Syllabus outcomes, objectives, performance bands and examination questions have key words that state what
students are expected to be able to do. A glossary of key words has been developed to help provide a common
language and consistent meaning in the Higher School ertificate documents.
!sing the glossary will help teachers and students understand what is expected in responses to examinations
and assessment tasks.
Account for: state reasons for, report on. Give an account of: narrate a series of events or
Analyse Identify components and the relationship between them; draw out and relate implications
Apply Use, utilise, employ in a particular situation
Appreciate Make a ud!ement about the value of
Assess Make a ud!ment of value, "uality, outcomes, results or si#e
Calculate Ascertain$determine from !iven facts, fi!ures or information
Clarify Make clear or plain
Classify Arran!e or include in classes$cate!ories
Compare %how how thin!s are similar or different
Construct Make; build; put to!ether items or ar!uments
Contrast %how how thin!s are different or opposite
Add a de!ree or level of accuracy depth, knowled!e and understandin!, lo!ic,
"uestionin!, reflection and "uality to analyse$evaluate
De"uce &raw conclusions
Define %tate meanin! and identify essential "ualities
Demonstrate %how by e'ample
Descri#e (rovide characteristics and features
Discuss Identify issues and provide points for and$or a!ainst
Distin$uis% )eco!nise or note$indicate as bein! distinct or different from; to note differences between
Ealuate Make a ud!ement based on criteria; determine the value of
E&amine In"uire into
)elate cause and effect; make the relationships between thin!s evident; provide why
and$or how
E&tract *hoose relevant and$or appropriate details
E&trapolate Infer from what is known
'"entify )eco!nise and name
'nterpret &raw meanin! from
'nesti$ate (lan, in"uire into and draw conclusions about
(ustify %upport an ar!ument or conclusion
Outline %ketch in !eneral terms; indicate the main features of
)re"ict %u!!est what may happen based on available information
(ut forward +for e'ample a point of view, idea, ar!ument, su!!estion, for consideration or
Recall (resent remembered ideas, facts or e'periences
Recommen" (rovide reasons in favour
Recount )etell a series of events
Summarise -'press, concisely, the relevant details
Synt%esise (uttin! to!ether various elements to make a whole
Source" http"##www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au#syllabus$hsc#glossary$keywords.html

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