.81
2
nd
6.03 7.18 9.94
100 km/h
1
st
5.83 7.08 9.96
2
nd
5.83 7.10 9.74
AVE. 5.95 7.16 9.88
Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Vol. 17, No. 3 / April 2013 523
319 beam elements and 24 spring elements which were as shown
in Fig. 11 and was analyzed by commercial FEA program,
ABAQUS. Model updating using commercial FEA program has
an advantage of utilizing versatile element and material property
library. On the other hand, modeling a fine mesh with a large
number of elements may lead to a very long analysis time. In this
study, in order to reduce analysis time, the number of updating
variables was reduced by classifying the section property of
girders and cross beams into 6 groups (SECT01 through SECT06)
according to tendon profiles and sectional properties. Slab
together with cross beams was divided into many strips to
simulate transverse load distribution.
Support conditions were simulated by springs. While vertical
restraints were taken into account by discarding corresponding
degrees of freedom, translational springs in both x and y
directions as well as rotational springs about y-axis were
attached at all supports regardless of their restraint conditions.
And then, large spring constant was assigned to actually
restrained DOF and small value to unrestrained DOF. This
approach takes into consideration the fact that even though the
shoes and bearings are supposed to move freely along
unrestrained DOF it does have a certain amount of friction
especially in old bridges. This affects overall structural stiffness
and behavior and eventually estimated structural properties as
well. From experiences of previous test cases, it has been
investigated that this affects dynamic properties, especially
estimated from small magnitude vibration, a lot more than
variation of stiffness and mass distribution of main structural
components do. Thus, if restraint condition is not considered as
updating variable, the model updating may lead to erroneous
result with unrealistic stiffness and mass distribution for main
structural members.
Updating variables and their initial values for HGA model
updating are listed in Table 4. The initial values for spring
constants used in this study were decided by preliminary
analysis. Since these initial values are assumed and lack of
physical meaning, the updated values may be quite different
from the initial ones. Thus the range between upper and lower
bounds were set relatively larger than that of other updating
variables such as the moment of inertia.
4.2 Parametric Study
Parametric study was carried out in order to verify the
applicability of the proposed updating method to a real bridge
structure and to make an optimal FE model for the PSC girder
bridge based on field measurement data. This parametric study
mainly focuses on two subjects: the effect of updating spring
elements being used to simulate support restraint condition and
the effect of using static displacement fitness function in addition
to those of dynamic properties such as natural frequency and
mode shape. Eq. (7) and (8) show two objective functions where
first one has fitness function w.r.t. static displacement in addition
Fig. 10. Mode Shape (AVT)
Fig. 11. Finite Element Model of Keum Dang Bridge
Table 4. Updating Variable and Initial Value
Member Group Updating Variable Initial Value Description
SECT01 I
yy
1.003E+12 mm
4
Moment of inertia
SECT02 I
yy
9.411E+11 mm
4
SECT03 I
yy
1.139E+11 mm
4
SECT04 I
yy
1.640E+09 mm
4
SECT05 I
yy
1.033E+12 mm
4
SECT06 I
yy
9.666E+11 mm
4
Spring
supports
K
x,fixed
1.000E+08 N/mm Restrained along x-dir.
K
x,free
1.000E+04 N/mm Unrestrained along x-dir.
K
y,fixed
1.000E+08 N/mm Restrained alongy-dir.
K
y,free
1.000E+04 N/mm Unrestrained along y-dir.
K
r
1.000E+04 Nmm/rad Rotational spring abouty-axis (unrestrained)
Dae-Sung Jung and Chul-Young Kim
524 KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering
to those w.r.t. dynamic properties.
(7)
(8)
The size of population was set to 10 times the number of
updating variables and generation size equal to it as analysis
conditions. For evolution to next generation, 4 elite chromosomes
which showed the best fitness among population were used. For
crossover and mutation function, scattered function and uniform
function with 75% and 25% probability were used, respectively.
Scattered crossover function is a traditional crossover function
which exchanges mutually related single or multi-gene information
when two parent chromosomes crosses over to children
chromosomes. On the other hand, uniform crossover function
uniformly changes specific genetic information of children
chromosomes. When each updating variable is normalized as
1.0, the range of population which is lower and upper bounds of
updating variables was set from 0.1 to 2.0 for beam elements and
from 0.01 to 10.0 for spring elements. For Simplex method, the
initial value was set to the final result of the GA method and 5%
of each updating variable was considered as initial mesh size.
4.3 Updating Result
Figures 12 and 13 show the converging process of the updating
variable, the fitness function and the objective function for case 3
and the final updated result of objective functions. Updating
variables are listed in Table 6 and 7. For genetic algorithm
analysis, only the smallest objective function values out of 100
generations are shown. This genetic algorithm has slow
convergence speed and takes long analysis time compared with
the simplex method since fixed number of iterations should be
carried out for every generation. On the other hand it gives result
which is very close to global optimum based on the fact that the
variation of updating variables is minimal during the simplex
optimization process.
As is shown in Table 6, from the result of initial analysis for
both FE model with and without support spring, the degree of
convergence of the model with support spring is much better
than the model without spring for dynamic property fitness
functions, while there is no difference for static displacement
fitness function. Objective function considering fitness function
w.r.t. static displacement as well results in better convergence.
Especially in case 4, the fitness function w.r.t. natural frequency
becomes zero so that the updated value exactly coincides with
the measurement. If the error in static displacement is also taken
into consideration even for case 2 and case 4, the overall degree
of convergence is the best in case 3 where support restraints are
modeled with spring elements and static displacement fitness
function is included in the objective function.
From the converged values of updating variables in Table 7, it
can be seen that overall stiffness of girders increases up to 70%
from initial values although there are little differences from case
to case. This might be resulted from the fact that for the initial
model reinforcing steels and tendon forces were not taken into
account and the strength of concrete were assumed as the design
Obj. f
1 min ,
fitness
1
f ( ) fitness
2
( ) fitness
3
u ( ) + + =
Obj. f
2 min ,
fitness
1
f ( ) fitness
2
( ) + =
Table 5. Cases of Parameter Study
Cases
Support Condition Objective Function
w/o spring w/ spring f
1,min
f
2,min
Case1 x x
Case2 x x
Case3 x x
Case4 x x
Fig. 12. Convergence of Updating Variables (Case 3)
Fig. 13. Convergence of Objective Function (Case 3)
Table 6. Value of Fitness and Objective Function
Fit. & Obj. function
w/o spring w/ spring
Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4
0.275 0.168 0.169 0.165 0.049 0.000
0.599 0.083 0.092 0.136 0.127 0.123
0.509 0.109 (0.150) 0.509 0.114 (0.183)
f
min
(sum) 1.383 0.360 0.261 0.810 0.290 0.123
fitness
1
f ( )
fitness
2
( )
finess
3
u ( )
Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Vol. 17, No. 3 / April 2013 525
value lower than the real one. Especially for case 3, the stiffness
of the middle section of outside girder increases 75%. This
occurs because the barrier at the side of the bridge deck
contributes considerably to the stiffness of outside girder. In
general, the stiffness of beam elements contributes to convergence
of displacement in a large degree while support springs contribute
much to that of dynamic properties. It should be noted that large
differences between initial and updated values for spring
constants can be obtained since the initial values does not have
any physical meaning but are completely assumed values.
Natural frequencies are listed in Table 8. Mostly, models with
support springs give better convergence and especially case 4 in
which only the fitness functions w.r.t. dynamic properties are
considered shows almost perfect convergence in all the 3 modes
under consideration. Case 3 which includes the displacement
fitness function in addition, also shows good convergence. Mode
shapes for initial analysis, case 1 and case 3 are shown in Fig. 15.
The 3
rd
mode turned out to be the lateral mode as in case 1 for the
model without support spring, and the results of all cases were
similar to that of case 3.
As it can be seen in Table 10, the same displacement was
resulted in for both cases since the degrees of freedom were
eliminated instead of using spring elements for vertical restraints
of the model with spring elements. The displacement of the
girder which has relatively large displacement at each load case
has improved better since the static displacement fitness function
is the ratio of the sum of errors to the sum of displacements at all
measurement points. The error ratios for G1 at LC1, G2 at LC2
and G3 at LC3, which have relatively large displacement at each
load case, are 51.1%, 22.5% and 30.2% for the initial model,
-0.3%, -5.5% and 0.4% for case 1, -2.5%, -16.4% and -11.0% for
case 2, -1.3%, -7.4% and -1.4% for case 3 and -22.5%, -2.4%
and 4.7% for case 4, respectively. In general, as it can be
expected, case 1 and case 3 in which the static displacement
fitness function is considered in addition to the dynamic property
fitness function show better updating result. Regarding the lateral
stiffness distribution and its resulting lateral displacement as
shown in Fig. 16, case 3 has the best updating result with the
maximum error ratio of 5.6%.
Table 7.Value of Updating Variable
Updating var. Initial Value
w/o spring w/ spring
Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4
SECT01 1.003E+12 mm
4
1.0 1.088 2.074 1.0 1.243 1.178
SECT02 9.411E+11 mm
4
1.0 1.389 1.277 1.0 1.249 0.723
SECT03 1.139E+11 mm
4
1.0 0.645 1.946 1.0 1.055 1.445
SECT04 1.640E+09 mm
4
1.0 1.441 1.965 1.0 1.314 0.676
SECT05 1.033E+12 mm
4
1.0 1.117 1.007 1.0 1.251 1.990
SECT06 9.666E+11 mm
4
1.0 1.747 1.784 1.0 1.756 2.572
K
x,fixed
1.000E+08 N/mm - - - 1.0 0.149 4.510
K
x,free
1.000E+04 N/mm - - - 1.0 9.416 6.546
K
y,fixed
1.000E+08 N/mm - - - 1.0 3.767 3.425
K
y,free
1.000E+04 N/mm - - - 1.0 2.907 8.993
K
r
1.000E+04 Nmm/rad - - - 1.0 1.733 2.079
Table 8. Initial and Updated Natural Frequency (Hz)
Mode No. Exp.
w/o spring w/ spring
Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4
1 5.884 4.892 5.896 5.908 4.892 5.842 5.884
2 7.153 4.990 6.094 6.086 4.990 6.145 7.153
3 9.985 6.445 6.445 6.445 9.753 9.984 9.985
Table 9. Errors for Updated Natural Frequency (%)
Mode No.
w/o spring w/ spring
Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4
1 -16.9 0.2 0.4 -16.9 -0.7 0.0
2 -30.2 -14.8 -14.9 -30.2 -14.1 0.0
3 -35.5 -35.5 -35.5 -2.3 0.0 0.0
Note) Err. % ( ) f
i
e
f
i
a
( ) f
i
e
{ } 100% =
Fig. 14. Comparison of Natural Frequency
Dae-Sung Jung and Chul-Young Kim
526 KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering
4.4 Modal and Static correlation
In Table 11 and 12, correlation results about mode shape and
static displacement are listed.
As it can be seen in Table 11, high correlation was resulted from
model updating with MAC values greater than 0.972 in all modes.
The degree of correlation for static displacement was investigated
Fig. 15. Mode Shapes: (a) Initial Model without Spring, (b) Case1 without Spring, (c) Initial Model with Spring, (d) Case3 with Spring
Table 10. Static Displacement (mm)
Load case Girder Exp.
w/o spring w/ spring
Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4
LC1
G1 -1.67 -2.52 -1.67 -1.63 -2.52 -1.65 -1.29
G2 -0.95 -1.41 -0.91 -0.96 -1.41 -0.95 -0.88
G3 -0.24 -0.47 -0.30 -0.35 -0.47 -0.34 -0.43
G4 0.01 0.28 0.14 0.17 0.28 0.14 0.01
LC2
G1 -0.9 -1.17 -0.70 -0.80 -1.17 -0.76 -0.69
G2 -1.12 -1.37 -1.06 -0.94 -1.37 -1.04 -1.09
G3 -0.65 -1.08 -0.83 -0.75 -1.08 -0.83 -0.92
G4 -0.23 -0.51 -0.28 -0.38 -0.51 -0.34 -0.38
LC3
G1 -0.42 -0.61 -0.35 -0.44 -0.61 -0.40 -0.43
G2 -0.86 -1.12 -0.87 -0.78 -1.12 -0.86 -0.95
G3 -1.02 -1.33 -1.02 -0.91 -1.33 -1.01 -1.07
G4 -0.51 -1.07 -0.64 -0.74 -1.07 -0.70 -0.65
Fig. 16. Comparison of Static Displacement: (a) Load Case 1, (b) Load Case 2, (c) Load Case 3
Finite Element Model Updating of a Simply Supported Skewed PSC I-girder Bridge using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Vol. 17, No. 3 / April 2013 527
based on DAC (Displacement Assurance Criterion) and NDD
(Normalized Displacement Difference) in Eq. (9a) and (9b). The
absolute error, percent error, scale error and correlation coefficient in
Table 13 as proposed in the reference (BRIDGE DIAGNOSTICS,
Inc., 2001) were also analyzed and the result is listed in Table 14.
It is suggested that the updating result can be acceptable when
the percent error is less than 10% and the correlation coefficient
is greater than 0.9.
(9a)
(9b)
Based on DAC values in Table 12, the objective function
including displacement fitness function gives more correlated
result in general. Since the static deformed shape by loading
vehicle is quite similar with the first bending mode shape, strong
correlation is resulted in for both initial and updated model. In
Table 14, it is clearly shown that error function values are greatly
reduced after updating for all analysis cases especially for case 1
through 4 where percent errors are less than 4.1% and correlation
coefficient larger than 0.979.
From all the previous discussions, it can be summarized that
considering support restraints by support spring improves
updating result for natural frequency and mode shape as well as
static displacement. In case 4 where only the dynamic property
fitness functions are considered in the objective function,
although perfect correlation is resulted in for natural frequencies
of the first 3 modes, relatively poor correlation is acquired for
static displacement. Furthermore, the 3
rd
mode shape of the
initial model appeared differently from the measurement result
when support spring is not considered. However, the updating
results for mode shape as well as natural frequency can be
improved by considering it.
In cases of FE models considering support spring, the most
correlated result is acquired in case 3 where spring element is
used to simulate realistic restraint condition and static displacement
fitness function is also considered in objective function. For this
DAC u
m
u
a
, ( )
u
m
{ }
T
u
a
{ }
2
u
a
{ }
T
u
a
{ } ( ) u
m
{ }
T
u
m
{ } ( )
------------------------------------------------------------ =
NDD u
k
m
{ } u
k
a
{ } , ( )
1 DAC
kk

DAC
kk
----------------------- =
Table 11. Comparison of NMD and MAC
Mode No.
w/o spring w/ spring
Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4
MAC
1 0.970 0.977 0.976 0.971 0.979 0.983
2 0.996 0.996 0.996 0.996 0.996 0.996
3 0.291 0.999 0.997 0.972 0.972 0.972
NMD
1 0.175 0.155 0.158 0.175 0.145 0.132
2 0.063 0.065 0.065 0.063 0.065 0.068
3 1.560 0.029 0.052 0.170 0.170 0.169
Table 12. Comparison of DAC and NDD
Load Case
w/o spring w/ spring
Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4
DAC
LC1 0.991 0.994 0.990 0.991 0.993 0.974
LC2 0.978 0.969 0.973 0.978 0.972 0.947
LC3 0.968 0.991 0.967 0.968 0.986 0.996
NDD
LC1 0.097 0.076 0.102 0.097 0.085 0.164
LC2 0.150 0.179 0.166 0.150 0.170 0.237
LC3 0.182 0.096 0.184 0.182 0.117 0.065
Table 13. Error Functions
Error Function Equation
Absolute Error
Percent Error
Scale Error
Correlation Coefficient

m

a

m

a
( )
2

m
( )

m

a

max gage

m max gage

m

m
( )
a

a
( )
m

m
( )
2

a

a
( )
2

Table 14. Error Functions for Static Displacement


Error function
w/o spring w/ spring
Initial Case1 Case2 Initial Case3 Case4
Absolute error 4.368 0.937 1.290 4.368 0.980 1.572
Percent error 0.233 0.014 0.022 0.233 0.016 0.041
Scale error 0.485 0.120 0.150 0.485 0.129 0.206
Correlation coefficient 0.993 0.992 0.992 0.993 0.994 0.979
Dae-Sung Jung and Chul-Young Kim
528 KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering
model updating study of Keum Dang Bridge, updated results of
updating variables show reasonable values compared with design
values.
5. Conclusions
In this study, hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed, which
uses sequentially the genetic algorithm as a global search method
and the simplex method as a local search method and its
verification of applicability was carried out with field measurement
data of a prestressed concrete bridge. The objective function
including static displacement fitness function as well as fitness
function with respect to natural frequency and mode shape was
also investigated. A modified MAC without absolute value was
used to consider the phase information.
Parametric study was performed to investigate the effect of
spring element which is used to simulate realistic support
restraint condition. It could be seen that the use of spring element
greatly improves updating result especially for dynamic properties,
while there is no big improvement for static displacement. Also,
the effect of the fitness function was also studied by including
static displacement fitness function in addition to the fitness
functions with respect to natural frequency and mode shape. In
the case only dynamic property fitness functions are considered
with the spring element, updated natural frequency converged
exactly the same as the reference value up to the 3
rd
mode under
consideration, but it was less effective for the static displacement. In
this case, percent error was improved from initial value of 23.3%
to 4.1%and DAC and correlation coefficient became 0.947 and
0.979, respectively. On the other hand, in the case the static
displacement fitness function was also included and the spring
element is used, the displacements showed good agreement with
1.6% percent error and DAC and correlation coefficient greater
than 0.972 and 0.994, respectively, while natural frequencies
were updated within 1% error except the 2
nd
mode. Overall, for
the grillage model studied in this paper, the use of spring element
and the static displacement fitness function gives better updating
result. In case 3, among the updating variables, the moments of
inertia of girder elements increased about 25% except at the
middle portion of outside girder. This can be deduced from the
fact that the initial percent error was 23.3% for displacement.
From all the investigation and discussion in this study, it can be
concluded that the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm can be
applied for the model updating of real bridge structures based on
the field measurement and can be used as a good basis for further
system identification, assessment and load rating.
Acknowledgements
This research was supported by Korea Expressway Corporation
and a grant (10TIB01-Modular Bridge Research Centre) from
Construction Technological Innovation Programme funded by
Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs of Korean
government. The authors sincere appreciation goes to Korea
Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) on the
usage of Korea Research Environment Open NETwork
(KREONET).
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