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okay, an alphabet is simply a finite set

of symbols, we see many common examples

like ascii, or Unicode are sets of symbols
used in, in the various computer
applications in most of our examples we
will use simpler alphabets which will
include... Some of the alphabet,
consisting of the number zero, one, one
called the binary alphabet. Sometimes I'll
use a small set of letters like A, B, C,
or for the, for the case of our, our
tennis example, we had the set of S and O
as our input alphabet. Another interesting
example might be the set of signals used
by a protocol, such as transmit end and so
on. Okay, a string, first of all, every
string is over some particular alphabet
which we'll call a capital sigma it's,
it's a list of elements each of which is a
member sigma. And we'll show strings with
no commas or quotes. So for example, ABC
is a string, over the, it could be
alphabetic C or it could be ascii alphabet
011 01 is probably a is a string probably
over the binary alphabet of zero and one
this could be over any other alphabet that
contains the ON1, strings are essentially
the usual data type that you've seen in
languages like C or java, Oral, we are
going to write them without the special
quotes It's also legitimate to see strings
as lists of symbols as long as they're
chosen from some particular alphabet
sigma, and of course we never use commas
or any other separator between the,
symbols of the string. We'll use the
notation sigma star to mean the set of all
possible strings over, a particular finite
alphabet sigma. The length of the string
is the number of positions and it should
be a common idea from a language like
java. And we will use epsilon to stand for
the empty string or string of length zero.
Something which you meant find by quote,
quote, in, one or another programming
language. Okay, so here is an example,
first of all, zero one star is the set of
all strings over the binary alphabet of
zero and one. Here is a list of some of
the, strings, We'll do it shortest length
first so the empty string is of course of
length zero and then zero is the string
consisting of the single character zero,
one, again a string of length one, with a
character one, and then you have things
like zero, zero and so on the four strings
of length two, and so on. There are
infinite number of strings of course in
zero, one, star. [sound] eh, you might
notice that when I write something like
zero, that could either be the character
zero, the symbol zero, or it could be a
string of length one that has one position
and in that position is a zero, it these
are not the same thing, they are different
types of objects, no question about that,
but, you can generally tell whether I am
talking about strings or, or symbols for
example only strings can be members of
languages, symbols can't be members of a
language although you could have obviously
a string of length one which looks like a
symbol [sound] Now language is a sets of
strings and they can be finite or infinite
sets of strings. The only limitation that
we place on a language is that there is
some finite alphabet from which all the
strings of the language are composed. The
Language L given as an example has 01 as
its alphabet. It has all strings that do
not have two consecutive 1s okay, so the
empty string is there and both strings of
length one, that is zero and one, of the
strings of length two all are there except
one, one, right, because one, one does
obviously have two consecutive ones. Five
of the eight possible strings of length
three are there. The other three possible
strings do have consecutive ones. And I
haven't shown it all here, but there are
eight of the sixteen strings of length
four, are present. Now, just to give you,
throw out a little bit of, of a question,
you see that there is one of length zero,
two of length one, three of length two,
five of length three Eight of length four,
you might think about how many would there
be of length five. There' s an obvious
pattern, it would be interesting for you
to try to figure that out. Okay. Now,
deterministic finite automata okay it's a
formalism for defining languages and that
formalism consists of a finite set of
states okay, and with any use cap Q
typically as the set of states of a
[inaudible] if I don't tell you anything
else, give it ano-. Give that set of
states another name, but then think of it
as Q. There will be an input, input
alphabet which we will typically call
capital Sigma. There will be a transition
function typically again denoted delta.
There will be a start state, and the start
state's always in obviously it's one of
the states, so it's in the set Q,
typically write it as Q0. As you see
there. And there will be a set of final
states which we will typically call F and
the set of final states is always a sub
set of obviously the set of all states.
The thing that makes the automaton work is
the transition function. This function
usually denoted by delta takes two
arguments. A state Q and an input symbol
A. It gives you back the state that the
automaton goes to when it is in state Q,
and the next input symbol to arrive is A.
The function delta is total, that is it
has a value for every state and symbol.
There are examples of automata where we
really don't want to continue in certain
situations. For example our example our
tennis automaton did not have transitions
out of the two states where one player or
the other has won the game. To fix up such
situations, we have to introduce a dead
state. A dead state is a state that is not
accepting and that has a transition to
itself on every input symbol. Once you get
to a dead state you cannot leave and you
can never accept, so dead is a pretty good
description of what is going on. We're
going to use the, abbreviation DFA for
deterministic finite automaton. The
deterministic means that there is a unique
transition for every state and input
symbol. We're going to meet
non-deterministic automata soon and there,
it is possible to transition to many
states from one state on one input. Here
is a tennis example. Notice that the two
final states have two transitions out. So
we add a dead state And all the missing
transitions go to that state. The
transitions from the dead state are to
itself on all possible inputs. In this
case that would be just S and O. Notice
this is the probably the first example
where we have more than one symbol, label,
labeling in R. That's just fine. Now,
we're going to represent a general DFAs by
graphs. Pretty much as was done in the
tennis example. Nodes of the graph,
correspond to states of the DFA. An arc
represents a transition func- the
transition function. An arc from say state
P to state Q. Labeled will be labeled by
all those symbols say A and B. That have
transitions from P to Q. There will be an
arrow labeled start to the start state so
we do something like this perhaps and
we'll indicate final states by double
circles so if Q is final, we would put a
double circle around there. This is an
interesting circle of an automaton that
processes text. The goal is to recognize
the string read so far in [inaudible] in
I, N, G. Okay, the start state which we
see here... Represents a condition where
we have made no progress towards seeing I,
N, G If in that state we see an I, that we
have made some progress. So we go to a
state that says I was the last symbol C.
That's the state that we call saw I.
Otherwise, we're going to stay in the
start states so there's a transition on
every symbol, every letter but I. To the
start state that says that we're really,
we made no progress. Now, from the saw I
state, If we next see an N then we've made
more progress and we go to the state,
that, as we've seen The sequence IN. On
the other hand, if from saw I we see
another I, then we've not made progress
but neither have we lost ground. We may be
reading a word like skiing with a double I
and thus the transition from state saw I
on I is to itself, that's right here. On
any symbol other than I or N we go from
the saw I state back to the start state
where we're seeing nothing. In state saw
N. If we next see G then we win. We have
just seen ING and we go to the accepting
state which is saw ING. On the other hand,
if we're in state saw N and we see an I
then the pattern IN is broken but there's
a new pattern beginning I that has started
so we're gonna go back to the saw I state.
That's this transition. On any input other
than I or G including an N from the saw in
state we have no progress at all so we go
back to the start state. Finally, from the
state saw ING we can only go back to saw I
if we see another I. That's this. Or if we
see anything but an I, we have to go back
to the start state where we've seen Here's
another example. It's an automaton that
represents the simplest possible protocol
for sending data. The program is in one of
two states; ready and sending. It starts
in the ready state. And eventually it gets
a signal that some data has been loaded
into its buffer at that point it enters
the sending state where it does whatever
is necessary to transmit the contents of
the buffer the receiver will send an act
symbol when the content is received in
which case we can return to the ready step
However if the receiver is down, we may
instead get a local timeout signal that
warns something is wrong and the buffer
must be retransmitted. This automaton does
not complete. There are no final states
because the automaton is designed to run
forever without rendering a decision. Also
there are missing transitions. Now it is
okay to ignore the act or timeout signals
when you are in the ready state, staying
therefore in the ready state so we might
draw for example In R from ready to ready
and that could include signals, time out,
and ack. Okay. That's probably okay.
However, a data in single in the sending
state is an indication of an error so we
might want to go to an error state. So you
are going to have an error state. And if
you are in the sending state and you
receive a data in signal, you go to that
error state. Okay, now, each, state, of
course error er, has a transition out on
each of the three signals, static and act
and time out. A tech, a technical question
that's asked about protocol is whether you
can get to an error state. We could for
example make the error state the final
state so I'll garble carefully here and
oh, by the way, it's really a dead state
so I probably oughta add transitions on
any of the three sym-, input symbols. And
one of the interesting things about
[inaudible] is that it's possible to
answer questions like can this [inaudible]
ever get into the error state. Okay,
that's a question of course you could not
ask about programs in general. For a
running example, we're going to use this
automaton. It's language is the set of
binary strings that do not contain two
consecutive zeros. State A, where the
automaton will be whenever the input
string seems so far is good. That is it
contains no consecutive 1s. Also it does
not end in a one. Surely the state should
be a start state since when no input has
been received, there are two no two
consecutive 1s and moreover the input does
not end in a one. We get to state B when
the input is good, that is no two
consecutive ones, but the last symbol seen
is a one. Notice that the only way to get
to B is to be in A and then get an input
one. C is actually a dead state. We're
there whenever two consecutive ones have
been received. We arrive at C for the
first time from B, which you recall means
that the previous input was one, and in
state B we receive a second one. Once in C
we stay there because once a string has
one, one you can never undo that fact, no
matter how many zeroes you see. Okay. Here
is, the other representation that we're
going to use for finite automata. A
transition table, okay. The ... This, this
transition table that we are showing here
represents the same automaton as the
little graph that I ... I show in the, in
the corner over here. Okay. Now in the
table the rows correspond to the states.
So you can see there, there is a row for
A, B, and C. The columns correspond to the
input symbols. We have columns for zero
and for one. A final state will represent
by starring it in its column in its row
sorry and we will put an arrow next to the
star state now the entries to the table
are the values of delta, so for example,
this entry is in the row for B and the
column for one. So it represents delta of
B and one, that is the transition that you
make from state B when you get input one.
And you can see on the, well, here at the
automaton, if you're in state B and you
see a one, you go to state C. So that's
why the entry there is a C. Okay, now
we're gonna use a convention which is
actually very important because it reminds
you of the types of things that might
otherwise be confusing. That is, we will
use lower case letters near the end of the
alphabet; w, x, y, z and maybe u
occasionally to represent strings of input
symbols. On the other hand, letters at the
beginning of the alphabet, typically A, B
or C will represent single input symbols,
remember these are analogous, to,
characters in a language like java or, or
C. Now, The delta function was defined you
give it, you give it a, a state, and you
give it a single input symbol. We want to
extend it so that you can give the
function a, an argument that's a state and
another argument that's any string of
symbols including the empty string. Okay,
and we want the extended delta applied to
state Q and any string W to tell us where
the automaton get to, if follows the path
of the transition diagram from Q, where
the arcs are labeled by each of the
symbols of W in order That is we look for
the unique path who's labels form W. In
the text we put a hat over the delta to
remind us that it is the extended version.
However, as we are going to see very
shortly the extended delta agrees with the
given delta when the string W is of length
one. That is, when it's a single symbol.
Thus there's not really a need to
distinguish the extended and the original
deltas and we're not going to do that
here. Now the, extended delta is defined
inductively, that is it's an induction on
the length of the string. The basis says
that delta of Q and the empty string is
just Q. That is, if you're in state Q and
nothing arrives in the input then you're
gonna stay in state Q. That's the nature
of how an automaton works. For the
induction, suppose the input string is WA.
Okay, now remember our convention,
whenever you see something like WA you
know that W is a string of some length,
could be empty even but it is a string.
And A being at the beginning of the
alphabet is a single symbol. Okay, this is
sort of the mathematical analog of type
definitions of program variables. Now, the
inductive rule says that, we first see
where you get, where you get from state Q
on string of inputs W. That is, we're
going to recursively use the extended
delta to figure out what delta of Q and W
is. And then that is going to be some
state. I dunno what it is, P. Then we
apply the original delta function to delta
of that state. And put, the last input
symbol A. Okay so here is an example I am
using the, transition, table,
representation of the, same automaton we
have been playing with. Okay. I want to
figure out what the extended delta is from
state B and 011. Now, 011 is broken up
into a string that is 01 and a final
symbol one. Okay. So what that tells us to
do is figure out what delta of being 01 is
that that's the string everything but the
last symbol. And then apply the original
delta function to that string and the last
symbol one Now, what's delta of B and zero
one. Well, it's a string and another
symbol. So I can break that up using the
recursive rule to say that it's the delta,
the standard delta function applied to
delta of D and zero and the final symbol
one. And then, okay. Now I know what delta
B and zero is, I can look it up. Oh, here,
B and zero is A. So I can replace this by
an A. That's what I have here. Okay. Now,
I know what delta of A and one is. I'll
look it up A, one that's B. Okay. So I
replace that by B. And now what's delta of
B and one? It's C. That's, that's that. As
I mentioned, the extended delta wears a
hat in the text book. However we really
don't need to distinguish the two deltas
because they agree on the single symbols.
That is, if we want the extended delta for
a state Q and a string consisting of one
symbol A, formally we treat that string as
the empty string followed by the symbol A.
Then we have to compute delta hat of Q and
epsilon. That's, what we have done here.
But we know by the basis rule that that's
Q itself and therefore, the extended delta
of Q and A is just the original delta
applied to Q and A. In fact I really
cheated on the previous slide. I needed
delta hat of B and zero and I just went to
the table and looked it up as if it was
delta of B and zero. Now we see that it is
so there was no harm, no foul. There are
many different kinds of automata. We've
seen only the deterministic [inaudible] of
automata so far. But there are many
others. But no matter what kind of
automaton, its job is to define some
language. We'll use the notation L of A to
refer to the language defined by the
automaton A. If A is a deterministic
finite automaton, then the language it
defines is the set of strings to take the
start state to a final state. That is,
your zero is as high as the star
[inaudible] and set of strings That get
you to a final state. Okay, formally that
was defined that the language of A is the
set of strings W such that delta of Q zero
and W is in F. Okay, so, here's an
example, string 101 is in the language of
running DFA. We start in the start state
right here. We follow the first one. That,
that's a string. From B we follow the zero
that gets back to A. From A we follow the
third one, the third addition, which is a
one getting us to B, B is an accepting
state so 101 is in the language. That
makes sense given that the lang-, the
automaton is supposed to accept the
language of all strings that don't have
two consecutive 1s and obviously 101 does
not. Okay, the expression, this expression
It is called the set former. It starts
with a curly brace and then an expression
representing the things that we want to
put in the set. So, in this case, the
expression simply says that the set
consists of some string's W. We know again
that they're strings because of our
convention. That, that the letters at the
end of the alphabet represent strings. The
vertical bar can be read such that And
then there will follow a description of
what must be true for something to be a
member of the set. In this case, it's
saying that W is, binary string that it's
in, it's in the strings over alphabet zero
one. And W does not have two consecutive
ones. That that's what I've been telling
you all along the language of this
automaton was. We're going to prove that
the DFA that we've been playing with
accepts the language I claimed it does: a
set of binary strings without consecutive
ones. I'm going to spend a good deal of
time proving this simple result because it
will give you all the details about how
one proves something about languages. In
the future I'm not going to be so focused
on proofs, but I think it's important that
everyone go through one of these proofs in
all of its gory detail. To prove sets
equal we generally mean to just prove two
things, that each is contained in the
other. That is we stop by assuming W is a
member of one so as and we use that fact
to prove that W is in the other too. Then
we start all over and we assume that W is
in two. We use that to prove W is also in
S In what follows, we take S to be the DFA
that we've been playing with and T to be
the set of binary strings without
consecutive 1s. First, we're going to
prove that if W is accepted by the
automaton, then W has no one ones and the
proof is an induction on the length of W.
It turns out that if we simply try to
prove this statement we fail. And I'll
point out in a few slides what goes wrong.
A common trick for inductive proofs is to
make a more detailed statement than you
really want because it makes the inductive
proof work. Here you need to distinguish
whether an accepted string gets you to
state A or B because we need to know
whether or not the string ends in one even
though the conclusion no one ones is true
in both the states A and B. The inductive
hypothesis will have two parts. Okay, part
one says that if W gets you to state A
then not only is W good in the sense that
it doesn't have consecutive 1s but it
doesn't even end in one Part two says that
if W gets you to state B, then W is still
good but it must end in one. Okay. The
basis is when the length of W is zero,
that is W is the empty string. By the way
notice that the bars around the string
represent the, that we want the length of
that string. So bar W bar means length of
W. Now let us prove part one of the basis.
Delta of A and the empty string does equal
A so if part is true but the conclusion is
also true because the empty string
obviously does not have executive 1s and
does not end in one. For part two, the
things are a little trickier. It is false
that delta of A and the empty string
equals B, but unfortunately it is also
false that the empty string ends in a
single one. Okay, however an important
principle of logic is that the statement
false implies false is true. That is,
whenever the if portion of the statement
is false it doesn't matter whether the
then, portion is true or not. The
statement as a whole is true. Thus a
statement like, 'if I am superman, then I
wear red undershorts' is a true statement
simply because I am not superman. You
don't have to concern yourself with the
color of my undershorts. The mathematical
term for an if then statement that is true
because it is the [inaudible], [inaudible]
is that the statement holds vacuously. To
begin the proof of the inductus step we
assume W is a string of length of at least
one and we assume that the inductor has
opposites that is statements one and two
of that string that gets the automaton to
stage A and B. It's true that [inaudible]
shorter than W Let W equal XA by our
convention A is the last symbol of W and X
is all the symbols, possibly none, up to
not including the last symbol of W. Since
X is shorter than W, we assume the
inductive hypothesis for X. We're going to
improve both statements one and two for W.
[sound] let's start with one. That is if
delta of A and W is A then W is good and
does not end in one. How do you get to A
by reading string X followed by symbol A?
Well look at the diagram. The only
transitions into A Are on input zero, that
is they're here and here. So A must be
zero. That immediately lets us conclude
the unit does not end in one. Furthermore
these transitions to A are only from A and
B. Thus X must get us to either A or B. In
either case we can conclude using the
inductive hypothesis that X is good it has
no consecutive 1s. Thus W has no one no
consecutive 1s, and surely does not end in
one. Now for part two. If delta of A and W
is B, then W is good and ends in one. Now
there is only one way to get B. You have
to be in state A and the input has to be
in one. That is this transition right
here. Thus if W is X followed by A. Then
we know X gets us to state A and the, the
input symbol little a is one. We can
therefore conclude that W ends in one. Now
we imply the inductive hypothesis, to X
and we conclude that X not only has no
consecutive 1's, but it doesn't end in one
because it got us to state A. Thus the
fact that W is X followed by A doesn't
allow the possibility that W ends in
eleven. And since any occurrence of one,
one and W, would either have to be at the
end or lie completely with an X we
conclude that W does not have any
consecutive ones. Notice that if we go and
use this more complicated inductive
hypothesis where we distinguish between
states A and B according to whether the
string ends in one, string X ends in one,
then we can not make the inductive proof.
If we know only that X gets us to A or B
if it's good, then it might end in one and
get us to state A in which case W equals
XA would have two consecutive 1s and yet
get us to B. That therefore we would not
be able to push though inductive
hypothesis that didn't distinguish between
whether we get to state A or B. [sound]
Well we're not done. We still have to
prove that T is contained in S, that is if
W is a good strength, no consecutive ones
then it's accepted by the automaton. It is
helpful to restate what we need to prove
in it's contra-positive form which is
logically equivalent to the original. The
contra positive of an if then statement
say if X then Y is if not Y then not X. We
can see why this is an equivalent
statement since if Y is false it couldn't
be that X is true because whenever X is
true Y is true. In this case X is the
statement that W is a good string. That is
it has no 11s. And, and Y is the statement
that W is accepted by the automaton. The
contra-positive is that if W is not
accepted by the automaton then W is not a
good strength that is it contains one, one
as a sub string. Because there is an
unique transition from every state and
every input symbol, each W gets the, DFA
to exactly one state. Thus the only way W
is not accepted is if it gets you to C.
Notice that the only way to get the
automaton to see it, is for some string X
to get it to B. That is, that is here. And
then from input one to follow. Once in C,
you stay in C so anything can follow the X
and the one. We'll call that Y, that is
any string W that gets the automaton to
see must be of the form X one Y where X
gets us to B. [sound] We already observed
that the only way to get to B is by a
string that ends in one. Since the only
transition into B is on a one. That's
this. Thus X must be of the form Z1 for
some Z. Thus W can be written as Z11Y and
we conclude that delta of A and W if W ...
Sorry. We can conclude that if delta of A
and W is C then W is bad. That is it
definitely contains two consecutive ones.
Now we introduce a class of languages
called regular languages. These are the
languages that have a DFA accepting them.
That means that the languages exactly the
set of strings accepted by this automaton.
Soon we shall see that there are several
other ways to describe the regular
languages including the regular
expressions and several forms of non
deterministic automaton. [inaudible] While
many common languages are regular there
are also many that are not. Intuitively
[inaudible] automaton cannot count beyond
a fixed number thus they cannot do things
like check whether it has seen the same
number of zeros as ones on the input or
check the parentheses are balanced and are
arithmetic expression. For these tasks we
need more powerful mechanisms such as
context free grammars which we shall meet
soon enough. Here is an example of a
language that is simple to understand but
is not a regular language. To understand
what this notation is saying we first need
to know that at exponent I and a symbol is
shorthand for the string consisting of
high copies of that symbol. Thus zero to
the fourth is a shorthand for zero, zero,
zero, zero. We read the [inaudible] from
her that is as zero to the N one to the N
such that N is greater than or equal to
one or more [inaudible]. The set of
strings consisting of N zeros followed by
N ones such that n is at least one. The
strings in the language L1 are thus 01
0011 three zeros followed by three ones
and so on you get the pattern alright.
[sound] Okay here's another example the
set of W such that W is in the set of
strings formed by the left and right
parentheses and W is balanced. Okay I hope
people are familiar with the idea of
balanced parentheses, but intuitively
they're just those sequences of
parentheses that can appear in some
arithmetic expression. For example this
string could appear in an arithmetic
expression like A plus B times C plus D,
notice you've got left, right, left,
right. Okay. An example of strings that
are not balanced, well, right then left
is, is obviously not balanced. You can't
have, ever have in any prefix of the
string more right parenthesis than you
have left parentheses. Another example of
a non-balanced string would be left, left,
right, because there you have more, lefts
than rights. However regular languages are
common. For example in each language there
is a format for floating point numbers and
this format can be quite complicated with
optional E's and or optional decimal
points and strings of digits that could or
could not be empty. But in all programming
languages I know about the set of strings
that represent some floating point number
forms a regular language. Okay. This is a
very interesting case illustrating what
finite memory really means. We want to
know if a binary number is divisible by
twenty three. We're going to read the bits
high order first, but we have only finite
memory. How can we remember exactly what
sequence of bits has been read since the
sequence can grow very long and in
particular longer than the number of
states or longer than any limit that you
might care to put on it. Okay. But there's
a trick. We don't really need to remember
everything about the bits read. It's
sufficient to remember what the remainder
is. When we divide the number by twenty
three. Thus, we're gonna have twenty three
states, corresponding with the twenty
three possible remainders when an integer
is divided by twenty three. These are of
course zero through twenty two. The start
state is zero because we interpret an
empty string as representing zero. That
may be a bit of an assumption, but nothing
else makes sense and treating it as zero
makes everything work out right. The state
zero is also the only final state since we
want the inputs that leave a, that leave a
remainder of zero when divided by twenty
three. We're going to assume that things
are working right after reading a binary
string W. That is W takes state zero to
the state that is the correct remainder
when W is divided by twenty three. I'm
using the C style percent operator to
denote remainder. You can also read the
percent as modulo, which is just another
way of saying the remainder when divided
by. Okay? So, I percent twenty three is
the remainder when I is divided by twenty
three or I modulo twenty three. The
transition from each state I on input zero
is to the state that is the remainder of
2I divided by twenty three. To see why
this works, we know that I is, can, let's
see can be written as I equals twenty
thr-, sorry, twenty three A plus B for
some integer A and some integer B that's
in the range zero to twenty two. That is B
is the remainder or I modulo twenty three.
Okay. Then two I is what? It's, well it's
forty six A plus two B. Since forty six is
divisible by twenty three we can sort of
forget it, okay, so what we have, what we
have left is that two I is two B. Okay.
Now if we want the remainder, of two I
when I is divided by twenty three, we can
just take the remainder of two B divided
by twenty three. The important point is
that we never need to know what A is and
we never need to know I exactly. We just
need to know its remainder. Now, for the
same reason, when a one arrives in the
input we can go from state I to the state
that is the remainder of two I plus one,
when that's divided by twenty three.
That's two I plus one mod-, modulo twenty
three. For some examples, delta of fifteen
and a zero, that's state fifteen and input
zero, double the fifteen you get thirty
and then you take the remainder of thirty,
divided by twenty three and that's seven.
On, in, but zero state fifteen goes to
state seven. For another example, if
you're in state eleven and a one comes in.
Well, twice eleven is twenty two plus one
is twenty three. So it's twenty three mod
twenty three which is zero. So that says
whenever you're in state eleven and a one
comes in, you go to state zero. And what
that means is that any string that leaves
a remainder of eleven no matter how long
that string is if it leaves a remainder of
eleven you follow it by a one, it will be
exactly divisible, divisible by 23.
Interestingly you can also recognize all
the binary strings divisible by 23 or any
other particular number if we like. If we
[inaudible] the strings in backwards that
is [inaudible] first for example this
string zero one, one, one, zero one zero,
zero is in the, this language because if
you reverse it you get this string: zero,
zero one, zero one, one zero. And if you
convert that to binary you get forty six
and obviously forty six is divisible by
twenty three. Now, I challenge you to
construct the DFA for this language L
four, but it exists. Okay. There's a
theorem which we're soon going to see that
says if a language is regular than its
reversal, that is what you get by
reversing each of its strings, is also a
regular language. The proof of the theorem
will let us construct the DFA for the
reverse language from the DFA we just saw.