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7.

5W NON-ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER


PROJECT REPORT
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
BY
K.HARIBABU (07241A0234)
M.SRINIVAS (08245A0203)
J.BHEEMARAY (08245A0206)
Under the guidance of
Ms. U.VIJAYA LAXMI
Assistant Professor
Department of EEE

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology
(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University)
Hyderabad
2011
GOKARAJU RANGARAJU INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
AND TECHNOLOGY
(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University)
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled
7.5W NON ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER
is being submitted by
K.HARIBABU (07241A0234)
M.SRINIVAS (08245A0203)
J.BHEEMARAY (08245A0206)
In partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in
Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,
Hyderabad during the academic year 2010-2011 is a bonafide record of work carried out by
them under our guidance and supervision.

Head of Department
Prof.P. M. SARMA
Professor
External Examiner




Internal Guide
U.VIJAYA LAXMI
Assistant Professor
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
It would be a great pleasure for us to express our thanks to Dr. S.N. Saxena, Professor and Dean
of placements, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Gokaraju Rangaraju
Institute of Engineering and Technology, who has supported us through the project work and
thesis.
We express our sincere thanks to Prof.P.M Sarma, head of the department of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering Department Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and
Technology, for his suggestions, motivation and encouragement to work with this project.
We are greatly indebted to our guide Ms.U.Vijaya Laxmi, Assistant professor, Department of
Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and
Technology, for her valuable guidance in presenting this project both in theoretical and practical
aspects and rendering us moral support.
We heartly thankful to all staff members in Electrical and Electronics Engineering who helped us
in preparing working model.

K.Haribabu
M.Srinivas
J.Bheemaray




ABSTRACT
This project covers a closed loop controlled non-isolated flyback converter with
switching element MOSFET is switched ON and OFF using PWM controller UC494 with
switching frequency of 100kHz. The converter is operating from 25V battery (15V to 25V)
providing regulated output power at 15V (0.5A).
The flyback converter is a DC to DC converter in which the energy is received from the
input source when the switch is ON and then pumps energy into the output side during flyback of
the switch. Energy flow from the input side to output side when the switch is turned OFF that is,
when it is made to flyback, hence the name flyback converter. The non-isolated has no
transformer or electrical isolation, allowing it to be smaller and less expensive. Non-isolated
units which make up the majority of POL (point of load) converters, come in assorted board-
friendly compact package styles and are typically used in computing applications such as
memory motherboards. Non-isolated POLs offer a lower price for a given voltage and current
output. Further, they're usually housed in small-size formats like single-in-line packages (SIPs),
dual-in-line packages (DIPs), or surface-mount (SMT) modules. Their more compact packaging
yields significant real estate savings on the pc board and allows them to be placed close to their
loads. In turn, their close load placement reduces I
2
R copper losses on the board and improves
transient response.
This project consist of a combination of startup circuit, maximum pulse width circuit,
controller circuit, power circuit of power converter, feedback circuit. This circuits are used to
control of switching pulse width using feedback circuit and controller by PWM technique.
Advantages of this project are Most flexible low cost, low-power topology, with constant
Multiple DC voltage. Disadvantages of this project are switching losses are more, and cannot be
designed for high power rating due to isolation problems.
Applications of flyback converter are Low power switch-mode power supplies(cell
phone charger), High voltage generation(xenon flash lamps, lasers), High voltage supply for the
CRT in TVs, monitors, Low cost multiple-output power supplies(main pc supply less than
250W).
ABBREVIATIONS
R
T
Timing Resistor
C
T
Timing Capacitor
N
1
Number of Primary Turns
N
2
Number of Secondary Turns
V
1
Primary voltage of Inductor
V
2
Secondary voltage of Inductor
PWM Pulse Width Modulation
T
ON
On Time of The Switch
T
OFF
Off Time of The Switch
T Time Period
f Frequency
S Switch
V
REF
Reference voltage
MOSFET Metal oxide semi conductor field effect transistor
D Diode
PCB Printed circuit board
V
0
Output voltage
TP Test point
V Volts
A Amperes
MMF Magneto Motive Force

CONTENTS
Acknowledgement i
Abstract ii
Abbreviations iii
Contents iv
List of Figures viii
List of Figures ix
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Switch mode conversion
1.2. Types of converters
1.2.1. Non-Isolated converter
1.2.2. Isolated converter

1
2
3
3
4


2. FLYBACK CONVERTERS
2.1. Fly-Back Converter
2.1.1. Basic Topology of Flyback converter
2.1.2. Principle of Operation of Flyback converter
2.2. Flyback circuit Waveforms
2.3. Practical Flyback converter
5
5
5
6
11
12
3. PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION
3.1. Block diagram of project Circuit
(Non-Isolated flyback Converter)
14
14

4. START-UP AND MAXIMUM PULSE WIDTH CIRCUIT
4.1. Start-up circuit
4.1.1 Operation of start-up circuit
4.2. Maximum pulse width circuit

15
15
16
16

5. CONTROLLER CIRCUIT
5.1 Pulse width modulation Technique
5.2 UC494c Controller
5.2.1. Pin configuration of UC494C controller
5.2.2. Features of UC494C controller IC
5.3 Controller circuit
5.3.1. Operation of controller circuit

17
17
18
18
19
19
20

6. Feedback circuit
6.1 Closed loop control
6.2 Compensator(LEAD/LAG)

21
21
22


7. POWER CIRCUIT
7.1 Main components of power circuit
7.2 MOSFET
7.2.1. MOSFET as a switch
7.2.2. MOSFET characteristics curve
7.3 Couple Inductor
7.4 Voltage regulator(LM7815)
7.4.1. Features of LM7815
7.5 Diode(MUR110)

7.6 Circuit diagram of non-Isolated Flyback converter
Power circuit
7.6.1. Operation of Power circuit

24
24
24
25
26
30
34
35
35

36
36


8. SIMULATION OF NON-ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER
CIRCUIT IN MATLAB SOFTWARE
8.1. Simulation circuit description
8.1.1. Simulation circuit diagram
8.1.2. Simulation waveforms
8.1.3. Tabulation of input voltage and output voltage

37
37
37
38

39

9. NON-ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER HARDWARE KIT
9.1. Hardware kit PCB layout
9.2. PCB with components soldered
9.3. Practical output waveforms for 15Volts input supply
9.4. Practical output waveforms for 25Volts input supply
9.5. Tabulation of input voltage and output voltage With
voltage regulator(LM7815) on load side

40
40
41
42
44

47

10. APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATION
10.1 Applications of Non-Isolated Flyback converter
10.2 Limitations of Non-Isolated Flyback converter

48
48
48


11: CONCLUSION
11.1 Conclusion
11.2 Results
11.3 Difficulties encountered during the Project

50
50
50
50
12. SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
12.1 Scope for future work

51
51

References 52

Appendix
A: List of Project Components
B: Data sheet of UC494C
C: Data sheet of MOSFET (IRFZ44)
D: Datasheet of Voltage regulator(LM7815)


53
53
54
58
60


LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.2.1 Flyback converter 5
Fig.2.2(a) Current path during Mode-1 of circuit operation 7
Fig.2.2(b) Equivalent circuit in Mode-1 7
Fig.2.3(a) Current path during Mode-2 of circuit operation 8
Fig.2.3(b) Equivalent circuit in Mode-2 8
Fig.2.4(a) Current path during Mode-3 of circuit operation 10
Fig.2.4(b) Equivalent circuit in Mode-3 10
Fig.2.5 Flyback circuit waveforms under continuous magnetic flux 11
Fig.2.6 Fly-back circuit waveforms under discontinuous magnetic
Flux
11
Fig. 2.7 Practical Fly Back Converter 12
Fig.3.1 Block diagram representation of Project Circuit 14
Fig.4.1 Startup circuit 15
Fig .4.2 Maximum pulse width circuit 16
Fig.5.1 Pulse width modulation technique 17
Fig.5.2 Pin configuration of UC494 controller 18
Fig 5.3 Controller circuit 19
Fig.5.4 Connections of amplifier 20
Fig.6.1 Closed loop block diagram 21

Fig.6.2 Feedback Circuit 23
Fig.7.1 Power MOSFET (a) Schematic , (b)Transfer characteristics,
(c)Device symbol

25
Fig.7.2 Symbol of MOSFETs 26
Fig.7.3 MOSFET characteristics curves 27
Fig.7.4 Cut-off region equivalent diagram 27
Fig.7.5 Saturation region equivalent diagram 28
Fig.7.6 MOSFET as a Switch 29
Fig.7.7 Couple inductors 33
Fig.7.8 Voltage regulator LM7815 35
Fig.7.9 Power circuit 36
Fig. 8.1 Simulation circuit of flyback converter 37
Fig. 8.2 Gate pulses 38
Fig. 8.3 Output voltage(16.6V) 38
Fig. 8.4 Output current(0.43A) 38
Fig.9.1 PCB layout of hardware kit 40
Fig.9.2 Hardware kit PCB with components 41
Fig.9.3 Ramp voltage (3V) for 15V input voltage 42
Fig.9.4 Gate voltage(12V) for 15V input voltage 42
Fig.9.5 Output voltage(15.2V) for 15V input voltage 43
Fig. 9.7 Secondary Inductor Voltage for 15V input voltage 44
Fig. 9.8 Ramp voltage(3V) for 25V input voltage 44
Fig. 9.9 Gate voltage(20V) for 25V input voltage 45
Fig.9.10 Output voltage(15.2V) for 25V input 45
Fig. 9.11Primary Inductor voltage for 25V input voltage 46
Fig. 9.12Secondary Inductor voltage for 25V input voltage 46
LIST OF TABLES
Table 8.1 Tabulation of input voltage and output voltage without voltage
regulator on the load side


39
Table 9.1 Tabulation of input voltage and output voltage 47







CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Power electronic converters are a family of electrical circuits which convert electrical
energy from one level of voltage/current/frequency to another using semiconductor-based
electronic switches. The essential characteristic of these types of circuits is that the switches are
operated only in one of two states - either fully ON or fully OFF - unlike other types of electrical
circuits where the control elements are operated in a (near) linear active region. As the power
electronics industry has developed, various families of power electronic converters have evolved,
often linked by power level, switching devices and topological origins. The process of switching
the electronic devices in a power electronic converter from one state to another is called
modulation and the development of optimum strategies to implement this process has been the
subject of intensive international research efforts for at least 30 years. Each family of power
converters has preferred modulation strategies associated with it that aim to optimize the circuit
operation for the target criteria most appropriate for that family. Parameters such as switching
frequency, distortion, losses, harmonic generation and speed of response are typical of the issues
which must be considered when developing modulation strategies for a particular family of
converters.
DC to DC converters are important in portable electronic devices such as cellular phones
and laptop computers, which are supplied with power from batteries primarily. Such electronic
devices often contain several sub-circuits, each with its own voltage level requirement different
from that supplied by the battery or an external supply (sometimes higher or lower than the
supply voltage). Additionally, the battery voltage declines as its stored power is drained.
Switched DC to DC converters offer a method to increase voltage from a partially lowered
battery voltage thereby saving space instead of using multiple batteries to accomplish the same
thing.
Most DC to DC converters also regulate the output voltage. Some exceptions include
high-efficiency LED power sources, which are a kind of DC to DC converter that regulates the
current through the LEDs and simple charge pumps which double or triple the input voltage.
Linear regulators can only output at lower voltages from the input. They are very
inefficient when the voltage drop is large and the current is high as they dissipate heat equal to
the product of the output current and the voltage drop; consequently they are not normally used
for large-drop high-current applications.
The inefficiency wastes power and requires higher-rated and consequently more
expensive and larger components. The heat dissipated by high-power supplies is a problem in
itself as it must be removed from the circuitry to prevent unacceptable temperature rises.
They are practical if the current is low, the power dissipated being small, although it may
still be a large fraction of the total power consumed. They are often used as part of a simple
regulated power supply for higher currents: a transformer generates a voltage which when
rectified, is a little higher than that needed to bias the linear regulator. The linear regulator drops
the excess voltage, reducing hum-generating ripple current and providing a constant output
voltage independent of normal fluctuations of the unregulated input voltage from the transformer
or bridge rectifier circuit and of the load current.
Linear regulators are inexpensive, reliable if good heat sinking is used and much simpler
than switching regulators. As part of a power supply they may require a transformer, which is
larger for a given power level than that required by a switch-mode power supply. Linear
regulators can provide a very low-noise output voltage and are very suitable for powering noise-
sensitive low-power analog and radio frequency circuits. A popular design approach is to use an
LDO, Low Drop-out Regulator, that provides a local "point of load" DC supply to a low power
circuit.
1.1 SWITCHED-MODE CONVERSION
Electronic switch-mode DC to DC converters convert one DC voltage level to another, by
storing the input energy temporarily and then releasing that energy to the output at a different
voltage. The storage may be in either magnetic field storage components (inductors,
transformers) or electric field storage components (capacitors). This conversion method is more
power efficient (often 75% to 98%) than linear voltage regulation (which dissipates unwanted
power as heat). This efficiency is beneficial to increasing the running time of battery operated
devices. The efficiency has increased since the late 1980s due to the use of power FETs, which
are able to switch at high frequency more efficiently than power bipolar transistors, which incur
more switching losses and require a more complicated drive circuit. Another important
innovation in DC-DC converters is the use of synchronous rectification replacing the flywheel
diode with a power FET with low "On" resistance, thereby reducing switching losses.
Most DC to DC converters are designed to move power in only one direction, from the
input to the output. However, all switching regulator topologies can be made bi-directional by
replacing all diodes with independently controlled active rectification. A bi-directional converter
can move power in either direction, which is useful in applications requiring regenerative
braking. Drawbacks of switching converters include complexity, electronic noise (EMI / RFI)
and to some extent cost, although this has come down with advances in chip design.
DC to DC converters are now available as integrated circuits needing minimal additional
components. DC to DC converters are also available as a complete hybrid circuit component,
ready for use within an electronic assembly.
In these DC to DC converters, energy is periodically stored into and released from a
magnetic field in an inductor or a transformer, typically in the range from 300 kHz to 10 MHz.
By adjusting the duty cycle of the charging voltage (i.e., the ratio of on/off time), the amount of
power transferred can be controlled. Usually, this is applied to control the output voltage, though
it could be applied to control the input current, the output current, or maintain a constant power.
Transformer-based converters may provide isolation between the input and the output. In
general, the term "DC to DC converter" refers to one of these switching converters. These
circuits are the heart of a switched-mode power supply. Many topologies exist.
1.2 TYPES OF CONVERTERS
1.2.1 Non-Isolated Converters: Also called Point of Load converters, these step up or step
down voltage by a low ratio. These have ICs specifically meant for the purpose and a DC path
between its output and input. The four main types of non isolated converters are: Buck, Boost,
Buck-Boost and Cuk converters. While the Buck steps down the voltage, Boost steps it up.
Buck-Boost and Cuk are able to step up as well as step down the voltage.

Types of Non-Isolated converters
1. Buck Converter (Step-Down Converter)
2. Boost Converter (Step-Up Converter)
3. Buck-Boost Converter
4. Cuk Converter
1.2.2 Isolated Converters: These converters are characterized by the presence of an
electrical barrier between the input and output. The barrier is provided by a high frequency
transformer, which can withstand a few hundred volts to several thousand volts. The output of an
isolated converter can be positive or negative and are useful in medical applications. These
devices are available in different types and configurations. The two basic types are flyback and
forward. Both these use the energy stored in the inductor's magnetic field for their operation.
Types of Isolated converters
1. Flyback converter
2. Forward converter
1.2.2a Flyback converter: In this type of power supply converter, a transformer is used to store
energy, rather than a single inductor. It has two discrete phases for energy storage and output
delivery. The magnetic flux of the transformer core never reverses in polarity; hence, to avoid
the resultant magnetic saturation the core must be large enough for the given power level. These
are used in lower power applications, such as Cathode ray tubes and Geiger counter tubes which
draw lesser current.
1.2.2b Forward converter: The transformer transfers the energy between the input and the
output in a single step. This power supply converter can step-up or step-down voltage or offer a
combination of the two. For multiple outputs, all one needs to do is manipulate the turns on the
secondary winding. Applications include car amplifiers, where low battery voltage is stepped up
to obtain higher output for the amplifiers.

CHAPTER 2
FLYBACK CONVERTER
2.1 FLYBACK CONVERTER
Fly-back converter is the most commonly used SMPS circuit for low output power
applications where the output voltage needs to be isolated from the input main supply. The
output power of flyback type SMPS circuits may vary from few watts to less than 100 watts. The
overall circuit topology of this converter is considerably simpler than other SMPS circuits. Input
to the circuit is generally unregulated dc voltage obtained by rectifying the utility ac voltage
followed by a simple capacitor filter. The circuit can offer single or multiple isolated output
voltages and can operate over wide range of input voltage variation. In respect of energy-
efficiency, fly-back power supplies are inferior to many other SMPS circuits but its simple
topology and low cost makes it popular in low output power range.
The commonly used fly-back converter requires a single controllable switch like, MOSFET and
the usual switching frequency is in the range of 100 kHz. A two-switch topology exists that
offers better energy efficiency and less voltage stress across the switches but costs more and the
circuit complexity also increases slightly. The present lesson is limited to the study of fly-back
circuit of single switch topology.
2.1.1 Basic Topology of Flyback Converter: Fig.2.1 shows the basic topology of a
fly-back circuit. Input to the circuit may be unregulated dc voltage derived from the utility ac
supply after rectification and some filtering.

Fig.2.1 Flyback converter
The ripple in dc voltage waveform is generally of low frequency and the overall ripple
voltage waveform repeats at twice the ac mains frequency. Since the SMPS circuit is operated at
much higher frequency (in the range of 100 kHz) the input voltage, in spite of being unregulated,
may be considered to have a constant magnitude during any high frequency cycle. A fast
switching device (S) like a MOSFET, is used with fast dynamic control over switch duty ratio
(ratio of ON time to switching time-period) to maintain the desired output voltage.
The transformer in Fig.2.1, is used for voltage isolation as well as for better matching
between input and output voltage and current requirements. Primary and secondary windings of
the transformer are wound to have good coupling so that they are linked nearly by same
magnetic flux. That will be shown in the next section the primary and secondary windings of the
fly-back transformer dont carry current simultaneously and in this sense fly-back transformer
works differently from a normal transformer. In a normal transformer, under load primary and
secondary windings conduct simultaneously such that the ampere turns of primary winding is
nearly balanced by the opposing ampere-turns of the secondary winding (the small difference in
ampere-turns is required to establish flux in the non-ideal core). Since primary and secondary
windings of the fly-back transformer dont conduct simultaneously they are more like two
magnetically coupled inductors and it may be more appropriate to call the fly-back transformer
as inductor-transformer. Accordingly the magnetic circuit design of a fly-back transformer is
done like that for an inductor. The details of the inductor-transformer design are dealt with
separately in some later lesson. The output section of the fly-back transformer, which consists of
voltage rectification and filtering, is considerably simpler than in most other switched mode
power supply circuits. As can be seen from the circuit (Fig.2.1), the secondary winding voltage is
rectified and filtered using just a diode and a capacitor. Voltage across this filter capacitor is the
SMPS output voltage.
2.1.2 Principle of Operation
During its operation fly-back converter assumes different circuit configurations. Each of
these circuit configurations have been referred here as modes of circuit operation. The complete
operation of the power supply circuit is explained with the help of functionally equivalent
circuits in these different modes.
As may be seen from the circuit diagram of Fig.2.1, when switch S is on, the primary
winding of the transformer gets connected to the input supply with its dotted end connected to
the positive side. At this time the diode D connected in series with the secondary winding gets
reverse biased due to the induced voltage in the secondary (dotted end potential being higher).
Thus with the turning on of switch S, primary winding is able to carry current but current in the
secondary winding is blocked due to the reverse biased diode. The flux established in the
transformer core and linking the windings is entirely due to the primary winding current. This
mode of circuit has been described here as Mode-1 of circuit operation.



Fig. 2.2(a) shows the current carrying part of the circuit and Fig. 2.2(b) shows the circuit
that is functionally equivalent to the fly-back circuit during mode-1. In the equivalent circuit
shown, the conducting switch or diode is taken as a shorted switch and the device that is not
conducting is taken as an open switch. This representation of switch is in line with our
assumption where the switches and diodes are assumed to have ideal nature, having zero voltage
drop during conduction and zero leakage current during off state.
In Mode-1 the input supply voltage appears across the primary winding inductance and
the primary current rises linearly. The following mathematical relation gives an expression for
current rise through the primary winding:
E
dc
= L
pri
- - - -(2.1)
where E
dc
is the input dc voltage, L
pri
is inductance of the primary winding and i
pri
is the
instantaneous current through primary winding.
At the end of switch-conduction (i.e., end of Mode-1), the energy stored in the magnetic
field of the fly back inductor-transformer is equal to L
p
I
2
p
/2 , where I
p
denotes the magnitude of
primary current at the end of conduction period. Even though the secondary winding does not
conduct during this mode, the load connected to the output capacitor gets uninterrupted current
Fig.2.2(a): Current path during
Mode-1 of circuit operation
Fig.2.2(b): Equivalent circuit in
Mode-1
due to the previously stored charge on the capacitor. During mode-1, assuming a large capacitor
the secondary winding voltage remains almost constant and equals to V
sec
=E
dc
N
2
/N
1
. During
mode-1, dotted end of secondary winding remains at higher potential than the other end. Under
this condition voltage stress across the diode connected to secondary winding (which is now
reverse biased) is the sum of the induced voltage in secondary and the output voltage
(V
doide
=V
o
+ E
dc
N
2
/N
1
).
Mode-2 of circuit operation starts when switch S is turned off after conducting for some
time. The primary winding current path is broken and according to laws of magnetic induction,
the voltage polarities across the windings reverse. Reversal of voltage polarities makes the diode
in the secondary circuit forward biased.



Fig. 2.3(a) shows the current path during mode-2 of circuit operation while Fig. 2.3(b) shows the
functional equivalent of the circuit during this mode.
In mode-2, though primary winding current is interrupted due to turning off of the switch
S, the secondary winding immediately starts conducting such that the net MMF produced by
the windings do not change abruptly (MMF is magneto motive force that is responsible for flux
production in the core. MMF in this case, is the algebraic sum of the ampere-turns of the two
windings. Current entering the dotted ends of the windings may be assumed to produce positive
MMF and accordingly current entering the opposite end will produce negative MMF).
Continuity of MMF, in magnitude and direction is automatically ensured as sudden change in
MMF is not supported by a practical circuit for reasons briefly given below.
MMF is proportional to the flux produced and flux in turn, decides the energy stored in
the magnetic field (energy per unit volume being equal to B
2
/2 , B being flux per unit area and
is the permeability of the medium). Sudden change in flux will mean sudden change in the
Fig.2.3(a): Current path during
Mode-2 of circuit operation
Fig.2.3(b): Equivalent circuit in Mode-2

magnetic field energy and this in turn will mean infinite magnitude of instantaneous power,
something that a practical system cannot support.
For the idealized circuit considered here, the secondary winding current abruptly rises
from zero to I
p
N
1
/N
2
as soon as the switch S turns off, N
1
and N
2
denote the number of turns in
the primary and secondary windings respectively. The diode connected in the secondary circuit
as shown in Fig.2.1 allows only the current that enters through the dotted end. It can be seen that
the magnitude and current direction in the secondary winding is such that the MMF produced by
the two windings does not have any abrupt change. The secondary winding current charges the
output capacitor. The + marked end of the capacitor will have positive voltage. The output
capacitor is usually sufficiently large such that its voltage doesnt change appreciably in a single
switching cycle but over a period of several cycles the capacitor voltage builds up to its steady
state value.
The steady-state magnitude of output capacitor voltage depends on various factors, like
input dc supply, fly-back transformer parameters, switching frequency, switch duty ratio and the
load at the output. Capacitor voltage magnitude will stabilize if during each switching cycle, the
energy output by the secondary winding equals the energy delivered to the load.
As can be seen from the steady state waveforms of Fig.2.4(a) and Fig.2.4(b), the
secondary winding current decays linearly as it flows against the constant output voltage (V
O
).
The linear decay of the secondary current can be expressed as follows:
L
sec
= -V
o
- - - -(2.2)

Where L
sec
and i
sec
are secondary winding inductance and current respectively. V
o
is the
stabilized magnitude of output voltage.
Under steady-state and under the assumption of zero on-state voltage drop across diode,
the secondary winding voltage during this mode equals V
o
and the primary winding voltage is
V
O
N
1
/N
2
(dotted ends of both windings being at lower potential). Under this condition, voltage
stress across switch S is the sum total of the induced emf in the primary winding and the dc
supply voltage (V
switch
= E
dc
+V
o
N
1
/N
2
).
In secondary winding while charging the output capacitor (and feeding the load)
transferring energy from the magnetic field of the flyback transformer to the power supply output
is in electrical form. If the off period of the switch is kept large, the secondary current gets
sufficient time to decay to zero and magnetic field energy is completely transferred to the output
capacitor and load. Flux linked by the windings remain zero until the next turn-on of the switch
and the circuit is under discontinuous flux mode of operation. Alternately, if the off period of the
switch is small the next turn on takes place before the secondary current decays to zero. The
circuit is then under continuous flux mode of operation.
During discontinuous mode, after complete transfer of the magnetic field energy to the
output the secondary winding emf as well as current fall to zero and the diode in series with the
winding stops conducting. The output capacitor however continues to supply uninterrupted
voltage to the load. This part of the circuit operation has been referred to as Mode-3 of the circuit
operation.
Mode-3 ends with turn ON of switch S and then the circuit again goes to Mode-1 and
the sequence repeats.



Figs.2.4(a) and 2.4(b) Respectively shows the current path and the equivalent circuit during
mode-3 of circuit operation.






Fig.2.4(a): Current path during
Mode-3 of circuit operation

Fig.2.4(b): Equivalent circuit in
Mode-3

2.2 FLYBACK CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS

Fig.2.5 Flyback circuit waveforms under continuous magnetic flux


Fig.2.6 Flyback circuit waveforms under discontinuous magnetic flux

2.3 PRACTICAL FLY-BACK CONVERTER
The flyback converter discussed in the previous sections neglects some of the practical
aspects of the circuit. The simplified and idealized circuit considered above essentially conveys
the basic idea behind the converter. However a practical converter will have device voltage drops
and losses. The coupling between the primary and secondary windings will not be ideal. The loss
part of the circuit is to be kept in mind while designing for rated power. The designed input
power (P
in
) should be equal to P
o
/, where P
o
is the required output power and is the efficiency
of the circuit. A typical value for may be taken close to 0.6 for first design iteration. Similarly
one needs to counter the effects of the non-ideal coupling between the windings. Due to the non-
ideal coupling between the primary and secondary windings when the primary side switch is
turned-off some energy is trapped in the leakage inductance of the winding. The flux associated
with the primary winding leakage inductance will not link the secondary winding and hence the
energy associated with the leakage flux needs to be dissipated in an external circuit (known as
snubber). Unless this energy finds a path, there will be a large voltage spike across the windings
which may destroy the circuit.

Fig. 2.7 Practical Fly Back Converter

Fig.2.7 shows a practical fly-back converter. The snubber circuit consists of a fast
recovery diode in series with a parallel combination of a snubber capacitor and a resistor. The
leakage-inductance current of the primary winding finds a low impedance path through the
snubber diode to the snubber capacitor. It can be seen that the diode end of the snubber capacitor
will be at higher potential. To check the excessive voltage build up across the snubber capacitor
a resistor is put across it. Under steady state this resistor is meant to dissipate the leakage flux
energy. The power lost in the snubber circuit reduces the overall efficiency of the fly-back type
SMPS circuit. A typical value for efficiency of a fly-back circuit is around 65% to 75%. In order
that snubber capacitor does not take away any portion of energy stored in the mutual flux of the
windings, the minimum steady state snubber capacitor voltage should be greater than the
reflected secondary voltage on the primary side. This can be achieved by proper choice of the
snubber-resistor and by keeping the RC time constant of the snubber circuit significantly higher
than the switching time period. Since the snubber capacitor voltage is kept higher than the
reflected secondary voltage, the worst-case switch voltage stress will be the sum of input voltage
and the peak magnitude of the snubber capacitor voltage. The circuit in Fig.2.7 also shows, in
block diagram a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control circuit to control the duty ratio of the
switch. In practical fly-back circuits, for closed loop output voltage regulation one needs to feed
output voltage magnitude to the PWM controller. In order to maintain ohmic isolation between
the output voltage and the input switching circuit the output voltage signal needs to be isolated
before feeding back. A popular way of feeding the isolated voltage information is to use a
tertiary winding. The tertiary winding voltage is rectified in a way similar to the rectification
done for the secondary winding. The rectified tertiary voltage will be nearly proportional to the
secondary voltage multiplied by the turns-ratio between the windings. The rectified tertiary
winding voltage also doubles up as control power supply for the PWM controller. For initial
powering up of the circuit the control power is drawn directly from the input supply through a
resistor (shown as R
S
in Fig.2.6) connected between the input supply and the capacitor of the
tertiary circuit rectifier. The resistor R
s
is of high magnitude and causes only small continuous
power loss.
In case, multiple isolated output voltages are required the fly-back transformer will need
to have multiple secondary windings. Each of these secondary winding voltages are rectified and
filtered separately. Each rectifier and filter circuit uses the simple diode and capacitor as shown
earlier for a single secondary winding. In the practical circuit shown above, where a tertiary
winding is used for voltage feedback it may not be possible to compensate exactly for the
secondary winding resistance drop as the tertiary winding is unaware of the actual load supplied
by the secondary winding.

CHAPTER 3
PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION
The entire Circuit of 7.5W Non-isolated flyback converter is combination of following circuits.
Start-up circuit
Maximum pulse width
circuit
Controller circuit
Power circuit
Feedback circuit
3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION OF PROJECT
The following figure represents the block diagram of 7.5W Non-isolated flyback
converter.
Fig.3.1 Block diagram representation of Project Circuit
CHAPTER 4
START-UP CIRCUIT AND MAXIMUM PULSE
WIDTH CIRCUIT
4.1 START-UP CIRCUIT
The startup circuit is a scheme for high power DC/DC converters to minimize the effect
of in-rush current during start-up. A single pulse width modulation controller (PWM) is possible
for the present invention for not only start-up but also normal boost modes. A primary circuit can
have a clamping switch or at least two choke diodes. The choke diode can include push-pull
and L-type configurations. A resistor can be used to dissipate energy clamped from the voltage
spike. A startup circuit can be used to eliminate the in-rush current experienced during start-up.
Since the present invention eliminates the need to match characteristics of multiple controllers, it
significantly reduces the cost associated with implementing this type of technology.
A system to DC-DC converter, the system comprising a primary circuit comprising at
least one bridge leg component; a secondary circuit comprising at least two bridge leg
components, a transformer coupling the primary circuit and the secondary circuit; the primary
circuit further comprising a clamping switch; and a start-up circuit comprising a high frequency
rectifier diode, a high frequency capacitor electrically coupled across the high frequency rectifier
diode and an output capacitor electrically coupled across an output of the secondary circuit,
whereby at least one bridge leg component of the primary circuit is protected from in-rush
current in a Start-up mode.

Fig.4.1 Start-up circuit
4.1.1 Operation:
The start-up circuit consist of power supply, diode, capacitor and voltage divider (R
1
and
R
2
). The supply voltage is obtained from a battery or DC regulated power supply from (0V to
30V).The voltage is smoothened by capacitor and given to voltage divider. The voltage divider
divides the voltage into 50:1 ratio and the TP3 is connected in between this two resistors which
is connected to the Dead time control pin of the controller. The Diode blocks the reverse voltage
to the supply.
4.2 MAXIMUM PULSE WIDTH CIRCUIT
The maximum pulse width circuit consist of clamper which clamps amplifier output
voltage that is compensation pin by connecting the base of Q1 to compensation pin.

Fig .4.2 Maximum pulse width circuit
The amplifier output (Compensation pin) is compared with the internal ramp to generate
the duty ratio. The amplifier output requires to be clamped below the peak of the ramp in order
that the maximum duty ratio is well below 3 V, which is the peak of the ramp. For this purpose,
the amplifier output is provided with a clamp circuit consisting of Q1 (2N2222), R6 (10k ), R7
(10k) and Q2 (2N2907). The clamp level is obtained from a biased diode network consisting of
D2, D3, D4 and D5 (1N4148).

CHAPTER 5
CONTROLLER CIRCUIT
5.1 PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUE
From the derivations for the boost, buck and inverter (flyback) it can be seen that
changing the duty cycle controls the steady-state output with respect to the input voltage. This is
a key concept governing all inductor-based switching circuits. The most common control method
shown in figure 5.1 is pulse-width modulation (PWM). This method takes a sample of the output
voltage and subtracts this from a reference voltage to establish a small error signal (V
ERROR
).
This error signal is compared to an oscillator ramp signal. The comparator outputs a digital
output (PWM) that operates the power switch. When the circuit output voltage changes, V
ERROR

also changes and thus causes the comparator threshold to change. Consequently, the output pulse
width (PWM) also changes. This duty cycle change that moves the output voltage to reduce to
error signal to zero, thus completing the control loop.

Fig.5.1 Pulse Width Modulation technique

5.2 UC494C CONTROLLER:
The controller circuit consist of UC494 Advanced Regulating Pulse Width Modulator.
This entire series of PWM modulators each provide a complete pulse width modulation system
in a single monolithic integrated circuit. These devices include a 5V reference accurate to 1%,
two independent amplifiers usable for both voltage and current sensing, an externally
synchronisable oscillator with its linear ramp generator and two uncommitted transistor output
switches. These two outputs may be operated either in parallel for single ended operation or
alternating for push-pull applications with an externally controlled dead-band. These units are
internally protected against double pulsing of a single output or from extraneous output signals
when the input supply voltage is below minimum. . The UC494A is packaged in a 16-pin DIP.
The UC494A is specified for operation over the full military temperature range of -55C to
+125C, while the UC494C is designed for industrial applications from 0C to +70C.
5.2.1 Pin Configuration of UC494 Controller

Fig.5.2 Pin configuration of UC494 controller
5.2.2 Features
1. Dual Uncommitted 40V, 200mA Output Transistors
2. 1% Accurate 5V Reference
3. Dual Error Amplifiers
4. Wide Range, Variable Deadtime
5. Single-ended or Push-pull Operation
6. Under-voltage Lockout With Hysteresis
7. Double Pulse Protection
8. Master or Slave Oscillator Operation

5.3 CONTROLLER CIRCUIT


Fig 5.3 Controller circuit
5.3.1 Operation:
The controller circuit is shown in figure 5.2. The V
cc
pin of the controller is connected
to the D
1
cathode(15V to 25V). The most common control method, shown in adjacent figure is
pulse-width modulation. This method takes a sample of the output voltage and subtracts this
from a reference voltage to establish a small error signal (V
ERROR
). This error signal is compared
to an oscillator ramp signal.
The ramp voltage is generated by C
t
(pin 5) and R
t
(pin 6) of 3V using oscillator circuit
with switching frequency of 100kHz. The switching frequency is given by 1.11/R
t
C
t
. The
controller has two internal amplifiers a and b. The amplifier outputs are wired such that the
higher of the two outputs will prevail (wired OR). The amplifier b is not used and hence it is
biased (non-inverting input to ground and inverting input to 2.5 V) such that its output is low.

Fig.5.4 Connections of amplifier
The amplifier a non-inverting pin is given to reference voltage of 2.5V and inverting pin
connected to feedback loop with PI controller at TP6. The output feedback is compensated by
using lead/lag compensator and given to compensation pin. The output of amplifier with
compensation and the ramp voltage signal is given to comparator which compares both voltage
signal and generates the output pulses. The controller has two uncommitted transistor output
switches. These two outputs may be operated either in parallel for single ended operation or
alternating for push-pull applications with an externally controlled dead-band. The output control
pin is connected to the ground to work the output in single ended or parallel operation. The
emitter pins of the two transistors are tied together and connected to ground and the collector
pins are tied together and given to the gate of MOSFET .

CHAPTER 6
FEEDBACK CIRCUIT
6.1 CLOSED LOOP CONTROL
This is also often termed as Automatic Control, Process Control, Feedback Control etc.
Here the controller objective is to provide such inputs to the plant such that the output y(t)
follows the input r(t) as closely as possible, in value and over time. The structure of the common
control loop with its constituent elements, namely the Controller, the Actuator, the Sensor and
the Process itself is shown. In addition the signals that exist at various points of the system are
also marked. These include the command (alternatively termed the set point or the reference
signal), the exogenous inputs (disturbances, noise).
The difficulties in achieving the performance objective is mainly due to the unavoidable
disturbances due to load variation and other external factors, as well as sensor noise, the
complexity, possible instability, uncertainty and variability in the plant dynamics, as well as
limitations in actuator capabilities.

Fig.6.1 Closed loop block diagram
Most industrial control loop command signals are piecewise constant signals that indicate
desirable levels of process variables, such as temperature, pressure, flow, level etc., which ensure
the quality of the product in Continuous Processes. In some cases, such as in case of motion
control for machining, the command signal may be continuously varying according to the
dimensions of the product. Therefore, here deviation of the output from the command signal
results in degradation of product quality. It is for this reason that the choice of the feedback
signals, that of the controller algorithm (such as, P, PI or PID), the choice of the control loop
structure (normal feedback loop, cascade loop or feedforward) as well as choice of the controller
gains is extremely important for industrial machines and processes. Typically the control
configurations are well known for a given class of process however, the choice of controller
gains have to be made from time to time, since the plant operating characteristics changes with
time. This is generally called controller tuning.
6.2 COMPENSATOR(LEAD/LAG)
Generally the purpose of the Lead-Lag compensator is to create a controller which has
an overall magnitude of approximately 1. The lead-lag compensator is largely used for phase
compensation rather than magnitude. A pole is an integrator above the frequency of the pole. A
zero is a derivative above the frequency of the zero.
Adding a pole to the system changes the phase by -90 deg and adding a zero changes the
phase by +90 deg. So if the system needs +90 deg added to the phase in a particular frequency
band then you can add a zero at a low frequency and follow that zero with a pole at a higher
frequency.
Lead and lag control are used to add or reduce phase between 2 frequencies. Typically
these frequencies are centered around the open loop crossover frequency. A lead filter typically
has unity gain (0 dB) are low frequencies while the lag provides a non unity gain at low
frequencies.

Where X is the input to the compensator, Y is the output, s is the complex Laplace transform
variable, z is the zero frequency and p is the pole frequency. The pole and zero are both typically
negative. In a lead compensator, the pole is left of the zero in the complex plane | z | < | p | ,
while in a lag compensator | z | > | p | . A lead-lag compensator consists of a lead compensator
cascaded with a lag compensator.
The overall transfer function can be written as

Typically | p
1
| > | z
1
| > | z
2
| > | p
2
| , where z
1
and p
1
are the zero and pole of the lead
compensator and z
2
and p
2
are the zero and pole of the lag compensator. The lead compensator
provides phase lead at high frequencies. This shifts the poles to the left, which enhances the
responsiveness and stability of the system. The lag compensator provides phase lag at low
frequencies which reduces the steady state error.

Fig.6.2 Feedback Circuit
The dc gain from duty ratio to output voltage consists of modulator gain and converter
gain. The modulator gain is the reciprocal of the ramp peak in the modulator. In UC494, it is
1/3.5.

This gain varies from 72 to 66. The overall gain is therefore 20.47 to 18.87 for the
converter. The lower gain is at higher voltage. The closed loop control used is a PI controller
with lead/lag compensator. The PI corner frequency [1=(R16C8)] is chosen at 3030 rad/sec. The
lead/lag compensator frequencies [1=(R
15
C
7
)] are chosen as 2220 rad/sec and
[1=(C
7
R
3
R
4
R
15
)]22000 rad/sec .
CHAPTER 7
POWER CIRCUIT
7.1 MAIN COMPONENTS OF POWER CIRCUIT:
MOSFET (IRFZ44)
Flyback transformer(couple inductor)
Diode(MUR110)
Voltage regulator (LM7815C)
7.2 MOSFET
The power MOSFET is commonly presented and regarded as a voltage driven device and
as such there is a natural expectation that it can be driven from any pulse source, irrespective of
that sources energy or current capability. This assumption is partly justified if the system in
question only pulses or switches the MOSFET at a low frequency or in pure DC circuits, where
the transistor may only be used in a toggled state. However, for typical switching frequencies
from several kHz upwards attention must be paid to the gate drive requirements to ensure
efficient and saturated switching of the MOSFET. This must be considered as the gate-source
(g-s) circuit is to a first approximation, essentially a CR network; comprising the g-s capacitance
and the resistance of the metallic/silicon interconnects. To this network must be added the
effective resistance or source impedance of the gate driver circuitry and for true assessments
consideration of the drain-gate (d-g) capacitance and the Miller effect. Due to this network, the
g-s voltage follows an exponential curve as the C elements charge and so either sufficient time
must be given to allow this voltage to reach its target value (thus limiting the operating
frequency and increasing the time spent in the linear region thereby producing high switching
losses), or the R element must be minimised. The MOSFETs are of two types N-channel
MOSFET and P-channel MOSFET. The N-channel MOSFET is made ON using positive gate
voltage and N-channel MOSFET is made ON with negative gate voltage. The N-channel
MOSFETs are most commonly used in the power electronics field.
7.2.1 MOSFET as a Switch
The N-channel, Enhancement-mode MOSFET operates using a positive input voltage and
has an extremely high input resistance (almost infinite) making it possible to interface with
nearly any logic gate or driver capable of producing a positive output. Also, due to this very high
input (Gate) resistance we can parallel together many different MOSFETs until we achieve the
current handling limit required.

Fig.7.1 Power MOSFET (a) Schematic (b)Transfer characteristics (c)Device symbol
While connecting together various MOSFETs may enable us to switch high currents or
high voltage loads, doing so becomes expensive and impractical in both components and circuit
board space. To overcome this problem Power Field Effect Transistors or Power FET's were
developed.

P-channel in enhancement and depletion mode

N-channel in enhancement and depletion mode
Fig.7.2 Symbol of MOSFETs
We now know that there are two main differences between field effect transistors,
depletion-mode only for JFET's and both enhancement-mode and depletion-mode for MOSFETs.
In this project we will look at using the Enhancement-mode MOSFET as a Switch as these
transistors require a positive gate voltage to turn "ON" and a zero voltage to turn "OFF" making
them easily understood as switches and also easy to interface with logic gates.
The operation of the enhancement-mode MOSFET can best be described using its I-V
characteristics curves shown below. When the input voltage, ( V
IN
) to the gate of the transistor is
zero, the MOSFET conducts virtually no current and the output voltage, ( V
OUT
) is equal to the
supply voltage V
DD
. So the MOSFET is "fully-OFF" and in its "cut-off" region.
7.2.2 MOSFET Characteristics Curves
The minimum ON-state gate voltage required to ensure that the MOSFET remains fully-
ON when carrying the selected drain current can be determined from the V-I transfer curves
below. When V
IN
is high or equal to V
DD
, the MOSFET Q-point moves to point A along the load
line. The drain current I
D
increases to its maximum value due to a reduction in the channel
resistance. I
D
becomes a constant value independent of V
DD
and is dependent only on V
GS
.
Therefore, the transistor behaves like a closed switch but the channel ON-resistance does not
reduce fully to zero due to its R
DS(on)
value, but gets very small.


Fig.7.3 MOSFET characteristics curves
Likewise, when V
IN
is LOW or reduced to zero, the MOSFET Q-point moves from point
A to point B along the load line. The channel resistance is very high so the transistor acts like an
open circuit and no current flows through the channel. So if the gate voltage of the MOSFET
toggles between two values, HIGH and LOW the MOSFET will behave as a "single-pole single-
throw" (SPST) solid state switch and this action is defined as
7.2.2.1. Cut-off region
Here the operating conditions of the transistor are zero input gate voltage ( V
IN
), zero
drain current I
D
and output voltage V
DS
= V
DD
Therefore the MOSFET is switched "Fully-OFF".
Cut-off Characteristics

Fig.7.4 Cut-Off region equivalent diagram
The input and Gate are grounded (0V)
Gate-source voltage less than threshold voltage V
GS
< V
TH

MOSFET is "fully-OFF" (Cut-off region)
No Drain current flows ( I
D
= 0 )
V
OUT
= V
DS
= V
DD
= "1"
MOSFET operates as an "open switch"
Then we can define the "Cut-Off region" or "OFF mode" of a MOSFET switch as being, gate
voltage, V
GS
< V
TH
and I
D
= 0. For a P-channel MOSFET, the gate potential must be negative.
7.2.2.2. Saturation region
Here the transistor will be biased so that the maximum amount of gate voltage is applied
to the device which results in the channel resistance R
DS(on)
being as small as possible with
maximum drain current flowing through the MOSFET switch. Therefore the MOSFET is
switched "Fully-ON".
Saturation Characteristics

Fig.7.5 Saturation region equivalent diagram
The input and Gate are connected to V
DD

Gate-source voltage is much greater than threshold voltage V
GS
> V
TH

MOSFET is "fully-ON" (saturation region)
Max Drain current flows ( I
D
= V
DD
/ R
L
)
V
DS
= 0V (ideal saturation)
Min channel resistance R
DS(on)
< 0.1
V
OUT
= V
DS
= 0.2V (R
DS
.I
D
)
MOSFET operates as a "closed switch"
Then we can define the "Saturation region" or "ON mode" of a MOSFET switch as gate-source
voltage, V
GS
> V
TH
and I
D
= Maximum. For a P-channel MOSFET, the gate potential must be
positive.
By applying a suitable drive voltage to the gate of an FET, the resistance of the drain-
source channel, R
DS(on)
can be varied from an "OFF-resistance" of many hundreds of k's,
effectively an open circuit, to an "ON-resistance" of less than 1, effectively a short circuit. We
can also drive the MOSFET to turn "ON" faster or slower, or pass high or low currents. This
ability to turn the power MOSFET "ON" and "OFF" allows the device to be used as a very
efficient switch with switching speeds much faster than standard bipolar junction transistors.
An example of using the MOSFET as a switch


Fig.7.6 MOSFET as a Switch
In this circuit arrangement an Enhancement-mode N-channel MOSFET is being used to
switch a simple lamp "ON" and "OFF" (could also be an LED). The gate input voltage V
GS
is
taken to an appropriate positive voltage level to turn the device and therefore the lamp either
fully "ON", ( V
GS
= +ve ) or at a zero voltage level that turns the device fully "OFF", ( V
GS
= 0 ).
If the resistive load of the lamp was to be replaced by an inductive load such as a coil,
solenoid or relay a "flywheel diode" would be required in parallel with the load to protect the
MOSFET from any self generated back-emf.
Above figure7.6 shows a very simple circuit for switching a resistive load such as a lamp
or LED. But when using power MOSFETs to switch either inductive or capacitive loads some
form of protection is required to prevent the MOSFET device from becoming damaged. Driving
an inductive load has the opposite effect from driving a capacitive load. For example, a capacitor
without an electrical charge is a short circuit resulting in a high "inrush" of current and when we
remove the voltage from an inductive load we have a large reverse voltage build up as the
magnetic field collapses, resulting in an induced back-emf in the windings of the inductor.
For the power MOSFET to operate as an analogue switching device it needs to be
switched between its "Cut-off Region" where V
GS
= 0 and its "Saturation Region" were V
GS(on)
=
+ve. The power dissipated in the MOSFET ( P
D
) depends upon the current flowing through the
channel I
D
at saturation and also the "ON-resistance" of the channel given as R
DS(on)
.
In this project we are using IRFZ44, the main features of this power MOSFET has
dynamic dv/dt rating, 175
o
operating temperature, fast switching, ease paralleling, simple drive
requirements. The power MOSFET has the current carrying capacity of 1A and block about
minimum 55V.
7.3 COUPLE INDUCTOR
The coupled inductors are of crucial importance as models in many practical applications,
like in electrical transformers, motors and generators. In most cases, such devices are modeled
`from the electrical point of view' without the necessity (or possibility) of modeling detailed
structure of the magnetic field inside the device. Mutual inductance occurs when the change in
current in one inductor induces a voltage in another nearby inductor. It is important as the
mechanism by which transformers work, but it can also cause unwanted coupling between
conductors in a circuit. The mutual inductance M, is also a measure of the coupling between two
inductors. The mutual inductance by circuit i on circuit j is given by the double integral
Neumann formula,
The mutual inductance also has the relationship,

where
M
21
is the mutual inductance and the subscript specifies the relationship of the voltage
induced in coil 2 due to the current in coil 1.
N
1
is the number of turns in coil 1,
N
2
is the number of turns in coil 2 and
P
21
is the permeance of the space occupied by the flux.
The mutual inductance also has a relationship with the coupling coefficient. The coupling
coefficient is always between 1 and 0, and is a convenient way to specify the relationship
between a certain orientation of inductor with arbitrary inductance:

where
k is the coupling coefficient and 0 k 1,
L
1
is the inductance of the first coil and
L
2
is the inductance of the second coil.
Once the mutual inductance M, is determined from this factor it can be used to predict the
behavior of a circuit:

where
V
1
is the voltage across the inductor of interest,
L
1
is the inductance of the inductor of interest,
dI
1
/dt is the derivative with respect to time of the current through the inductor of interest,
dI
2
/dt is the derivative with respect to time of the current through the inductor that is
coupled to the first inductor and
M is the mutual inductance.
The minus sign arises because of the sense the current I
2
has been defined in the diagram.
With both currents defined going into the dots the sign of M will be positive. When one inductor
is closely coupled to another inductor through mutual inductance, such as in a transformer, the
voltages, currents and number of turns can be related in the following way,

where
V
s
is the voltage across the secondary inductor,
V
p
is the voltage across the primary inductor (the one connected to a power source),
N
s
is the number of turns in the secondary inductor and
N
p
is the number of turns in the primary inductor.
Conversely the current:

where
I
s
is the current through the secondary inductor,
I
p
is the current through the primary inductor (the one connected to a power source),
N
s
is the number of turns in the secondary inductor and
N
p
is the number of turns in the primary inductor.
Note that the power through one inductor is the same as the power through the other. Also note
that these equations don't work if both transformers are forced (with power sources).
When either side of the transformer is a tuned circuit, the amount of mutual inductance
between the two windings determines the shape of the frequency response curve. Although no
boundaries are defined this is often referred to as loose-, critical- and over-coupling. When two
tuned circuits are loosely coupled through mutual inductance, the bandwidth will be narrow. As
the amount of mutual inductance increases, the bandwidth continues to grow. When the mutual
inductance is increased beyond a critical point the peak in the response curve begins to drop and
the center frequency will be attenuated more strongly than its direct sidebands. This is known as
overcoupling.

( ) Pair of interacting coils, ( ) coupled electrical inductors.

Fig.7.7 Couple inductors
The couple inductor is used as a flyback transformer in this project. Flyback transformer utilizes
the "flyback" action of an inductor or flyback transformer to convert the input voltage and
current to the desired output voltage and current. Modern flyback transformer and circuit design
now permit use in excess of 300 watts of power, but most applications are less than 50 watts. By
definition a transformer directly couples energy from one winding to another winding.
A flyback transformer does not act as a true transformer. A flyback transformer first
stores energy received from the input power supply (charging portion of a cycle) and then
transfers energy (discharge portion of a cycle) to the output, usually a storage capacitor with a
load connected across its terminals. An application in which a complete discharge is followed by
a short period of inactivity (known as idle time) is defined to be operating in a discontinuous
mode. An application in which a partial discharge is followed by charging is defined to be
operating in the continuous mode.
this project the main inductor of primary 33 turns and secondary 48 turns is used the
rated current is 1.11A.The ripple current is chosen as 0.22A with maximum ON time of 6 sec,
at input voltage of 15V, this gives an inductor value of approximately 400 H with turns ratio of
0.691.
7.4 VOLTAGE REGULATOR (LM7815)
A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a
constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may
include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or
electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or
DC voltages.
Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies
where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. In automobile
alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of the
plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a substation
or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much
power is drawn from the line. The linear regulator is the basic building block of nearly every
power supply used in electronics. The IC linear regulator is so easy to use and so inexpensive
that it is usually one of the cheapest components in an electronic assembly.


Fig.7.8 Voltage regulator LM7815
The voltage regulator LM7815 is used in this project and connected to the output of
flyback converter to maintain the constant voltage of 15V for variation of output voltage
with in limit for a input voltage of 15V to 25V. Maximum ratings of LM7815C, 35V input
voltage, power dissipation internally limited, operating junction temperature range is 0 to
+150
o
c.
7.4.1 Features of LM7815
Output current in excess of 1A.
No external components required
Internal thermal overload protection
Internal short-circuit current limiting
Output transistor safe- area compensation
Output voltage offered in 4% tolerance.
7.5 DIODE (MUR110)
The diode MUR110 is used in the power circuit. The diode carries 0.5A average current
and blocks about 20V and suitable for 100kHz switching. The reverse recovery time has to be
better than 50ns. Therefore MUR110 is selected.
7.6 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF POWER CIRCUIT OF NON-
ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER

Fig.7.9 Power circuit
7.6.1 Operation of Circuit
The above figure7.9 is the circuit diagram of 7.5W Non-isolated flyback converter power
circuit. Operation of power circuit of 7.5W non-isolated fly back converter is same as that the
operation of fly back converter. When supply voltage is given to the converter and gate pulses
are applied to the gate of MOSFET it starts conducting. The gate pulses are obtained from the IC
UC494 controller which is a PWM controller.
But due to reverse polarities of transformer, the diode in the secondary circuit will get
reverse biased and does not conduct and therefore the capacitor C
4
which is already charged in
previous stage will get discharge and maintains the supply to the load.
When MOSFET is in off position, the energy stored in the inductor of the transformer
will make the diode in the secondary circuit forward bias, charges the capacitor C
4
and also
supplies current to load. By this way it maintains the load. The voltage across the capacitor
C
5
(17V) is more than what we require(15V). In order to get constant desired voltage we are
using LM7815C which gives the constant output voltage of 15V.

CHAPTER 8
SIMULATION OF FLYBACK CONVERTER USING
MATLAB
8.1 SIMULATION CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The flyback converter circuit is simulated in MATLAB software. The switching pulses to
the MOSFET is given from the comparator. The ramp signal and error voltage is given as input
to the comparator inputs. The error voltage is obtained by subtracting the output voltage and
reference voltage. This error voltage, ramp signal and comparator from a pulse width
modulation technique. As the error voltage is generated from output voltage and reference
voltage it act as a closed loop flyback converter. No voltage regulator is used in the power
circuit, therefore the output voltage is not constant on the output side.
8.1.1 Simulation Circuit

Fig. 8.1 Simulation circuit of flyback converter
8.1.2 Output Wave Forms

Fig. 8.2 Gate Pulses

Fig. 8.3 Output
Voltage(16.6V)

Fig. 8.4 Output Current(0.43A)
8.1.3 Tabulation of Input Voltage and Output Voltage Without Voltage
Regulator on the Load Side
Table 8.1 The output voltage for variation of input voltage
INPUT VOLTAGE
(VOLTS)
OUPUT VOLTAGE
(VOLTS)
15 11.5
16 12.4
17 12.6
18 13.24
19 13.81
20 14.37
21 14.9
22 15.5


The above table shows the variation of output voltage for different input voltages. The
output voltage is not constant as the voltage regulator is not connected on the load side of the
power circuit.
23 16
24 16.63
25 17.2
CHAPTER 9
NON-ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER
HARDWARE KIT
9.1 HARDWARE KIT PCB LAYOUT

Fig.9.1 PCB layout of Hardware kit

9.2 HARDWARE KIT


Fig.9.2 Hardware kit PCB with components

9.3 PRACTICAL OUTPUT WAVEFORMS FOR INPUT
VOLTAGE OF 15VOLTS

Fig.9.3 Ramp Voltage (3V)

Fig.9.4 Gate Voltage(12V)
Scale
X-axis 1unit- 10sec
Y-axis 1unit- 2V

Scale
X-axis 1unit- 20sec
Y-axis 1unit- 10V

Fig.9.5 Output Voltage(15.2V)

Fig.9.6 Primary Inductor Voltage
Scale
X-axis 1unit- 10sec
Y-axis 1unit- 10V
Scale
X-axis 1unit- 20sec
Y-axis 1unit- 20V


Fig. 9.7 Secondary Inductor Voltage
9.4 PRACTICAL OUTPUT WAVEFORMS FOR INPUT
VOLTAGE OF 25VOLTS

Scale
X-axis 1unit- 20sec
Y-axis 1unit- 20V
Scale
X-axis 1unit- 10sec
Y-axis 1unit- 2V
Fig. 9.8 Ramp Voltage(3V)

Fig. 9.9 Gate Voltage(20V)


Fig.9.10 Output Voltage(15.2V)
Scale
X-axis 1unit- 20sec
Y-axis 1unit- 10V

Scale
X-axis 1unit- 10sec
Y-axis 1unit- 10V



Fig. 9.11 Primary Inductor Voltage


Scale
X-axis 1unit- 20sec
Y-axis 1unit- 20V

Scale
X-axis 1unit- 20sec
Y-axis 1unit- 20V
Fig. 9.12 Secondary Inductor Voltage
9.5 TABULATION OF INPUT VOLTAGE AND OUTPUT VOLTAGE
Table 9.1 The output voltage for variation of input voltage


The above table shows the variation of output voltage for different input voltages. The
output voltage is as the voltage regulator LM7815 is connected on the load side of the power
circuit.
INPUT VOLTAGE
(VOLTS)
OUPUT VOLTAGE
(VOLTS)
15 15.2
16 15.2
17 15.2
18 15.2
19 15.2
20 15.2
21 15.2
22 15.2
23 15.2
24 15.2
25 15.2

CHAPTER 10
APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
10.1 APPLICATIONS:
Non-isolated units, which make up the majority of POL(point of load) converters, come in
assorted board-friendly compact package styles and are typically used in computing applications
such as memory motherboards
Their more compact packaging yields significant real estate savings on the pc board and allows
them to be placed close to their loads.
Low-power switch-mode power supplies (cell phone charger, standby power supply in PCs)
Low cost multiple-output power supplies (e.g., main PC supplies <250 W)
High voltage supply for the CRT in TVs and monitors (the fly-back converter is often combined
with the horizontal deflection drive).
High voltage generation (e.g., for xenon flash lamps, lasers, copiers, etc).
The ignition system in spark-ignition engines is also a fly-back converter, the ignition coil being
the transformer and the contact breaker forming the switch element.
Isolated gate driver.
10.2 LIMITATIONS:
For higher switching frequencies the switching power loss increases due to which the efficiency
is decreased. The soft switching technique is used for higher switching frequencies.
As this are non-isolated higher power rating converters is not easy. Increase in power rating
more than 200W the isolation should be provide for control circuit.
Discontinuous mode has the following disadvantages, which limit the efficiency of the
converter:
High RMS and peak currents in the design
High flux excursions in the inductor
Continuous mode has the following disadvantages, which complicate the control of the
converter:
The voltage feedback loop requires a lower bandwidth due to a zero in the response
of the converter.
The current feedback loop used in current mode control needs slope compensation in
cases where the duty cycle is above 50%.
The power switches are now turning on with positive current flow.

CHAPTER 11
CONCLUSION
11.1. CONCLUSION:
The operation, functioning and applications of Non-Isolated flyback converter is studied.
The working of Hardware kit is successful and the constant output voltage is obtained.
The circuit is simulated in MATLAB 8.1 software and the waveforms of output voltage,
output current and gate pulses across MOSFET are obtained.
The function and operation of UC494C is studied
11.2. RESULTS:
The output voltage of the Non-Isolated Flyback converter (Hardware kit) is 15.2V, while
the input voltage applied to the circuit varies is varied from 15V to 25V. This is obtained by
the variation of duty ratio by closed loop control.
The gate pulses are controlled by closed loop circuit with PI an LEAD/LAG controller so
that desired output is obtained.
Accurate switching of MOSFET with dead time control and constant output voltage is
obtained.
11.3 DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED DURING THE PROJECT

The simulation difficulties occurred due to non availability of IC PWM controller
UC494C in the MATLAB software.
The output voltage is not constant in the simulation circuit results as the voltage regulator
is not available in the software used.

CHAPTER 12
SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
12.1 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK:
For designing the Non-Isolated Flyback converter with very high frequency of 250 kHz dc-dc
power conversion, the soft switching methods are used like Active clamp and Resonant circuit
for soft switching.
Resonant switching techniques reduce the switching losses to practically zero; the
switching frequency then may be increased to hundreds of kHz to achieve higher power
densities. Such converters in general are classified as Soft switching converters. In these
converters, the switching transitions occur with zero loss.
With the Active clamp circuit, the transistor turn-off voltage spike is clamped, the
transformer leakage energy is recycled, and zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) of the
MOSFET switches becomes a possibility.
The replacement of MOSFET switches in parallel with a single(less expensive) IGBT, without a
compromise of the switching frequency.
Designing for high power ratings the isolation should be provided for control circuit.

REFERENCES
BOOKS

1. Keng Chih Wu Pulse Width Modulated DC/DC Converters
2. M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
NJ.
3. N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics:
Converters, Applications and Design, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons,
NewYork, 1995
4. Billings, Keith (1999), Switch mode Power Supply Handbook, McGraw-Hill
5. A. I.Pressman, Switching Power Supply Design, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill,New
York, 1998
WEBSITES
Flyback Converter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flyback_converter

DC-DC Converter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC-to-DC_converter

SMPS http;//en.nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/.../L21(DP)(PE)
%20((EE)NPTEL).pdf




Data sheets of components www.alldatasheet.com

SMPS, DC-DC converter www.educypedia.be/electronics/circuitssmps




APPENDIX A
COMPONENTS LIST WITH THEIR RATINGS


APPENDIX B
DATA SHEET OF UC494C





APPENDIX C
DATA SHEET OF MOSFET (IRFZ44)






APPENDIX D
DATA SHEET OF LM7815