Neurological Reserve

Kevin Spelman, RH(AHG), MCPP Chair - Clinical Division

Tai Sophia Institute

Genetic Links?

Rose, SP. Neurogenetic determinism and the n8\N euphenics. 8MJ. 1998;317:1707-1708

" ... when we move beyond the terrain of relative diagnostic certainty represented by traditional neurological disorders, things become much murkier. Gene markers, if not genes, associated with conditions such as schizophrenia or manic depression have been proclaimed, amid great ballyhoo, only later to be quietly withdrawn as non-replicable."

The Web

Spelman K. 2005. Ramblings 01 a Heretic

• Two important persuading factors on the milieu interior

• Inflammatory status

• Significant influence on endocrine status

• Antigenic status

• Significant influence on the immunological status

The living organism does not really exist in the milieu exterieur but in the liquid milieu interieur formed the Circulating organic liquid which surrounds and bathes all the tissue elements.

Claude Bemard

We steep our genes in the broth of daily nutrient intake

The Web

Spelman K. 2005. Ramblings of a Heretic

• The imbalance of cellular communication leads to disruptions in the wellness of the system

• A consequence is the deterioration of the "organ reserve" of the system

1

Biological Entropy as a Continuum
Modifiedfrom
~~ W. 1001 .. 'I'M CJinicaJ Pmatice o/Compiememory, AilemaUve, and WUlant M.diciT.e
Health TheWalJ Disease
+++ Perception ++ + - -- Perception - --
+++ Background Mood ++ + - - - Background Mood - - -
Allostashl I A1 ..... atic State I A1lostatic Load


I Optimal Weliness II Subclinical II Clinical I
I ;rermational flew dynamics Jnf<mnatiOna! r~ow Disruption -l> ......
carecholammes, ccrticoids, NTs,
peptides, gut, en docrine, immu." ~~
I Organ Reserve

Organ Reserved Defined

• Despite the aging of the population, few people live past 95 years.

• Fries's hypothesis was that there could be an increased health span of individuals after middle age, with reduced need for medical intervention if they practiced the right things, such as improving the reserves in their functional capability - which he called "organ reserve."

Why Do We Age?

Fries JF. 2000. Compression of morbidity in the elderly. Vaccine 18:1584-9

• In philosophic writings, a classical conflict has been between the advocates of free will and those of detenninism

• Determinism is represented by molecular genetics, with the notion that your health over a lifespan IS ultimately determined only by your genes.

• Free will is represented by the advocates of health promotion, seeking voluntary changes in behavioral risk factors, such as lack of exercise, Cigarette smoking, obesity, and dietary fat, which can enhance organ reserve, preserve function, and extend life. In this view, health requires that you take care of yourself.

Loss of ....

In post-mitotic tissue like the heart, brain, or muscle, it is not a good thing to lose cells at a rapid rate, particularly after infancy and youth when a lot of new tissue is produced,

As a 40- or 50-year-old individual, you want to slow the rate of untoward apoptosis in the brain, heart, and muscles, Oxidative injury can increase apoptotic loss of cell

mass in those particular organs.

Organ Reserve

Fries JF. Aging, natural death, and the compression of morbidity. N EngJ J Mad. 1980;303:130-135 .

• If one could compress morbidity by increasing organ reserve through the election of positive, healthful lifestyles at a younger age, one could retain organ reserve throughout mid life and later age. Such individuals would then have more physiological reserve and could compress illness into the very last phase of their life

• This paper was heavily criticized at the time of its publication. Members of the medical community said there was no evidence to indicate that individuals who changed their lifestyles - improved their exercise patterns, nutrition, or environmental exposures - would retain orQan reserve, compress morbidity, live to the end of their biologically determined life expectancy, and undergo natural deeth.

2

Organ Reserved Defined

• The maintenance of organ reserve, according to Fries, is related directly to biological age. As we lose organ reserve, our resilience declines, and our biological age increases.

Organ Reserve Defined

Bland J. Organ Reserve and Homeodynamic Degrees of Freedom. Jan 1997.FMU

• Stress the individual or organism experiences that may place demands on one specific pathway will have other, collateral routes for moving around a block or through a situation of stress to maintain function.

Loss of Reserve/Adaptability

Fries JF. 2000. Compression of morbidity in the elderly.

Vaccine 18:1584-9

• With the linear decrease in organ reserve in multiple organs the abilitY to respond physiologically to a perturbation decreases exponentially

• As a result, mortality rates increase exponentially, with a doubling of mortality rates each 8 years after age 30

Organ Reserve Defined

Bland J. Organ Reserve and Homeodynamic Degrees of Freedom. Jan 1997. FMU

• The more metabolic energy resources a person has, the more stable his or her system will be .

• It can be compared to wires to a generator. If you lose a wire or two along the way and you have multiple connections between your energy source and your energy need, you still have a functionally stable system. That redundancy is what is found in a homeodynamic, functionally capable physiological system.

Vital Functions Kidneys~ Stability

Uver

Food

Allostasis, Negotiating the Environment

....- Environment Social \

I

Food

3

Declining Reserve and Loss of Adaptability Fries JF. 2000. Compression of morbidity in the elderly.

Vaccine 18: 1584-9

Organ Reserve

Fries JF. 2000. Compreesion of morbidity in the elderly.

Vaccine 18:1584-9

• Data from longitudinal studies of aging

show a consistent decline in the maximum function of the various organs with age,

• the decline being linear at a rate of 1 .5% per year after age 30

• Data on maximal performance, such as world record marathon times, Similarly show a nearly linear decline with age at the same rate from age 30 to age 80

Loss of Antioxidant Reserve

Sladlman ER. 2002. Importance of.individuamy in oxidative stress and aging. Free Radle Bioi Med. 33(5):597-604.

• There is an inverse relationship between the maximum life span of organisms and the age-related accumulation of oxidative damage

An Existential Pondering

Is "spiritual reserve" necessary for forgiveness?

Loss of Antioxidant Reserve

Stadlman ER. 2002. Importance of individuality in oxidative stress and aging. Free Radic Bioi Med. 33(5):597-604.

• Reactive oxygen species generated under various conditions of oxidative stress are able to oxidize nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids

• Aging is associated with the accumulation of oxidized forms of cellular constituents

Muller-Hocker J. 1992. Mitochondria and Ageing Brain Palho/ogy2:149- 58

Aging differs not only from organ to organ, but from cell to cell

4

Organ Reserve

• Organ Reserve includes

• Protein synthesis

• Blood Flow

• Mitochondria

• Loss of Organ Reserve involves

• Loss of enzyme activity runs parallel with the loss of enzyme protein

• Loss of activity of the respiratory chain during aging may well be one of the factors responsible for the loss of skeletal and heart muscle

Loss of Reserve/Adaptability

Fries JF. 2000. Compression of morbidity in the elderly.

Vaccine 18:1584-9

• With the linear decrease in organ reserve in multiple organs, the ability to respond physiologically to a perturbation decreases exponentially

• As a result, mortality rates increase exponentially, with a doubling of mortality rates each 8 years after age' 30

The Process of Breakdown

Fries JF. 2000. Compression of morbidity in the elde~y. Vaccine 18:1584-9

• The human aging process, when not prematurely stopped by trauma or disease, moves towards multiple organ system frailty

• The immediate cause of death shifts from external towards intrinsic factors, underlying frailty, the inability of the aging organism to withstand even a minor perturbation.

The Price of Adaptation

Muller-Hocker J. 1992. Mitochondria and Ageing Brain Pathology 2:149- 58

• Aged human tissues show deletions of the

mitochondrial genome in the

• Skeleton

• Myocardium

• Brain

• External eye muscles

• Liver

• "other" tissues

Organ Reserve

Fries JF. 2000. Compression of morbidity in the elderly. V8CCine 18:1584-9

1 CELLULAR WATER

20 2 KIDNn BLOOD FLOW

!i:w J -MAXIMUM IREATHINS CAPACITY

u 4: NEAVE CDNDUCTIDN VELOCITY

~ 0 Ii HEART OUTPUT

o

80

60

100

20

AGE (y'lfen)

The Process of Breakdown

Fries JF. 2000. Compression of morbidity in the elderly. Vaccine 18:1584- 9

Frailty is like an old curtain rotted by the sun, where an attempt to repair a tear in one place is followed by a tear in another.

5

Organ Reserve and Longevity

Fnes JF. 2000. Compression of morbidity in the elderly. Vaccine 18:1584-9

111..1.

Ii J "~---;:......r:-----:=--~'----.,d-'~I

,~=,~~~--------------------------~

·····~ .. 1*MiIIf'~1)

Weuve J. Physical activity, including walking and cognitive function in older woman. JAMA. 2004; 292: 1454-1461

to. •• the apparent cognitive benefits of greater physical activity were similar in extent to being about three years younger in age and were associated with a twenty percent lower risk of cognitive impairment. The association was not restricted to women engaging in vigorous activities .....

Abbott RD. Walking and dementia in physically capable elderly men.

JAMA. 2004; 292: 1447·53.

• Elderly men ranging in age from 71 to 93 who walked more than 2 miles a day were nearly half as likely to get dementia as men who walked less than one-quarter mile a day

• also a reduction in the risk of death, heart disease, and fatal cancers was seen

• "Physically capable elderly men who walk more regularly are less likely to develop dementia"

Progression of disability over time

~I

i:l =:~-

i j~~~.~

1~'I,..~~_",,_,_···._"'~T_""~-_""_-_._"_':~-

! '

Runners' club members compared with community controls

Ever-runners compared with neverrunners

Fries, J. F. et. al. Ann Intern Med 1994;121 :502-509

Weuve J. Physical activity, including walking and cognitive funclion in older

woman. JAMA. 2004; 292: 1454-1461

"In summary, in our study, as well as in other epidemiologic investigations, higher levels of physical activity, including walking, are associated with better cognitive function and less cognitive decline."

Progression of disability over time by sex

o.~

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6

Survival analysis

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Fries, J. F. et, 01. Ann Intern Moo 1994;121:502-509 Meaney MJ, et al. (1995). Individual differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in later life and hippocampal aging. Exp Geronto/30. 229-51.

• Our studies over the past few years have added support to the idea that individual differences in HPA axis activity can account for part of the variation seen in neurological function among the elderly

• Evidence suggests that the adrenal glucocorticoids can compromise hippocampal function and produce cognitive impairments

Growth Digestion 1lssue Repair Reproduction

~

Negotiating ~6~

the »>: /\

enVi~'//

Negotiating the environment

Growth Digestion Tissue Repair Reproduction Immunity

Negotiating the Environment

Carrasco GA & Van de Kar LD. 2003 Europ J Pharmaco/463:235- 272

• Some of the physiological changes associated with the stress response include:

• (1) mobilization of energy to maintain brain and muscle function

• (2) sharpened and focused aitention on the perceived threat

• (3) increased cerebral perfusion rates and local cerebral glucose utilization

• (4) enhanced cardiovascular output and respiration. and redistribution of blood flow. increasing substrate and energy delivery to the brain and muscles

• (5) modulation of immune function

• (6) inhibition of reproductive physiology and sexual behavior

• (7) decreased feeding and appetite

Resources Allocated, Resources Spent

7

Standardized Patients

Depending on genetics, particular resources spent, environmental conditions the effects of ANY disease process will by unique to the patient

Loss of Liver Reserve

Sloan RW. 1992. Principles of Drug Therapy in Geriatric Patients Am Fam Phys 45(6)2709-

Hepatic blood flow reduces up to 50% in the elderly

Loss of CV Reserve

Frenzel H. 1985. Das Herz im Later. Licht- und electronenmicroskopishce Befunde. Z Kardio/7 4:(S7):17- 25.

• In the heart the total volume fraction of mitochondria appears unchanged (in most studies), whereas the number of mitochondria appears to increase while their size appears to decrease

Neurological Reserve

Clough CG. Parkinson's disease: management. Lancet. 1991 ;337:1324-1327.

One must lose 70 percent of the dopaminergic neurons in the nigra before they begin to exhibit symptoms that can be diagnosed as Parkinson's disease

Cardiovascular Reserve

Wald NJ, Law MR. 2003. A strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 80% BMJ 326: 1419

• Extensive evidence exists that reducing

the four risk factors

• LDL cholesterol

• Blood pressure

• Homocysteine

• Platelet function

• by any means lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease

Organism-Wide Processes

Petersen KF, et al. 2003. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the elderly: possible role in insulin resistance. Science. 300(5622):1140-2.

Elderly study participants, matched for lean body mass and fat mass, were markedly insulinresistant as compared with young controls this resistance was attributable to reduced

insulin-stimulated muscle glucose metabolism. These changes were associated with increased fat accumulation in muscle and liver tissue and

with a approximately 40% reduction in mitochondrial oxidative and phosphorylation activity

These data support the hypothesis that an ageassociated decline in mitochondrial function contributes to insulin resistance in the elderly

8

Loss of Antioxidant Reserve

Muller_er J. 1992. Mitochondria and Ageing Brain Pathology 2:149-58

• Activity of anti-oxidative enzymes

• Superoxide dismutase

• Catalase

• have been repeatedly reported to decline with age

• Evidence implies that free radical attack and defective antioxidative repair mechanisms in causing the observed deletions of mitochondrial DNA during aging are probably ten times higher than the mutation rate in nuclear DNA

Loss of Liver Reserve'

Muller·Hocker J. 1992. Mllochondria and Ageing Brain Pathology 2:149-58

The rate of protein synthesis in the liver can be reduced 40% in the old as compared to the young (murine)

Gender Brain Differences

• Cell numbers -- men have 4% more brain cells than women,and about 100 grams more of brain tissue

• Many women have asked me why men need more brain tissue in order to get the same things done.

c

Loss of Organ Reserve (While Curing)

Plasma Antioxidant Status after High-Dose Chemotherapy: a Randomized Trial of Parenteral Nutrition in Bone Marrow Transplantation Patients Am J Clin Nut

• using TPN with the normal levels of antioxidants and minerals found in TPN in patients who had undergone high-dose chemotherapy was not adequate to replete their antioxidant reserves.

• Plasma glutathione and vitamin E concentrations decreased significantly after chemotherapy and TPN was not able to replete these levels.

Neurological Reserve

Gender Brain Differences

• Cellular connections - even though a man seems to have more brain cells, it is reported that women have more dendritic connections between brain cells.

..

9

Perlmutter D. 1999. Neurological Disorders: Alzheimer's Disease

Connection. "Functional Therapeutics and Neurodegenerative Disease."

Many patients with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, motor neuron disease. and rheumatoid arthritis, manifest flaws in their ability to detoxify

Aurich C, Riedel-Heller SG, Becker T. [Does education prevent dementia?]. Psychiatr Prax. May 1999;26(3): 112- 115.

• Higher education is associated with a lower risk of developing dementia

• This is due to a consequence of a greater "brain reserve capacity"

Lichtenwalner RJ, Parent JM. 2005. Adult Neurogenesis nad the ischemic forebrain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. Jun 15

• In the past five years, neuroscientists have discovered that the brain does change throughout life

• There are stem cells present in the brain that can engage in regeneration slowly

Waring R. Birmingham U Medical School. Dept. Neurology

Lower detoxification of sulfation, glucuronidation, and glutathione conjugation are associated with increased risk to neuronal injury

Bland JS. Psychoneuro-nutritional medicine: an advancing paradigm. Altem TherHealth Med. May 1995;1(2):22-27.

• Poor nutritional status is associated with reduced performance on tests of cognitive function and alterations in neuropsychologic performance, irrespective ofthe age ofthe individual

• Investigators at the US Department of Agriculture Research Service found that performance on cognitive tasks in individuals 65 years or older was tied closely to nutritional status

Bland J. 1999. Neurological Disorders: Alzheimer's Disease

Connection. Functional Medicine Update May, 99.

Comparison of pre mortem diagnoses of dementia with subsequent postmortem histology suggests that brain neurons start losing their function years before memory and serious cognitive losses appear

10

Bland J. 1999. Stress and Hippocampal Plasticity. FuncNonal Medicine Update May. 99.

Neuronal Plasticity

• Stress of a chronic nature may increase the damage to the hippocampal region and create loss of reserve from the plasticity of the hippocampus

• The loss of acetylcholine secretory activity may also exhibit plasticity

Morris MG, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60(2): 194-200.

• Higher dietary intakes of saturated fat and transunsaturated fat (assessed by food-frequency questionnaire) were associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease in a study of 815 community residents aged 65 years and older who were unaffected by Alzheimer disease at baseline and were followed for a mean of 3.9 years. Higher intake of vegetable fat was associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer disease. Intakes of total fat, animal fat, and dietary cholesterol were not associated with the risk of Alzheimer disease.

verslJpI oJoJ, uumon ,van i.aere r\,J, eI at. Assessment or neurointlammation and microglial activation in Alzheimer's disease with radiolabelled PKll195 and single photon emission computed tomography. A pilot study. Eur Neuro/. 2003;50(1 ):39-47.

• Almost 20 retrospective studies have already shown the protective effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in populations with a long history of NSAID consumption which would reduce the AD prevalence by 50% and delay its onset by 5-7 years

Weverling-Rijnsburger AW, Blauw GJ, Lagaay AM, Knook DL, Meinders AE, Westendorp RG. Total cholesterol and risk of mortality in the oldest old. Lancet. 1997;350: 1119-

1123.

• The "oldest old" (80s y/o) had the higher cholesterol levels, not the lowest.

• Low cholesterol levels in the "oldest old" are generally associated with dementia and illness.

• This association may be explained by the fact that cholesterol in the brain is an important protective factor against neurodegeneration.

Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA, Pugh KR, et al. Effect of estrogen on brain activation patterns in postmenopausal women during working memory tasks. JAMA. 1999;281 (13):1197-1202.

• Estrogen had a very positive effect on brain activation patterns in postmenopausal women during memory tasks.

• In the absence of estrogen they exhibited reduced ability to store and retrieve verbal information

Normal 3D Brain SPEeT Studies

11

Alzheimer's Disease bilateral decreased tj:>rrlnnr'~1 lobe

Increasing Organ Reserve

Fries JF. 2000. Compression of morbidity in the elderty. Vaccine 18:1584-9

• Decline in organ reserve is inevitable, yet we can increase organ reserve quite readily, at almost any age.

• For example, an increase in exercise can increase cardiopulmonary reserve very substantially, even at advanced ages

• You will eat approximately 50 tons of food in your life time .

,

• Food is information

• Biochemically

• Energetically

Maintaining Reserve

Keys to Aging, Reserving Function

II What is your genotype? II What is your lifestyle?

II What is your diet?

II Do you love and are you loved?

Knoops KT, et al. (2004). Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 1 O-year mortality in elderly European men and women: the HALE project. JAMA 292, 1433-9.

Among individuals aged 70 to 90

years, adherence to a Mediterranean diet and healthful lifestyle is associated with a more than 50% lower rate of all-causes

and cause-specific mortality!!!!

12

Bland J_ 1999. Stress and Hippocampal Plasticity. Funcoona/ Medicine Update May, 99_

Neuronal Plasticity

The brain, including hippocampal function, can modify its function based on the state of the environment

Newman J, Rosenbach JH, Burns KL, et al: 1995. An experimental test of "the motzart effect": does listening to his music improve spatial ability? Percept Mot SkilJs 81 (3 Pt 2):1379-87.

• In highly publicized work, researchers at the University of California at Irvine (UCI) demonstrated that listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos (K.448) enhanced visual spatialleaming skills.

• 36 undergraduates from the department of psychology scored 8 to 9 points higher on the spatial IQ test after listening to 10 minutes of Mozart

Bodner M, Muftuler LT, Nalcioglu 0, Shaw GL FMRI study relevant to the Mozart effect: brain areas involved in spatial-temporal reasoning. Neurol Res. Oct

2001 ;23(7):68~90.

• fMRI studies reported dramatic statistically significant differences in activation by the Mozart Sonata (in comparison to Beethoven's Fur Elise and 19305 piano music) in dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, all expected to be important for spatialtemporal reasoning

Gage FH. Brain, repair yourself. Scientific America" 2003;289(3):46-53.

II Work by Martin Seligman with olderage individuals in nursing homes with signs of presenile dementia showed that reading adventure stories and playing games improvedlQ more than 12 points

Newman J, Rosenbach JH, Burns KL, et at 1995. An experimental test of "the motzart effecf: does listening to his music improve spatial ability? Percept Mot SkilJs 81 (3 Pt 2):1379-87_

• "By contrast, simple and repetitive music could have the opposite effect" In a follow up study the researchers tested spatial skill by projecting 16 abstract figures similar to folded pieces of paper on an overhead screen for one minute each

• Over a 5-day period, one group listened to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos, another to silence, and a third to mixed sounds

• The group that listened to Mozart improved their pattern recognition scores 62% compared to 14% for the silence group and 11 % for the mixed group.

Benton D, Roberts G.

1988. Effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation on intelligence of a sample of schoolchildren. Lancet. 1988 Jan 23; 1 (8578): 140-3.

• 90 schoolchildren aged 12 & 13 y/o kept a dietary diary for three days. In most cases the average intake of vitamins was close to the recommended daily allowance, although for a minority the intake was low; with minerals the recommended daily allowance was less commonly achieved

13

Benton D, Roberts G. 1988. Effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation on intelligence of a sample of schoolchildren. Lancet. 1988 Jan 23;1 (8578):140-3.

• The children between the ages of 12 and 13 were divided into three groups ReT Double blind.

• One group took no tablet

• One group took a typical multiple vitamin and mineral tablet

• The last ~oup took a tablet that looked and tasted JUst like the vitamin and minerai tablet, yet contained no vitamins or minerals

• the group who took the vitamin and mineral tablet had a significant increase in nonverbal intelligence

Hippocrates

"Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food"

The Future of Pharmacology

Sternberg, E. M. (2005). The Stress and Health Connection. In "The Immune System Under Siege: New Clinical Approaches to Immunological Imbalances in the 21st Century", pp. 13-29.

The Institute for Functional Medicine, Palm Springs, CA

• Physicians are discussing. • Immune agents to treat

• Nerve trauma

• Activated T 1:eJ1s • Stroke

• IL-1Ranatgonist

• Neurodegenerative diseases • NSAIDS

• Pain

• Chemokine antagonists

Maintaining Organ Reserve

Fries JF et al. 1994. Running and the Development of Disability with Age Ann Intern Med 121 (7):502-9

• Increased fitness and training

• increases cardiovascular reserve

• increases bone density

• increases strength

• could delay or prevent disability

Maintaining Organ Reserve

Wald NJ, Law MR. 2003. A strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 80% BMJ 326:1419

• The Polypill strategy, based on a single daily pill containing six components

• A statin

• Three blood pressure lowering drugs, each at half standard dose

• Folic acid (800 mcg)

• Aspirin (75 mg)

• would prevent 88% of heart attacks and 80% of strokes

• About 1 in 3 people would directly benefit, each on average gaining 11-12 years of life without a heart attack or stroke (20 years in those aged 55-64).

The Future of Pharmacology

Sternberg, E. M. (2005). The Stress and HeaHh Connection. In "The Immune System Under Siege: New Clinical Approaches to Immunological Imbalances in the 21st Century", pp. 13-29. The InstHute for Functional Medicine, Palm Springs, CA.

• Antidepressants for

• Autoimmune/inflammatory diseases

• Multiple Sclerosis • Rolipam

• Immune aging • Deprenyl

• Stress hormone agents • To treat arthritis

.CRH antaaonists (antalarmirn

14

Extending Organ Reserve

• Organ reserve is an argument for good nutrition and herb tonification especially considering the research suggesting an extension of life by 11 years using 6 medications together

Perry EK, Pickering AT, Wang WW, Houghton P, Perry
NSL. Medicinal Plants and Alzheimer's Disease: Integrating
Ethnobotanical and Contemporary Scientific Evidence. J
Altern Complement Med. 1998;4(4):419-428.
Sped£s Ch e ...." EIIo_t I Activity in RCT,
Support I"'ode~
Narcissus Galanthamine Yes Yes Yes
Ntcottana Nictoine Yes Yes No
tabacum
Paeonta Paeniflorin No Yes Yes
suffruuooso
Rosmarinus Physostigmine Yes No No
Salvia ?? Yes Yes No Change Your Tone

Spelman K. 2002. Ramblings of a Heretic

• Ingestion of Nutrients

• Food

• Herbs

• Water

• EMFs

• Expression of self in environment

• Artistic Activity

• Movement

• Breath

Perry EK, Pickering AT, Wang WW, Houghton P, Perry NSL. Medicinal
Plants and Alzheimer's Disease: Integrating Ethnobotanical and
Contemporary Scientific Evidence. J Altem Complement Mad.
1998;4(4):419-428.
Species Chemistry I Ethnobo. Adtrtty in acr.
Support models
Angelica ?? I Yes Yes No
sinensis
Evodia Dehydro Yes Yes No
rutaecarpae evodiamine Hel
Ginkgo btloba ginkgolides Yes Yes , Yes
Huperua Huperzine No Yes Yes
serrate
Melissa ?? Yes Yes No
officinalis Korotkov K, Williams S, Wisneski LA. Assessing biophysical energy transfer mechanisms in living systems: the basis of life processes J Altem Complement Med 2004; 10:49-57

• An ideal medicine, natural or synthetic, must have the capacity to increase

• information, energy and organization in the oppressed human body

• all ideal medicines should provide negative entropy, therefore providing or increasing informational flow and promoting organization.

Please go forth and preserve your reserve!

15

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