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GSM Optimisation Course & Workshop


September - October 2005
3-days Theory Course
7-days Practical Course
2
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
2
Contents
GSM Overview
General characteristics
Network components
Radio resources
Physical channels
Logical channels
Call and handover sequences
3
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
3
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
4
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
5
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
5
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
6
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
6
Workshop definition
An educational seminar or series of meetings emphasizing
interaction and exchange of information among a usually
small number of participants
Seminar (theoretical course)
Meetings (several people)
Interaction (team work)
Exchange of information
Network knowledge
Area knowledge
Customer behaviour and habits
Optimisation techniques
ADDITIONAL SLIDE
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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Area selection / Subgroups
The group will agree upon an area to be used for the workshop
activities
Area should represent network configuration and network features typically
used
Area size has a trade off: not too small and not too big
Should be very well known by workshop attendants
AREA : MIRPUR (include LA borders)
Group will conform subgroups for carrying out workshop
activities
Ideally 3 multi-disciplinary groups
2 or 3 people each
Group 1: Mir Istiaq Mostafiz, Sadiq Jamil Mithu and Kazi Noor Ahmed
Group 2: Fayaj Ahmed Masud, Md. Abdus Sakur and Md. Shah Alam
Group 3: Syed Rofi Imam, Md. Golam Rabbi and Md. Moniruzzaman
8
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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Network statistics (Raw data and statistics)
Call statistics
Interface statistics
Processor utilization statistics (if available)
Call Summary
Channel Usage
Connection Establishment
RF Loss Summary
Handover performance
TCH congestion
SDCCH congestion
Paging performance
Radio performance
GROUP: 2 (Raw data)
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Statistics and reports (per cell) BH
Load on Paging Channels (%)
Load on Access Grant Channels (%)
Congestion on Standalone Dedicated Channels (%)
Mean holding time of SDCCH
Congestion on Traffic Channels (Macrocells) (%)
Congestion on Traffic Channels (Microcells) (%)
TCH Call Setup Success Rate (%)
Total TCH Call Drop Rate (%)
Percentage of incoming handovers to assignments (%)
Percentage of outgoing handovers to assignments (%)
Percentage of uplink receive level handovers (%)
GROUP: 1
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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Network statistics and reports (per cell) BH
Handover success rate (%)
Handover reversion rate (%)
Percentage of downlink receive level handovers (%)
Percentage of uplink quality handovers (%)
Percentage of downlink quality handovers (%)
Percentage of interference handovers (%)
Percentage of location updates to SDCCH seizures (%)
Percentage of MTC to MOC (%)
Percentage of SMS calls (%)
Percentage of traffic utilization on A-interface (%)
Random Access failure (%)
T3101 timer expiry (%)
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Drive tests
Historical information if available
Latest drive test
All available modes
Established call
Scanner
All available routes types
GROUP: 1
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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Network information in Planet (mapinfo)
Geodatabases
Heights
Clutter
Vectors
Site databases
Carrier databases
Propagation models (general model)
Antennas (OK)
GROUP: 2
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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Frequency plan
Frequencies
BSIC
Neighbours
BA list (both iddle mode and dedicated mode)
GROUP: 1
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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Network and cell parameters
Selection / reselection
Call establishment
Handover
Network features
Dual band
HCS
Network characteristics
PC
DTX
FH
Timers
Others
GROUP: 3
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Customer complaints
Historical if available
Pending customer complaints
Process
GROUP: 2
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Equipment specifications
Network features
Implemented
Available
Acquirable
BTS
GROUP: 3
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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Contents
GSM Overview
General characteristics
Network components
Radio resources
Physical channels
Logical channels
Call and handover sequences
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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Global System for Mobile communications
A telecommunications system allowing subscribers on the move to
make and receive calls
Benefits from digital technology
Allows roaming of subscribers across borders
*
*
Subject to agreements between operators
GSM
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GSM Worldwide
First GSM network was
operational in 1991
GSM networks in over 220
countries
Over 820 GSM operators
Over 1,5 billion
*
subscribers
worldwide
*
October 2005 figures
GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR
MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS
R
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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What makes GSM better than other systems?
Mobility
Flexibility
Ease of use
Security
Privacy
Quality
Subscriber Services
Standardized open interfaces
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Mobility
Ability to make calls from anywhere in the network
Ability to receive calls while being anywhere
*
Roaming ability to be in touch while abroad
*
Almost anywhere
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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Flexibility
Personal and/or Business use
Prepaid SIM cards: you can keep control over your phone bill
CLIP: Know who is calling before answering (or choose not to
answer the phone!)
SMS/MMS: Send and receive text/picture messages
Send a fax from your car!
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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Ease of use
Use your mobile phone
while in office or in the field
while at work
while shopping
while driving
*
at home
Even a child can use one!
*
Legal restrictions may apply
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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Security
SIM is lost or stolen
SIM lock (PIN)
Authentication (AUC)
Phone is lost or stolen
Phone lock (PIN)
Equipment checking (EIR)
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Privacy
No eavesdropping
Ciphering and encryption of speech and data
Frequency hopping
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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Quality
GSM uses
Digital interface
Data manipulation (coding)
Error protection, Error detection & Error correction
Good speech quality
just like fixed line telephony
Coding and interleaving for speech/ data protection
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Subscriber Services
Supplementary Services
Call forwarding
Call barring
CLIP, CLIR
SMS-Point to Point (Short Message Service)
SMS-Broadcast
MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service)
Data transmission facsimile (fax), teletex, videotex
Hot billing
CLIP - Connected Line Identification Presentation
A supplementary service enabling the called party to receive the line identity of the
calling party.
CLIR - Connected Line Identification Restriction
A supplementary service enabling the calling party to restrict the identity of the line
on which they are calling.
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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Standardized open interfaces
GSM operators are not tied to a
single manufacturer for supply of
equipment
Economics of scale
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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Contents
GSM Overview
General characteristics
Network components
Radio resources
Physical channels
Logical channels
Call and handover sequences
30
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
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GSM Network Components
Mobile services Switching
Centre
HLR, VLR, EIR, AUC
Base Station Controller
Base Transceiver Station
Omni or Sectored (cell)
Mobile Station
Public Land Mobile Network
(PLMN)
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GSM Network Components
BSC
BTS
BTS
BSC
MSC
PSTN
MS
MS
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GSM System
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Base Station System (BSS)
Two major functional element of BSS are:
Base Station Controller (BSC)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Transcoder Rate Adoption Unit (TRAU) is attached to BSS
which convert between the 64 kbit/s channel rate use in
switching and 16 kbit/s (13 kbit/s) channel rate for GSM
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Network Switching System (NSS)
The NSS permits connection of MS to other MS in the same (or
other) network
Following functional elements are associated with NSS:
Mobile Services Switching Centre (MSC)/ Gateway MSC (GMSC)
Home Location Register (HLR): subscriber database
Visitor Location Register (VLR): visitors/ temporary subscriber
database
Authentication Centre (AUC): security and authentication
Equipment Identity Register (EIR): MS equipment database
Billing Centre (BC): billing
Short Message Service Centre (SMSC): message centre
MSC: Mobile Switching Center
Realiza las funciones de conmutacin telefnica para la red mvil.
Controla llamadas desde y hacia otras redes telefnicas y sistemas
de datos, tales como PSTN (Red telefnica pblica conmutada),
ISDN (Red digital de servicios integrados), redes pblicas de datos,
redes privadas y otras redes mviles.
GMSC: Gateway MSC
Un MSC puede convertirse en GMSC integrando el software
apropiado.
Esto habilita un MSC para interrogar el HLR de una red para enrutar
una llamada a un MS.
Por ejemplo, si una persona conectada a la PSTN desea realizar una
llamada a un suscriptor mvil, entonces la central de la PSTN accesa
la red conectando primero la llamada al GMSC.
Lo mismo sucede con una llamada de un MS a otro MS.
HLR: Home Location Register
Es una base de datos centralizada de la red, que almacena y
administra toda la informacin de los suscriptores mviles que
pertenecen a un operador especfico.
Acta como un almacenamiento permanente de la informacin de
suscripcin de una persona hasta que esa suscripcin sea cancelada.
La informacin almacenada incluye
Identidad del suscriptor
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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Operations & Maintenance Centre (OMC)
The OMC is connected to
MSC (called the OMC-S)
BSC (called the OMC-R)
Functions
Provides remote monitoring of the performance of network
elements
Permits remote configuration and fault management
Permits Alarm and Event monitoring
OMC: Operation & Maintenance Centre
It is responsible for all network operation and maintenance
tasks, such as traffic monitoring and alarms management
The OMC has access both to the NSS and to the BSS.
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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Mobile Station (MS)
The MS consists of:
Mobile Equipment (ME)
Subscriber Identity Module
(SIM)
The SIM is removable and
stores subscriber details such
as:
IMSI
TMSI
Location Area Identity (LAI)
Authentication Key (Ki)
Cipher Key (Kc)
List of carriers and cells for cell
selection
MS: Mobile Station
It is the subscriber terminal
It does not belong exclusively to anyone of the mentioned
subsystems
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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Mobile Equipment
The ME consists of
Software (to operate as MS
terminal)
Hardware(to operate as MS
terminal)
International Mobile Equipment
Identity (IMEI) used in the EIR
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity
The IMSI is used internally by GSM networks and not by other
switched networks. It consists of the Mobile Country Code, the
Mobile Network Code (identifying an individual network or
network operator), and the Mobile Station Identification Number.
MCC - Mobile Country Code (3 digits)
MNC - Mobile Network Code (2 digits)
MSIN - Mobile Station Identification No. (such
that MSISDN is not > 15 digits)
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity TMSI
TMSI is used to prevent eavesdropping of user data on the radio
path. It is used together with the Location Area Identity LAI, so
it has only local significance.
The structure of a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identify can be
chosen by each administration (length < 32 bits).
The network allocates the TMSI after successful authentication
and it is changed at least after each location updating.
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IMEI - International Mobile Equipment Identity
Based on the IMEI the operator knows which terminals are using the
network. The main objective is to be able to prevent the use of stolen
and faulty terminals. There is a possibility of using so called white,
grey and black lists. The white list composed of all number series of
equipment identities that have been allocated in any GSM country.
The IMEIs of not properly working equipment are on the grey list. The
black list contains all IMEIs that belong to equipment that need to be
barred.
The manufacturer is responsible for ascertaining that each IMEI is
unique and keeping records of produced and delivered mobile stations.
Emergency calls can in some PLMNs be made using the IMEI. The
IMEIs of misused terminals can be black-listed.
TAC - Type Approval Code (6 digits)
FAC - Final Assembly Code (2 digits)
SNR - Serial Number (6 digits)
SP - Spare (1 digit)
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Cells
Cellular networks consist of cells, each covering a geographical
area
Cells are shown to be hexagonal in shape, though actual cell
coverage is irregularly shaped; this may be dictated by terrain or
result from planning
Two factors determine the number of cells in any area:
subscriber density
topology
GSM cells can be as small as a few hundred meters or as large
as 35 km (extended range cells can be up to 118 km)
Mobile subscribers make and receive calls via a BSS
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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Actual GSM Cell Coverage
The picture below shows the coverage of some GSM cells in a network
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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43
Contents
GSM Overview
General characteristics
Network components
Radio resources
Physical channels
Logical channels
Call and handover sequences
44
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
44
Radio & Terrestrial Resources
Radio resources air interface
MS BTS (Um interface)
Uses TDMA technology
124 GSM, 50 EGSM, 374 GSM-1800 frequencies
Terrestrial resources 2 Mbps PCM links
BTS BSC (A-bis interface)
BSC MSC (A-interface)
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45
GSM, EGSM and DCS frequency allocations
GSM 900
EGSM 900
DCS 1800
890-915 MHz 935-960 MHz
880-915 MHz 925-960 MHz
1710-1785 MHz 1805-1880 MHz
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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CONCEPTS
SERVICE BANDWIDTH
It is the portion of radio electric spectrum in which a particular radio
telecommunication service is assigned
DUPLEX SEPARATION
It is the frequency separation between bidirectional communication channels
This way of achieving full duplex communications is called FDD: Frequency
Division Duplex
CHANNEL BANDWITH
It is the portion of spectrum occupied by each one of the system radio channels
Separation between adjacent channels is the distance between consecutive
channels within the same service (or frequency band)
Strictly speaking channel bandwidth must be smaller than separation between
adjacent channels, but sometimes they are referred as the same.
ADDITIONAL SLIDE
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47
Frequency Allocations
GSM Band (124 carriers, 200 KHz BW)
Uplink 890-915 MHz
Downlink 935-960 MHz
45 MHz carrier spacing
EGSM Band (50 carriers, 200 KHz BW)
Uplink 880-890 MHz
Downlink 925-935 MHz
45 MHz carrier spacing
GSM-1800 (DCS-1800) Band (374 carriers, 200 KHz BW)
Uplink 1710-1785 MHz
Downlink 1805-1880 MHz
95 MHz carrier spacing
Carriers are designated by Absolute Radio Frequency Channel
Number(s) or ARFCN; a pair of frequencies one to transmit
and one to receive
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Frequency Re-use
A GSM cell must be assigned at least one ARFCN, but generally has
several ARFCNs assigned to it
Due to the limited number of frequencies available to the planner, the
ARFCNs have to be re-used in other cells
Sectorization of omni cells leads to better re-use efficiency and
increased capacity
The most commonly used re-use patterns are:
3/9 (3-sites, 9-cells)
4/12 (4-sites, 12-cells)
7/21 (7-sites, 21-cells)
The numerator indicates number of sites while the denominator indicate
the number of cells in the cluster
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49
Frequency Re-use pattern
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4-site/3-cell frequency re-use pattern
36 32 28 35 31 27 34 30 26 33 29 25
24 20 16 23 19 15 22 18 14 21 17 13
12 8 4 11 7 3 10 6 2 9 5 1
Cell
D3
Cell
D2
Cell
D1
Cell
C3
Cell
C2
Cell
C1
Cell
B3
Cell
B2
Cell
B1
Cell
A3
Cell
A2
Cell
A1
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Omni cells and sectored cells
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Serving/neighbour cells and handovers
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DTX and DRX features
Discontinuous transmission (DTX)
No transmission from mobile when subscriber is not talking; uses VAD and
SID
Reduces overall interference in air interface
Discontinuous reception (DRX)
Mobile goes to sleep when it is not expecting paging
Reduces battery power consumption in MS
SID - Silence Descriptor
A frame that conveys information on the acoustic background noise.
VAD - Voice Activity Detector
The function of the VAD is to indicate whether each frame contains signals that
should be transmitted, i.e. speech, music or information tones.
DRX - Discontinuous Reception
Discontinuous reception is employed in cellular systems to prolong the mobiles
battery life. The mobile station listens only to the paging channels within its DRX
group. Moreover the network will only page the mobile in that group of paging
channels. Thus the mobile does not have to continuously monitor the paging
channels.
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54
Multipath fading
GSM combats multipath fading with
Equalization
Receiver diversity
Frequency hopping
Interleaving
Channel Coding
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2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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55
Contents
GSM Overview
General characteristics
Network components
Radio resources
Physical channels
Logical channels
Call and handover sequences
56
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
56
GSM Time slots
In GSM, each ARFCN can support up to 8 TDMA timeslots
Each carrier can theoretically support up to 8 simultaneous phone
calls
In practice, due to signalling requirements, this is not always
possible
One MS uses one timeslot for uplink transmission and a
corresponding timeslot for downlink transmission
Information sent in bursts, each having 148 bits (114 info bits)
Bursts packed in a timeslot of 577 microseconds
A group of 8 timeslots make up a TDMA frame
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Bursts and Timeslots
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Types of bursts (NB, FB, SB)
A timeslot is a 576 ms time interval, i.e. 156.25 bits duration, and its physical
contents are known as a burst. Five different types of bursts
exist in the system. They are distinguished by different TDMA frame divisions.
The normal burst (NB): Used to carry information on traffic and control channels,
except for RACH. It contains 116 encrypted bits.
The frequency correction burst (FB): Used for frequency synchronization of the
mobile. The contents of this burst are used to calculate an unmodulated, sinusoidal
oscillation, onto which the synthesizer of the mobiles is clocked.
The synchronization burst (SB): Used for time synchronization of the mobile. It
contains a long training sequence and carries the information
of a TDMA frame number.
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Types of bursts (Dummy & Access Bursts)
The dummy burst (DB): Transmitted as a filler in unused timeslots of the carrier;
does not carry any information but has the same format as
a normal burst (NB).
The access burst (AB): Used for random access and characterized by a longer
guard period (256 ms) to allow for burst transmission from
a mobile that does not know the correct timing advance at the first access to a
network (or after handover).
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60
Frames and Multiframes
8 timeslots make up a TDMA frame
26 TDMA frames make up a traffic multiframe
51 control frames make up a control multiframe
Superframes & Hyperframes
Superframes (1326 TDMA frames = 26 (51-frames) = 51 (26-
frames) = 6.12 s
Hyperframes (2048 superframes) = 2,715,648 TDMA frames =
3h28m53s760ms
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61
Coding and Interleaving of bursts
Speech, Control and Data bits are convolutional coded before
transmission over the air interface
The coded bits are then spread (interleaved) over a number of
bursts
Speech = spread over 8 bursts (Diagonal interleaving)
Control = spread over 4 bursts (Rectangular interleaving)
Data = spread over 22 bursts (Diagonal interleaving)
Ask question about interleaving for data being greater than interleaving for voice
and control (delay issues)
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Speech interleaving
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Control interleaving
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Data interleaving
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Contents
GSM Overview
General characteristics
Network components
Radio resources
Physical channels
Logical channels
Call and handover sequences
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Types of bursts and logical channels
Normal burst
TCH, AGCH, SDCCH, SACCH
FACCH, BCCH, CCCH, PCH, CBCH
Frequency Correction burst: FCCH
Synchronization burst: SCH
Access Burst: RACH
Dummy burst
=Downlink =Uplink
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Traffic Channels
Traffic channels on the air interface
A traffic channel (TCH) is used to carry speech and data traffic. Traffic channels are
defined using a 26-frame multiframe, or group of 26 TDMA
frames. The length of a 26-frame multiframe is 120 ms, which is how the length of a
burst period is defined (120 ms divided by 26 frames
divided by 8 burst periods per frame). Out of the 26 frames, 24 are used for traffic, 1
is used for the slow associated control channel
(SACCH) and 1 is currently unused (see Fig. 5). TCHs for the uplink and downlink
are separated in time by 3 burst periods, so that the mobile
station does not have to transmit and receive simultaneously, thereby simplifying
the electronic circuitry. This method permits complex antenna
duplex filters to be avoided and thus helps to cut power consumption.
In addition to these full-rate TCHs (TCH/F, 22.8 kbit/s), half-rate TCHs (TCH/H, 11.4
kbit/s) are also defined. Half-rate TCHs double the capacity
of a system effectively by making it possible to transmit two calls in a single
channel. If a TCH/F is used for data communications, the
usable data rate drops to 9.6 kbit/s (in TCH/H: max. 4.8 kbit/s) due to the enhanced
security algorithms. Eighth-rate TCHs are also specified,
and are used for signaling. In the GSM Recommendations, they are called stand-
alone dedicated control channels (SDCCH).
TCH/HS (half speed)
TCH/FS (full speed)
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Control Channels
Signaling channels on the air interface
The signaling channels on the air interface are used for call establishment, paging,
call maintenance, synchronization, etc.
There are 3 groups of signaling channels:
1.THE BROADCAST CHANNELS (BCH):
Carry only downlink information and are responsible mainly for synchronization and
frequency correction.
This is the only channel type enabling point-to-multipoint communications in which
short messages are simultaneously transmitted
to several mobiles.
The BCHs include the following channels:
The broadcast control channel (BCCH): General information, cellspecific; e.g.
local area code (LAC), network operator, access parameters, list of neighbouring
cells, etc. The MS receives signals via the BCCH from many BTSs within the same
network and/or different networks.
The frequency correction channel (FCCH): Downlink only; correction of MS
frequencies; transmission of frequency standard to MS; it is also used for
synchronization of an acquisition by providing the boundaries between timeslots and
the position of the first timeslot of a TDMA frame.
The synchronization channel (SCH): Downlink only; frame synchronization
(TDMA frame number) and identification of base station. The valid reception of one
SCH burst will provide the MS with all the information needed to synchronize with a
BTS.
THE COMMON CONTROL CHANNELS (CCCH)
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Grouping of logical channels
Logical channels can be grouped in specific channel
combinations
In a low capacity cell, BCCH/CCCH/DCCH can be combined on
TS0
In a high capacity cell, BCCH/CCCH can be combined on TS0
while the DCCH is assigned to another TS
BCCH
CCCH
DCCH
BCCH
CCCH
DCCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
BCCH
CCCH
BCCH
CCCH
DCCH
DCCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
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Timing Advance - 1
The Access Burst used by the
MS to access the network is
shorter than a normal burst (only
325 microseconds, leaving a
guard period of 68.25 bit
periods)
The BTS measures the delay in
reception of the access burst
(with reference to the beginning
of the timeslot) and determines
the timing advance required at
the MS
The MS advances its timing by
the ordered amount and sends
subsequent bursts
.
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Timing Advance - 2
The maximum timing advance is 233 microseconds which corresponds
to a maximum GSM cell radius of 35 km
TCHs for the uplink and downlink are separated in time by 3 burst periods, so that
the mobile station does not have to transmit and receive simultaneously, thereby
simplifying the electronic circuitry. This method permits complex antenna duplex
filters to be avoided and thus helps to cut power consumption
NOTE ABOUT THE GRAPH: Time advance is valid for a TS only, not for the whole
frame
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Battery life
GSM employs several features to help increase system
efficiency, and therefore extend battery life, without increasing
the size of the battery:
Power control
Discontinuous transmission (DTX)
No transmission from mobile when subscriber is not talking; uses VAD and
SID
Voice Activity Detection (VAD) speech is transmitted at the full rate of 13
Kbit/sec, silences at approx 500 bits/sec
Reduces overall interference in air interface
Discontinuous Reception (DRX)
SID - Silence Descriptor
A frame that conveys information on the acoustic background noise.
VAD - Voice Activity Detector
The function of the VAD is to indicate whether each frame contains signals that
should be transmitted, i.e. speech, music or information tones.
DRX - Discontinuous Reception
Discontinuous reception is employed in cellular systems to prolong the mobiles
battery life. The mobile station listens only to the paging channels within its DRX
group. Moreover the network will only page the mobile in that group of paging
channels. Thus the mobile does not have to continuously monitor the paging
channels.
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Contents
GSM Overview
General characteristics
Network components
Radio resources
Physical channels
Logical channels
Call and handover sequences
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Call and handover sequences
Mobile Originated Call (MOC)
Mobile Terminated Call (MTC)
Call Handover (HO)
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PSTN MSC BSS MS
setup
call proceeding
identity response
identity request
IMEI
ciphering mode complete
ciphering mode command
authentication response
authentication request
RAND
SRES
start ciphering
called party BCD number
call proceeding
cipher mode
complete
identity response
identity request
connection request
connection confirm
setup
cipher mode cmd.
auth. response
auth. request
RAND
SRES
IMEI
channel request
CM service request
immediate assignment
estab. cause, rand ref.
channel, TN, TSC, ARFCN
estab. cause, rand. ref., TA
CM serv. type, MS classmark
mobile identity
unnumbered ack.
RACH
AGCH
SDCCH
Contd
TSC - Training Sequence Code
Used mainly in TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) systems the training
sequence is used to maintain timing and equalize the channel. This helps reduce
the impact of ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) and multipath effects.
SRES - Signed Response
The variable generated in the AuC (Authentication Centre) and the MS (Mobile
Station). A successful authentication occurs if the SRES value received from the
AuC by the VLR (Visitor Location Register) matches that sent by the MS.
BCD - Binary Coded Decimal
A Binary Coded Decimal uses four bits to represent each decimal digit.
IMEI - International Mobile Equipment Identity
The International Mobile Equipment Identity is a unique identifier allocated to each
ME (Mobile Equipment). It consists of a TAC (Type Approval Code), a FAC (Final
Assembly Code), SNR (Serial Number) and a Spare Digit.
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SRES - Signed Response
The variable generated in the AuC (Authentication Centre) and the MS
(Mobile Station). A successful authentication occurs if the SRES value
received from the AuC by the VLR (Visitor Location Register) matches
that sent by the MS.
ADDITIONAL SLIDE
Slide taken from Mpirical Companion
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PSTN MSC BSS MS
TMSI reallocation cmd.
LAI, TMSI
TMSI reallocation complete
assignment complete
assignment command
channel, TN, TSC, ARFCN,
power level
TMSI realloc. comp.
ACM
IAM
TMSI realloc. cmd.
assignment
complete
assignment request
FACCH
alerting alerting
answer
progress indicator progress indicator
connect connect
connect ack. connect ack.
CONVERSATION TCH
TMSI - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
In order to ensure subscriber identity confidentiality the VLR (Visitor Location
Register) and SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) may allocate TMSI (Temporary
Mobile Subscriber Identities) to visiting mobile subscribers. The VLR and SGSN
must be capable of correlating an allocated TMSI with the IMSI (International Mobile
Subscriber Identity) of the MS (Mobile Station) to which it is allocated. A MS may be
allocated two TMSI, one for services provided through the VLR, and the other
known as the P-TMSI (Packet TMSI) for services provided through the SGSN.
IAM - Initial Address Message
An Initial Address Message can be found in SS7 (Signalling System No.7) signalling
networks as part of the ISUP (Integrated Services Digital Network User Part) call set
up. The message is used to seize a circuit and transfer addressing and call handling
/ routing information.
ACM - Address Complete
An ISUP (ISDN User Part) signalling message sent by the destination switch
indicating that a switched circuit has been established to the requested endpoint.
This message is an acknowledgement to the switch issuing the IAM (Initial Address
Message).
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Call and handover sequences
Mobile Originated Call (MOC)
Mobile Terminated Call (MTC)
Call Handover (HO)
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PSTN MSC BSS MS
channel request
CM service request
immediate assignment
estab. cause, rand ref.
channel, TN, TSC, ARFCN
estab. cause, rand. ref., TA
CM serv. type, MS classmark
mobile identity
RACH
AGCH
SDCCH
paging command paging request
TMSI
IDENTICAL PROCEDURE AS MOBILE ORIGINATED CALL (MOC)
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Call and handover sequences
Mobile Originated Call (MOC)
Mobile Terminated Call (MTC)
Call Handover (HO) Internal (intra BSC)
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ho_ performed
handover complete
SABM
handover command
measurement report
MS PSTN MSC BSS
CONVERSATION
handover access
UA
CONVERSATION
measurement report
NOTE : In the case of an intra-cell handover, the handover command
will be replaced by an assignment command, and the handover
complete will be replaced with an assignment complete.
SABM - Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode
For systems that work in the ABM (Asynchronous Balanced Mode). This mode is
totally balanced, meaning there is no master/slave relationship. Each station may
initialize, supervise, recover from errors, and send frames at any time. The DTE
(Data Terminal Equipment) and DCE (Data Circuit Terminating Equipment) are
treated as equals. The initiator for Asynchronous Balanced Mode sends a SABM.
UA - Unnumbered Acknowledgement
Unnumbered Acknowledgement encoding is used as a response only. It is used to
positively acknowledge a SABM (Set Asynchronous Balance Mode) or a disconnect
command.
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Call and handover sequences
Mobile Originated Call (MOC)
Mobile Terminated Call (MTC)
Call Handover (HO) External (inter BSC)
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clear complete
clear command
handover complete
handover complete
UA
SABM
handover detect
handover cmd.
handover req. ack.
handover request
handover required
measurement report
Target
BSS
TMSI
ho. ref. value
ho. ref. value, NCC, BCC,
BCCH freq. channel. TN, TSC,
ARFCN, power level
ho. ref. value
handover command
handover access
ho. ref. value
physical info.
TA
CONVERSATION
CONVERSATION
TCH
MS BSS MSC PSTN
TA - Timing Advance
In order to get TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) schemes to work, the time-
frames from each mobile must be synchronized when received by a base station.
This synchronization is achieved by using the concept of TA (Timing Advance). The
degree of synchronization is measured by the base station on the uplink, by
checking the position of the TSC (Training Sequence Code). This training sequence
is mandatory in all frames transmitted from the mobile. From these measurements,
the base station can calculate the TA and send this information to the mobile.
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84
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
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85
Network Optimisation Process
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Optimisation: General Definition
What is Optimisation?
The fine tuning of the network after eliminating any configuration
problems, faults or implementation problems to meet the defined
Quality of Service targets
It is a continuous process aimed at improving the quality of
services provided by the network
It is making the network better
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Raw & Key statistics
Raw statistics are generally compiled/processed using
predefined formulas to give Key Statistics
Network operators may use raw and processed statistics for the
network management and planning functions
Quality of service monitoring
Service accessibility
Service availability
Service retainability
Fault finding
Optimization
Network planning
Installation and commissioning
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Types of Statistics
Raw Statistics
Call statistics
Interface statistics
Processor utilization statistics
Key Statistics
Call Summary
Channel Usage
Connection Establishment
RF Loss Summary
Network Health Statistics
Handover performance
TCH congestion
SDCCH congestion
Paging performance
Radio performance
Custom Statistics
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Examples of Key Statistics - 1
TCH BLOCKING RATE
SDCCH BLOCKING RATE
TCH TRAFFIC CARRIED (Erlang)
TCH TRAFFIC OFFERED (Erlang)
SDCCH TRAFFIC CARRIED (Erlang)
SDCCH TRAFFIC OFFERED (Erlang)
HO_FAILURE_RATE
HO_FAILURE_RATE (IntraCell)
HO_FAILURE_RATE (InterCell)
HO_SUCCESS_RATE
CALL_SETUP_SUCCESS_RATE
RF_LOSS_TCH_RATE
RF_LOSS_SDCCH_RATE
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Examples of Key Statistics - 2
DROPPED_TCH_RATE
TCH_TRAFFIC_AVAILABLE (2% blocking accepted)
SDCCH_TRAFFIC_AVAILABLE (2% blocking accepted)
TCH_TRAFFIC_AVAILABLE (5% blocking accepted)
SDCCH_TRAFFIC_AVAILABLE (5% blocking accepted)
MEAN_HOLDING_TIME_TCH (sec)
MEAN_HOLDING_TIME_SDCCH (sec)
SDCCH_CONNECTIONS
Rate idle TCH Interference Band "1"
Rate idle TCH Interference Band "2"
Rate idle TCH Interference Band "3"
Rate idle TCH Interference Band "4"
Rate idle TCH Interference Band "5"
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KPI (Key Performance Indicators)
Any cell that exceeds the threshold specified for any of the
statistics or indicators given below during a 24-hour/ peak-hour
period should be reported
Load on Paging Channels > 30%
Load on Access Grant Channels > 30%
Congestion on Standalone Dedicated Channels > 0.5%
Mean holding time of SDCCH > 10 sec
Congestion on Traffic Channels (Macrocells) > 2%
Congestion on Traffic Channels (Microcells) > 10%
TCH Call Setup Success Rate < 95%
Total TCH Call Drop Rate > 1%
Percentage of incoming handovers to assignments > 50%
Percentage of outgoing handovers to assignments > 50%
Percentage of uplink receive level handovers > 10%
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KPI (Key Performance Indicators)
Any cell that exceeds the threshold specified for any of the
statistics or indicators given below during a 24-hour/ peak-hour
period should be reported
Handover success rate < 97%
Handover reversion rate > 2.5%
Percentage of downlink receive level handovers > 10%
Percentage of uplink quality handovers > 10%
Percentage of downlink quality handovers > 10%
Percentage of interference handovers > 2%
Percentage of location updates to SDCCH seizures > 40%
Percentage of MTC to MOC < 30%
Percentage of SMS calls > 2%
Percentage of traffic utilization on A-interface > 60%
Random Access failure > 15%
T3101 timer expiry > 5%
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Performance Measurement
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Network Performance Analysis
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Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
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Normal Camping
For normal service, the MS has to camp on a suitable cell, tune to that
cell's BCCH + CCCH, and possibly register within the PLMN so that
the MS can:
a) Receive system information from the PLMN (on the BCCH), e.g., the
cell options;
b) Receive paging messages from the PLMN, e.g., when there is an
incoming call for the MS;
c) Initiate call setup for outgoing calls or other actions from the MS (where
possible).
The choice of such a suitable cell for the purpose of receiving normal
service is referred to as "normal camping".
There are various requirements that a cell must satisfy before an MS
can perform normal camping on it:
i) It should be a cell of the selected PLMN;
ii) It should not be "barred";
iii) It should not be in an LA which is in the list of "forbidden LAs for
roaming";
iv) The radio path loss between MS and BTS must be below a threshold
set by the PLMN operator (C1)
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Idle Mode Tasks: Cell Selection Criteria
The path loss criterion parameter C1 used for cell selection and reselection is
defined by:
C1 = (A - Max(B,0))
where A = Received Level Average - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P
{except for the class 3 DCS 1800 MS where:
B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH + POWEROFFSET P}
RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = Minimum received level at the MS required for access to the system
MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = Maximum TX power level an MS may use when accessing the system
until otherwise commanded
{POWER OFFSET = The power offset to be used in conjunction with the MS TXPWR MAX CCH
parameter by the class 3 DCS 1800 MS}
P = Maximum RF output power of the MS
All values are expressed in dBm
The path loss criterion is satisfied if C1 > 0.
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Idle Mode Tasks: Cell Reselection Criteria- 1
The reselection criterion C2 is used for cell reselection only and is defined by:
C2 = C1+CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET-TEMPORARY OFFSET*H(PENALTY_TIME-T)
for PENALTY_TIME 31
C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
for PENALTY_TIME = 31
where
For non-serving cells:
H(x) = 0 for x < 0
H(x) = 1 for x 0
For serving cells:
H(x) = 0
T is a timer
For t < PT: C2 = C1 + CRO - TO
For t > PT: C2 = C1 + CRO
For PT=31: C2= C1 - CRO
Thus CRO encourages cell reselection while TO temporarily discourages cell
reselection.
Cell reselection is generally discouraged if PT = 31
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Idle Mode Tasks: Cell Reselection Criteria - 2
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET, TEMPORARY_OFFSET and PENALTY_TIME
are cell reselection parameters which are broadcast on the BCCH of the cell
when CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND is set to 1
If CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND is not received or received and set to 0,
then the MS should take CELL_BAR_QUALIFY as 0. Also in this case the cell
reselection parameters take a value of 0 and therefore C2 = C1.
A cell can be made impossible to reselect while T has not exceeded
PENALTY_TIME by setting the TEMPORARY_OFFSET to infinity. This
condition could be used for indoor microcells that are received with good signal
strength outside the intended area of coverage.
The setting of C1 and C2 parameters needs careful consideration because
these parameters cannot be set on a per neighbour basis.
C2 is used for reselection only by phase 2 Mobile Stations.
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Example of Penalty Time
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Path loss criteria and timing for cell reselection
The MS is required to perform the following measurements to ensure that the
path loss criterion to the serving cell is acceptable. At least every 5 s the MS
shall calculate the value of C1 and C2 for the serving cell and re-calculate C1
and C2 values for nonserving cells (if necessary).
The MS shall then check whether:
i) The path loss criterion (C1) for current serving cell falls below zero for a period of
5 seconds. This indicates that the path loss to the cell has become too high.
ii) The calculated value of C2 for a non-serving suitable cell exceeds the value of C2
for the serving cell for a period of 5 seconds, except:
a) in the case of the new cell being in a different location area in which case the C2 value for the new cell
shall exceed the C2 value of the serving cell by at least CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS dB as defined
by the BCCH data from the current serving cell, for a period of 5 seconds; or
b) in case of a cell reselection occurring within the previous 15 seconds in which case the C2 value for the
new cell shall exceed the C2 value of the serving cell by at least 5 dB for a period of 5 seconds. This
indicates that it is a better cell.
Cell reselection for any other reason shall take place immediately, but the cell
that the MS was camped on shall not be returned to within 5 seconds if
another suitable cell can be found.
If valid received level averages are not available, the MS shall wait until these
values are available and then perform the cell reselection if it is still required. If
no suitable cell is found within 10 seconds, the cell selection algorithm shall be
performed.
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Borders between location areas
If the MS is moving in a border area between LAs, it might
repeatedly change between cells of different LAs. Each change
of LA would require a Location Update, which would cause a
heavy signalling load and increase the risk of a paging message
being lost.
To prevent this, a CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS" (CRH)
parameter is used.
A cell in a different LA is only selected if it is "better", in terms of
the path loss criterion, than all the cells in the current LA by at
least the value of CRH.
The CRH parameter is broadcast on the BCCH. As the value of
CRH broadcast may be different on different cells, the CRH
parameter to be used is that broadcast on the current serving
cell.
There is also a lower limit on the time interval between
reselection of cells on different LAs.
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Defining Location Area Borders
Location area borders should
generally not run along major
roads to avoid multiple location
updates
Location area borders should
preferably intersect major roads
A mobile in a location area is
paged in ALL the cells of that
location area
Cell Reselect Hysteresis applies
for reselection of a cell across a
location area border
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Periodic Location Update Timer T3212
The Periodic Location Update Timer T3212 is
started when the MS enters the idle mode
stopped and reset to zero when the MS receives a LOCATION
UPDATING ACCEPT or a LOCATION UPDATING REJECT
message or goes into dedicated mode or is deactivated
timeout causes the MS to perform a periodic location update
procedure
Timer T3212 should be set to the same value in all cells,
otherwise mobiles shall perform a Periodic Location Update
each time they read a different value of T3212 in a cell
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105
Barred cells
The PLMN operator may decide not to allow MSs to camp on
certain cells. These cells may, for example, only be used for
handover traffic
Barred cell information is broadcast on the BCCH to instruct
MSs not to camp on these cells
If a cell is barred this applies both for cell selection and
reselection
The barred cell status may in fact change dynamically; hence
the MS needs to regularly check the BCCH system information
for this parameter
Access Requests may be received in barred cells; this shall be
in the case of Phantom RACHs; the barred cell shall allocate
resources in case it receives an access request
106
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106
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
107
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
107
Circuit Switched & Packet Switched Traffic
Information carried by a
communication channel is called
traffic
Voice
Data
Control
Communication channels may
be shared by many users on a
demand basis this is known as
trunking
Traffic may be:
Circuit switched (voice/data)
Packet switched (GPRS)
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108
Definition of Erlang
The de-facto standard metric for dimensioning voice traffic is the
Erlang (after Anger K. Erlang, a Danish engineer who solved the
theoretical problem in 1910-1920)
1 circuit occupied for 1 hour generates 1 Erlang of traffic
Equal to Call-Hours per Hour
For N users, each holding (trunked) circuits for time t (sec), the Offered
Traffic A (in Erlangs) is given by:
109
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109
Carried Traffic and GoS
Grade of Service (GoS)
refers to the probability of
blocking (P
B
)
Trade-off between Trunking
Efficiency & GoS
Typically targeted at 2%
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110
Traffic distribution: Erlang B & C
Erlang B
Subscribers who are denied service go away for a long interval of
time before trying again, and may be treated as gone indefinitely
Blocked subscribers are not queued
Erlang C
Subscribers who are denied service immediately try again, thus
adding to the offered traffic load immediately
Blocked subscribers are queued
Because queuing is generally not used in GSM, so most
operators use Erlang B formulas and tables for dimensioning
Other traffic distributions
Binomy and Poisson: Illimited waiting time
Engset: Fast and short transactions with no waiting time
111
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111
Erlang Results
Erlangs equation involves the evaluation of a number of
different combinations of call durations and occurrences that
correspond to a total traffic, which exceeds the provisioned
channel capacity
The solution is usually expressed in a table or graph for the
convenience of the user
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112
Erlang B Table
42.14697 34.46452 28.73535 24.06418 19.69251 17.13202 16.50073 15.77828 14.89588 13.65119 13.48430 13.10522 12.63489 22
40.15430 32.80823 27.32483 22.84859 18.65143 16.18835 15.58046 14.88534 14.03602 12.83778 12.67705 12.31237 11.85994 21
38.15918 31.15234 25.91727 21.63544 17.61339 15.24915 14.66560 13.99750 13.18141 12.03071 11.87630 11.52599 11.09153 20
36.16309 29.49809 24.50875 20.42465 16.57874 14.31458 13.75535 13.11501 12.33301 11.23004 11.08237 10.74678 10.33080 19
34.17188 27.84302 23.10425 19.21509 15.54810 13.38540 12.85057 12.23843 11.49080 10.43701 10.29566 9.97510 9.57798 18
32.18213 26.19243 21.70061 18.01010 14.52176 12.46128 11.95183 11.36811 10.65576 9.65149 9.51716 9.21194 8.83392 17
30.18750 24.54101 20.29855 16.80664 13.49989 11.54348 11.05957 10.50509 9.82840 8.87513 8.74743 8.45789 8.09958 16
28.19824 22.89124 18.89910 15.60745 12.48372 10.63264 10.17451 9.64985 9.00954 8.10797 7.98731 7.71399 7.37552 15
26.20898 21.24268 17.50244 14.41315 11.47345 9.72952 9.29750 8.80347 8.20029 7.35165 7.23818 6.98115 6.66321 14
24.22266 19.59839 16.10945 13.22197 10.47011 8.83493 8.43007 7.96688 7.40142 6.60713 6.50098 6.26076 5.96379 13
22.23633 17.95410 14.71959 12.03644 9.47428 7.95005 7.57256 7.14111 6.61478 5.87602 5.77734 5.55420 5.27896 12
20.25439 16.31470 13.33374 10.85716 8.48708 7.07641 6.72715 6.32799 5.84158 5.15984 5.06911 4.86367 4.61047 11
18.27148 14.67692 11.95243 9.68475 7.51071 6.21563 5.89530 5.52935 5.08398 4.46112 4.37840 4.19117 3.96069 10
16.29492 13.04443 10.57827 8.52196 6.54633 5.37029 5.07975 4.74791 4.34465 3.78251 3.70789 3.53958 3.33261 9
14.32031 11.41927 9.21317 7.36938 5.59706 4.54307 4.28289 3.98654 3.62698 3.12759 3.06149 2.91248 2.72990 8
12.34912 9.79960 7.85645 6.23032 4.66624 3.73773 3.50943 3.24971 2.93535 2.50090 2.44373 2.31490 2.15749 7
10.38867 8.19092 6.51332 5.10864 3.75854 2.96033 2.76489 2.54309 2.27593 1.90901 1.86099 1.75306 1.62182 6
8.43750 6.59587 5.18886 4.01039 2.88103 2.21847 2.05739 1.87526 1.65714 1.36081 1.32229 1.23615 1.13206 5
6.50098 5.02116 3.89021 2.94525 2.04536 1.52459 1.39949 1.25890 1.09228 0.86941 0.84085 0.77729 0.70120 4
4.59082 3.47961 2.63306 1.92993 1.27075 0.89943 0.81205 0.71515 0.60219 0.45550 0.43712 0.39664 0.34900 3
2.73242 1.99992 1.44880 1.00006 0.59543 0.38131 0.33334 0.28155 0.22346 0.15259 0.14417 0.12600 0.10540 2
1.00012 0.66671 0.42855 0.25002 0.11112 0.05263 0.04167 0.03093 0.02041 0.01010 0.00908 0.00705 0.00503 1
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.009 0.007 0.005
Channels
Grade of Service (Blocking)
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113
Control Channel requirements
Paging Channel (PCH) required for sending pages to MS
Random Access Channels (RACH) used by MS to access the
network
Access Granted Channel (AGCH) to instruct the MS to move to a
certain (signalling) channel
Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) to send the
signalling necessary to set up the call (authentication, ciphering,
call set-up, location update, etc.)
114
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114
Usage of Control Channel
Control channels are required for:
Paging (PCH)
Call set up (SDCCH)
Handover activities
Call monitoring
Power control
Location update (normal & periodic)
IMSI attach/detach
SMS PTP
Supplementary services
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115
SDCCH Usage
SDCCH is used for:
Call setup
Location update
IMSI attach/detach
SMS
Supplementary services
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116
Typical SDCCH Usage
- 6.0 Holding time per false access
30 - No. of false access per hour and BCCH
- 1.0 Holding time per supplementary service
0.01 - No. of activation per hour
- 2.8 Holding time per fax
0.005 - No. of MO facsimile traffic (per hour)
0.001 - No. of MT facsimile traffic (per hour)
- 6.2 SMS
0.5 - No. of MO SMS traffic (per hour)
0.5 - No. of MT SMS traffic (per hour)
- 2.8 Call set up
0.2 - MO calls not answered
0.6 - MO calls answered
0.1 - MT calls not answered
0.2 - MT calls answered
1.0 3.0 IMSI detach (per hour)
1.0 3.6 IMSI attach (per hour)
1.0 per subscribers 3.6 Periodic registration (per hour)
0.5 per subscriber 3.6 Location update (per hour)
No of occurrences Mean holding time (sec) Activity
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117
SDCCH Dimensioning
One SDCCH time slot should generally be assigned for every two
transceivers
Higher SDCCH requirements at location area borders and airport
terminals
SDCCH requirements increase with increased SMS activity
SMS can be transferred to GRPS traffic thereby reducing SDCCH
requirements.
118
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118
Traffic Model for Mobile Terminated Call
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119
Control Channel Configuration
Combined Timeslot 0
1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH
Non-Combined Timeslot 0
Timeslot 0 for: 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH
1 additional dedicated timeslot: 8 SDCCH
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120
Grouping of logical channels
Logical channels can be grouped in specific channel
combinations
In a low capacity cell, BCCH/CCCH/DCCH can be combined on
TS0
In a high capacity cell, BCCH/CCCH can be combined on TS0
while the DCCH is assigned to another TS
BCCH
CCCH
DCCH
BCCH
CCCH
DCCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
BCCH
CCCH
BCCH
CCCH
DCCH
DCCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
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121
Combined TS 0
D: DEDICATED CCH
A: SACCH
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Non-Combined TS 0
I: IDDLE
F: FCCH
S: SCH
R: RACH
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123
Frame Structures
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124
CCCH Priority
CCCH blocks follow the following order of priority
(highest to lowest):
PCH (Paging)
AGCH (Immediate Assignment)
AGCH (Immediate Assignment Reject)
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125
Access Grant Blocks Reserved
Specified by the GSM parameter bs_ag_blks_res
Non-Combined multiframe
0-7 blocks may be reserved for AGCH
Combined multiframe
0-2 blocks may be reserved for AGCH
Additional capacity for AGCH may be provided on
TS 0
TS 0, 2
TS 0, 2, 4
TS 0, 2, 4, 6
Specified by the GSM parameter CCCH_CONF
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126
Paging Types
A paging message consists of four bursts
One paging message may carry paging message for more than one
MS
Paging messages are of three types:
Type 1: Two mobiles using IMSI
Type 2: One mobile using IMSI, two mobiles using TMSI
Type 3: Four mobiles using TMSI
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127
Example of CCCH Paging Requirement - 1
Assume
Non-combined multiframe on TS0
1 Access Grant block reserved
Number of paging blocks = 9-1 = 8 blocks
If 2 pages are sent per paging block (Type 1), then pages per
multiframe = 2x8 =16
A 51-frame multiframe has a duration of 235.365 ms
Paging capacity of the cell = 16/0.235 = 68 mobiles/sec
With Type 2 paging, 102 mobiles/sec
With Type 3 paging, 136 mobiles/sec
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128
Example of CCCH Paging Requirement - 2
Assume
Location Area with 50,000 subscribers; 25mE/subscriber
25 % subscribers shall receive a call during the busy hour
Each subscriber is paged twice
Type 1 paging
Cell capacity required = 1,250 Erlangs
Total pages = 50,000 x 0.25 x 2 = 25,000 pages
Paging messages required = 25,000/2 = 12,500
Add 20% safety margin = 12,500 x 1.2 = 15,000 paging messages
per hour
This is 15,000/3600 = 4.16 paging messages per second
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129
Example of CCCH Access Grant Requirement
Assume
Traffic in cell is 30 Erlangs
Busy Hour Call MHT = 90 sec or 25mE/call
Ratio LU:Call = 2; Ratio SMS:Call = 0.5
Calls during busy hour = 30/0.025 = 1200 calls
During busy hour
LU = 1200 x 2 = 2400; SMS = 1200 x 0.5 = 600
Immediate Assignment messages required
= 1200+2400+600 = 4200
Adding a safety margin of 20% = 4200 x 1.2 = 5040 msgs
Access Grant messages/sec = 5040/3600 = 1.4 msgs/sec
AGCH blocks reqd = 1.4 (msgs/sec)/4.25 (multiframes/sec) = 0.33
blocks
So, 1 AGCH is more than sufficient
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130
RACH Dimensioning
Non-combined multiframe: 51 x 4.25 = 217 RACH slots/sec
Combined multiframe: 27 x 4.25 = 115 RACH slots/sec
RACH dimensioning is never a limitation
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131
Example of modifying Paging Multiframes -1
Scenario 1
Let the value of BS_PA_MFRMS be set to 5 multiframes.
Let us assume that:
There are 5000 subscribers in a cell
10% of the subscribers are being paged at any instant of time, i.e. 500 subscribers
CCCH_CONF=0 and BS_AG_BLKS_RES=3
Paging is done using TMSI, so 4 subscribers can be paged in one paging block
There is a uniform distribution of subscribers across all paging groups
Discontinuous Reception (DRX) is enabled
The number of paging groups shall be (9-3)*5 = 30 paging groups. These paging groups
shall be repeated on every 5th 51-frame multiframe, i.e. every 5*235.5 ms = 1.177s.
The number of subscribers per paging group shall be 500/30 =16.66 or 17 (for worst
case scenario).
The time to page 4 subscribers is 1.177s. So the time to page 16 subscribers of the
same group is 4.708s. The amount of time after which the 17th subscriber shall be
paged shall be (4.708+1.177)s = 5.885s.
However, while in idle mode, each subscribers mobile handset will have to turn on its
receiver for 4*4.615ms = 18.46ms, after every 1.177s, to listen for any paging.
1 frame = 577s*8 = 4,615 ms
4*4.615ms because one paging block is 4 TS0 of 4 consecutive frames
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132
Example of modifying Paging Multiframes -2
Scenario 2
Let the value of BS_PA_MFRMS be changed to 7 multiframes.
We will keep the same assumptions as before:
There are 5000 subscribers in a cell
10% of the subscribers are being paged at any instant of time, i.e. 500 subscribers
CCCH_CONF=0 and BS_AG_BLKS_RES=3
Paging is done using TMSI, so 4 subscribers can be paged in one paging block
There is a uniform distribution of subscribers across all paging groups
Discontinuous Reception (DRX) is enabled
The number of paging groups shall be (9-3)*7 = 42 paging groups. These paging groups
shall be repeated on every 7th 51-frame multiframe, i.e. every 7*235.5 ms = 1.648s.
The number of subscribers per paging group shall be 500/42 =11.90 or 12 (or 13 for
worst case scenario).
The time to page 4 subscribers is 1.648s. So the time to page 12 subscribers is 4.944s.
The amount of time after which the 13th subscriber shall be paged shall be
(4.944+1.648)s = 6.592s.
However, while in idle mode, each subscribers mobile handset will have to turn on its
receiver for 4*4.615ms = 18.46ms, after every 1.648s, to listen for any paging.
1 frame = 577s*8 = 4,615 ms
4*4.615ms because one paging block is 4 TS0 of 4 consecutive frames
133
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133
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
134
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
134
Traffic distribution techniques
Overlay/ underlay HCL
Microcells
Dual Band cells
Concentric cells
Common BCCH
Idle mode parameter settings
Barred cells
Directed retry
Congestion relief
135
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
135
Hierarchical Cell Layers (HCL)
Hierarchical Cell Layers (HCL) or Hierarchical Cell
Structures (HCS) divide different types of cells in different
layers
Macrocells in layer 1
Microcells in layer 2
Picocells in layer 3
Each layer is assigned a priority and signal offset for cell
reselection and handovers, with the Picocells having the
highest priority and the greatest signal offset
Also referred to as Overlay/ Underlay; this definition differs
from vendor to vendor
136
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136
Overlaid/Underlaid and HCL
Early days operational cells are generally large as they are
mainly planned for coverage (high sites); these are referred to
as Umbrella Cells
Allocate different frequencies for Overlaid (F
o
) and underlaid
(F
u
) cells
Only underlaid (regular) cells have BCCH, therefore traffic is
always handled initially by the underlaid cell (optional)
Overlaid/Underlaid and HCL structures can provide
improvement in capacity and quality
137
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137
HCL Implementation
The HCL technique is implemented
to avoid MS using high power and
consequently to reduce the
interference level
Lower layer are normally small cells,
e.g. layer 1 would be Micro cell,
layer 2 Macro cell and layer 3 High
site (macro cell)
Generally operators implement 2
layers in some cases 3 layers
Mobiles camp on lower layer (layer
1) and then move to higher layer for:
Layer 1 is congested (spare
capacity)
RXQUAL or QoS is low
In this case cell operation on all
layers will have both BCCH (control)
and TCH (traffic) frequencies
138
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138
Benefits of HCL
Minimise interference
Improve QoS
Efficient use of spectrum
Multiband operation (900 & 1800 MHz) can be implemented as
higher and lower layers
139
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139
Traffic distribution techniques
Overlay/ underlay HCL
Microcells
Dual Band cells
Concentric cells
Common BCCH
Idle mode parameter settings
Barred cells
Directed retry
Congestion relief
140
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140
Microcells & Picocells
Microcells and picocells are the
preferred cells for call setup and
handover of slow moving or
stationary mobiles
Preferential cell reselection of
microcells is done by setting the
C2 parameters accordingly
Preferential handovers to
microcells is achieved by setting
the speed detection parameters
accordingly
141
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141
Traffic distribution techniques
Overlay/ underlay HCL
Microcells
Dual Band cells
Concentric cells
Common BCCH
Idle mode parameter settings
Barred cells
Directed retry
Congestion relief
142
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142
Dual Band Sites
Dual band generally refers to GSM 900
& DCS 1800 co-located sites
The DCS1800 band has 374 channels as
compared to only 124 channels in the
GSM900 band
Generally, operators are assigned more
frequencies in the 1800 band as
compared to the 900 band, thereby
making more capacity available in the
1800 band
Calls should be set up on the 1800 band
and this band should be the preferred
band for assignment of traffic channels
as long as the quality is acceptable
Cell parameters are set so as to give
preference or an offset to the 1800 band
cells
143
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143
Traffic distribution techniques
Overlay/ underlay HCL
Microcells
Dual Band cells
Concentric cells
Common BCCH
Idle mode parameter settings
Barred cells
Directed retry
Congestion relief
144
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144
Concentric Cells
Concentric Cells is a feature which
provides cell resource partitioning
to allow for tighter re-use patterns
and increased frequency economy
Concentric cells, using a single
BCCH, can be used to move
traffic between the conventional
macrocell underlay (outer zone)
and super re-use layer (inner
zone)
This is an elegant and simple
technique in which the size of cells
on the super re-use layer (inner
zone) is self-governed by
interference. However, the use of
a single BCCH means that the
macrocell (outer zone) is a critical
dependency for all call set-ups
and inter-site handovers and is
thus susceptible to congestion.
145
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145
Implementation of Concentric Cells
Concentric Cells feature is one of the
many capacity enhancement features
available and is complementary to
microcellular operation.
With this feature it is possible to
configure non-BCCH carriers within a
cell to have a smaller coverage area.
The carriers equipped within a cell
may be grouped into zones.
Zone 0 (also referred to as the `outer
zone') is reserved for carriers which
may broadcast at the maximum
transmit level defined for the cell.
Zone 0 always contains the BCCH
carrier.
Zone 1 (also referred to as the `inner
zone') may be defined with non-BCCH
carriers.
A Mobile Station must meet specified
criteria before it can be assigned a
traffic channel configured on a carrier
in Zone 1.
146
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146
Traffic distribution techniques
Overlay/ underlay HCL
Microcells
Dual Band cells
Concentric cells
Common BCCH
Idle mode parameter settings
Barred cells
Directed retry
Congestion relief
147
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147
Common BCCH
The Common BCCH feature allows GSM900 and
GSM1800 TRXs to share the same BCCH, i.e. to
effectively be in the same cell
The basic idea behind the Common BCCH is to include
the GSM 900 (both PGSM900 and EGSM900) and
GSM1800 TRXs into one cell with a BCCH allocated
from any one band used in the cell
The TCH allocation between GSM900 and tri-band
mobiles is made on a cell basis by the BSC
The BCCH of the neighbour cell is measured from one
band only, which is useful in order to provide more
reliable C/I values
Having a common BCCH enables co-located and
synchronised resources across all bands
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148
Implementation of Common BCCH
The main advantages of the common BCCH functionality are:
Trunking Gain is improved
Use of signalling channels is optimised by sharing them between
bands
Tighter reuse of all GSM1800 carriers is possible (as there are no
BCCHs in the GSM1800 band), presuming that single GSM900 BCCH
is used for both bands; however a single GSM1800 BCCH could also
be used
In order to ensure proper operation of the network, the operator should
take into account issues related to the difference of propagation between
the different bands, e.g. GSM900 and GSM1800, when performing cell
planning
Traffic optimisation and balancing is achieved by modifying the threshold
settings between the two layers
The link-budget is estimated at the midpoint between the coverage areas
of the two bands in the cells. Similarly, all other parameter settings and
power levels are considered mid-way between the two layers, for
balancing the links.
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149
Traffic distribution techniques
Overlay/ underlay HCL
Microcells
Dual Band cells
Concentric cells
Common BCCH
Idle mode parameter settings
Barred cells
Directed retry
Congestion relief
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150
BA Idle & Dedicated lists
BA Idle List
Known as the BA_SACCH list
Used by MS for selection & reselection
A cell may be used for handovers only, by excluding it in the BA
Idle List
Alternatively, the cell may be barred (for call originations)
BA Dedicated List
Known as the BA_BCCH list
Also known as the handover neighbour list
Up to 32 neighbours may be defined for handovers
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151
Traffic distribution techniques
Overlay/ underlay HCL
Microcells
Dual Band cells
Concentric cells
Common BCCH
Idle mode parameter settings
Barred cells
Directed retry
Congestion relief
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152
Barred cells
The information related to a cell being barred is broadcast on
the BCCH and is read by all mobiles in the cell
If a cell is barred from access, then a MS in idle mode does
not send an Access Burst towards the cell while initiating a call
procedure, though Phantom RACHs still result in assignment of
resources
The cell can be used only for handovers
This can be used to reduce the load on a cell, e.g. at a busy
intersection
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153
Traffic distribution techniques
Overlay/ underlay HCL
Microcells
Dual Band cells
Concentric cells
Common BCCH
Idle mode parameter settings
Barred cells
Directed retry
Congestion relief
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154
Directed Retry
MS attempts a call on a cell which happens to have no free
traffic channels
Call is set up on the SDCCH
In response to the MSCs Assignment Request, the BSS
queues the request, finds a cell with a free traffic channel,
and orders the MS to handover to this cell (by sending a
handover command) before sending an Assignment
Complete message to the MSC
The Assignment Request message is queued during the
period when the handover is being executed
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155
Directed Retry (internal)
156
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156
Traffic distribution techniques
Overlay/ underlay HCL
Microcells
Dual Band cells
Concentric cells
Common BCCH
Idle mode parameter settings
Barred cells
Directed retry
Congestion relief
157
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157
Congestion Relief
When the cell becomes congested, TCH requests are
queued regardless of whether queuing is enabled in the
cell in order to give the congestion procedure a chance to
work before failing the requests. If queuing is disabled in
the cell, no queuing indication message is sent to the
MSC.
Handovers are initiated only for established calls (for one
or more mobile stations) if neighbours are available that
meet the specified congestion handover criteria.
The now free TCH is assigned to the new call.
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158
Congestion Relief
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159
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
160
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
160
Neighbour List Optimisation
Neighbours are defined for:
Cell reselection (BA_SACCH list)
Handovers (BA BCCH list)
Up to 32 neighbours can be defined in each list, however only the best
6 neighbours are reported by the MS to the BSS
Handover statistics give an overview of the handovers in cells
Drive tests should be conducted in areas with handover problems
(generally resulting in call dragging and call drops)
Cells have to be added to the neighbour list prior to them being
monitored by the MS during drive tests
Generally all cells that appear with sufficient signal strength should be
part of the neighbour list, while those with insufficient signal strength
should be deleted
More care should be taken while deleting cells from neighbour lists
then while adding them
If in doubt about a neighbour relationship, then leave it in !
161
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161
Averaging mechanisms
Measurement results received from the MS are averaged
(usually using rolling averages) before they are applied to the
decision making process
Changing the number of samples that make up an average can
change the:
Time to make a decision
The outcome of the decision
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162
Handover Optimisation
Call to Handover Ratio is generally 2:1
Handovers from one layer to another should not take place
early; if this is the case, then call setup should have taken place
on the other layer
Ping-pong handovers should be avoided
Handovers should preferably be due to power budget reasons,
not quality or signal strength, etc.
163
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163
Location Area Optimisation
Location area borders should not run
parallel to major traffic arteries; they
should intersect them, if required, at
minimum number of places
Cell Reselect Hysterisis should be
sufficiently high to avoid multiple location
updates (ping-pong), but sufficiently low
to ensure MS does not drag too deep into
neighbour cell before performing a
location update (at reselection)
During the period when a MS is
performing a LU, it is likely to miss pages
Timer T3212 should be set to the same
value in all cells, otherwise mobiles shall
perform a Periodic Location Update each
time they read a different value of T3212
in a cell
164
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
164
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
165
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
165
Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
A person speaks less that 40% of the time during a normal
conversation
Speech is generally carried during only 30 - 40% of a call duration
on both directions
Voice Activity Detection (VAD) circuitry at MS distinguishes
between voice and noise inputs
Where DTX is active, transmitter will only switch on for a frame
which contain speech/data
Eight (Silence Descriptor) SID frames are transmitted in frames 52-
59 apart from 4 SACCH bursts.
SID frames are used to create Comfort Noise at the receiving MS
DTX can be implemented on both UL and DL separately
166
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166
Benefits of using DTX
Benefits of using DTX
Reduce overall system interference (~3dB) due to less unnecessary
transmission
Allow tighter frequency re-use
Long battery life for MS
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167
Discontinuous Reception (DRX)
Used while MS is in idle mode and is listening to Paging
messages
MS determines when its paging group shall be received
MS sleeps (does not try to listen to paging) when it is not
expecting its paging group, and wakes up to listen when its
paging group is expected
Improved battery performance significantly
168
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168
UL & DL Power Control
Both the MS and the BTS should operate at the lowest power level that
will maintain an acceptable signal quality
The process of dynamically changing the transmitted power on a
timeslot on the non-BCCH carrier frequency to control the output
power of a BTS during a connection so as to maintain desired received
signal strength in the mobile station is called dynamic downlink power
control (DL_PC)
The MS measures the signal strength or signal quality (based on the
Bit Error Ratio), and passes the information to the BSS, which
ultimately decides if and when the power level should be changed
Power levels can be stepped up or down in steps of 2 dB from the
peak power for the class down to a minimum of 13 dBm (20 mW)
DL_PC cannot be implemented on the BCCH carrier frequency in a
cell
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169
Implementation of DL_PC
Implementation of DL_PC would be desirable when high
capacity is needed in a GSM network
Other features that will contribute significantly towards
achieving a tighter frequency reuse are frequency hopping
and DTX
Improvements of the system performance with DL_PC will
only be achieved in an interference-limited system
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170
Benefits of using UL/DL Power Control
UL_PC will help in conserving MS power, and hence longer standby and talk times.
DL_PC will improve Carrier-to-Interference (C/I) ratio for maintained traffic by
reducing the interference level (I).
DL_PC would also help in maintaining C/I ratio with increased traffic or a tighter
frequency reuse pattern.
When DL_PC is used in all BTSs in the network, the total amount of radiated power
is reduced, thus reducing the downlink co-channel and adjacent-channel
interference in the network. Consequently, the C/I ratio will be increased for
connections with low signal strength or with bad quality because of the reduced
interference level. On the other hand the C/I ratio will be decreased for connections
with high signal strength and good quality since they are subjected to a reduced
downlink power level. This reduction in C/I ratio is unlikely to affect speech quality
since these calls have a margin to the lowest acceptable C/I ratio.
If the BTS is operating on battery power (upon AC mains failure), then using DL_PC
will reduce the BTS power consumption and so the backup batteries will last longer.
When the MS is very close to the BTS (on the higher floors of high rise buildings
close to the macro cells, or in microcells), the MS receiver might become saturated
by the signal energy transmitted from the BTS. The sensitivity of the receiver will
then decrease and consequently the quality will deteriorate. This can be avoided by
using DL_PC.
171
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171
Extended Range Cells
Extended Range Cells are supported by most vendors
The feature utilises two timeslots for each MS instead of one, therefore
an additional 148 bits + 8.25 bit periods guard bands are available for
timing advance; thus the range of the cell can be extended to 120 km
The extended range transceiver can support only 4 mobiles
This feature is generally used to cover distant islands from sites on the
coast
172
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172
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
173
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
173
Path Balance
An unbalanced system can result from
either the DL range exceeding the UL range (UL limited)
either the UL range exceeding the DL range (DL limited)
The aim is to have the DL & UL ranges almost equal
174
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174
Call Blocking Analysis
Call blocking results in degradation in the network owing to availability
problems
Call blocking generally results from limited network availability which
may be due to:
Insufficient network capacity
Faulty hardware
Interference
Handover problems
Other reasons
Call blocking can be overcome by:
Cell site expansion
Planning new sites
Balancing traffic on existing cells
Using network features like Directed Retry and Congestion Relief
Removing other causes of blocking
175
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
175
Call Drop Analysis
Call drops generally occur due to:
Interference problems
Handover problems
Coverage problems
Link imbalance
Faulty hardware
Call drops impact customers directly and are an irritant
Probable solutions are:
Improved coverage
Handover optimisation
Balancing the uplink and downlink budgets
Interference reduction by proper frequency planning
Replacing faulty hardware
176
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176
Calculation of Call Drops
In the general formula for calculation of call drop rate, the number of call drops is
divided by the number of assignments (for call originations or handovers). If there
are a large number of handovers in a cell, then the call drop rate in that cell will be
lowered by this calculation. The same shall be the case when there are multiple
ping-pong handovers for calls. This shall result in the call drop rate reflected in
statistics not giving a true picture of the actual call drop rate (as perceived by the
subscribers).
From the subscribers perspective, the subscriber either drops the call he/she
made/ received or does not drop it. Any handovers etc. are transparent to a
subscriber. So, a subscriber would perceive the call drop rate as being given by
(drops/calls made or received) percent. No handovers shall be taken into account
in this calculation.
The drops and call originations/ terminations should be counted per cell (for both
full-rate and half-rate channels). It may be possible to see more drops in a cell than
call originations/ terminations, thus giving a drop rate of more than 100 percent.
This calculation would give more and more accurate results as the cluster of cells
over which it is collectively calculated is increased.
This rate would truly reflect the subscribers perception of the drop rate in the
network, though overall perception shall include the quality of calls, which can be
independently measured and quantified by using appropriate drive test tools.
177
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177
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
178
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
178
Interference Measurements & Analysis
Interference measurements (referred to as Traces) are initiated
from the OMC
Used to detect faulty hardware or bad frequency assignments
Generally done on TRX basis or cell basis
Initiated in the OMC for
A certain period starting at a certain time,
For a particular sector or TRX
Generally performed during Busy Hour
Each channel is assigned to one of five interference bands 0-4:
Band 0 has least interference; Band 4 has the worst interference
Band threshold can be defined
Channels are always assigned from the best available band
179
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179
Interference Analysis
Post processing tools are used to analyze the trace records and
interference bands
Action taken after analysis is typically hardware or frequency
change
In case of co-channel or adjacent channel interference, the
timeslots/TRX does not constantly stay in the same interference
band but tends to move from one band to another
Corrective action is frequency modification
In case of hardware faults, the timeslots/TRX constantly stays in
the same interference band (which is generally the worst band)
Corrective action is hardware replacement
180
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180
Interference / Capacity relationship
The immediate effect of a general interference reduction is an
improvement in RXQUAL levels
If the cause of the interference reduction affects both uplink and
downlink, the increase quality can be used as a route to tighter
frequency reuse and therefore capacity increase
As a general rule of thumb 3db reduction in general interference
can be translated into a 30% to 40% capacity increase without
compromising quality
OR
OR
181
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181
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
182
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
182
Voice quality analysis tools
Drive tests using TEMS give the downlink signal quality only
(represented by BER); however, the signal quality may not
represent the true voice quality
Voice quality is represented by a Mean Opinion Score using
Voice Stream Methodology
Speech Quality Index (SQI) is another representation of the
voice quality
Tools for Voice Quality are:
ASCOM (Q Voice)
Agilent
Swisscall
TEMS (not preferred)
183
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183
MOS & Voice Stream Methodology
MOS stands for Mean Opinion Score:
A decimal value from 1.00 through 5.00 representing the voice quality of a
call between base station to (mobile and vice versa)
A value of 1.00 represents a bad voice quality, 5.00 represents good voice
quality
Voice quality analysis uses the Voice Stream methodology
A voice sample is transmitted in the downlink (from a server connected to
the PSTN) and is received at the MS
A similar voice sample is transmitted in the uplink from the MS and is
received at the server
Both the samples are compared to the original voice sample and a Mean
Opinion Score (MOS) is calculated
The voice quality is classified for the samples that have been collected
184
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184
Voice quality measurement equipment
185
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185
Voice quality processing
186
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186
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
187
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
187
Half Rate Coding Principle
Full rate speech and data is coded and transferred using 16 kbit/s
channels in the BSS
With the half rate coding, 8 kbit/s transmission can be used on the
BSC-BTS interface
This is possible also on the BSC transcoder interface when the both
the BSS (BTS, BSC, Transcoder) and the mobile stations support half
rate
188
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188
Effect of Half Rate implementation
Performing network/ site expansion due to network congestion caused
by temporary increase in traffic will result in underutilisation of network
resources apart from having severe cost implications
A temporary solution for overcoming network congestion is using Half
Rate
Maximizes spectrum efficiency
Cost effective
Quick to deploy
Site visit not required
Almost doubles the amount of radio resources
Radio resources can be more efficiently used by employing half rate traffic channels for low
rate data services
Provides additional capacity only when required
Half Rate is a trade-off between capacity and quality
Half Rate should be triggered by the load level on a cell for both
configuring & reconfiguring HR/FR timeslots; these thresholds should
be set sensibly to avoid unnecessary HR availability
Timeslots to be configured to HR can be dynamically selected or fixed
189
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189
Half Rate Benefits & Drawbacks
Benefits:
Reduced blocking by effectively doubling the cell capacity
Cost effective (depending on charge made by vendor) and easy to
implement with speed
Drawbacks
Increased signalling load on the network
Voice quality is degraded, so should only be used as a temporary
solution
May result in dissatisfied customers resulting in loss of revenue/
churn
190
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
190
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
191
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
191
GSM/GPRS Network
192
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192
GPRS in the GSM network
GPRS timeslots can be allocated
Permanently (reserved for GPRS)
Dynamically (on-demand basis)
GPRS timeslots should generally be allocated on the
BCCH carrier
193
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193
Logical channel combinations for GPRS
GPRS PDCH uses a 52-frame multiframe structure
Permitted PDCH logical channel combinations are
PBCCH + PCCCH + PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH
PCCCH + PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH
PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH
where PCCH = PPCH + PRACH + PAGCH + PNCH
At least 1 PDCH timeslot (PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH)
must be equipped in a cell for GPRS operation
PBCCH, PCCCH are optional configurations
PTCCH - Packet Timing Control Channel
The Packet Timing Control Channel is used in GPRS to ensure that the correct
timing advance is maintained for each MS (Mobile Station). On the uplink, the
PTCCH is used by a mobile station to send an Access Burst and on the downlink,
the mobile station will receive a TAI (Timing Advance Index) value.
PNCH - Packet Notification Channel
The Packet Notification Channel is used to send Point to Multipoint multicast
notification information to a group of MS (Mobile Station) prior to Point to Multipoint
multicast packet transfer.
194
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194
GPRS Services over GSM Network
GPRS (2.5G) services can be operated on a GSM (2G) network with
some modifications to network elements
With GPRS added to the GSM network, both packet switched (high
data rates up to 171.2 kbps) and circuit switched (voice) services are
possible
1 (No coding) 21.4 CS-4
3/4 15.6 CS-3
2/3 13.4 CS-2
1/2 9.05 CS-1
Coding Rate Data Rate (kb/s) Scheme
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195
Impact of GPRS on the GSM Network
Introduction of GPRS in a GSM
network results in loss of traffic
capacity for speech
Generally, the busy hour
distribution should be observed
GPRS should generally be
introduced with a single reserved
timeslot, and then increased
dynamically, or as needed
Assume
2 transceivers in the cell; 14 TS
for traffic
2% GoS with 25 mE per
subscriber
91 2.2759 8 6
117 2.9354 7 7
145 3.6271 6 8
173 4.3447 5 9
203 5.0840 4 10
233 5.8415 3 11
264 6.6147 2 12
296 7.4015 1 13
328 8.2003 0 14
Max GSM
subscribers
GSM TCH
Erlangs
GPRS
PDCH
TS
GSM TCH
TS
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196
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
197
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
197
GSM Timers - 1
Started when the first HANDOVER ACCESS message is sent by the MS; stopped
when a PHYSICAL INFORMATION message is received by the MS; expiry causes MS
to reactivate the old channels and send a HANDOVER FAILURE message on the
main signalling link.
MS T3124
Started when a HANDOVER COMMAND message is sent to the MS; stopped on
receipt of a HANDOVER COMPLETE/ HANDOVER FAILURE message from the MS;
expiry causes the old channels to be released and the call to be dropped.
BSS T3103
Started when an ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message is sent to the MS; stopped upon
receipt of an ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE/ ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message from the
MS; timeout will cause both the old channel and the new channel to be released by
the BSS.
BSS T3107
Started when a PAGING REQUEST message is sent to the MS; stopped upon receipt
of PAGING RESPONSE message from MS; timeout may cause the network to repeat
the PAGING REQUEST message.
BSS T3113
Started when IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message is sent to MS; stopped when
SABM is received from MS; timeout causes release of assigned SDCCH.
BSS T3101
Started with value indicated by wait indication parameter on receiving IMMEDIATE
ASSIGNMENT REJECT message; MS may retry call attempt after timeout.
MS T3122
Started after M+1 CHANNEL REQUEST messages have been sent by the MS;
stopped on receipt of BSS response; expiry causes MS to return to idle mode.
MS T3126
Functionality Location Timer Name
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198
GSM Timers - 2
Started when the CM REESTABLISHMENT REQUEST message is sent by the MS;
stopped when the MS receives a CM SERVICE ACCEPT message (call is re-
established) or a CM SERVICE REJECT message; expiry would cause the re-
establishment to be aborted.
MS T3230
Started when the MS enters the idle mode; stopped and reset to zero when the MS
receives a LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT or a LOCATION UPDATING REJECT
message or goes into dedicated mode or is deactivated; timeout causes the MS to
perform a periodic location update procedure.
MS T3212
Started when a DISC is received from the MS during the channel release process;
timeout causes the BSS to deactivate (and release) the channels.
BSS T3111
Started when a CHANNEL RELEASE message is received by the MS; stopped on
receipt of a UA in response to the DISC; timeout causes the MS to return to idle
mode.
MS T3110
Started when a CHANNEL RELEASE message is sent to the MS; stopped when a
DISC is received from the MS; timeout causes the BSS to deactivate (and release)
the channels.
BSS T3109
Started when a PHYSICAL INFORMATION message is sent to the MS; stopped on
reception of a correctly decoded layer 2 frame in format A or B or a correctly
decoded TCH frame or a HANDOVER FAILURE message from the MS; expiry may
cause Ny1 repetitions of the PHYSICAL INFORMATION message to the MS.
BSS T3105
Functionality Location Timer Name
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199
Network Timers
TCH queuing timer T11
Radio Link Timeout (RLTO), Link Fail conters & T3109
Channel Release timer
200
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200
TCH Queuing Timer T11
When the BSS receives an
Assignment Request from the
MSC, it would allocate resources
for the MS; however, if there are
no free TCHs, and if queuing is
enabled, then the request would
be queued, and a timer T11
would be started.
If a TCH becomes available
before expiry of this timer, then
the request is processed,
otherwise an Assignment Failure
message is sent to the MSC,
and the request is rejected and
the call (which until now has not
been completely setup) is
dropped
201
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201
Benefits of TCH Queuing
Enabling TCH queuing would reduce the processing load on the
BSC, and improve the CSSR
It may result in increase in SDCCH congestion, but would also
reduce the SDCCH call drops
As far as the subscriber is concerned, the probability of making
a successful call attempt is likely to remain unchanged
Usage: In cells with a low CSSR and no or little SDCCH
congestion
Note that not many operators enable queuing in their networks
CSSR: CALL_SETUP_SUCCESS_RATE
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202
Network Timers
TCH queuing timer T11
Radio Link Timeout (RLTO), Link Fail counters & T3109
Channel Release timer
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203
Radio Link Timeout (RLTO), Link Fail & T3109
Uplink Failure
Uplink Failure:
In case of a uplink failure
(link_fail counter exceeded),
the BSS will deactivate the
downlink SACCHs and start
T3109
Because the downlink
SACCHs have been
deactivated, the
radio_link_timeout counter
will decrement; on reaching a
value of 0, the MS will return
to idle mode
On the other hand, when
T3109 reaches 0, the BSS
will deallocate all resources
allocated for this mobile
204
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204
Radio Link Timeout (RLTO), Link Fail & T3109
Downlink Failure
Downlink Failure:
In case of a downlink failure,
radio_link_timeout will reach
a value 0, and the MS will
return to idle mode
At this time link_fail will start
to decrement; on reaching to
a value of 0, this will cause
the timer T3109 to start
On expiry of T3109, the BSS
deallocates all resources
allocated for this mobile
205
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205
Radio Link Timeout (RLTO), Link Fail & T3109
Considerations
T3109 serves no other purpose but to ensure the mobile returns to idle mode
before all resources for it are deallocated
This timer is used for forced deactivation of radio channels in case of
communication loss towards the MS
Radio link timeout, the value entered for this parameter determines the value
of the parameter RADIO_LINK_TIMEOUT which is sent on the BCCH or on
the SACCH. It is used by the MS to calculate the maximum value of the radio
link counter (S counter) in the MS which is needed to detect a radio link failure
in the downlink
A similar counter is realized in the BTS for the uplink, (link_fail)
206
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206
Network Timers
TCH queuing timer T11
Radio Link Timeout (RLTO), Link Fail counters & T3109
Channel Release timer
207
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207
Channel Release Timer
The timer T3111 guards the
normal channel release
procedure
Generally, its value is set
between 1 - 2 seconds
208
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208
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
209
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
209
Network Features
TCH reserved for handover
Immediate Assignment on TCH
Barring of Emergency Calls
Cell Bar Access Classes
Dynamic or Adaptive SDCCH reconfiguration
210
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210
TCH reserved for handover
If n out of m (where n<m) TCHs are reserved for
handovers, the these n TCHs would be from the best
available channel
The (n+1)
th
best channel would be assigned for a call
origination
If number of free channels n, then the (n-1)
th
best
channel would be used for a call origination
A channel is not denied for call setup, even if number of
free channels is n
Usage: Cells which have more transient handovers than
originations
211
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211
Network Features
TCH reserved for handover
Immediate Assignment on TCH
Barring of Emergency Calls
Cell Bar Access Classes
Dynamic or Adaptive SDCCH reconfiguration
212
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212
Immediate assignment on TCH
If there are no SDCCHs available, then the request for a channel is
dropped, and an Immediate Assignment Reject message is sent
Options available:
Assign a TCH if there are no SDCCHs
Assign a TCH on priority (even when there are SDCCHs available); this
option is not applicable for Location Updates (which are always on the
SDCCH) and for SMS (which is generally on the SDCCH)
Enabling Immediate Assignments on TCHs would increase the number
of successful call setups in the case of SDCCH congestion
The figure can be improved further by reducing the number of
SDCCHs configured in the cell, thereby making more TCHs available
There would be an increase in TCH holding time, which is likely to go
unnoticed
TCH queuing would be beneficial in case a TCH is assigned on
priority; the same would not be advisable in case the TCH is used for
Immediate Assignments only when all the SDCCHs are busy
Usage: Cells having SDCCH congestion, but away from a location
area border
213
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213
Network Features
TCH reserved for handover
Immediate Assignment on TCH
Barring of Emergency Calls
Cell Bar Access Classes
Dynamic or Adaptive SDCCH reconfiguration
214
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214
Barring of Emergency Calls
The GSM Emergency Number 112 can be dialed
With or without a SIM card
With the keypad locked
Barring of emergency calls (112) is not advisable due to safety
and security reasons
215
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215
Network Features
TCH reserved for handover
Immediate Assignment on TCH
Barring of Emergency Calls
Cell Bar Access Classes
Dynamic or Adaptive SDCCH reconfiguration
216
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216
Cell bar access classes
Each subscriber is assigned a user access class (ranging from 0
to 15); however, access classes 10 to 15 are generally reserved
General classes 0-9 can be barred individually (usually
cyclically) when the load on the network increases, and
unbarred when the load reduces
Results in dynamically controlling the load on the network
switching components (MSC)
217
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217
Network Features
TCH reserved for handover
Immediate Assignment on TCH
Barring of Emergency Calls
Cell Bar Access Classes
Dynamic or Adaptive SDCCH reconfiguration
218
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218
SDCCH Dimensioning Problems
The BSS system is generally configured at start-up with a minimum
number of SDCCH channels.
A mobile requests an SDCCH whenever it needs to perform signalling
(e.g. for call set-up, location updating, IMSI detach, etc.)
Since the number of mobile stations that will perform such procedures
at any particular moment of time is quite unpredictable, so the exact
requirement of SDCCH channels is also quite unpredictable
Long-term statistics may provide information on SDCCH requirements.
219
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219
SDCCH Dimensioning Solutions
If the SDCCH channels required increase by more than four (i.e.
SDCCH/8 timeslot) when TCH requirements are high, it would be
worthwhile to configure an additional SDCCH/8 timeslot
However, if the SDCCH channels required increase by less than four
(i.e. SDCCH/8 timeslot), then it would be wasteful to configure an
additional SDCCH/8 timeslot
The increase in the number of SDCCH channels required before
configuration of an additional SDCCH/8 timeslot can be observed
Under-dimensioning of SDCCH timeslots may result in under-utilized
TCH capacity, while over-dimensioning of SDCCH timeslots may result
in lost TCH capacity
A way to overcome this exact dimensioning of SDCCH timeslots is by
using the adaptive configuration of logical channels feature
220
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220
Adaptive SDCCH Reconfiguration Feature
After congestion occurs on the SDCCH, all Channel Requests are
rejected by the BSS
The Adaptive/Dynamic SDCCH Reconfiguration feature works by
dynamically adapting the number of signalling channels (SDCCHs) to
the signalling load
As the signalling load increases, the number of signalling channels are
increased
With a decrease in the load the number of signalling channels are
decreased
221
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221
SDCCH Reconfiguration: Limitations
While increasing the number of signalling channels, it is ensured that a
minimum specified number of free traffic channels are available in the
cell
This condition, at several times, puts a constraint on the configuration
of additional signalling channels thereby leading to SDCCH congestion
Under such circumstances, if the feature Immediate Assignment on
TCH were used, it would ensure efficient usage of available resources
222
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222
Adaptive SDCCH Reconfiguration: Benefits
Would reduce the instances of SDCCH congestion especially in sites
with high SDCCH traffic (airports, location area borders, etc.)
Would result in higher availability of TCH resources, because the
minimum number of SDCCHs that would always be available can be
reduced if this feature is used
Since it is not possible to reconfigure the last available TCH into an
SDCCH channel, so SDCCH congestion cannot be completely
eliminated by this feature
The process of configuring a TCH timeslot into an SDCCH/8 timeslot takes
approximately 0.8 seconds, while the reverse process (SDCCH/8 to TCH)
takes approximately 0.6 seconds.
Usage: Cells with TCH and SDCCH congestion. Cells in places of high
SDCCH requirements (e.g. airport lounge, location area border, etc.)
223
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223
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
224
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
224
Network Tools - 1
Network Statistical Tools
Provide network data in a presentable format which can be customised
Metrica, etc.
Drive test tools
Present a real picture of the network from the subscribers perception
They do not really give an indication of the speech quality
They consider only the downlink, while the uplink remains unrepresented
TEMS, Agilent, etc.
Voice Quality Tools
Give an indication of the speech quality considering both the downlink and the
uplink
Agilent, ASCOM, etc.
Post Processing Tools
Allow the raw network data to be presented in tabular or graphical formats that
can be customised
Post processing tools also suggest standard solutions for common problems
seen in the processed statistics
Actix, Mapinfo, Agilent, Planet EV, etc.
225
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225
Network Tools - 2
Protocol Analyzers
Are used to perform A-bis and A-interface traces to study signalling messages
on these links and detect and resolve problems related to these
Post processing tools (like Actix) are used with these to detect and trouble-
shoot problems
K1103, etc.
Interference Analyzers
Are used for scanning frequencies in the network at desired locations
These equipment have high received signal sensitivity and are useful in
detecting interference in the network
Rhode & Schwartz, Tecktronics, etc.
Network database Tools
Are used to obtain key statistics from raw network statistics
These tools are generally customisable
Generally created in Access or by using Metrica, etc.
226
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226
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
227
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
227
Drive Test Techniques
Drive test measurement analyses focus on the evaluation of
whether the air interface performance matches design
requirements and fulfils customers expectations in terms of
network reliability and functionality
Analysis of field data provides good picture of customers
perception about the quality and performance of the network, so
is an important aspect of optimisation activity
Drive test measurement should be carried out as:
Routine Drive Tests: To monitor QOS of the Network
Special Drive Tests: To monitor or troubleshoot special events or
problems
Benchmarking Drive Tests: Done at regular intervals as health
checks for the network
228
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228
Drive Test Objectives
The Objective of Drive Test Measurements is to assess the
performance of the network in terms of the following:
Network Coverage
Network Quality
Call Completion Success Rate
Call Drop Rate
Blocked Calls
Handover Performance
229
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229
Example of Drive Test tool
230
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230
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
231
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
231
The subscribers perspective
A subscriber perceives a mobile network by three parameters
Accessibility
The subscriber should be able to access the network
Availability
The network should be available in terms of capacity
Retainability
The subscriber should be able to retain a call in progress
232
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232
Benchmarking Drive Tests
Benchmarking drive tests are performed as health checks for
the network
Done at regular intervals (every 1-3 months)
Done over large areas or major roads
Provide an overview of the subscribers perspective to the
management
Used to compare network with the network(s) of competitor(s)
Also used to compare against standard or reference values
A number of identical mobiles using SIM cards from different
operators are used for simultaneous testing
233
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233
Contents
GSM Optimisation theory
Definition, Network statistics and KPI and process
Iddle mode behaviour
Traffic
Traffic distribution techniques
Neighbours, handover and location areas
DTX, DRX, PC and Extended Cells
Call Blocking and drops
Interference
Voice Quality
Half rate
GPRS
Timers
Network features
Network tools
Drive testing
Customer feedback
Real time information
234
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
234
Real Time Information
Network statistics
Provide real time information
Information is statistically significant due to large amount of data
Provides an overview but may not give the complete picture
Daily & hourly statistics
Daily statistics give the trend of events and are used for long term
observations and analysis
Hourly statistics give the detailed trend of events and are used for short
term analysis and problem resolution
Counters & Indicators
Counters are pegged when certain events occur in the network; these may
be pegged differently for different types of equipment
Counters and indicators can be used to create formulas for processed
network statistics
The manner in which the counters are used in the formulas will affect the
KPI values that shall be calculated
235
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235
Real Time Information
Physical Network Information
Hardware faults in the network are flagged as alarm conditions in the OMC
All alarms need to be carefully monitored and cleared based on priority
Network Configuration
Any changes to network configuration due to addition or removal of
hardware, or changes in frequencies, software features, or signalling
timeslots should generally be coordinated through the OMC
Network Performance Monitoring
Network performance monitoring should generally be done by an
independent team
Hourly statistics should be monitored to ensure that corrective action is
taken at the earliest in response to any degradation in the network
Monitoring must be continuous and should be done BSC- wide and for all
major KPIs
236
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236
Q & A
Q & A
237
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237
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
238
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238
General overview of the Optimisation process
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Recapitulation of optimisation theory
Optimisation process
Remarks about optimisation
Typical actions
Tips for optimisation
Work plan for the workshop activities
239
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239
Network Optimisation Process
240
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240
Optimisation: General Definition
What is Optimisation?
The fine tuning of the network after eliminating any configuration
problems, faults or implementation problems to meet the defined
Quality of Service targets
It is a continuous process aimed at improving the quality of
services provided by the network
It is making the network better
241
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241
Typical optimisation actions
Cell parameters adjustment
Physical implementation changes
Capacity re-dimenssioning (traffic and control channels)
Network features
New infrastructure
Additional TRX or TRX redistribution in existing sites
Additional BTS
Macro (including cell splitting)
Micro
In building solutions
ADDITIONAL SLIDE
242
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
242
Tips for Network optimisation - 1
Problems can have various causes (maintenance, parameters, features activation,
frequency planning, equipment installation, )
Prioritisation is very important
Practical solutions (a congested sector could not admit further expansions
more TRX)
Simplest solutions must go first
Combination of different BSS equipment vendor in the same service area
could cause problems
Take minimum possible actions at the same time
Always verify that objectives of changes are or are not achieved
Consider negative effects in the overall network before taking actions
(example)
Simulation is advisable
Ensure that equipment is implemented as designed or update your design
according to the actual implementation of the sites
The first step for optimising a problem is to ensure that there were no hardware
/ software failure, including
BSS, NSS, TX
ADDITIONAL SLIDE
243
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243
Tips for Network optimisation - 2
COMPANY PROCEDURES are fundamental and must include
all concerning parties
Cell planning
Optimisation
Performance monitoring team
Frequency planning
Implementation
O&M
TIMING (hour of the day, day of the week) is very important
For gathering network information
Drive tests
Statistics
Customer feedback
For introducing changes
ADDITIONAL SLIDE
244
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244
Remarks about Optimisation
Mobile networks optimisation is a continuous and never ending process
The performance can not be better than allowed by the cell configuration and
the cell plan
Radio network optimisation usually means fixing a poor frequency plan
Optimisation is not a precise science
Trial and error is usually required
The best optimisation tool is EXPERIENCE
Requires well-trained and experienced staff.
Operator may consider third parties support in early stages or decisive phases to
gain know-how
ADDITIONAL SLIDE
245
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
245
Performance Measurement
246
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
246
Network Performance Analysis
247
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247
Initial and on going optimisation
Optimization activities can be divided into
Initial Optimisation: aiming to achieve at least the minimum
acceptable network quality
Ongoing Optimization: a constant effort to find and resolve
problems in the network.
Initial Optimization
Min. Quality for Launch
Commercial launch
Ongoing Optimization
Network Quality
90%
50%
Time
248
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248
Initial and on going optimisation
The reason for the rapid improvement in the initial optimization is
simply that there often are a lot of trivial optimisation problems that
have a great influence on network quality, and can be solved
quickly (e.g. missing neighbour definitions, feeders connected to
the wrong antenna etc.)
After a while problems will tend to be more localized and tricky to
solve, this will slow down the rate of improvement
Usually the introduction of major changes will generally result in a
step downwards for the network quality before the initial problems
are solved, followed by a rapid ramping up as in the beginning of
the curve
249
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249
Work plan for workshop activities
General presentation and remarks (trainer)
Team activities (subgroups)
Joint meeting
Conclusions
At each stage drive testing, collection of statistics and analysis of data
may be essential to reach meaningful conclusions
250
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
250
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
251
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
251
Network statistics
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Collection of network statistics
Analysis of statistics to derive meaningful conclusions
Use of aids like Access, Excel and Graphs to analyse data
and present results
252
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
252
Types of Statistics
Raw Statistics
Call statistics
Interface statistics
Processor utilization statistics
Key Statistics
Call Summary
Channel Usage
Connection Establishment
RF Loss Summary
Network Health Statistics
Handover performance
TCH congestion
SDCCH congestion
Paging performance
Radio performance
Custom Statistics
253
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
253
Measurement processes
Measurement data recording
Each measurement task collects result data at a particular rate, known as the
accumulation period or granularity of the measurement specified by the operator.
In addition, measurement data reporting can occur on demand from the operator. In
this case, the current values of the measurement are reported without affecting any
scheduled execution and reporting of active measurement tasks.
Measurement data transfer
The results must be transferred to the OMC
Measurement data logging
All the measurement results coming from BSS to the OMC and requested by the
operator are logged in the system
An alarm is generated when the log threshold is reached
When the log threshold is reached, it is usually possible to specify a file destination
(e.g. hard disk) for the performance data generated by network elements.
This data can be transferred later to the OMC by the operator.
254
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254
Measurement processes
Measurement data processing
The measurement data are stored in the OMC, including the following
information:
Time
Target
They are identified by a symbolic name defined by the operator or by a
default title
They can be exported to a magnetic medium and later imported for further
evaluation.
Measurement data presentation
To display measurement data, the operator can choose, from a
presentation tool, one of the following formats:
Table of values
Bar graph
Other graphs (e.g. pie graph)
Sometimes, it is possible to display the results of Real Time
Performance measurements.
255
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
255
Available GSM Performance Measurements
(Source: Siemens)
256
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
256
Available CCITT and Proprietary Performance
Measurements. Source: Siemens
Note: Measurements marked with (*) are not available in BS 11 for the present release.
257
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
257
Collecting and processing raw data
To obtain useful values and measures, counters from different
object types usually have to be combined and compared.
By using different formulas, figures and key statistics for drop
rate, handover success, congestion etc. can be obtained for
each cell or BSC.
As an example, the number of dropped TCH connections in a cell
due to low Signal Strength (SS) can be compared to the total
number of subscriber perceived dropped TCH connections in the
concerned cell and the performance of different cells can be
compared
258
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
258
Examples of Key Statistics - 1
TCH BLOCKING RATE
SDCCH BLOCKING RATE
TCH TRAFFIC CARRIED (Erlang)
TCH TRAFFIC OFFERED (Erlang)
SDCCH TRAFFIC CARRIED (Erlang)
SDCCH TRAFFIC OFFERED (Erlang)
HO_FAILURE_RATE
HO_FAILURE_RATE (IntraCell)
HO_FAILURE_RATE (InterCell)
HO_SUCCESS_RATE
CALL_SETUP_SUCCESS_RATE
RF_LOSS_TCH_RATE
RF_LOSS_SDCCH_RATE
259
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
259
Examples of Key Statistics - 2
DROPPED_TCH_RATE
TCH_TRAFFIC_AVAILABLE (2% blocking accepted)
SDCCH_TRAFFIC_AVAILABLE (2% blocking accepted)
TCH_TRAFFIC_AVAILABLE (5% blocking accepted)
SDCCH_TRAFFIC_AVAILABLE (5% blocking accepted)
MEAN_HOLDING_TIME_TCH (sec)
MEAN_HOLDING_TIME_SDCCH (sec)
SDCCH_CONNECTIONS
Rate idle TCH Interference Band "1"
Rate idle TCH Interference Band "2"
Rate idle TCH Interference Band "3"
Rate idle TCH Interference Band "4"
Rate idle TCH Interference Band "5"
260
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
260
Network Statistics: Team activities
In this workshop session each subgroup will independently:
Organise the collected raw data following its own criteria
Will extract key statistics from the raw data
Will obtain as much KPI as possible from the raw data
Will make up three new KPI or key statistics and will define target
values and significance
Will make conclusions of working with raw statistics (minimum 3
conclusions)
261
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
261
Network statistics: Joint meeting
Review different criteria for organising data
Review key statistics extracted from raw data
Review KPI obtained from raw data
Review new proposed KPI or statistics
Pending
Review conclusions
262
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
262
Network statistics: Conclusions
Amount of measurement data generated by the system is huge
Information must be organised following different cathegories
Processing raw data is a very time and resources consuming
activity
Tools are necessary to process raw data
Having tools that can process data from different vendors is
highly recommended
263
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
263
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
264
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
264
Network Performance Tools & reports
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Using mediation tool (metrica, in-house developed tools etc.)
to collect statistics using defined formulas
Post processing of collected data using Actix, Mapinfo,
Agilent, Planet, etc.
Creating reports from the processed data
265
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
265
KPI (Key Performance Indicators)
Any cell that exceeds the threshold specified for any of the
statistics or indicators given below during a 24-hour/ peak-hour
period should be reported
Load on Paging Channels > 30%
Load on Access Grant Channels > 30%
Congestion on Standalone Dedicated Channels > 0.5%
Mean holding time of SDCCH > 10 sec
Congestion on Traffic Channels (Macrocells) > 2%
Congestion on Traffic Channels (Microcells) > 10%
TCH Call Setup Success Rate < 95%
Total TCH Call Drop Rate > 1%
Percentage of incoming handovers to assignments > 50%
Percentage of outgoing handovers to assignments > 50%
Percentage of uplink receive level handovers > 10%
266
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
266
KPI (Key Performance Indicators)
Any cell that exceeds the threshold specified for any of the
statistics or indicators given below during a 24-hour/ peak-hour
period should be reported
Handover success rate < 97%
Handover reversion rate > 2.5%
Percentage of downlink receive level handovers > 10%
Percentage of uplink quality handovers > 10%
Percentage of downlink quality handovers > 10%
Percentage of interference handovers > 2%
Percentage of location updates to SDCCH seizures > 40%
Percentage of MTC to MOC < 30%
Percentage of SMS calls > 2%
Percentage of traffic utilization on A-interface > 60%
Random Access failure > 15%
T3101 timer expiry > 5%
267
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
267
Network performance: Team activities
In this workshop session each subgroup will use mediation tools
for:
Obtaining KPIs and produce a report of all cells exceeding each
KPI
KPI listed in previous slides
New KPI generated in previous session (network statistics)
Uploading information of 5 different KPI in Planet (or mapinfo) and
generate graphs and reports
Include at least one of the new KPI
Generating the graphs listed in the next slides
Highlight meaningful results
Generating the reports listed in the next slides
Highlight meaningful results
Making conclusions on statistics tools and reports
268
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
268
Graphs - 1
Traffic and processor load (hourly in a day)
TCH and SDCCH traffic (daily in a week)
TCH and SDCCH congestion (hourly in a day)
Traffic and mean holding time vs all cells in the area
TCH traffic and congestion vs all cells in the area
SDCCH traffic and congestion vs all cells in the area
SDCCH avalability (%) vs all cells in the area
Random Access objectives (%) pie graph
Drop calls on TCH and drop calls on SDCCH (hourly in a day)
TCH drop calls and drop call rates (daily in a week)
269
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
269
Graphs - 2
Drop call reasons on TCH (%) pie graph
Signal strength
Quality
Excesive time alignment
Others
Drop call rates vs all cells in the area
(may include reasons as different portions of each bar)
TCH assignment failure (%) and congestion vs all cells in the
area
Unsuccessful intracell handover (%) and total handover (could
be divided into UL and DL) vs all cells in the area
270
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270
Reports
Low traffic cells: Cell, traffic and mean holding time
Most congested cells: Cell, busy hour, traffic and congestion
Cells with intracell handovers due to bad uplink quality higher
than 50%
Handover reversions: Cell relation, reversion%, total handovers
Handover attempts: Date (daily in a week), total handovers,
%handover of each type
Frequency use: ARFCN and number in use
271
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
271
Network performance: Joint meeting
Compare the reports of cells exceeding KPI
Generate a summary report
Include new KPI
Review graphs and reports in Planet / Mapinfo
Review graphs and meaningful results
Include those cells with meaningful results in the report
Review reports and meaningful results
Include those cells with meaningful results in the report
Review conclusions
272
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
272
Network performance: Conclusions
Defining KPI targets is escencial for prioritising problems
Use of robust and flexible mediation tools is fundamental for processing
statistics
A geographical reference (Planet/Mapinfo) of KPI is very helpful for analysing
problems
Ideally overlaping KPI with coverage/quality/capacity simulations
Statistics must be well understood before reaching conclusions and taking actions
Statistics should represent actual customer perception of the network
New statistics can be generated and processed as required by the operator
Network statistics collection and processing demand a deep knowledge of
available measurements, is time and resources consuming
One team solely responsible for processing network statistics is required
Network quality or network performance team must be in permanent interaction with
Optimisation and Radio planning in order to
Highlight meaningful results (negative and also POSITIVE results)
Incorporate statistics required by Optimisation and Radio planning teams
273
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
273
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
274
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
274
Optimising selection/reselection
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Verifying the impact of modifying C1 parameters in the field
and on statistics
Verifying the impact of modifying C2 parameters in the field
and on statistics
275
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
275
Normal Camping
For normal service, the MS has to camp on a suitable cell, tune to that
cell's BCCH + CCCH, and possibly register within the PLMN so that
the MS can:
a) Receive system information from the PLMN (on the BCCH), e.g., the
cell options;
b) Receive paging messages from the PLMN, e.g., when there is an
incoming call for the MS;
c) Initiate call setup for outgoing calls or other actions from the MS (where
possible).
The choice of such a suitable cell for the purpose of receiving normal
service is referred to as "normal camping".
There are various requirements that a cell must satisfy before an MS
can perform normal camping on it:
i) It should be a cell of the selected PLMN;
ii) It should not be "barred";
iii) It should not be in an LA which is in the list of "forbidden LAs for
roaming";
iv) The radio path loss between MS and BTS must be below a threshold
set by the PLMN operator.
276
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
276
DL & UL budgets 1
BS TX
BS RX
COMBINER
MULTI
COUPLER
DUPLEX FILTER
MOBILE
STATION
Mobile
Antenna
G
ams
Feeder Lfms
P
oms
Prefms
Pathloss L
p TX/RX Antenna
G
abs
Feeder Lfbs
Ldfbs Lcbs
Pobs
Prefbts
Diversity RX
Antenna G
dbs
277
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
277
Idle Mode Tasks: Cell Selection Criteria
The path loss criterion parameter C1 used for cell selection and reselection is
defined by:
C1 = (A - Max(B,0))
where A = Received Level Average - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P
{except for the class 3 DCS 1800 MS where:
B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH + POWEROFFSET P}
RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = Minimum received level at the MS required for access to the system
MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = Maximum TX power level an MS may use when accessing the system
until otherwise commanded
{POWER OFFSET = The power offset to be used in conjunction with the MS TXPWR MAX CCH
parameter by the class 3 DCS 1800 MS}
P = Maximum RF output power of the MS
All values are expressed in dBm
The path loss criterion is satisfied if C1 > 0.
278
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
278
Parameters involved
RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN (RXLEVAMIN)
Type: Numeral.
Range: 47 to 110 (or 0 to 63: Siemens)
Units:.
47 greater than - 48 dBm (level 63)
48 - 49 to - 48 dBm (level 62)

108 - 109 to - 108 dBm (level 2)
109 - 110 to - 109 dBm (level 1)
110 less than - 110 dBm (level 0)
Default: 110.
Definition: Minimum received signal level in dBm at the MS
for permission to access the system.
A = Received Level Average - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
279
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
279
Parameters involved
MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH (MSTXPMAXGSM)
Type: Numeral.
Range: 13 to 43 in steps of 2 (GSM 900).
4 to 30 in steps of 2 (GSM 1800).
4 to 30 in steps of 2 (GSM 1900).
Unit: dBm.
Siemens: MSTXPMAXGSM
2 - 15 (GSM900; 39 - 13 dBm)
0 - 15 (DCS1800; 30 - 0 dBm)
0 - 15, 30, 31 (PCS1900; 30 - 0 dBm, 33 dBm, 32 dBm) unit = 2 dB
Definition: Maximum transceiver power level an MS may use when accessing on a control
channel.
B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P
B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH + POWEROFFSET P
For class 3 GSM1800 Mobiles
POWEROFFSET
Type: Numreral
Values: 0, 2, 3 or 6
Unit: db
Definition: Broadcast parameter used only by class 3 GSM 1800 mobiles
C1 = (A - Max(B,0)), if C1 > 0, the cell is suitable for selection
280
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
280
Mobile power classes
GSM 900
Power Class Maximum Power Level Maximum Output Power
1 ---- ----
2 PL2 39 dBm, 8 W
3 PL3 37 dBm, 5 W
4 PL4 33 dBm, 2 W
5 PL5 29 dBm, 800 mW
GSM 1800
Power Class Maximum Power Level Maximum Output Power
1 PL0 30 dBm, 1 W
2 PL3 24 dBm, 250 mW
3 PL29 36 dBm, 4 W
GSM 1900
Power Class Maximum Power Level Maximum Output Power
1 PL0 30 dBm, 1 W
2 PL3 24 dBm, 250 mW
3 PL30 33 dBm, 2 W
281
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
281
Team activities cell selection
Obtain cell selection parameters for all cells in the area
Make up 4 scenarios for calculating C1
Reach conclusions about adjustment of RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN and
MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH
How could they affect Network Quality?
What KPI could give an indication that these parameters should be reviewed?
Review the parameters for those cells that meet these conditions (KPI)
Comments and conclusions
282
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
282
Idle Mode Tasks: Cell Reselection Criteria- 1
The reselection criterion C2 is used for cell reselection only and is defined by:
C2 = C1+CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET-TEMPORARY OFFSET*H(PENALTY_TIME-T)
for PENALTY_TIME 31
C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
for PENALTY_TIME = 31
where
For non-serving cells:
H(x) = 0 for x < 0
H(x) = 1 for x 0
For serving cells:
H(x) = 0
T is a timer
For t < PT: C2 = C1 + CRO - TO
For t > PT: C2 = C1 + CRO
For PT=31: C2= C1 - CRO
Thus CRO encourages cell reselection while TO temporarily discourages cell
reselection.
Cell reselection is generally discouraged if PT = 31
283
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283
Idle Mode Tasks: Cell Reselection Criteria - 2
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET, TEMPORARY_OFFSET and PENALTY_TIME
are cell reselection parameters which are broadcast on the BCCH of the cell
when CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND is set to 1
If CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND is not received or received and set to 0,
then the MS should take CELL_BAR_QUALIFY as 0. Also in this case the cell
reselection parameters take a value of 0 and therefore C2 = C1.
A cell can be made impossible to reselect while T has not exceeded
PENALTY_TIME by setting the TEMPORARY_OFFSET to infinity. This
condition could be used for indoor microcells that are received with good signal
strength outside the intended area of coverage.
The setting of C1 and C2 parameters needs careful consideration because
these parameters cannot be set on a per neighbour basis.
C2 is used for reselection only by phase 2 Mobile Stations.
284
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284
Path loss criteria and timing for cell reselection
The MS is required to perform the following measurements to ensure that the
path loss criterion to the serving cell is acceptable. At least every 5 s the MS
shall calculate the value of C1 and C2 for the serving cell and re-calculate C1
and C2 values for nonserving cells (if necessary).
The MS shall then check whether:
i) The path loss criterion (C1) for current serving cell falls below zero for a period of
5 seconds. This indicates that the path loss to the cell has become too high.
ii) The calculated value of C2 for a non-serving suitable cell exceeds the value of C2
for the serving cell for a period of 5 seconds, except:
a) in the case of the new cell being in a different location area in which case the C2 value for the new cell
shall exceed the C2 value of the serving cell by at least CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS dB as defined
by the BCCH data from the current serving cell, for a period of 5 seconds; or
b) in case of a cell reselection occurring within the previous 15 seconds in which case the C2 value for the
new cell shall exceed the C2 value of the serving cell by at least 5 dB for a period of 5 seconds. This
indicates that it is a better cell.
Cell reselection for any other reason shall take place immediately, but the cell
that the MS was camped on shall not be returned to within 5 seconds if
another suitable cell can be found.
If valid received level averages are not available, the MS shall wait until these
values are available and then perform the cell reselection if it is still required. If
no suitable cell is found within 10 seconds, the cell selection algorithm shall be
performed.
285
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
285
Parameters involved
CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND (CRESPARI)
0, 1 (parameter not present, parameter present)
Cell Reselection Parameter Indication
Indicates the presence of C2 cell selection/ reselection parameters
used by Phase 2 Mobiles.
Default: 0
286
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
286
Parameters involved
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET (CRESOFF)
Type: Numeral.
Range: 0 to 63.
Unit: dB.
0 0 dB
1 2 dB

63 126 dB
Default: 0.
Definition: Defines an offset to encourage or discourage MSs to select the cell
while it is camping on another cell, i.e. perform a cell reselection.
. C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
for PENALTY_TIME = 31
287
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287
Parameters involved
FOR PENALTY_TIME 31
C2 = C1+CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET - TEMPORARY OFFSET *H(PENALTY_TIME-T)
For T < PENALTY_TIME: C2 = C1 + CRO - TO
For T > PENALTY_TIME: C2 = C1 + CRO
T is a timer, started from zero at the point at which the cell was placed by the MS on the list of
six strongest carriers. T is reset to zero whenever the cell is no longer on the list of strongest
carriers. This will tend to prevent fast moving MSs from selecting the cell
PENALTY_TIME (PENTIME)
Type: Numeral.
Range: 0 to 31.
Unit: -.
Defines duration for which TO is applied.
0 20 seconds
1 40 seconds

30 620 seconds.
The value 31 indicates that the cell reselection offset is negative and that the temporary offset is
ignored.
Default: 0.
Note: The setting of this parameter only affects GSM phase 2 MSs.
288
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
288
Parameters involved
TEMPORARY OFFSET (TEMPOFF)
Type: Numeral.
Range: 0 to 7.
Unit: dB.
0 0 dB
1 10 dB

6 60 dB
7 infinite.
Default: 0.
Defines a negative offset applied to CRO.
Note: The setting of this parameter only affects GSM phase 2 MSs.
289
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
289
Team activities cell reselection
Obtain cell reselection parameters for all cells in the area
Make up 4 scenarios for calculating C2
Reach conclusions about adjustment of
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
PENALTY_TIME
TEMPORARY OFFSET
How could they affect Network Quality?
What KPI could give an indication that these parameters should
be reviewed?
Review the parameters for those cells that meet these
conditions (KPI)
Comments and conclusions
290
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
290
Selection and reselection: Joint meeting
General revision of C1 parameters
Discuss the criteria (KPI) for triggering the revision of C1
parameters
Review cells exceeding those KPI
General revision of C2 parameter
Discuss the criteria (KPI) for triggering the revision of C1
parameters
Review cells exceeding those KPI
Review conclusions
291
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
291
Selection and reselection: Conclusions
C1 and C2 parameters affect network accesibility
If no microcells or similar conditions are present, PT = 31 is advisable
The setting of C1 and C2 parameters needs careful consideration
because these parameters cannot be set on a per neighbour basis
292
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
292
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
293
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
293
Optimising Location Areas
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Impact of changing the CRH on reselection and SDCCH
traffic
Review Location areas definition
Review the value of timer 3212 implemented in the network
294
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
294
Location Area Optimisation
Location area borders should not run parallel
to major traffic arteries; they should intersect
them, if required, at minimum number of
places
Cell Reselect Hysterisis should be sufficiently
high to avoid multiple location updates (ping-
pong), but sufficiently low to ensure MS does
not drag too deep into neighbour cell before
performing a location update (at reselection)
During the period when a MS is performing a
LU, it is likely to miss pages
Timer T3212 should be set to the same value
in all cells, otherwise mobiles shall perform a
Periodic Location Update each time they read
a different value of T3212 in a cell
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Location update forms
AUTOMATIC
Carried out when the mobile reselects a cell that belongs to a
different Location area
PERIODIC
Location update carried out on expiry of timer T3212
IMSI ATTACH DETACH
IMSI ATTACH is a form of location update performed by a mobile
that is switched on in the same La that it was when previously
switched off.
IMSI DETACH is carried out when the mobile is being switched off.
296
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296
CELL RESELECTION HYSTERESIS
CRH (CELLRESH)
Type: Numeral.
Range: 0 to 14 in steps of 2 db.
0 0db
1 2db
2 4db
. . .
7 14 db
Unit: dB.
Default: 2 (4 db)
Definition: Cell Reselection Hysteresis. Receiving signal strength (rxlev) hysteresis for required cell re-selection
over location area border. Each change of location area requires a location update to be performed, which
increases signalling load. In order to prevent ping-pong effects for cell selection across location area borders, a
hysteresis, defined by CRH, is used.
A cell in a different location area is only selected if it is better in terms of the quantity C2 for GSM phase 2 mobiles or
C1 for GSM phase 1 mobiles, than the cells in the current location area by at least the value of CRH during a period of
5 seconds.
The C2 criterion is given in the description of parameter CRO. (GSM 03.22).
A high value of Cell reselect Hysteresis CELLRESH is used to avoid SDCCH congestion, which might come from
unnecessary location updates by cell reselection process. A lower limit is also taken due care with respect to the
overlapping location areas where a faster call set-up is desired in the new location area (which may have a better C1).
As a consequence, may reduce interference if the MS has to use full power to establish a call in the old cell while lower
power can be used in the new cell.
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297
T3212
T3212
Type: Numeral.
Range: 0 to 255.
Unit: Deci hours.
0 Infinite time-out (periodic location update disabled)
1 0.1 hours.

255 25.5 hours.
Default: 40.
Typical values: 10 to 40
Defines the time-out value that controls the location updating
procedure, i.e. when notifying the availability of the MS to the
network. (GSM 04.08, section 10.5.2.11).
298
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298
ATT (IMSI ATTACH DETACH)
ATT (IMSIATDT)
Type: Identifier.
Range: YES, NO.
Default: YES.
NO MSs in the cell are not allowed to apply IMSI attach and detach.
YES MSs in the cell should apply IMSI attach and detach.
Definition: Attach-detach allowed. ATT tells the MS if it is allowed to
apply IMSI attach and detach, i.e. if the MS is allowed to send a
message to the system every time it is turned on or off (GSM
04.08, section 10.5.2.11).
299
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299
Team activities Optimising location areas
Analyse Location area borders and sizes and generate comments,
suggestions and recommendations
Obtain location update parameters for all cells in the area
Analyse CRH for cells in location area borders
Analyse the value used for T3212 and make comments accordingly
Review if T3212 has the same value in all cells
Verify if ATT is activated in the network and make comments
accordingly
What KPI could give an indication that these parameters or the location
area definition should be reviewed?
Review the parameters for those cells that meet these conditions (KPI)
Comments and conclusions
300
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
300
Optimising location areas: Joint meeting
Share different opinion on Location areas in the network
Review analisis of CRH for cells in location area borders
Review comments on T3212
Review comments on ATT
Discuss the criteria (KPI) for triggering the revision of location area
dimmensioning and location update parameters
Review cells exceeding those KPI
Review conclusions
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301
Optimising location areas: Conclusions
Since the SDCCH is used by mobiles peforming any types of location
update, signalling load at location area borders and places such as
airports, conference rooms, universities, etc. can be very high and a
source of SDCCH congestion.
There is a compromise when dimenssioning T3212:
If it is too long could lead to wasteful paging mobiles which have moved
out of coverage
If it is too short it could increase the signalling load
Similarily
If IMSI attach-detach is disabled, this could lead to wasteful paging
mobiles which have been switched off
If it is activated, it would increase the signalling load
Generally ATT is activated and T3212 is kept reasonably short
If SDCCH congestion occurs, it should be expanded or dynamic
SDCCH allocation can be used
302
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302
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
303
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303
Optimisation of network timers
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Verifying the impact of changing T3122
Verifying the impact of changing RLTO, link_fail and T3109
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304
Optimisation of network timers
TIMER T3122
MS
Started with value indicated by wait indication parameter on
receiving IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message; MS may
retry call attempt after timeout.
Waiting time for a new attempt on RACH after Immediate Assign
Reject.
Range: 0 - 255
Units: 1 sec
Default: 5
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305
Radio Link Timeout (RLTO), Link Fail & T3109
Uplink Failure
Uplink Failure:
In case of a uplink failure
(link_fail counter exceeded),
the BSS will deactivate the
downlink SACCHs and start
T3109
Because the downlink
SACCHs have been
deactivated, the
radio_link_timeout counter
will decrement; on reaching a
value of 0, the MS will return
to idle mode
On the other hand, when
T3109 reaches 0, the BSS
will deallocate all resources
allocated for this mobile
306
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306
Radio Link Timeout (RLTO), Link Fail & T3109
Downlink Failure
Downlink Failure:
In case of a downlink failure,
radio_link_timeout will reach
a value 0, and the MS will
return to idle mode
At this time link_fail will start
to decrement; on reaching to
a value of 0, this will cause
the timer T3109 to start
On expiry of T3109, the BSS
deallocates all resources
allocated for this mobile
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307
RLTO: RDLNKTO
Range: 0..15
0 = counter value 4
15 = counter value 64
Default: 4
Reference: GSM 05.08, GSM 04.08
Radio link timeout, the value entered for this parameter determines the value
of the parameter RADIO_LINK_TIMEOUT which is sent on the BCCH or on
the SACCH
It is used by the MS to calculate the maximum value of the radio link counter
(S counter) in the MS which is needed to detect a radio link failure in the
downlink (a similar counter is realized in the BTS for the uplink, RDLNKTBS)
The maximum value S0 of the S-counter in the MS is calculated as follows: S0
= 4 + 4 RDLNKTO
The radio link timeout value is the start point for the S counter in the MS
which is in effect if the mobile is in dedicated (or busy) mode.
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308
RLTO: RDLNKTO
Unsuccessful decoding of SACCH messages by the transceiver lead
to a decrease of the S counter by 1, successful decoding to an
increase by 2
If the S counter reaches 0, the MS regards the dedicated radio
connection as failed and stops any further transmission on the
dedicated channel
In such a situation, of course, also the BTS cannot correctly decode
any uplink SACCH frames anymore (because the MS has stopped
transmitting them) and it is just a question of time when the radio link
counter in the BTS (RDLNKTBS) reaches 0
In this case a CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION (BTS->BSC) is
sent and indicates the loss of the dedicated connection (call drop)
Note: If Call Re- stablishment (see parameter CREALL) is enabled
a low value of radio link time-out increases the number of call
reestablishments because a decrease of RDLNKTO may lead to an
earlier declaration of radio link failures.
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309
Link_fail: RDLNKTBS
Default: 20
Range: 4-64
Step size: 4 (range 4, 8, 12, ... 60, 64)
Reference: GSM 04.08, GSM 05.08
Definition
Radio link counter BS, indicates the maximum value of the radio link counter needed to detect a
radio link failure in the uplink
The entered value is the start point for the radio link counter (also called missing SACCH
counter or Scounter) in the BTS which is managed for every dedicated channel (TCH or
SDCCH)
Unsuccessful decoding of uplink SACCH messages (i.e. MEASUREMENT REPORTs) in the
BTS lead to a decrease of the counter by 1, successful decoding to an increase by 2 (a similar
counter for the observation of raio link problems is also used in the MS (RDLNKTO).
If the parameter EPWCRLFW is set to TRUE and the BTS radio link counter reaches the value
entered for the parameter PCRLFTH the BTS initiates the adjustment of the MS transmit power
and BS transmit power to maximum transmit power
If the counter reaches the value 0 (radio link timeout), the BTS sends a CONNECTION
FAILURE INDICATION with cause 'radio link failure' to the BSC which initiates the release of the
whole dedicated connection
This scenario represents one of the most common and classic case of a call drop
Rule: RDLNKTBS > PCRLFTH .
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Link_fail: RDLNKTBS
Notes:
An expiry of the radio link counter in the MS (RDLNKTO), also
indirectly leads to the radio link timeout in the BTS, as in this case
the MS stops any transmission activity on the dedicated channel.
This leads to unsuccessful decoding of UL SACCH frames in the
BTS (as the MS does not send any SACCH frames anymore) and
thus to the continuous decrease of the BTS radio link counter
The current value of the S-Counter in the BTS is also checked in
the scope of the BS power control (EBSPWRC) decision:
If no SACCH report was received in a particular SACCH period, no PC decision
will be made for the DL
If the missing SACCH counter (S-counter, initial value defined by RDLNKTBS)
is more than 2 below RDLNKTBS (i.e. either at least three SACCH reports in a
row were missed or the current SACCH report is missing and additional
SACCHs were missing before) then a normal BTS power increase will be
commanded.
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311
T3109 Definition
This timer is used by the BSC during the dedicated channel release
procedures initiated by the MSC after O&M intervention or radio link failure
conditions.
The purpose of T3109 is to ensure the release of the radio channel in
situations in which the MS cannot confirm connection release messages
any more as the dedicated Um signalling connection has already been lost.
After receipt of a CLEAR COMMAND message from the MSC or a detection
of a lower layer failure the BSC sends a CHANNEL RELEASE message to
the MS, starts T3109 and deactivates the SACCH
The BSC stops T3109 when it has received the RELEASE INDICATION
from the BTS, which indicates that the MS has sent the DISCONNECT
message on the main signalling link. If T3109 expires, the BSC deactivates
all channels for this MS by sending the RF CHANNEL RELEASE message
to the BTS.
Note: If a CONNECTION FAILURE message is received from the BTS
during an ongoing release procedure the PM counters count a TCH loss
(NRFLTCH) although there is no real TCH loss.
To avoid these unnecessary CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATIONs, it is
recommended to set T3109 to a small value, e.g. HLFSEC-8.
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312
T3109
Purpose: timer for forced deactivation of radio channels in case of
communication loss towards the MS
Start: sending of the CHANNEL RELEASE message
Expiry action: sending of the RF CHANNEL RELEASE message
Units
MS100 = 100 ms
HLFSEC = 0,5 sec
SEC5 = 5s
Range: 0..255
Default: HLFSEC-24
Reference: GSM 04.08
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313
Timers: Team activities
Review the values for T3122
Discuss the impact of changing values of T3122 in network
performance
What KPI could give an indication that this timer should be reviewed?
Review the parameters for those cells that meet these conditions (KPI)
Review the values for RLTO, link_fail and T3109 and make comments
accordingly
Discuss the impact of changing values of RLTO, link_fail and T3109 in
network performance
What KPI could give an indication that these counters and timers
should be reviewed?
Review the parameters for those cells that meet these conditions (KPI)
Comments and conclusions
314
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
314
Timers: Joint meeting
Share comments on values for T3122 and impact of changing this
timer in network performance
Discuss the KPI that could give an indication that this timer should be
reviewed
Review cells exceeding those KPI
Share comments on values for RLTO, link_fail and T3109 and impact
of changing these counters and timer in network performance
Discuss the KPI that could give an indication that these counters and
timer should be reviewed
Review cells exceeding those KPI
Review conclusions
315
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315
Timers: Conclusions
T3122: If it is too short, ineffective attempts could increase. If it is too long,
subscribers have to wait longer periods of time before retrying.
T3109 ensures that the mobile returns to idle mode before all resources
for it are released
The radio_link_timeout value shall be determined by the maximum time
tolerated before a downlink signalling failure
In general, high value of RDLNKTO is used for keeping the call as long as
possible in connected mode before dropping it.
This is because unsuccessful decoding of SACCH may be affected from
fading, high value of this parameter may help in case the MS can go out
from the fading dip and be able to continue decoding SACCH.
But very high value may be not appropriate in an area, which has high
traffic demand and it will be favourable to drop a poor call and have free
TCH available for a new user.
The link_fail value shall be determined by the maximum time tolerated
before an uplink signalling failure
316
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316
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters
for PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
317
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317
Optimising network parameters (DTX & PC)
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Discussing and verifying the impact of modifying DTX
parameters
Discussing and verifying the impact of modifying UL/DL
power control parameters
318
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318
Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
A person speaks less that 40% of the time during a normal
conversation
Speech is generally carried during only 30 - 40% of a call duration
on both directions
Voice Activity Detection (VAD) circuitry at MS distinguishes
between voice and noise inputs
Where DTX is active, transmitter will only switch on for a frame
which contain speech/data
Eight (Silence Descriptor) SID frames are transmitted in frames 52-
59 apart from 4 SACCH bursts.
SID frames are used to create Comfort Noise at the receiving MS
DTX can be implemented on both UL and DL separately
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319
Benefits of using DTX
Benefits of using DTX
Reduce overall system interference (~3dB) due to less unnecessary
transmission
Allow tighter frequency re-use
Long battery life for MS
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320
DTX
When DTX is employed on a TCH, not all TDMA frames may be transmitted. A
subset of TDMA frames (defined in GSM 05.08) is always transmitted. The MS
indicates the usage of DTX during the previous SACCH multiframe by means
of the DTX_USED flag in the measurement report
The downlink DTX mode is detected by means of the "speech flag". This flag
refers to one TRAU frame (four traffic bursts) and is monitored during each
total reporting period. At the end of the period, this DTX-control flag is
accessed along with the uplink measurements.
When DTX mode is used, the statistical reliability is lower than the reliability of
full set measurements. This is taken into account by a low weighting of RXLEV
and RXQUAL-samples
There is no indication as to whether or not the MS used DTX during the
previous SACCH multiframe if for any reason the MS measurement report
(downlink measurements) is not valid or cannot be decoded. In this case, it is
assumed that DTX was used.
If the downlink DTX mode cannot be evaluated, the use of DTX is assumed for
similar reasons.
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321
RXLEV-FULL-SERVING-CELL / RXLEV-SUB-SERVING-CELL
These elements contain the average received signal strength of the
serving cell, measured on all time slots and on a subset of time slots.
The full set of TCH and SACCH frames is either 100 frames (that is, 26
x 4, minus 4 idle) for full rate TCH or 50 frames for half rate. The
subset consists of 4 SACCH frames and 8 SID frames. This subset is
significant when DTX is used on the downlink. The signal strength is
mapped to an RXLEV value between 0 and 63:
RXLEV 0 = less than -110dBm
RXLEV 1 = -110dBm to -109dBm



RXLEV 63 = greater than -48dBm
RXLEV sub is used if DTX is active, otherwise full is used.
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322
RXQUAL-FULL-SERVING-CELL / RXQUAL-SUB-SERVING-CELL
These elements contain the average received signal quality on
the serving cell, measured on all time slots and on a subset of
time slots. The received signal quality is mapped to a
corresponding value before decoding, as follows:
RXQUAL 0 BER less than 0.2%
RXQUAL 1 BER = 0.2% to 0.4%
RXQUAL 2 BER = 0.4% to 0.8%
RXQUAL 3 BER = 0.8% to 1.6%
RXQUAL 4 BER = 1.6% to 3.2%
RXQUAL 5 BER = 3.2% to 6.4%
RXQUAL 6 BER = 6.4% to 12.8%
RXQUAL 7 BER greater than 12.8%
RXQUAL sub is used if DTX is active, otherwise full is used.
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323
DTX Parameters
DTXDL (DTXDLFR: Full rate, DTXDLHR: Half rate)
Value: 0:FALSE/1:TRUE
Default: FALSE
Availability of downlink DTX is an implementation option. Its availability in a
system is indicated by this attribute. If available, use of the downlink DTX
is controlled by the MSC.
DTXUL
Value: 0, 1, 2
Default: 2
This attribute specifies the Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) mode to be
used by the mobile stations. Implementation of DTX for the uplink is
compulsory in the MS and the BSS; however its actual use is under the
control of the operator
Validity range: 0-2
0 = uplink DTX is on in the BTS and usage is under the control of the MS (MS can use
DTX).
1 = uplink DTX is on in the BTS and all MSs must use it (MS must use DTX).
2 = uplink DTX is off in the BTS (MS must not use DTX).
324
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324
DTX Parameters uplink (Siemens)
DTXUL values:
MAYFSHNH (MS may use DTX for FR TCHs, shall not for HR TCHs).
SHLFSHNH (MS shall use DTX for FR TCHs, shall not for HR TCHs).
SHNFSHNH (MS shall not use DTX for FR TCHs, shall not for HR TCHs).
MAYFMAYH (MS may use DTX for FR TCHs, may use for HR TCHs).
SHLFSHLH (MS shall use DTX for FR TCHs, shall for HR TCHs).
SHNFSHLH (MS shall not use DTX for Full Rate TCHs, shall for Half Rate TCHs)
Default: SHLFSHNH
Recommended: DTXUL=SHLFSHNH,
Reference: GSM 04.08, GSM 05.08, GSM 06.31
Discontinuous transmission uplink enabled, specifies whether discontinuous
transmission (DTX) shall be used by the MS.
Discontinuous transmission is a mode of operation in which the transmitters
turn down the sending power if the frames do not contain user information, e.g.
during speech pauses. This feature is mainly used to save battery capacity in
the MS; moreover, it helps to keep the overall radio interference on a low level.
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325
UL & DL Power Control
Both the MS and the BTS should operate at the lowest power level that
will maintain an acceptable signal quality
The process of dynamically changing the transmitted power on a
timeslot on the non-BCCH carrier frequency to control the output
power of a BTS during a connection so as to maintain desired received
signal strength in the mobile station is called dynamic downlink power
control (DL_PC)
The MS measures the signal strength or signal quality (based on the
Bit Error Ratio), and passes the information to the BSS, which
ultimately decides if and when the power level should be changed
Power levels can be stepped up or down in steps of 2 dB from the
peak power for the class down to a minimum of 13 dBm (20 mW)
DL_PC cannot be implemented on the BCCH carrier frequency in a
cell
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326
Power control parameters
EBSPWRC
0, 1 (FALSE, TRUE)
The O&M flag EBSPWRC is used to enable or disable downlink RF
power control (BS power control) in a specific cell
For the parameters EBSPWRC and EMSPWRC the possible
values are CLASSIC, ADAPTIVE and DISABLED
MSTXPMAX (MS_TXPWR_MAX)
The value of MSTXPMAX defines the maximum transmit power
(TXPWR) an MS is allowed to use in the serving cell.
MSTXPMAX
MSTXPMAXGSM 2 - 15 (GSM900; 39 - 13 dBm)
MSTXPMAXDCS 0 - 15 (DCS1800; 30 - 0 dBm)
MSTXPMAXPCS 0 - 15, 30, 31 (PCS1900; 30 - 0 dBm, 33 dBm, 32 dBm)
Unit = 2 dB
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327
Power control parameters
PWRRED (BS_TXPWR_RED)
The value of PWRRED determines the static reduction of the TRX output
power.
With the setting of PWRRED the maximum TRX output power can be
limited and the dynamic range for downlink power control can be adjusted.
The maximum output power BS_TXPWR_MAX of the BTS is then:
BS_TXPWR_MAX = PBTS - BS_TXPWR_RED
Values: 1, ... 6
Unit: 2 dB
For downlink power control the dynamic range is determined by the
maximum physical output power PBTS of the BTS and the static reduction
BS_TXPWR_RED of the BTS output power.
The range for the the downlink power control is then given:
from PBTS - 30 dB up to PBTS - BS_TXPWR_RED
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328
Power control: regulation area in DL
BTS OUTPUT
POWER
MS RECEIVED
POWER
MAX POWER
MIN POWER
MINIMUM SS
THRESHOLD
MAXIMUM SS
THRESHOLD
REGULATION AREA
BTS OUTPUT
POWER
MAX POWER
MIN POWER
MS RECEIVED
POWER
MINIMUM SS
THRESHOLD
MAXIMUM SS
THRESHOLD
REGULATION AREA
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329
Power control: regulation area in UL
MS OUTPUT
POWER
BTS RECEIVED
POWER
MAX POWER
MIN POWER
MINIMUM SS
THRESHOLD
MAXIMUM SS
THRESHOLD
REGULATION AREA
MS OUTPUT
POWER
MAX POWER
MIN POWER
BTS RECEIVED
POWER
MINIMUM SS
THRESHOLD
MAXIMUM SS
THRESHOLD
REGULATION AREA
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330
Power control parameters
Power control is possible in different steps:
PWREDSS 2,4 (unit = dB) Power decrease step size
Default: 2
PWRINCSS 2,4,6 (unit = dB) Power increase step size
Default: 6
PWRINCSS is used as the increase step size for the RF
transmission power at MS. The ability to increase by the
relatively large step of 6dB, reflects the possible urgency
required when, for instance, RXQUAL is dropping sharply.
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331
LOWTLEVD (L_RXLEV_DL_P) & LOWTLEVU (L_RXLEV_UL_P)
UPTLEVD (U_RXLEV_DL_P) & UPTLEVU (U_RXLEV_UL_P)
With these thresholds for power increase or decrease on the downlink/uplink for Power Control Decision can
be adjusted.
For power control decision the average values of the measured RXLEV in up- and downlink (RXLEV_UL/DL)
are compared with the preset thresholds (O&M parameters)
If RXLEV is smaller than the preset L thresholds the system reacts with a power increase.
If RXLEV is higher than the preset U thresholds the system reacts with a power decrease.
In between the values defined by LOWTLEVD / LOWTLEVU and UPTLEVD / UPTLEVU there are no PC
actions executed due to level. This range is necessary to give stability to the system.
There are also integrity conditions that have to be observed
- LOWTLEVD (L_RXLEV_DL_P) < UPTLEVD (U_RXLEV_DL_P)
- LOWTLEVU (L_RXLEV_UL_P) < UPTLEVU (U_RXLEV_UL_P)
A reasonable difference D between L_RXLEV_XX_P and U_RXLEV_XX_P could be 10 dB.
To avoid oscillation in the sysrem the POW_RED_STEP_SIZE presented by parameter PWREDSS must be
smaller then D, could be in this example e.g. 2 dB.
The RXLEV thresholds have also to harmonize with the HO process and its parameters:
- HOLTHLVDL (L_RXLEV_DL_H) < LOWTLEVD (L_RXLEV_DL_P)
- HOLTHLVUL (L_RXLEV_UL_H) < LOWTLEVU (L_RXLEV_UL_P)
- HOLTHLVDL (L_RXLEV_DL_H) < UPTLEVD (U_RXLEV_DL_P)
- HOLTHLVUL (L_RXLEV_UL_H) < UPTLEVU (U_RXLEV_UL_P)
0 - 63 (unit = -110 .. -47dBm)
Default windows UL-DL: 25 to 35
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332
LOWTQUAD (L_RXQUAL_DL_P) & LOWTQUAU (L_RXQUAL_UL_P)
UPTQUAD (U_RXQUAL_DL_P) & UPTQUAU (U_RXQUAL_UL_P)
With the parameters LOWTQUAD and LOWTQUAU the RXQUAL thresholds for power
increase or decrease on the downlink/uplink for Power Control Decision can be adjusted.
For power control decision the average values of the measured RXQUAL in up- and downlink
(RXQUAL_UL/DL) are compared with the preset thresholds (O&M parameters).
If RXQUAL is worse than the preset L thresholds the system reacts with a power decrease.
If RXQUAL is worse than the preset L thresholds the system reacts with a power increase
In between the values defined by LOWTQUAD / LOWTQUAU and UPTQUAD / UPTQUAU
there are no PC actions executed due to quality. This range is necessary to give stability to
the system.
There are also integrity conditions that have to be observed
- UPTQUAD (U_RXQUAL_DL_P) < LOWTQUAD (L_RXQUAL_DL_P)
- UPTQUAU (U_RXQUAL_UL_P) < LOWTQUAU (L_RXQUAL_UL_P)
A reasonable difference D between L_RXQUAL_XX_P and U_RXQUAL_XX_P could be e.g.
2.
The RXQUAL thresholds have also to harmonize with the HO process and its parameters:
- LOWTQUAD (L_RXQUAL_DL_P) > L_RXQUAL_DL_H
- LOWTQUAU (L_RXQUAL_UL_P) > L_RXQUAL_UL_H
- UPTQUAD (U_RXQUAL_DL_P) > L_RXQUAL_DL_H
- UPTQUAU (U_RXQUAL_UL_P) > L_RXQUAL_UL_H
Units: 0 - 7 (<0.2%, <0.4%, <0.8%, <1.6%, <3.2%, <6.4%, <12.8%, 12.8% BER)
Default windows UL DL: 4 to 2
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333
PWRCONF (P_CONFIRM)
PCONINT (P_CON_INTERVAL)
The timers for PWRCONF (P_CONFIRM) and PCONINT
(P_CON_INTERVAL) are used in the Power Control execution
process.
The value of PWRCONF determines the maximum interval for waiting
for a confirmation of the new requested RF transmit power level.
The value of PWRCONF determines the minimum interval between
changes of the RF transmit power level (time for suspension of a
power control decision after a power control execution).
Having requested a new RF transmit power REQ_TXPWR, the power
control decision process is suspended and it is waited for a
confirmation that the transmit power of the MS/BTS (CONF_TXPWR)
is adjusted to requested value, i.e. CONF_TXPWR = REQ_TXPWR.
If such a confirmation is not received within an interval of P_CONFIRM
(multiplicities of SACCH multiframes), the power control decision
process is immediately resumed using the most recently reported
confirmed value.
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334
PWRCONF (P_CONFIRM)
PCONINT (P_CON_INTERVAL)
If a confirmation is received, the power control decision process is
suspended for a certain number of SACCH multiframes given by the
parameter P_CON_INTERVAL. The reason for this is to allow an
observation of the effect of one power control decision before
initializing the next one; by this means the power control process is
stabilized.
During the waiting time set by P_CONFIRM the sytem has to wait for
the response of new requested TXPRWs either in the up- or downlink.
More critical is here the downlink PC process, i.e. the BTS commands
a new REQ_TXPWR on the downlink (DL) SACCH, the MS receives
this REQ_TXPWR command, MS decodes this REQ_TXPWR
command, MS implements the REQ_TXPWR and the MS confirms the
new REQ_TXPWR!
These 4 steps are done in time multiplicities of SACCH multiframe
periods, ie. the waiting time set by P_CONFIRM has to be at least 4 x
the SACCH multiframe period!
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335
PWRCONF (P_CONFIRM)
PCONINT (P_CON_INTERVAL)
During the suspension of the PC decision process set by
P_CON_INTERVAL new measurements for the measurement
preprocessing process are being executed using an averaging
window size determined by the value of AQUALPC
(A_QUAL_PC).
The waiting time set by P_CONFIRM has to be at least 4 x the
SACCH multiframe period.
It is recommended to set P_CON_INTERVAL > A_QUAL_PC in
terms of a number of SACCH multiframes.
Units: 1 - 31 (unit = 2 SACCH Multiframes)
Default values: 2 & 2
336
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336
DTX and Power Control: Team activities
Verify parameters for DTX in network parameters and make
comments accordingly
Discuss possible disadvantages of activating DTX in uplink and
downlink
Verify parameters for Power Control and make comments
accordingly
Verify integrity of Power Control parameters
Discuss impact of modifying Power Control Parameters
Should these parameters be the same in all cells?
Conclusions
337
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337
DTX and Power Control: Joint meeting
Review comments on parameters for DTX in the network
Review possible disadvantages of activating DTX in uplink and
downlink
Review comments on parameters for Power Control
implemented in the network
Confirm integrity of Power Control parameters
Share comments on impact of modifying Power Control
Parameters
Should these parameters be the same in all cells?
Conclusions
338
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338
DTX and power control: Conclusions
Special attention must be given to measurement of RXLEV and RXQUAL
when using DTX, because the Sub serving cell results should be reviewed
instead of full serving cell results
DTX cannot be implemented in downlink for TCH in BCCH carrier
Implementation of DL_PC would be desirable when high capacity is needed in
a GSM network
Improvements of the system performance with DL_PC will only be achieved in
an interference-limited system
UL_PC will help in conserving MS power, and hence longer standby and talk times.
DL_PC will improve Carrier-to-Interference (C/I) ratio for maintained traffic by reducing
the interference level (I).
If the BTS is operating on battery power (upon AC mains failure), then using DL_PC will
reduce the BTS power consumption and so the backup batteries will last longer.
When the MS is very close to the BTS (on the higher floors of high rise buildings close to
the macro cells, or in microcells), the MS receiver might become saturated by the signal
energy transmitted from the BTS. The sensitivity of the receiver will then decrease and
consequently the quality will deteriorate. This can be avoided by using DL_PC.
339
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
339
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
340
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
340
Slow frequency hopping
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Advantages of using frequency hopping
Compare base band and synthetiser frequency hopping
(advantages and disadvantages)
Determine the appropriate frequency hopping to be used
according to the hardware, network design and cells
configuration
Review parameters for frequency hopping
Impact of changing frequency hopping parameters
341
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341
Slow Frequency Hopping
Frequency hopping on a burst-by-burst
Synthesis frequency hopping
Baseband frequency hopping
Benefit of using Frequency Hopping:
Minimises the effect of fast fading (Rayleigh fading)
Reduces interference by averaging it
Increases network capacity
Improves security
Higher number of hopping frequencies (6 or more) result in
better quality
Trials suggest that hopping over fewer than four carriers is of
dubious benefit.
Some systems can hope on a bit by bit basis. This is called as fast frequency
hopping (mainly military uses)
342
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342
BASIC COMPONENTS OF A BTS
ADDITIONAL SLIDE
HYBRID
COMBINER
(Wide band)
HYBRID
COMBINER
(Wide band)
HYBRID
COMBINER
(Wide band)
HYBRID
COMBINER
(Wide band)
SPLITTERS
SPLITTERS
LNA
LNA
RMC
TX
RX
Main
Div
TX
RX
Main
Div
TX
RX
Main
Div
TX
RX
Main
Div
TX
RX
Main
Div
TX
RX
Main
Div
TX
RX
Main
Div
TX
RX
Main
Div
HYBRID
COMBINER
(Wide band)
HYBRID
COMBINER
(Wide band)
~
~
~
F
TX
~
~
~
F
RX
~
~
~
F
RX
~
~
~
F
TX
DUPLEXER
DUPLEXER
BTS
F
E
E
D
E
R
F
E
E
D
E
R
Jumper
J
u
m
p
e
r
Jumpers
Conectors
A
N
T
E
N
N
A
S
343
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343
Combiners
Antenna combiner allows more than one transmitting radios to
share the same antenna
Combiners should have
Low loss
Capable of handing the power associated with radio transmission
Provides adequate isolation between transmitters
Must be linear (avoiding intermodulation)
Type of combiners are
Hybrid combiners
Cavity combiners
344
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344
Hybrid Combiner
A hybrid combiner is a balanced
4-port passive device
The power loss in such a
combiner is 3dB because the
combiner splits the input power
into two
Half of the split power sent to the
antenna and other half is
terminated in a power load
To combine more than two
transmitters a stack of hybrid
combiners are required
345
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345
Cavity Combiners
Cavity combiner are a number of
combined bandpass filters
Each filter is tuned to the
frequency of the associated
transmitter
Isolation is achieved by the
filters by rejecting frequencies
other than the filters tuned
frequency
346
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346
Baseband hopping
Frequencies are switched between
timeslots
Both hybrid and cavity combiners
can support baseband hopping
Cavity combiner are low loss
compared to hybrid, therefore they
are preferred (however they are
more expensive than hybrid
combiners)
Air combining could also be used
Number of hopping frequencies
depends upon the number of TRX in
the cell
ADDITIONAL SLIDE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
TRX0 F
0
BURST
ROUTER
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
TRX1 F
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
TRX2 F
2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
TRX3 F
3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
FILTER
COMBINER
347
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347
Synthesizer hopping
Frequencies are re-tuned on
timeslot basis
Synthesizer hopping is not possible
with cavity filter
Hybrid combiners and air combining
allows synthesizer hopping
Number of hopping frequencies
does not depend upon number of
TRX (can be even higher)
ADDITIONAL SLIDE
F
7
F
5
F
6
F
1
F
2
F
3
F
4
F
n
F
5
F
6
F
7
F
1
F
2
F
3
F
4
F
n
F
7
F
1
F
2
F
3
F
4
F
5
F
6
F
n
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
TRX0 F0
TRX1
TRX2
TRX3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
HYBRID
COMBINER
HYBRID
COMBINER
348
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348
Implementation aspects of FH
Both cyclic and random FH can be implemented in baseband (BFH) or
synthesised hopping (SFH) technique.
BFH requires a dedicated TRX for each RF within the hopping sequence,
whereas in SFH the transceiver can be tuned to the desired RFs thus allowing
for less TRXs than hopping frequencies
In BFH the BCCH frequency can be included in the hopping sequence of all
timeslots except for TS0, with SFH the BCCH frequency cannot be used in the
hopping sequence. This is why BFH is recommended for cells with few TRXs.
In SFH, TRXs can be added without re-planning frequencies, while in BFH
every new TRX requires re-planning frequencies at least in a certain area
In case of TRX failures with SFH, only calls handled by a faulty TRX are
affected, while BFH cells have to be reconfigured completely
With SFH, a faulty TRX, e.g. reduced PA output, can be detected more easily,
since only those calls exclusively handled by the faulty TRX are affected,
whereas with BFH, all calls in a cell are affected.
BFH imposes no restrictions on RF combining equipment, whereas SFH
requires wide-band RF combining, i.e. hybrid or on air combining
349
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349
Frequency Hopping and repeaters (enhancers)
Care should be taken while enabling frequency hopping where
repeaters (channel selective) are employed
Wideband repeaters there should be no problems.
It may be necessary to take special actions with existing
repeaters when wide band frequency hopping is implemented in
the donor cell
Fit additional channel modules on a channel selective repeater to
support Wide Band frequency hopping
Change the donor cell for one without FH
Even replace the repeater by a broadband repeater
350
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350
Frequency Hopping Parameters
MS and BTS require a number of parameters for
frequency hopping:
Time Slot number (TN)
Mobile Allocation (MA)
Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO)
TDMA Frame Number (FN)
Hopping Sequence Number (HSN)
NOTE: Only MA, MAIO & HSN planning are performed by the frequency
planner; other parameters are decided by the system
Hopping Sequence Number
HSN = 0 for cyclic hopping
HSN = 1 63 for (GSM specified) pseudo random hopping
All relevant information for frequency hopping is
communicated to the MS in the set-up message
351
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351
Frequency Hopping Parameters
Time Slot number (TN)
Allocated time slot number
FN
TDMA frame number, is the future frame number on which hopping should
commence.
HOPMODE = BBHOP,
range: BBHOP, SYNHOP
default: BBHOP
Hopping Mode, this parameter indicates whether baseband hopping or
synthesizer hopping is to be used in this cell.
MA LIST = MOBALLOC
Is the list of carrier frequencies over wich hopping will occur and can be
the same as the cell allocation, or a subset of the cell allocation if one or
more carriers are to be excluded (e.g. the BCCH carrier)
List per sector
range: 0..1023 (each field)
352
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352
Frequency Hopping Parameters
MAIO: MOBILE ALLOCATION INDEX OFFSET
Per TRX (Although it can be configured by TS)
Range: 0..63
Default: 0
Start position (frequency) of the channel in the frequency hopping
algorithm.
HSN, HOPPING SEQUENCE NUMBER
Per sector
Range: 0..63
Defines hopping sequence
HSN=0 defines cyclic hopping i.e. 123456781234567812345678
HSN=1 to 63 define pseudo-random sequences and the actual sequence
is calculated with the aid of FN and another random number
FHSYID
Per TS, indicates if FH is Active or not for this TS
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353
Example
MA LIST: f1, f2, f3 and f4
Pseudo random and orthogonal frequencies
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354
Cyclic & Random Frequency Hopping
Cyclic Frequency Hopping (CH)
Guaranteed optimum frequency diversity
Good interference diversity with unequal number of frequencies per cell and/or non-
group-wise frequency planning -> good gains of fractional load, PC and DTX can be
expected
Poor interference diversity with groupwise frequency planning, especially in cluster
1x3 -> less gains from fractional loading and DTX can be expected
No CH specific problems with old MSs to be expected
Random Frequency Hopping (RH)
Poor frequency diversity at low number of hopping frequencies (<12)
Guaranteed Optimum Interference
Diversity independent of frequency plan
Problems with older MSs may occur
Recommendations:
For low number of hopping frequencies (<12), use cyclic hopping with advanced
frequency assignment strategies avoiding group-wise frequency planning
For high number of hopping frequencies, especially in 1x3 or 1x1, use random
hopping when presence of incompatible MSs in the network can be neglected
Both CH and RH can be implemented in Baseband or Synthesised Frequency
Hopping
Source: Siemens
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355
Recommendations
In coverage scenario with low traffic use BFH with hopping over BCCH
In capacity scenario with medium tight re-use implement SFH for
maximum hopping gains and expansion flexibility, where insertion
losses can be afforded
Concentric cell algorithm can be used to allocate "remote" MSs to non
hopping BCCH TRX, close MSs to hopping TCHs in tight re-use
If SDCCHs are configured hopping, check for mobile incompatibilities,
since older MSs may cause problems (probably having one SDCCH
hopping and one not hopping)
Implement FH incl. BCCH where possible, especially in BFH with few
TRXs, but check incompatibilities if in BCCH combined with DL PC
Use FH with PC and DTX, where capacity is needed in dedicated band
or MRP frequency plan. Good gains can be expected in similar sized
cells network
Source: Siemens
356
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
356
Frequency hopping: Team activities
Review parameters for frequency hopping in the network both in
900 Mhz and 1800 Mhz and make comments accordingly
Discuss the benefit of using base band or synthetised frequency
hopping according to the particular network configuration.
How FH could contribute with capacity increase in the network?
Could synthetised FH allow the use of 1x3 or 1x1 reuse in the
network? Would it be convenient?
Should be FH active in all cells in the network?
357
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
357
Frequency hopping: Joint meeting
Review meaningful comments about parameters for frequency
hopping in the network both in 900 Mhz and 1800 Mhz
Review answers and comments of questions asked in team
activities and obtain meaningful conclusions, suggestions and
recommendations.
358
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
358
Frequency hopping: Conclusions
When using Synthetised frequency hopping, a multi reuse is
commonly implemented, keeping a minimum of 4/12 for BCCH
carriers
In BFH mobiles allocated to TS0 of TCH carriers can not hop on
BCCH.
If TS of BCCH carrier in BFH are enable for hopping, the system
must ensure that, when there is no information of those TS in
the BCCH carrier, a dummy burst is transmitted.
For using 1x1 or 1x3 reuses 6x(#TRX/sector) frequencies are
required for hopping
359
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359
Capacity Gains of Frequency Hopping
In ideal homogeneous networks,
maximum capacity gains of up to
300% can be achieved
compared to a 4x3 re-use by the
combination of random FH, PC
and DTX in a 1x3 or 1x1 re-use
for TCH frequencies in dedicated
band planning, i.e. BCCH and
TCH frequencies are split into
separate bands.
Achievable capacity in ideal homogeneous network (90% calls: FER 2%)
usually found with simulations
Source: Siemens
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360
Capacity Gains of Frequency Hopping
In real non-homogeneous networks, high capacity gains of over 200%
compared to a typical mean re-use of e.g. 20 can be achieved as well
by combining FH, PC and DTX in dedicated band plans
However, the mean re-use ranges from 4 to 9, depending on the
homogeneity of the network
Extremely tight re-use like 1x3 or 1x1 has proven to provide down to
1/4 of the capacity simulated in ideal homogeneous networks
Re-use 1x3 can reach only 1/2 of the capacity of a well designed
frequency plan at tight re-use that explicitly copes with non-
homogeneities in the network
Thus avoiding the effort of frequency planning by re-use 1x3 is an
option only where the network can be designed very closely to an ideal only where the network can be designed very closely to an ideal
one by perfect site and radio engineering one by perfect site and radio engineering
Due to the smaller number of hopping frequencies available in a mean
re-use of around 7, cyclic FH performs significantly better than random
FH due to its better frequency diversity and due to the interference
diversity created from the frequency assignment.
Source: Siemens
361
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
361
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency Hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
362
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
362
Neighbour list optimisation
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Practical methods of verifying neighbour relationships
required
Using any available network tools to collect neighbour
information
Impact of adding or deleting neighbours from a neighbour list
363
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
363
Neighbour list
Each sector in a wireless network coordinates with its
neighbours to maintain good quality coverage to mobile users
As a mobile user reaches the margins of the current sectors
coverage, stronger signals are available from other sectors.
Through the handover process, the network re-routes the users
call through one of the neighbour sectors to maintain the
connection
If sectors have more neighbours than are required for reliable
service, the result can be inefficient use of the available
spectrum.
364
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
364
Neighbour cell measurement
In addition to measuring RXLEV and RXQUAL for the serving
cells downlink, the mobile is required to measure RXLEV and
decode the BCCH of the neighbour cells specified in the
neighbour cell list (BALIST) of up to 32 neighbours
During each frame, the mobile receives one burst and then
transmits one burst (from/to the serving cell)
It then re-tunes to a NCELL to carry out a RXLEV measurement
However, every 26
th
frame in a TCH multiframe is IDLE, which
allows the mobile time to intercept TS0 of a NCELL and decode
the BCCH.
Since a TCH multiframe lasts 120 msec, the mobile should be
able to make up to 8 BCCH identifications per second and a
total of about 217 RXLEV measurements per second (about
26/120ms)
365
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365
Mobile Activity in dedicated mode
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
DL
2 2 2
UL
F23
F24
F25 F0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
I
D
L
E
I
D
L
E
TCH
BCCH NCELL1
BCCH NCELL2
BCCH NCELLn
BCCH TS
RX
TX
RX RX
TX TX
RXLEV
RXLEV
BCCH + RXLEV
366
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
366
Measurement reports and SACCH measure period
Mobiles are required to provide at least one measurement report per second,
to include RXLEV and RXQUAL for the serving cell plus RXLEV and BSIC (if
decoded) for the best 6 NCELLS. RXLEV and RXQUAL values are averaged
before being reported.
Transmission of a complete measurement report requies 4 SACCH bursts.
Therefore, every 480 ms, the MS sends a measurement report detailing
conditions during the previous 480 ms.
If an SMS is being sent, the rate slows down but is not less than 1 report per
second
235.365 ms x 2 = 471 ms
120 ms x 4 = 480 ms
SDCCH
TCH
367
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367
Double BA list
The Double BA list defines the BCCH frequencies used in the neighbouring
cells (up to 32 neighbours)
The MS needs this information to monitor the system information in
neighbouring cells. The MS also uses this list of frequencies when measuring
the signal strength of the neighbouring cells.
The Double BA list provides the MS with different frequencies on which to
measure, depending on whether the MS is in idle or active mode.
In idle mode, the MS should measure on a larger number of frequencies, so
that the time required for the MS to access the network after power on is
reduced. This BA is informed via the BCCH
In active mode, the MS should measure on a reduced number of frequencies
in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements. This BA is informed via
the SACCH
Both lists should be the same, but ideally the BA list in active mode should be
restricted close to 6 neighbours in order to increase the rate of reporting for
each neighbour and hence lead to better statistical accuracy in measurement
reports sent by the MS.
368
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368
Using tools for generating Neighbour lists
The Planet EV neighbour List tool helps planning for successful
handover as a mobile unit travels through the coverage area.
A neighbour list from existing network can either be imported or
generated based on:
Best server
Planet EV bases the list on a best serving sector classified grid, using a
common border coverage area to identify neighbouring sectors
An interference matrix
Planet EV bases the list on factors that can include best serving sector
information, traffic and network data, and local RF engineering knowledge
The two different methods of determining neighbours have different
input parameters that affect which sectors qualify as neighbours.
369
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369
Steps for working with Neighbour lists in Planet
Step 1: If network data is available, import the neighbour list.
Step 2: Generate a neighbour list based on an interference
matrix.
Step 3: Generate a neighbour list based on best server
information.
Step 4: Set handover priorities, edit the neighbour list as
required.
Step 5: Compare neighbour lists.
Step 6: Display the neighbour list for a sector in a Map window.
Step 7: Copy and delete neighbour lists as required.
Step 8: Export a neighbour list to a text file for use in network
programming.
NOTE: For an existing network the neighbour list can be
imported and compared to those generated by the tool
370
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
370
Neghbour lists: Team activities
Determine optimisation inputs (statistics, KPI, drive tests, etc.)
that could lead to a neighbour list revision in a particular sector
Identify 3 cells for reviewing the neighbour lists
Review both BA lists and make conclusions
Determine if any actions should be taken in the neighbour lists,
Applying existing procedures
Discuss how neighbour lists generation and revision procedures
could be improved, using the knowledge aquired during this
workshop and the existing resources of the Company
How these changes in the process would enhance network
quality?
Conclusions
371
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
371
Neghbour lists: Joint meeting
Review optimisation inputs (statistics, KPI, drive tests, etc.) that
could lead to a neighbour list revision in a particular sector, and
make conclusions
Present the most representative cell (per team) for which
neighbour lists have been reviewed
Review the suggestions for improving neighbour lists generation
and revision procedures and reach meaninful conclusions
Review comments, suggestions and conclusions
372
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372
Neighbour List Optimisation: Conclusions
Handover statistics give an overview of the handovers in cells
Drive tests should be conducted in areas with handover problems
(generally resulting in call dragging and call drops)
Cells have to be added to the neighbour list prior to them being
monitored by the MS during drive tests
Generally all cells that appear with sufficient signal strength should be
part of the neighbour list, while those with insufficient signal strength
should be deleted
More care should be taken while deleting cells from neighbour lists
then while adding them
If in doubt about a neighbour relationship, then leave it in !
Planning tools like Planet EV, contribute with generating, handling and
optimising network lists in a more precise way
373
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
373
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
374
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374
Handover optimisation
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Verifying handover success/ failure rates
Study different types of handovers
Verifying the impact of changing handover parameters on
handover and related statistics
375
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375
Handover types
Since different causes could trigger handover, when these
causes simultaneously attempt to trigger handover, the BSC
must apply priorities
RXQUAL
INTERFERENCE
RXLEV
Distance
Power Budget (PBGT)
PBGT handovers is not essential, but should contribute
minimising interference, it is an optimising handover.
376
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376
RXQUAL AND RXLEV HANDOVERS
The BSC uses power control trying to mantain RXQUAL and
RXLEV within defined windows
If PC cannot keep RXQUAL and RXLEV (because MS or BTS
are at full power), then a handover is carried out when the
corresponding handover threshold is crossed.
RXQUAL thresholds (range 0 to 7)
L_RXQUAL_UL_H
L_RXQUAL_DL_H
RXLEV thresholds (range 0 - 63 unit = -110 .. -47dBm)
L_RXLEV_UL_H
L_RXLEV_DL_H
Handover thresholds must be kept below the corresponding PC
window
377
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377
DISTANCE BASED HANDOVERS
The parameter MS_RANGE_MAX represents the maximum cell
range and can be configured from 2 to 35 Kms in steps of about
0,5 Km. The range is set in bit periods, up to a maximum of 63.
1 bit period represents about 550m range
63 bit periods correspond to about 35 Km
If extended range is used, then ranges up to 120Km might be
configurable.
219 bit periods correspond to about 120 Km
Bit period is used to specify a range threshold for handover,
because the mobiles range is estimated based on its current
time advance in bit periods
When time advance exceeds MS_RANGE_MAX, a distance
based handover is triggered.
378
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378
MS_RANGE_MAX (Siemens)
MS_RANGE_MAX = HOTMSRM (SET HAND) = maximum distance between
MS and BTS (for standard cells)
unit: 1km
range: 0..35
default: 34
Reference: GSM 05.08
Handover threshold MS range maximum, defines the threshold for the maximum
permitted distance between MS and the BTS in 1km step size which is used for
intercell handover due to distance.
It is only relevant if intercell handover due to distance is enabled (DISTHO=TRUE,
see above).
The BTS calculates the distance between MS and BTS from the delay of the RACH
burst (which is used for the CHANNEL REQUEST and the HANDOVER ACCESS)
and the the delay of the normal bursts. If the determined distance exceeds the
entered threshold value an inter-cell handover with cause distance is initiated.
Rule: HOTMSRM (HAND) < EXCDIST (BTS [OPTIONS])
MS_RANGE_MAX = HOTMSRME (SET HAND) = max. distance between MS
and BTS (for extended cells)
379
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379
INTERFERENCE HANDOVER
Interference handovers can be configured separately for uplink and downlink
Interference can be detected with a high degree of probability, by reviewing
RXLEV and RXQUAL simultaneously:
If RXQUAL is poor AND RXLEV is good, then interference is the most likely cause
and a handover to a better channel on the same sector (INTRA CELL HANDOVER)
should be triggered to improve quality
If RXQUAL were used independently, then a handover to another cell (INTER CELL
HANDOVER) could be carried out which may not be appropriate considering MS
location.
Parameters
RXLEV_UL_IH (this parameter should be >L_RXLEV_UL_P within PC window)
RXLEV_DL_IH (this parameter should be >L_RXLEV_DL_P within PC window)
Interference handover is triggered if
RXQUAL < L_RXQUAL_UL_H AND RXLEV > RXLEV_UL_IH or
RXQUAL < L_RXQUAL_DL_H AND RXLEV > RXLEV_DL_IH
380
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380
INTERFERENCE BANDS
For any channel assignment and especially for intra-cell handover
based on interference, the BSC allocates the best available channel.
All idle channels are continually monitored for interfering signals and
then placed in an interferer band according to the following scale
BAND 0: -110 dbm to Boundary 1 (typical: -105 dbm)
BAND 1: Boundary 1 to Boundary 2 (typical: -100 dbm)
BAND 2: Boundary 2 to Boundary 3 (typical: -95 dbm)
BAND 3: Boundary 3 to Boundary 4 (typical: -90 dbm)
BAND 4: Boundary 4 to -47dbm (worst channels)
Boundaries are configurable
381
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381
POWER BUDGET HANDOVERS
Power budget handover is the optimal handover
If an MS is transferred to the BTS that offers the most favorable
power budget, even if quality and level thresholds have not been
reached.
In this way interference levels are reduced by decreasing TX
power levels.
382
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382
POWER BUDGET HANDOVERS
PBGT(n)= (min(MS_TXPWR_MAX,P) RXLEV_DL PWR_C_D)
(min(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n),P) RXLEV_NCELL(n))
MS_TXPWR_MAX: Maximum access power for MS in serving cell
5-39 dbm for GSM900 and 0-30 dbm for GSM1800
P: Maximum power capability of the MS
RXLEV_DL: Serving cell averaged level
PWR_C_D: Difference between maximum downlink power in cell and
actual power due to BTS power control
MS_TXPWR_MAX(n): Maximum power capability of the MS in neighbour
cell
RXLEV_NCELL(n): Neighbour cell averaged level
A power budget handover is triggered if
PBGT(n) > 0 or PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(n)
HO_MARGIN is a margin for handover to the n neighour cell
Range: 1 to 24 db in 1 db steps (can be positive or negative)
383
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383
HANDOVER MARGIN
HO_MARGIN is used to offset the point of handover
A positive value moves the handover closer to the BTS
A negative value moves the handover farer from the BTS
Specifying positive HO_MARGIN for BTS1 and BTS2 creates a
hysteresis corridor, that helps to prevent ping-pong when a mobile is
moving parallel to the mutual cell boundary.
Adjustment of HO_MARGIN can also be used to effectively change the
cell boundaries. This soft technique can be useful for balancing traffic
loads on cells.
Negative values for HO_MARGIN can be used in microcells for
encouraging traffic to handover into the microcell at the earliest
possible opportunity.
HO_MARGIN may be common to all types of handover or may be
possible to have different margins for RXQUAL, RXLEV and PBGT,
according to the equipment provider
384
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384
RANKING OF TARGET CELLS FOR HANDOVER
BSS uses two criteria for ranking target cells for handover:
1. Each target cell is checked to verify if it satisfies the minimum
RXLEV requirement following the equation
RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) + max (0,Pa)
Pa = MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) P
RXLEV_NCELL(n): Reported downlink RXLEV for neighbour cell (n)
RXLEV_MIN(n): Minimum required downlink RXLEV for handover to neighbour
cell (n) in dbm
MS_TXPWR_MAX(n): Maximum permitted uplink transmit power on a TCH in
neighbour cell (n) in dbm
P: Maximum power capability of the MS in dbm
2. Target cells satisfying above equation are then assessed using the
following equation and ranked according to the resulting value:
PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN
Those with a PBGT which most exceed HO_MARGIN are
ranked highest
385
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
385
ENABLING / DISABLING HANDOVERS
It is possible to disable each type of handover, either using a
software flag or by using parameters which are not likely to be
satisfied (i.e. specifying a PBGT HO_MARGIN=30db will have
the effect of virtually disabling PBGT handover)
It may be possible to discriminate further e.g. enabling/disabling
SDCCH handovers. This may be desirable to reduce
unnecessary signalling.
Some operators think that handover in the SDCCH is not
worthwhile, because a mobile using SDCCH will hold the
channel only for few seconds at most.
All systems must satisfy the general requirements explained, but
manufacturers can use more complex and effective processes
that include a variety of additional parameters.
386
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
386
NY1
COMMENTS:
A value for NY1 is compromise between higher success rate of
asynchronous handover (high value) and higher chance of TCH to be
seized by another MS (low value). Faster releasing of new channel is
good in a location that has high traffic generation rate. If a high value of
NY1 is used, timer T3105 (time between each repetition of PHYSICAL
INFORMATION message) should be reduced in order not to keep the
new channel too long. The following equation may help,
NY1 (old) * T3105 (old) = NY1 (new) * T3105 (new).
This process result in handover failure (releasing of a new channel),
monitored by a BTS. In a MS there is a timer T3124 (cannot be
adjusted) used to monitor a handover failure i.e. when T3124 expires a
MS sends HANDOVER FAILURE message, a BTS then releases a
new channel. T3124 equals 675 ms for SDCCH and 320 ms else.
20 - 1-254 BTSC
Default Value Unit Range Package
387
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387
Optimisation of network timers
TIMER3105
BSS
Type: Numeral.
Range: 0 to 254.
Unit: 10 ms.
Default: 4.
Definition: TIMER3105 indicates the time between repetition of
physical information messages during the handover procedure
(T3105, see GSM 04.08, section 3.4.4).
Started when a PHYSICAL INFORMATION message is sent to the
MS; stopped on reception of a correctly decoded layer 2 frame in
format A or B or a correctly decoded TCH frame or a HANDOVER
FAILURE message from the MS; expiry may cause Ny1 repetitions
of the PHYSICAL INFORMATION message to the MS.
388
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
388
Handover Optimisation: Team activities
Review network HO statistics and chose 3 cells for handover
analysis
Find handover parameters and PC parameters for these cells
Analyse the parameters and reach meaningful conclusions
Review ranges of values used for HO parameters in all cells in
the network and make comments accordingly
Provide suggestions and recommendations to improve
handover performance in the network
389
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
389
Handover Optimisation: Joint meeting
Present the HO statistics and HO and PC parameters for the
most representative cell of each team
Review conclusions about these parameters
Review comments about ranges of values used for HO
parameters in all cells in the network
Review suggestions and recommendations to improve handover
performance in the network
Conclusions
390
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
390
Handover Optimisation: Conclusions
A typical Call to Handover Ratio is 2:1
Handovers from one layer to another should not take place early; if this
is the case, then call setup should have taken place on the other layer
Ping-pong handovers should be avoided
Priority for handovers should be
RXQUAL
INTERFERENCE
RXLEV
Distance
Power Budget (PBGT)
In a well optimised network PBGT handovers should be triggered
before any other
391
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
391
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop
analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
392
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
392
Call blocking and call drop analysis
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Statistical analysis and discussion on problems being
experienced
Discussing options to improve call blocking/ drop figures
393
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
393
Call Drop Analysis
Call drops generally occur due to:
Interference problems
Handover problems
Coverage problems
Link imbalance
Faulty hardware
Call drops impact customers directly and are an irritant
Probable solutions are:
Improved coverage
Handover optimisation
Balancing the uplink and downlink budgets
Interference reduction by proper frequency planning
Replacing faulty hardware
394
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
394
Calculation of Call Drops
In the general formula for calculation of call drop rate, the number of call drops is
divided by the number of assignments (for call originations or handovers). If there
are a large number of handovers in a cell, then the call drop rate in that cell will be
lowered by this calculation. The same shall be the case when there are multiple
ping-pong handovers for calls. This shall result in the call drop rate reflected in
statistics not giving a true picture of the actual call drop rate (as perceived by the
subscribers).
From the subscribers perspective, the subscriber either drops the call he/she
made/ received or does not drop it. Any handovers etc. are transparent to a
subscriber. So, a subscriber would perceive the call drop rate as being given by
(drops/calls made or received) percent. No handovers shall be taken into account
in this calculation.
The drops and call originations/ terminations should be counted per cell (for both
full-rate and half-rate channels). It may be possible to see more drops in a cell than
call originations/ terminations, thus giving a drop rate of more than 100 percent.
This calculation would give more and more accurate results as the cluster of cells
over which it is collectively calculated is increased.
This rate would truly reflect the subscribers perception of the drop rate in the
network, though overall perception shall include the quality of calls, which can be
independently measured and quantified by using appropriate drive test tools.
395
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
395
Call drops: team activities
Identify those KPI that indicate high rates of drop calls per sector
Review the formulas for calculating these KPI and make comments
accordingly
Select 3 sectors with highest drop call rates in BCCH
Select 3 sectors with highest drop call rates in TCH
Identify other KPI that could help to determine the causes for drop
calls, including
Interference problems
Handover problems
Coverage problems
Link imbalance
Faulty hardware
Using these KPI, drive tests, area knowledge and simulations, assess
the problems and make suggestions and recommendations to correct
them
Make conclusions on drop calls analysis and problems resolution
396
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
396
Call drops: joint meeting
Share findings on KPI used for high rates of drop calls and
comments on the formulas for calculating them
Present the most representative sector per team for drop call
rates, including
KPI indicating call drops
KPI that helped to determine the causes of drop calls
Drive tests, simulations, network configuration, statistics and any
other optimisation inputs used to assess the problem
Suggestions and recommendations to correct the problem
Other teams will contribute with their opinion on the assessment
of the drop call causes and problem resolution
Find general conclusions on drop calls analysis and problems
resolution
397
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
397
Call drops: conclusions
Multiple causes
Correlate optimisation inputs
Try simplest solutions first
Try minimum number of simultaneous changes
398
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
398
Call Blocking Analysis
Call blocking results in degradation in the network owing to availability
problems
Call blocking generally results from limited network availability which
may be due to:
Insufficient network capacity
Faulty hardware
Interference
Handover problems
Other reasons
Call blocking can be overcome by:
Cell site expansion
Planning new sites
Balancing traffic on existing cells
Using network features like Directed Retry and Congestion Relief
Removing other causes of blocking
399
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
399
Traffic Model for Mobile Terminated Call
400
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
400
CHTYPE=MAINBCCH (Siemens)
Channel type, possible values:
Normal broadcast control channel including frequency correction
and synchronization cannel:
MAINBCCH = FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH
Broadcast and common CCH only
CCCH = BCCH + CCCH (CCCH = PCH + RACH + AGCH)
Main BCCH with reduced CCCH capacity plus stand-alone
dedicated CCH/4
MBCCHC = FCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/C4 (0..3) + SACCH/C4
(0..3)
MBCCHC plus SMS cell broadcast channel
BCBCH = FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH* + SDCCH/C4 (0..3) + SACCH/C4
(0..3) + CBCH
401
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401
BCCH and CCCH
Only one FCCH/SCH is allowed per cell - on timeslot 0 of C0!
Creation of additional BCCH+CCCH is possible but only on the
timeslots 2,4 and 6 of C0
The info about the used control channel configuration is sent in the
Parameter CCCH_CONF, which is sent in the BCCH.
If more than one BCCH is created for a cell the MSs observe the
BCCH on timeslot 0 first and - having detected that there are more
than one (from the CCCH_CONF) - select one BCCH/CCCH timeslot
for all their CCCH activities on the basis of their CCCH_GROUP.
The CCCH_GROUP is calculated from the last three digits of the IMSI
and the CCCH configuration
The CBCH replaces the 2nd SDCCH, i.e. there are only 3 SDCCH
available if BCBCH is selected; only one CBCH is allowed per cell
A MBCCHC or a BCBCH can only be created if NBLKACGR 2
In a concentric cell all frequencies with common control channels
(BCCH,CCCH) must belong to the complete area.
402
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
402
Call blocking: team activities
Find KPI that serve to identify traffic and congestion in the
following channels
PCH
RACH
AGCH
Find the 3 most loaded sectors per each type of these channels
Find the number of PCH and AGCH assigned for those sectors
Find the number of Pagging groups for those sectors
Make comments, suggestions and recommendations
Identify KPI that indicate blocking in TCH and SDCCH
Review formulas for these KPI and make comments accordingly
Select the 3 sectors with highest blocking in TCH
Select the 3 sectors with highest blocking in SDCCH
NOTE: These sectors will be used in the team activities for TCH/SDCCH dimensioning
403
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
403
Call blocking: joint meeting
Share findings on KPI that serve to identify traffic and
congestion in the following channels
PCH
RACH
AGCH
Present the most representative sector per team for load in the
above channels, including number of PCH and AGCH, number
of Pagging groups and suggestions and recommendations
Share findings on KPI that indicate blocking in TCH and SDCCH
and comments on the formulas applied to obtain these KPI
Find general conclusions
404
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
404
Call blocking: conclusions
Under subscriber point of view, network availability is equally
affected by blocking in anyone of the channels involved
PCH
RACH
AGCH
SDCCH
TCH
Network availability can also be affected by
Congestion in interfaces BSC MSC and MSC PSTN
Overload in BSC / MSC processors
405
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
405
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
406
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
406
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Calculation of SDCCH and TCH requirements based on
statistical data
Verifying the impact of changing SDCCH/TCH availability in
cells
407
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
407
Carried Traffic and GoS
Grade of Service (GoS)
refers to the probability of
blocking (P
B
)
Trade-off between Trunking
Efficiency & GoS
Typically targeted at 2%
408
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
408
Adaptive SDCCH Reconfiguration Feature
After congestion occurs on the SDCCH, all Channel Requests are
rejected by the BSS
The Adaptive/Dynamic SDCCH Reconfiguration feature works by
dynamically adapting the number of signalling channels (SDCCHs) to
the signalling load
As the signalling load increases, the number of signalling channels are
increased
With a decrease in the load the number of signalling channels are
decreased
409
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
409
SDCCH Reconfiguration: Limitations
While increasing the number of signalling channels, it is ensured that a
minimum specified number of free traffic channels are available in the
cell
This condition, at several times, puts a constraint on the configuration
of additional signalling channels thereby leading to SDCCH congestion
Under such circumstances, if the feature Immediate Assignment on
TCH were used, it would ensure efficient usage of available resources
410
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
410
Adaptive SDCCH Reconfiguration: Benefits
Would reduce the instances of SDCCH congestion especially in sites
with high SDCCH traffic (airports, location area borders, etc.)
Would result in higher availability of TCH resources, because the
minimum number of SDCCHs that would always be available can be
reduced if this feature is used
Since it is not possible to reconfigure the last available TCH into an
SDCCH channel, so SDCCH congestion cannot be completely
eliminated by this feature
The process of configuring a TCH timeslot into an SDCCH/8 timeslot takes
approximately 0.8 seconds, while the reverse process (SDCCH/8 to TCH)
takes approximately 0.6 seconds.
Usage: Cells with TCH and SDCCH congestion. Cells in places of high
SDCCH requirements (e.g. airport lounge, location area border, etc.)
411
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
411
Smooth Channel Modification
The purpose is to allow a dynamic on-demand extension of the
SDCCH capacity in case of SDCCH congestion.
The feature avoids blocking of the SDCCH in cases of
unexpected high SDCCH loads generated by SMS traffic or in
specific areas (e.g. airports, train stations etc.).
Channels that shall be dynamically used both as SDCCH and
TCH must be created with CHTYPE=TCHSD and parameter
CHPOOLTYP=TCHSDPOOL (next slide).
When the SDCCH utilization resp. SDCCH traffic load exceeds
the threshold SDCCHCONGTH the switchover from Dual Rate
TCH mode to SDCCH/8 mode takes place automatically.
Source: Siemens
412
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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412
Pool-concept
The SDCCH_POOL contains all channels declared as SDCCH/4,
SDCCH/8 and TCH/SD that the operator decides to use as configured
SDCCHs
The TCH_POOL contains all channels declared as TCH full or TCH dual
(HR) and TCH/SD that the operator decides to use as configured TCHs.
These TCH may be used for both CS and GPRS traffic.
The TCH/SD_POOL contains all channels created as TCH/SD that the
operator decides to share between the TCH and SDCCH resources
depending on the SDCCH traffic load situation
The SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL is an additional system-internal (not
configurable) pool that contains the TCH/SD sub-channels that are
temporarily used as SDCCH. If during the processing of an SDCCH
request the percentage of busy SDCCHs has exceeded the threshold
SDCCHCONGTH, the BSC moves 8 SDCCH subchannels from the
TCH/SD_POOL to the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL. A configurable timer
TGUARD avoids oscillation between both pools.
Within each pool the idle Interference band classifies the resources. This
classification is also valid for the TCH_SD used as SDCCH
Source: Siemens
413
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
413
SDCCH congestion threshold, SDCCHCONGTH
unit: 1 %
range: 70..100
default: 70
This parameter defines the SDCCH load threshold which causes the move of a TCH/SD
from the TCH/SD_POOL to the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL and vice versa.
SDCCHCONGTH determines the cell-specific trigger threshold for the percentage of
busy SDCCHs which initiates the moving of a TCH/SD from the TCH/SD_POOL
The percentage of busy SDCCHs is calculated as follows:
Whenever the BSC receives a seizure request for an SDCCH the BSC calculates the
SDCCH traffic load and compares it to the to the threshold SDCCHCONGTH.
If the SDCCH traffic load exceeds SDCCHCONGTH, the BSC moves the TCH/SD from
the TCH/SD_POOL to the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL and thus extends the SDCCH
capacity by 8 additional SDCCH subslots.
The TCH/SD with the best quality is moved first.
* Note: the calculation always considers the total amount of SDCCH subslots from both the SDCCH_POOL and the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL !
Source: Siemens
414
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
414
Flow diagram for an SDCCH request
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
Source: Siemens
415
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
415
Comments on SDCCHCONGTH
The parameter SDCCHCONGTH is also evaluated during SDCCH
release in order to decide whether a TCH/SD currently in the
SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL can be moved back to the TCH/SD_POOL.
For this reason the BSC calculates the current SDCCH traffic load and
compares it to SDCCHCONGTH.
Attention: the calculation performed during the SDCCH release
procedure is different from the formula shown before! (see parameter
TGUARDTCHSD)
Note: SDCCHCONGTH has no relevance for the SDCCH allocation
process itself, i.e. if the BSC receives an SDCCH request, it does not
move a TCH/SD to the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL to satisfy this
request!
Instead, for all incoming SDCCH requests the BSC first tries to allocate
an SDCCH subslot from the SDCCH_POOL (i.e. a subslot from the
non-TCH/SD SDCCHs), no matter whether additional SDCCH subslots
are available in the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL or not.
Source: Siemens
416
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
416
TGUARDTCHSD
Range: SEC00, SEC10, SEC11, SEC12, SEC13, SEC14, SEC15
Default: SEC00
Guard Timer for TCH/SD, this parameter defines the time the BSC has to wait before a
TCH/SD is moved from the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL to the TCH/SD_POOL.
When a TCH is created with CHTYPE=TCHSD and CHPOOLTYP=TCHSDPOOL , it can be
used as TCH or as an additional SDCCH/8, allowing a dynamic on-demand enhancement of
the SDCCH capacity.
When a TCH/SD is created with TCHSDPOOL, it basically belongs to the TCH/SD_POOL,
where it can be used as normal dual rate TCH.
When the BSC receives an SDCCH request while the percentage of busy SDCCH subslots
has exceeded the threshold SDCCHCONGTH, the BSC moves the 8 SDCCH subchannels of
one TCH/SD from the TCH/SD_POOL to the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL to keep additional
SDCCH resources for further incoming SDCCH requests.
During the SDCCH allocation the SDCCHs of the SDCCH_POOL are always handled with
priority, i.e. an SDCCH request will only be satisfied by a subslot from the
SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL, if there is no subslot available in the SDCCH_POOL.
This means that, when the SDCCH load decreases and the congestion in the SDCCH_POOL
ends, no SDCCH will be allocated in the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL anymore.
Source: Siemens
417
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
417
TCH/SD reallocation
Whether a TCH/SD currently in the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL can be moved back to the
TCH/SD_POOL is checked during every release procedure for an SDCCH: during the
SDCCH release the BSC checks the current SDCCH traffic load according to the following
formula
The calculation always considers the total amount of SDCCH subslots from both the
SDCCH_POOL and the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL
no. of idle TCHSDs in BACKUP_POOL means:
All TCHSDs in the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL in usage state idle
All TCHSDs in the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL for which TGUARDTCHSD is running This means: If
there is no TCHSD in the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL then the term 8 (no. of idle TCHSDs in
BACKUP_POOL) = 0.
The calculated SDCCH traffic load is compared to the threshold SDCCHCONGTH
In case of SDCCH traffic load SDCCHCONGTH the TCH/SD remains in the
SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL and TGUARDTCHSD is not started.
In case of SDCCH traffic load < SDCCHCONGTH the timer TGUARDTCHSD is started for those
TCH/SDs which are in idle mode. When it expires, the TCH/SD is moved back from the
SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL to the TCH/SD_POOL. If TGUARDTCHSD=SEC00, idle TCH/SDs are
immediately moved back to the TCH/SD_POOL when the above mentioned SDCCH traffic load
condition is detected.
If during the run time of TGUARDTCHSD another SDCCH request establishes that the move
condition (SDCCH traffic load > SDCCHCONGTH) is fulfilled again, TGUARDTCHSD is stopped
and the TCH/SD remains in the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL.
Source: Siemens
418
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
418
TGUARDTCHSD: Comments
If TGUARDTCHSD is running for particular TCH/SD and the BSC receives a
TCH request while all other TCHs are busy, then TGUARDTCHSD is
immediately stopped, the TCH is returned to the TCH/SD_POOL and the TCH
request is satisfied with this channel.
Attention: The calculation of the SDCCH load that is compared to the threshold
SDCCHCONGTH that is performed during the SDCCH release procedure is
different from the one that is performed in case of SDCCH assignment!
The BTS does not know anything about the association of the TCH/SD
channels to the BSC channel pools
Instead, for the BTS a TCH/SD is treated as a normal dual rate TCH if it is idle
or if it has received a CHANNEL ACTIVATION for channel type TCH.
If it has received a CHANNEL ACTIVATION for channel type SDCCH, it is
treated as SDCCH.
This means that, even if TGUARDTCHSD is still running for a specific TCH/SD
in the BSC (i.e. the TCH/SD is still in the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL), from
point of view of the BTS the TCH/SD is treated as an dual rate TCH again
This means that the BTS might send idle channel measurements during this
period, even if the TCH/SD is still in the SDCCH_BACKUP_POOL.
Source: Siemens
419
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
419
Effect of Half Rate implementation
Performing network/ site expansion due to network congestion caused
by temporary increase in traffic will result in underutilisation of network
resources apart from having severe cost implications
A temporary solution for overcoming network congestion is using Half
Rate
Maximizes spectrum efficiency
Cost effective
Quick to deploy
Site visit not required
Almost doubles the amount of radio resources
Radio resources can be more efficiently used by employing half rate traffic channels for low
rate data services
Provides additional capacity only when required
Half Rate is a trade-off between capacity and quality
Half Rate should be triggered by the load level on a cell for both
configuring & reconfiguring HR/FR timeslots; these thresholds should
be set sensibly to avoid unnecessary HR availability
Timeslots to be configured to HR can be dynamically selected or fixed
420
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
420
Half Rate Benefits & Drawbacks
Benefits:
Reduced blocking by effectively doubling the cell capacity
Cost effective (depending on charge made by vendor) and easy to
implement with speed
Drawbacks
Increased signalling load on the network
Voice quality is degraded, so should only be used as a temporary
solution
May result in dissatisfied customers resulting in loss of revenue/
churn
421
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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421
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH: Team activities
Chose one of the 3 sectors with highest blocking in TCH selected in call blocking activities and
one of the 3 sectors with no blocking and lowest traffic in TCH
Calculate offered traffic (HR + FR)
Calculate required No. of TCH with GoS=2%
Calculate offered traffic for SDCCH
Calculate required No. of SDCCH with GoS=0,5%
Verify number of HR TCH, FR TCH and SDCCH
Verify coverage area looking for capacity hot spots
Verify traffic and blocking in neighbour cells
Make comments, suggestions and recommendations
Chose one of the 3 sectors with highest blocking in SDCCH selected in call blocking activities
and one of the 3 sectors with no blocking and lowest traffic in SDCCH
Calculate offered traffic for SDCCH
Calculate required No. of SDCCH with GoS=0,5%
Calculate offered traffic (HR + FR)
Calculate required No. of TCH with GoS=2%
Verify number of HR TCH, FR TCH and SDCCH
Verify sector location (location area borders, airports, etc.) that could originate high signalling
traffic
Verify SMS traffic
Make comments, suggestions and recommendations
422
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
422
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH: joint meeting
Share the findings the most representative sector (out of the total 4
they worked on) per team
Share comments, suggestions and recommendations
How geographical reference is important when dimensioning SDCCH
and TCH?
When adaptive SDCCH reconfiguration should be used and when it
should not?
How SDCCH and TCH traffic and blocking are related?
Find general conclusions and recommendations
423
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
423
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH: conclusions
When blocking in a cell is very high it is very likely that part of
the blocked traffic is due to retry (it should not be added to the
offered traffic)
It is then advisable to set a blocking threshold (e.g. 30%) for
calculating offered traffic in heavy congested sectors
Use of combined, no combined TSO and dynamic assignment
of SDCCH should be assess in a per cell basis
No. of SDCCH when enabling TCH HR must be carefully
reviewed
Geographical reference is fundamental to achieve meaningful
conclusions when assessing traffic and congestion (TCH and/or
BCCH) for a sector or area
424
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
424
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
425
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
425
Drive testing and analysis
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Drive testing equipment setup
Practical Drive Testing
Processing of drive test logs
Using drive test data to arrive at conclusions on network
problems
426
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
426
Drive test objectives
Drive tests could have different objectives such as
Verification of network performance
Site acceptance or cluster acceptance
Service availability in certain areas
Verification of network performance after changes
Customer complaints verification
Network performance comparison to other networks
Depending of objectives, drive test planning and execution
should vary
427
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
427
Single Cell Functional Test (SCFT) objectives
The SCFT is the first comprehensive test run on each site after it has
been commissioned and on air into the relevant cellular system. Before
cluster optimisation is performed, all sites within that cluster must pass
an SCFT.
Site verification will be performed on individual sites, as they become
installed and operational. Procedure consist on collecting and
analyzing test mobile data to verify that site specific data parameters
have been entered accurately, the antenna configuration has been
implemented as designed, path balance exists, and the site covers the
appropriate area.
The objective of SCFT is to ensure the basic functionality and
operation of each sector and each cell within a cluster. In addition the
SCFT will isolate and resolve any specific products and/or site
configuration issues, which have not been identified earlier.
428
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
428
Cluster Optimization Objectives
Usually the service area is broken into regional overlapped areas to
undergo extensive testing to evaluate the functioning of regional
groups of cells
Test mobile data will be compared against the planned design. Items
such as contiguous coverage area and handover boundaries are
verified and changes to site parameters to optimize these areas are
suggested
Cluster optimization represents the second step in the RF optimization
process. The objectives of cluster optimization are to reach system
performance goals in a manageable subset of contiguous cells within
the cellular system
During cluster optimization, the RF design is verified and coverage
holes identified
In addition, neighbour lists, access windows and cellular system
parameters are modified through analysis of drive test data to reach
performance goals.
429
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
429
Benchmarking and network comparison
Benchmarking
It is here that individual clusters are combined for the cellular system as a whole to
verify coverage and performance in a service area
Test routes are defined within each zone, covering all important areas
Any specific location of interest that requires testing during the busy hour must be
identified.
Certain locations may have different busy periods, therefore a test schedule that
reflects locations and busy times as far as possible should be planned, in order to
ensure that tests are performed in specific locations when the networks are loaded
with traffic
Network comparison
Benchmarking routes are drive-tested using two different test mobile kits, generating
simultaneous calls on the two networks to be audited
Network performance in the area should be quantied. If using network
comparison, performance differences should be highlighted. Although some of
the results are quite technical in nature, the presentation will also endeavor to
relate these to quality of service as would be perceived by a client in order to
make the results useful for marketing and managerial purposes.
430
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
430
Measurement types
CALL ESTABLISHMENT
A large number of calls are made, of around 90 seconds in
duration; this reflects the typical call length of clients. Monitoring the
success and failure rate of these calls gives a good indication of the
performance as seen by the client. It should include call events
provided by drive test equipment, drop calls, origination problems
and others
LONG DURATION CALLS
Calls of long duration (extended calls) are used to test handoff
performance. In this case high mobility routes are selected, which
are roadways with high cellular traffic originated by mobile users.
BCCH SCANNING
Used to provide a clear picture of network coverage and quality
Special care must be taken, since test speed, equipment scanning
capabilities and number of channels to be scanned are related.
431
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
431
Drive testing and analysis: Team activities
Select three log files of drive tests carried out with different
objectives
Find problematic areas
Collect network statistics and KPI for sites in the problematic
area
Verify network features used by sites in the problematic areas
Get a network simulation (Planet) and sites configuration for the
problematic areas
Diagnose possible problems
Suggest possible changes
Verify type of drive test carried out according to the objectives
Suggestions and recommendations for drive test performance
and post processing
432
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
432
Drive testing and analysis: Joint meeting
Select the most representative area per team and present
the following information
Detected problem
Network statistics and KPI related to the problem for sites
in the area
Network features used by sites in the area
Network simulation (Planet) and sites configuration
Assessment of possible problems
Suggested changes
Conclusions, suggestions and recommendations for drive
test performance and post processing
433
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
433
Drive testing and analysis: Conclusions
Drive tests provide information for downlink only
One of the main advantages of drive test is the gegraphical
reference: use it!
Comparing drive test results with network simulation could
lead to rapid conclusions
Complementing drive test results with KPI in the area will
drive to more accurate assessments.
Propagation is a stochastic phenomenon, it is not
deterministic! Therefore use drive tests for verifying area
problems instead of single-point problems.
434
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
434
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic
distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
435
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
435
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Verifying redistribution of call set-ups using different traffic
distribution techniques in the field
Verifying redistribution of TCH traffic using different traffic
distribution techniques in the field
Concentric Cells
Common BCCH
Multi band operation
Hierarchical cell structure
Fast Moving Mobiles
436
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
436
Concentric Cells
Concentric Cells is a feature which
provides cell resource partitioning
to allow for tighter re-use patterns
and increased frequency economy
Concentric cells, using a single
BCCH, can be used to move
traffic between the conventional
macrocell underlay (outer zone)
and super re-use layer (inner
zone)
This is an elegant and simple
technique in which the size of cells
on the super re-use layer (inner
zone) is self-governed by
interference. However, the use of
a single BCCH means that the
macrocell (outer zone) is a critical
dependency for all call set-ups
and inter-site handovers and is
thus susceptible to congestion.
437
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
437
Implementation of Concentric Cells
Concentric Cells feature is one of the
many capacity enhancement features
available and is complementary to
microcellular operation.
With this feature it is possible to
configure non-BCCH carriers within a
cell to have a smaller coverage area.
The carriers equipped within a cell
may be grouped into zones.
Zone 0 (also referred to as the `outer
zone') is reserved for carriers which
may broadcast at the maximum
transmit level defined for the cell.
Zone 0 always contains the BCCH
carrier.
Zone 1 (also referred to as the `inner
zone') may be defined with non-BCCH
carriers.
A Mobile Station must meet specified
criteria before it can be assigned a
traffic channel configured on a carrier
in Zone 1.
438
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
438
Concentric cells
CONCELL
range: TRUE, FALSE
default: FALSE
A concentric cell is a cell in which different TRX may have different
ranges. TRXs with the smaller range serve the so-called inner area,
TRXs with the wider range serve the so-called complete area.
Whether a TRX serves the inner or the complete area is defined in the
TRX object
The different TRX ranges are determined by the values entered for the
power reduction
Within a concentric cell, specific intra-cell handovers from the inner to
the complete area and vice versa are possible. These handovers are
executed on level / distance conditions defined by appropriate
thresholds in the handover package
Moreover, during the call setup procedure in a concentric cell the same
values are also evaluated to determine whether the call is set up on a
TCH belonging to an inner or complete area TRX.
439
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
439
Concentric cells
The Concentric cell Configuration is also an obligatory precondition for the
feature Common BCCH for GSM 900/1800 or GSM850/1900 Dual Band
Operation.
This feature allows to assign frequencies of different bands to the inner and
complete area of a concentric cell. Considering the frequency propagation
characteristics and the bandspecific maximum cell radius, the most useful
configuration is to use GSM900 resp. GSM850 frequencies for the complete
area (and thus for the BCCH and also the SDCCHs) and to assign DCS1800
resp. PCS1900 frequencies to the inner area. However, also the opposite
configuration is also technically possible. In any case, if the feature Common
BCCH is used, the SYSID parameter (see below) must be set to GSMDCS
resp. GSM850PCS and the parameters for maximum allowed transmission
power must be set for both bands
Notes:
The features 'Extended Cell' and 'Concentric Cell' exclude each other
The intracell handover cause (inner <-> complete) does not exist for SDCCH-
SDCCH handover as in a concentric cell all SDCCHs are always created in the
complete area.
440
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no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
440
Power reduction (PWRRED) in Concentric cells
Since in concentric cells this parameter determines the different ranges of inner and complete
area TRXs it must be set in accordance with the setting of the parameter TRXAREA
If a cell is configured for support of the feature Common BCCH for GSM 900/1800 or
GSM850/1900 Dual Band Operation, the use of the PWRRED might not
Rules
To avoid 'ping pong' handovers between inner and complete area the following rule should be
followed:
HORXLVDLO - HORXLVDLI > (PWRREDinner - PWRREDcomplete) [dB]
This rule is mainly relevant for single-band concentric cells, as in such configurations the coverage difference between inner and
complete area is controlled by the PWRRED parameter.
However, if in the cell the feature Common BCCH for GSM 900/1800 or GSM850/1900 Dual
Band Operation is used, the coverage difference is mainly determined by the different
transmission power values of the used TRX.
In this case the rule should be expressed as follows:
HORXLVDLO - HORXLVDLI > BS_TXPWR_MAXCOMPL - BS_TXPWR_MAXINN
To avoid 'ping pong' handovers between the inner and complete areas in sectorized concentric
cells the following rule must be followed
HOMcoloc > (PWRREDinner - PWRREDcomplete) [dB]
'HOMcoloc ' is the handover margin set for an adjacent cell object that represents a 'colocated
cell'
441
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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441
TRXAREA
Range: NONE, INNER, COMPLETE
Default: NONE
TRX area, this parameter specifies whether a TRX belongs to a
concentric cell and, if yes, whether it serves the inner or the
complete area.
This parameter must be set in conjunction with a sensible
setting of PWRRED
The BCCH frequency and all other frequencies with control
channels (CCCH, SDCCH) must belong to the complete area
442
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
442
Common BCCH
The Common BCCH feature allows GSM900 and
GSM1800 TRXs to share the same BCCH, i.e. to
effectively be in the same cell
The basic idea behind the Common BCCH is to include
the GSM 900 (both PGSM900 and EGSM900) and
GSM1800 TRXs into one cell with a BCCH allocated
from any one band used in the cell
The TCH allocation between GSM900 and tri-band
mobiles is made on a cell basis by the BSC
The BCCH of the neighbour cell is measured from one
band only, which is useful in order to provide more
reliable C/I values
Having a common BCCH enables co-located and
synchronised resources across all bands
443
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
443
Implementation of Common BCCH
The main advantages of the common BCCH functionality are:
Trunking Gain is improved
Use of signalling channels is optimised by sharing them between
bands
Tighter reuse of all GSM1800 carriers is possible (as there are no
BCCHs in the GSM1800 band), presuming that single GSM900 BCCH
is used for both bands; however a single GSM1800 BCCH could also
be used
In order to ensure proper operation of the network, the operator should
take into account issues related to the difference of propagation between
the different bands, e.g. GSM900 and GSM1800, when performing cell
planning
Traffic optimisation and balancing is achieved by modifying the threshold
settings between the two layers
The link-budget is estimated at the midpoint between the coverage areas
of the two bands in the cells. Similarly, all other parameter settings and
power levels are considered mid-way between the two layers, for
balancing the links.
444
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
444
Normal implementation of common BCCH
A Common BCCH cell is a Concentric Cell with dual band
configuration
Due to the propagation characteristics and the resulting cell size of the
different frequency bands the INNER area is normally to be configured
with the higher frequency band (i.e. with DCS1800, or PCS1900
respectively) while the COMPLETE area should be created with the
lower frequency band (GSM900, or GSM850 respectively).
Thus the different coverage areas of INNER and COMPLETE area
would be more or less automatically determined by the different
propagation characteristics of the used frequency bands.
In the normal implementation there are database command checks
that prevent the operator from mixing frequencies within the areas, i.e.
it is not allowed to assign frequencies of the BCCH frequency band
and non-BCCH frequency band to TRXs that belong to the same area
(INNER or COMPLETE)
445
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
445
Multiband operation
In a multiband network, the system supports cell re-selection,
assignment and handover between GSM 900 cells and GSM
1800 cells for multiband MSs
Multiband MSs, and single band MSs (GSM 900 or GSM 1800)
can co-exist.
This has two benefits:
An operator that is changing the network from a single band (GSM
900 or GSM 1800) to a multiband network is still able to serve the
single band MSs on both frequency bands.
A multiband subscriber will be able to use the multiband MS in a
pure GSM 900 network as well as in a pure GSM 1800 network.
446
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
446
Traffic Distribution Between GSM 900/1800
Idle mode
C2 criterion
Active mode
HCS
Large Macrocell
(Umbrella Cell)
Small Macrocell
Microcell
Small Macrocell
Microcell
447
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
447
The C2 Criteria for Cell Re-Selection in Idle Mode
SS
GSM1800Mhz
Layer1
SS
GSM900Mhz
Layer 2
CRO
GSM1800 is serving
cell
GSM900
is serving
cell
ACCMIN ACCMIN
SS
GSM1800Mhz
Layer1
SS
GSM900Mhz
Layer 2
CRO
GSM900
is serving
cell
GSM1800 is
serving cell
ACCMIN ACCMIN
448
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
448
The Cell Selection Criteria in Active Mode
HCS Applied
SS
GSM1800Mhz
Layer1
SS
GSM900Mhz
Layer 2
HCSBANDTHR
GSM1800 is serving
cell
GSM900
is serving
cell
SS
GSM1800Mhz
Layer1
SS
GSM900Mhz
Layer 2
HCSBANDTHR
GSM900
is serving
cell
GSM1800 is
serving cell
449
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
449
Measurement Reporting
MBCR - Multi Band Cells Reported
0: The multiband mobile station reports the strongest identified
neighbours irrespective of the frequency band used in the cell.
1: The multiband mobile station attempts to report the strongest
identified neighbours of the other band while the rest of the reports
is used for neighbours from the serving band. If positions still exist,
more neighbours of the other band are included.
2: The 2 strongest identified neighbours of the other band are
reported while the rest is used for neighbours from the serving
band. If positions still exist, more neighbours of the other band are
included (recommended)
3: The 3 strongest identified neighbours of the other band are
reported while the rest is used for neighbours from the serving
band. If positions still exist, more neighbours of the other band are
included.
450
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
450
Subscriber differentiation
With the use of Differential Channel Allocation a fraction of the
channels in a cell can be defined as inaccessible for the non privileged
subscribers.
Example: It was desired that low paying subscribers in a multiband
network should only use 1800 cells while the rest could use both
bands.
The solution with all 900 TCHs defined inaccessible for some
subscribers was satisfactory but had some drawbacks:
1. The SDCCH load in 900 (no CRO) was high since assignment to worse
cell can mean several seconds setup delay.
2. The displayed service in idle mode (900) does not always correspond to
actual mode coverage (1800).
3. The configuration with 900 and 1800 in different BSCs is not possible
but this is not recommended anyway. DCA checks are not done at inter-
BSC handover.
451
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
451
Parameters
GSYSTYPE
GSM900
GSM1800
GSM1900
MIXED
CSYSTYPE
GSM900
GSM1800
GSM1900
MODE
SINGLE
MULTI
MBCR
Number of neighbours reported per frequency band
ECSC Early classmark sending control
YES / NO
CLMRKMSG (BSC exchange property)
Suppress or delays the sending of CM3 from BSC to MSC (reduce Air interface load)
0 to 3. Default: 0
MBCCHNO
ARFCN
452
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
452
Hierarchical cell structure
When capacity is a problem
Small cells give limited coverage
Large cells give limited capacity
Structure networks
Combined microcell/macrocell
Multiband GSM 900/GSM 1800
453
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
453
Objectives of HCS
Network in layers and bands
Large cells as umbrella cells and small cells to provide extra
hot spot capacity
HCS makes it possible to pass between layers in a controlled
way
Traffic is directed to lower layers
454
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
454
Cell layer
Cells that have similarities in function and size can be seen as
belonging to the same cell layer
HCS can be used to give different priority to different layers.
Examples of layers are:
Macrocells, providing the main coverage and often main capacity
Street cells or microcells with their lower antennas, less expensive
and more shielded sites
Indoor/picocells
Macro-, micro- or picocells of another system type in a multiband
network
455
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
455
Frequency Bands
The available frequencies can be grouped into different bands
that do not cause interference to each other
The 900 and 1800 MHz frequencies naturally form different
bands
These bands can be further divided into sub bands.
456
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
456
Priorities
The priority of a cell is given by associating a layer to the cell.
Each layer is also belonging to an HCS band
The lower the layer (and HCS band), the higher is the priority.
Several layers may be defined using HCS and are distributed in
ascending order in up to a certain number of HCS bands.
The reduced HCS option means that no bands are available and
all cells belong to layer 1, layer 2 or layer 3.
457
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
457
HCS Bands and Layers example
Band 2: 1800Mhz subband dedicated to Inbuilding
Layer 2: Picocells
Band 4: 1800Mhz
Layer 3: Microcells
Layer 4: Macrocells
Band 6: 900 Mhz subband dedicated to picocells
Layer 5: Picocells
Band 8: 900 Mhz
Layer 6: Microcells
Layer 7: Macrocells
458
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
458
Thresholds
For each layer
Signal strength threshold LAYERTHR
Hysteresis LAYERHYST
For each band
Signal strength threshold HCSBANDTHR
Hysteresis HCSBANDHYST
The layer threshold decides if the cell should be prioritized over
stronger cells of the same HCS band.
The band threshold decides if the cell should be prioritized over
stronger cells from other HCS bands.
459
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
459
Thresholds
For neighbouring cells, the band threshold is
HCSBANDTHR+HCSBANDHYST
For neighbouring cells, the layer threshold is
LAYERTHR+LAYERHYST
For serving cell, the band threshold is
HCSBANDTHR-HCSBANDHYST
For serving cell, the layer threshold is
LAYERTHR-LAYERHYST
460
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
460
Example
Band 2: 1800Mhz subband dedicated to Inbuilding
Layer 2: Picocells > No neighbours
Band 4: 1800Mhz
Layer 3: Microcells > A -74 dbm
Layer 4: Macrocells > B -73 dbm F -78 dbm D -95 dbm
Band 6: 900 Mhz subband dedicated to picocells
Layer 5: Picocells > No neighbours
Band 8: 900 Mhz
Layer 6: Microcells > E -72 dbm
Layer 7: Macrocells> G -68 dbm C -75 dbm H -96 dbm
PARAMETERS
HCSBANDTHR=-95 dbm
HCSBANDHYST=0
LAYERTHR=-75
LAYERHYST=0
461
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
461
Basic Ranking Only
Cell SS Band Layer
G -68 8 7
E -72 8 6
B -73 4 4
A -74 4 3
C -75 8 7
F -78 4 4
D -95 4 4
H -96 8 7

462
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
462
First step in HCS ranking
The band threshold requirements must be fulfilled:
The signal strength must be above
HCSBANDTHR + HCSBANDHYST for the neighbouring cells.
The signal strength must be above
HCSBANDTHR - HCSBANDHYST for the serving cell.
463
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
463
First step in HCS ranking
Cell SS Band Layer
G -68 8 7
E -72 8 6
B -73 4 4
A -74 4 3
C -75 8 7
F -78 4 4
D -95 4 4
H -96 8 7

464
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
464
Second step in HCS ranking
The cells fulfilling the band threshold criterion continues to the
layer threshold criterion check.
At most one cell from each layer is selected.
The strongest cell in a band is always given priority if the band
threshold criterion is fulfilled
Choose the highest ranked cell from each HCS band (note that
no consideration about LAYERTHR is taken)
465
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
465
Second step in HCS ranking
Cell SS Band Layer
G -68 8 7
E -72 8 6
B -73 4 4
A -74 4 3
C -75 8 7
F -78 4 4
D -95 4 4
H -96 8 7

466
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
466
Third step in HCS ranking
For each of the other layers, without candidates that are
strongest in a band, the layer thresholds determine if they
should be given priority.
From the layer, choose the highest ranked that has a signal
strength
>= LAYERTHR + LAYERHYST if it is a neighbouring cell or
>= LAYERTHR - LAYERHYST if it is the serving cell.
If no such cell exist, do not prioritize any cell from this layer.
467
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
467
Third step in HCS ranking
Cell SS Band Layer
G -68 8 7
E -72 8 6
B -73 4 4
A -74 4 3
C -75 8 7
F -78 4 4
D -95 4 4
H -96 8 7

468
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
468
Last step in HCS ranking
Having selected at most one candidate from every layer, these
candidates are listed in the following order:
Lowest layer cell
Next lowest layer cell.
. . .
Highest layer cell.
469
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
469
Last step in HCS ranking
Cell SS Band Layer
A -74 4 3
B -73 4 4
E -72 8 6
G -68 8 7

470
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
470
Remarks about the HCS ranking
There will be prioritized candidates even if the LAYERTHR is not
fulfilled for any cells.
The cells that are both above their HCSBANDTHR and
LAYERTHR, but not BEST cell in the band, will not be prioritized
on the same level as the best cell
If it is congestion in the BEST cell, locating would rather hand
over to a cell in another layer.
The method is optimized to give a first candidate and an
interference safe second candidate in case of congestion.
471
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
471
Fast Moving Mobiles
To prevent fast moving mobiles from doing HO to lower layer
cells, a penalty is used
PSSTEMP penalty SS offset
PTIMTEMP penalty duration
Other parameters:
FASTMSREG - activates the registration of fast moving MSs
THO - time interval to measure the number of HO
NHO - the number of inter-cell HOs (during THO) which labels an
MS as fast.
472
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
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472
Parameters
2 to 10 3 NHO
s 10 to 100 30 THO
ON,OFF OFF FASTMSREG
s 0 to 600 0 0 PTIMTEMP
dB 0 to 63 0 0 PSSTEMP
dB 0 to 63 2 2 HCSBANDHYST
dB 0 to 63 2 2 LAYERHYST
-dBm 150 to 0 95 HBANDTHR
1 to 8 2 HCSBAND
-dBm 150 to 0 75 LAYERTHR
1 to 8 2 LAYER
Unit Range Recommended Default Parameter
473
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
473
Traffic distribution techniques: Team activities
Verify if following techniques are implemented or are not implemented but are
available in the network
Concentric Cells
Common BCCH
Multi band operation
Hierarchical cell structure
Fast Moving Mobiles
For those features that are implemented, select three BTS in the area and
Review the corresponding parameters and make comments
Review KPI (traffic, call setup and handovers)
Assess if the feature is achieving the objectives
Make comments and conclusions accordingly
For those features that are not implemented but are available
Which features could contribute to traffic distribution objectives in the network?
Which features would you recommend for implementing in the network? In which
priority order? Justify your answers
Draft implementation strategies for these features according to specific
configurations and requirements
474
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
474
Traffic distribution techniques: Joint meeting
Determine if following techniques are implemented or are not
implemented but are available in the network (all vendors)
Concentric Cells
Common BCCH
Multi band operation
Hierarchical cell structure
Fast Moving Mobiles
For those features that are implemented, share the findings on
Feature parameters and make comments
Related KPI (traffic, call setup and handovers)
Objectives achievement
Conclusions and recommendations
For those features that are not implemented but are available
Share opinions on features that should be considered for implementing in
the network and their priority order
Make a common draft of network features implementation strategies
according to specific configurations and requirements
475
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
475
Traffic distribution techniques: Conclusions
Concentric cells can be implemented in the same frequency band
Common BCCH is a way of concentric cells for dual band, in which the
inner zone is usually the highest frequency and the complete zone is
the complete zone
BCCH can be considered as a good option in areas with two layers
only (e.g macros) where 900 Mhz and 1800 Mhz are colocated
Multiband is different to common BCCH, because the system supports
cell re-selection, assignment and handover between GSM 900 cells
and GSM 1800 cells for multiband MSs (there is BCCH in 900 Mhz and
BCCH in 1800 Mhz)
When more than two layers (macros 900 and 1800 Mhz) are
implemented in an area (micro, pico, ubrella cells in 900 and/or 1800
Mhz) the use of HCS helps to achieve network performance objectives
and facilitates network optimisation activities
HCS algorithms and ranking can vary from vendor to vendor
476
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
476
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
477
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
477
Customer feedback
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Collect customer feedback from customer care department
Describe a typical trouble ticketing process
Filter trouble tickets for RF issues
Use filtered trouble tickets to locate and identify problems in
conjunction with
Drive tests
Statistics
Simulations
478
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
478
Contents:
GSM Optimisation Workshop
DAY 1:
Gathering information
General overview of the
Optimisation process
DAY 2:
Network statistics
Network Performance Tools &
reports
DAY 3:
Optimising selection/reselection
Optimising Location Areas
DAY 4:
Optimisation of network timers
Optimising network parameters for
PC and DTX
Frequency hopping parameters
DAY 5:
Neighbour list optimisation
Handover optimisation
DAY 6:
Call blocking and call drop analysis
Dimensioning SDCCH and TCH
DAY 7:
Drive testing and analysis
Cell coverage and traffic distribution
DAY 8:
Customer feedback
Voice quality analysis
479
2005. The Copyright in this document belongs to Marconi Corporation plc and
no part of this document should be used or copied without their prior written permission.
479
Voice quality analysis
The focus of this workshop session will be on the following
topics
Setting up voice quality testing equipment
Drive testing for collection of voice quality data
Processing and post processing of voice quality data
Presentation of results of voice quality testing
Alternatively, testing may be performed using TEMS (SQI) or
other similar tools