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Passage A: Barbarians at tlre

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Dod, i, ln- mdll. er^ocr rl 6 ld l lood io;r r -nd tlra bdo'l \\opr d,gouProl {Rur'q ppooh h raol' i. ilu,ry ol baggy .omr'dt p. nl.. lJLpl o-'d.arrdsldno llrc) \'/e !P d nu|,c,,,rEurn,v P,lrL, rYEd lre flurry orLroq comDal panis,sKalenoa.os, anq s,d!,s. ,,,cy 5L.c rliJnomanI,olcnngpdrweanno tme rnasazine in one hand and a lal1e in the other' she brustEs pa51 a man in a OKr'iV, "arrying vantees, biseLa cap who is tatking on his Moiorota c€lphone abour rhe Martin scorsese illm lre .aw lastnight'It,sastandardAmericansceneonlylhisisn.tAmerica.it'sBriiain'l.l]esccnecouldbeplayed5 M"'ir' -v*"* our in;ny one of dozens of cities: Budapesl or B€rlin, ifnot Bosota or Bord--e:i1 i"" A\

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unn/drpdqol,al\uierpol\.! lTerLan' rrtuenr rs Li-lodLalv fiPrcFdFnlFd rnl'm ol ir\v"'l u^o "qu"ni,nparEll'\:ld in lr{n orrs;rFm'rrdou' rmpa'1 lrommusrl'lledrr Ihrola\liood "*p. ro ilrcrir,,,e.nd \porl, lhp Amancan id'a i\ spreddng ine'orabl/ The.Us h-s L^ ome l\' t-ni,no" e ir lh- s ortd lodd) . .- drnFretu" rs lr,at mod.m imppn.tisn. i\ (! u, al. no' T:'irdry. n,o;r D;w. rlut
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r- nnoloSy fling', ulLLriF lo Fv.r) co'n.t of Iln glob. wih blndrnq spead lf il loor 1$o .ir"""'"i"'t.,ro""c.puu["toi'"cl,NoflhAm'ricall,Fl"le\rhiltromJltslinlrmb{-'l'lpGnLelound
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.':.1;::.lit:t'!t";:Tj[;i;"iil;,r;;;;;,J" reek nd Japanese) torcs \aithi. -"" l h' in Gre"l' (and Japan esel storc' within davs The e€ o{ "McDomination' h"s anived '''" avs "';' ol "M bominalion" has a
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i'1sidrqg\?gsline-.rordj,lnsple{,1 | . Amencan uurtural domrnshor, rolps a rolatrraidn !trFJr lo divprsit) orvelsrty tn mts r 'vr create a global dyslopis, drvod al creale d qlobdr dyslodJ devod ol xngursnc orversrty ln rh'\ . 'nr 'of Ameican r,opuldr cullurP '6ill in'vrlsbry or Amencan popular cuhure will inevitably LulpFls hdv' lon! be:n llr^ U\udl \u_P"l': Hollywood poPuldr music and ld<l lood lhe Ddrne wlr:-h a[ reddt- Laad. homoq^r 'ou- I,oo,.tr a< srrp-rvinSll fi,ralloY at a Di)ne/ o€doon .nd -r,'r h.,nlr \rnJ.v 2s chew;na orm ln ta\r,ion s'''v.r, drrb, ud:qu!'ou' irrodu'1s li}.p l'vijcans ond our
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.',r."- ii, ,:.r.''r.oa-'i.in " nasBurgnrIinrrJndl'4cdonards$lrclrserverh lod ler As . r€ Jh ol ll'eiJ p va.i\" d l ^rni' rcus oflucn " U'F wo'ld irr which \a' lir'e i\ b"or 'inu t...s D:rlu(esau. and imbu d wr,' ld.1 lo al Loiou, l larylthe'.. ll e unq]ue le\l,vals and rile5 lh.r ln L' pr(I41va, ull'a,rrv rLs ru pa! I ;1ve I ium anity its foll lo.ic a nd ethnolosical varielv are on ihe verse of exlinction'

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L4cDomination Poses other pedls Local industdes are trulv endangered because of Us oligoPol@ slrch as Holt) v;od. For insrance in 2ooo, the European union handed out 1 billion eurcs to slrbsid-P,e ly :uhp lulOrilish lJm rr dL-lD rr4 no a]nlrol ovrr drslrrLul'on | vFn ll ,'l I tr'opcr nrn' indu

'1 whi"hi-3ho1l.nl|l;'yinlr.l"l,dolrhFHollywoodmdjoE'Al.ldlcdd.nqcri50l.consoliddlionolll Lommurinlions Indu\|,/ inlo c Ipr Lonq'omprale5 su.h d AOl-Tinewamer' Disnav cnd NPws
Corporaiion, which mea;s thattbe "irfojai!*nent" gen€Eted for slobal consumpt-Dn lreadv alwavs comcs

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Iom an \,.nGn par t4.'.r^ ne lop lhr"p AT^,r-n mlr\r' "oml"1:6 rP!'rd.3nd. dirrit'ul^ 8' p-rcpnlo ll'pmu\i rrll. w rld. ^nrLJrino ll'dlra all\rnq lr'4 ong oig o'dl; alionloll'F'lun'

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.5']Paladoximllv'thevervnatlonthatexto|slibemldemocracyandfreedomofchoicethemostseemsto emor:on cv'ry Am^ricrn r^erins "*'Lh^ h3nd, s: everv amerLn Ldl' g'eai plea\ure{an'l prolrr) Ircnr il 'i""'0,. ol a lFw ownrr_ who Amerr.-an im3g" i\ copvrighrFd i ddc and mdrl:n! leople and p'oducls in clcry Lq r^r ol rlre laoricl wiih llrcir brand in the namc of'ft"p" and lhe Plrilrppit^s 3r'bcins globlli.aton. rt.n por,r,cer , ,,rruiei in *r"i'"t ," r"' reaching n' Japln iranslomeo by lhe iersonalityirjven Amedcan modcl.

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6U.s.c.ntro{ofclmfiunicalionchannelsalsomakesitinevitablelhati{sideologicalmessaqeswillas such become far more entrenched thao those of previou! cmpirei lts dominance of le'lrnologies (13 of ihe top 1; lnteflret fitms are Americao' number 14 is British) means satellile TV and the lnterne{ wodd Such tllat, increasinqly, America monopolizes ald moul{s ths socio culluralview people- -oet ofthe
English on the Wodd cyL'er imperiatism is, of course. irtv ou"tt"o Lv tt'e ou"*helming dontinancc of manim to milligr,rs r Wilc Web - a medium {tal slickly sp read:. {lF Arnerican

40

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7

lndced,lhe mai6 and most alanning differcnce bei\\€en tbe

preseni pervasiveness of America-na is the intportance of teclnology The lelephone' the lnlernet' gqcause oi this' Amencan ielevision and film, did not exisl in ancient Greece or the t,'loogol emPir.e.

c1rltoral spreacl of previous empkes and the

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.oouldldltuledocsnotnler.l/renle5enlalEnsiloryandlditlylnno.UoUspl|et0menonLUtd\Fryg.av. Jn;,i""-r,,rr"x"v r'r.r-r!e ano pruto as universar icons iYhirsi permaDentrv

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consisnint Michelangelo and Plato to their qtaves
Adapred lrom rn 2,000 vearc, wirr the world

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passage B: opcn (he Door to

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-.,r.1,i hislory that chanls of nataonalism have been heard, but those echoing around the wortd today aro unique ji; a ihey come in hosliie reaction tothe deluge of globaligalion that is perceived to be engulfing our planer.

r.,i i ..i.)...t-). 1 Jhe gare: ofrhe v/odd are g,oaning shul- From nralble balmnies and over the airwaves, demagogues ,._r'a .l . d crynqwrilL lo"Jr anl LUtl! ps And lrad lror :rl vdlup\ Sdlpl l^s. llrp Inlam, r. and iumLo ,rts cr.y the ' conlagion. For,nany p-opl. "fo eign" h"s b^6m. d:y,onya ro d"nq.. it,rq, nor tn-Lr.tIm.
,

5

2

Criiiqslbf globalization arsue that the process of slobaliaiion will lead to a slripping away of ideniiry and a rcple9sivg Orwellian wodd. On a planel of 6 billion people, tbis is, of course, an impossibitiry. More importantly, the decline of cullural distinclions may be a measure of the progress of civilization, a tangibte sisn ofeypanding liberty and increasing individuality-l

3

Samuel Hontinglon, in'Tne C/asi of Civilisalions', predicts that fulure conllicts will o.cur atonq culurat l0 fault lines, which is prcciselywhere war has so ofien erupied in the past. Even a casual exam;nation ofthe history of conflict explaios why a threat to one's culture can become a rhreal 10 one's God or one's anceslorc and therefore,lo onet core idenliny- This inlerlrmatory lo.mola has been used tojustity many of humdnih/s wo'sr acls ftom gFnoridn lo rplgiou, p-rseLulion and llrc coionial subiusdlion ot 'rntprio{" rl!es. In tlris Ietard, lln homos.nizrns innuedr- ol olob.lizd'ion whrrh rre mosl olren dndemned by tl14 l: new nationalisls and by cultural protectionists are actually posiiive; globalization promotes integ€tion and lhe removal not only of cultural bariers but of many ollhe negative dimensions of culture lhat lead to acls ot t iLal b- bariry.

4

-

The fact thai the United Stales domnrates 0re globaltraffic in iofonnation and ide3s has also been seen as injqqitous. This is both a mistaken and myqpic view. Many of the U,S. i.leats that get t.ansmited in the 20 process, such as individual ri!,thls, freedom of speech and respect for women, are in facr entightened and emancipating and local cuitures a.e enhanced. Some countdes charge that Anrerican "values. are 'conupting' their people ln iact, mosl ofthe govemmenis that asaressivelv seek to restrict the material thal reacher their citizens have a more corup{ ulterior motive their explicit objectave is to kecp out American and otheralien politicalviews, nrores; and, as it is called in some pads of rhe Middle East, hcws 25 pollulion" to mainlain their own despoiic control Thanldully, srich governments are the heirs ot King Canute, the m),ihical monarch who set his throne al the sea's edge and commanded the waves to go
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'1\r'r!r'' di{ejJeful lo usa the opportlrnities created by the global informalion revoluiion to promote Amencan qrliure over others, b{rt lhal kind of reasoning is as dangorous as rr rs wrong." _3p Ame.ican cullure is an amalganr of influences and approaches from around llre world. lt is melded l!' ' consciously in many cases - into a social medium thal allows individu?l lreedoms and culiurcs to thrive.
Manv also contend thal it is

The Uniled Slates should not hesitate to promote her values and vision for {he world- Using the tools of the lnformafion Age to do so isthe nost Deaceful, powertuland r€asonable means ofso doing-

6

lt is in the economic and political interests of ttte vr'orld to move toward a common language; toward 35 common telccommuricalions, saf€ty, and qualily slanddrds, to become li)rl'ed by television, radio, and music and lo develop commoo values. lo an effort lo be polite or politiq Americans should nol deny the facl that of all the nations in the history of the wodd, thei$ is the most just, lhe mosl tolelanl, the most willing io constantly reassess and improve itself, and the best modetforthe future.
The developmcnt of a y/orld in which rc fault lines separating nations are bridged by shared inierests is 40 everyone's interesl !ryhelher we accept all$re argumenls o{ []untinglon or no{, vr'e must recognize that tho greaier ile cultural valrre gaps in the wodd, thl: mo.e lik€ly it is that confiici will ensue, Repression js noi defensible, whetherthc tmdition from which il springs is Confucian, Judeo4hristian, or lslam. Successful mulricultuElsociclies sircl a5lhc United Slates are built on the idea thattolerance is crucialto socialwell being and thrt both into{erance and a heighiened emphasis on cultuml distinctions threaien integralion, 45 c'rltur3l attribules can aod shoold be tolerated - and, indeed, pronroted - and which ara the become fautt

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The critical prerequisite

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gaining tlrc oitimum benefils of global iniegralion is to understand which qlluFs thatwill

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Adapted flonr 'ln P€ise o{ Cullu€l I'nperialism? Effects ol Globalisation on Cullure by David Rothkop Forcirt Polic| Jrne 22 1997

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