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Strengthening Developing Country Governments


Engagement with Corporate Social Responsibility:

Conclusions and Recommendations from
Technical Assistance in Vietnam





FINAL REPORT












Nigel Twose and Tara Rao
December 2003
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Table of contents


1. Executive summary and recommendations 1

2. Summary report of global findings from the World Bank CSR program 4

3. The CSR program in Vietnam 9

The research framework 9
Background of the two sectors 13
Textile sector status 13
Footwear sector status 14

4. Research findings; recommendations for public sector roles 16

Recommendations 17


Appendices

Appendix A: CSR implementation matrix for Vietnam
Appendix B: Stakeholder driver matrix for CSR in Vietnam
Appendix C: Government Role Matrix: Strengthening CSR in Vietnam

References


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1. Executive summary and recommendations

The World Banks program Strengthening developing country governments engagement
with Corporate Social Responsibility was set up to explore the potential roles of the
public sector within developing countries to encourage and strengthen corporate
social responsibility, or CSR. It has been based on activities and dialogue on specific
sectoral or thematic issues in four countries (Angola, El Salvador, The Philippines and
Vietnam), plus commissioned research on cross-cutting themes. It began in April 2002
and concluded with an international conference in November 2003.

The concept of CSR is based on the recognition that businesses are part of society, and
that they have the potential to make a positive contribution to societal goals and
aspirations in ways that are both god for business and good for development. But why
should a government engage with the CSR agenda? Four arguments have emerged:
To enhance international competitiveness;
To address current gaps in government capacity;
To create synergies that use the complementary competencies of government,
private and civil society actors to achieve common goals;
To ensure that CSR practice is in line with national policy goals.

In Vietnam, the technical assistance aimed to build CSR awareness among key
stakeholders and government officials, to engage and stimulate broader stakeholder
dialogue on government roles in strengthening CSR. It focused on labor standards in
the footwear and textile industry. The supporting research analyzed barriers to CSR
awareness and implementation within a sample of enterprises (based on ownership,
scale and location) and amongst key stakeholders.

The research revealed the following barriers and challenges:
There are wide variations in awareness and understanding of CSR among and
within Vietnamese firms.
Implementation of multiple buyers CSR Codes of Conduct, or CoCs, by one
Vietnamese supplier of is creating inefficiencies.
Differences between the national Labor Code and CoCs are resulting in firm-level
confusion, e.g. freedom of association and overtime.
Inconsistencies in national regulations create inefficiencies in CoC implementation,
e.g. wage rate, benefits and employment conditions.
Unequal access to financial and technical resources is creating CSR disparities at
enterprise level, especially for SMEs.
Shifting, anonymous, complex supply chains inhibit longer-term commitment to
CSR.
The lack of transparency over current CSR practices is hindering potential market
reward.

1
The research also revealed advantages and opportunities:
A section of Vietnamese firms have gained clear market benefits from their CSR
practices: new and expanded contracts from international buyers.
The same section of Vietnamese firms say that they have experienced productivity
gains from more contented and healthier workers.
CSR implementation has the potential to facilitate law enforcement at enterprise
level.
Buyers are looking for collaborative solutions that would allow cost sharing and
greater impact, in areas such as capacity building.

Based on the research findings in Vietnam, and comparable work in other countries in
this program, the World Bank makes the following six sets of recommendations to the
Government of Vietnam:

#1. MOLISA should continue its work of the last 12 months in providing factual
information on CSR codes to Vietnamese enterprises and their stakeholders. This
should involve continued data gathering to enhance information dissemination
approaches; a website and written materials, perhaps in collaboration with the
business associations.

#2. MOLISA should encourage collaborative approaches amongst buyers towards
monitoring and agreement on one single audit for multiple buyers from the same
factory, focused on the high percentage of shared CSR code content

#3. MOLISA should lead a process to get CSR capacity-building undertaken
collaboratively, in a manner that pools the complementary competencies of buyers and
other stakeholders, and reaches a larger group of Vietnamese suppliers and potential
suppliers. This should have a particular focus on SMEs.

#4. MOLISA should build on its comparison of CSR code content and Vietnamese
national law, to determine shared content, and to advise on areas of discrepancy. This
should include discussion with buyers and CSR standards agencies about those areas
where harmonization appears possible, such as freedom of association. It should also
include discussion with buyers on a common strategy to reach consensus, for example
on overtime. This work should be led by MOLISAs Legal Department.

#5. MOLISA should seek learning opportunities for its labor inspectorate through
improved collaboration with the private sector monitors and auditors associated with
CSR codes, both for-profit and not-for-profit. This could include data sharing, with
buyers providing aggregated data from their CoC monitoring, that would reveal
useful patterns of violation patterns and trends. It could also include information
sharing on inspection techniques. The Labor Inspectorate should be fully briefed on
the comparative analysis of the national labor code and CSR codes, and able to offer
advice and support to Vietnamese firms in dealing with these matters, maintaining the
sanctioning power of inspectorates, but shifting the focus to technical assistance for


those firms that are developing their own CSR benchmarks and improvement plans.
MOLISA should pilot joint visits for its inspectors with those of CoC inspectors, to
reduce the time burden on enterprises of multiple visits, and to increase learning
opportunities for MOLISA inspectors and for the private inspectors. MOLISA should
re-prioritize the workload of its inspectorate, with less emphasis on those enterprises
that are subject to regular robust monitoring and inspection through CoCs, and more
on those enterprises that are not involved with any CoC and typically have far lower
labor standards.

#6. MOLISA should encourage increased transparency and reporting on labor
standards, including firm-level reporting on core data. This would help individual
firms distinguish themselves in a highly competitive marketplace, and the data could
also be aggregated anonymously at national level to show how seriously the country
takes this issue. MOLISA should work with MPI on the new Trade Promotion Agency
which the Government has decided to create, since labor standards data generated by
firms would be directly helpful to this promotional effort. Vietnam needs to compete
internationally on the basis on cost + quality + demonstrated standards.



2. Summary report of global findings from the World Bank CSR program

About this section
This section summarizes findings from the World Banks program Strengthening developing
country governments engagement with Corporate Social Responsibility. Through activities and
dialogue on specific sectoral or thematic issues in four countries (listed below), and a series of
commissioned research projects on cross-cutting themes, the program explored the potential
roles of the public sector within developing countries in relation to CSR.
Country Sector Issues
Vietnam
El Salvador
The Philippines
Angola
Footwear
General
Mining
Oil
Labor
Business and education
Socio-economic and environmental impacts
Local content, transparency and social development

The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is based on the recognition that
businesses are part of society, and that they have the potential to make a positive
contribution to societal goals and aspirations. The CSR agenda places significant
emphasis on relationships between enterprises and their stakeholders, both internal
(e.g. workers, shareholders and investors) and external (e.g. customers, suppliers, civil
society and community groups). Yet one set of key actors is often omitted from this
conversation the government. This is despite the overarching role of the government
in setting the framework within which businesses operate, and the potential for
aligning the outcomes of business activity to public policy goals.

To some extent, the absence of attention to the role of the government is a reflection of
the immaturity of the CSR agenda, and that the term CSR has not yet taken hold
within many government agencies. Yet there already is a wealth of examples of
government actions that can and do promote corporate social responsibility, many of
which have not been undertaken explicitly as CSR initiatives. These include traditional
activities of labor and environmental regulators and inspectorates, and elements of the
work of investment and export promotion agencies. Government agencies that do not
use the term CSR are not necessarily doing any less than those that do. Indeed, they
may prefer to deal with the challenges brought by the CSR agenda through more
established terminology and approaches, in order to focus on the necessary responses
and to communicate these to other actors.

Just as the significance of the government is often underplayed within the CSR
agenda, so the link between public governance and CSR is seldom given due attention.
But governance is an overriding factor in defining the type and trajectory of CSR that
will emerge, and the respective roles of different stakeholders. Where the state
provides a transparent and predictable business environment, with clear signals for
business and enforcement of the law, not only are minimum standards more likely to
be upheld, but also the efforts of private sector and civil society actors to promote
better social and environmental practices through voluntary measures will be


supported. In Angola, companies investing in the oil sector are realizing that if they
are to respond to civil society demands that the revenues they generate are harnessed
in support of public good such as poverty reduction, they need government support in
ensuring transparency. The extent to which the government can underpin CSR
through good governance has a strong bearing on the necessary roles of other actors.

But why should the government engage with the CSR agenda at all?

The first reason is the desire to maintain and enhance international
competitiveness. In El Salvador, the Government sees CSR as a route to long-term
national competitiveness, by capitalizing on the willingness of employers to invest in
education and their desire for an educated workforce.

There are indications that CSR issues are increasingly influencing the investment and
purchasing decisions of some multinational enterprises.
1
This survey of 107 MNEs in
the extractive, agriculture and manufacturing sectors found that over 80% of
respondents consider the CSR performance of potential partners and locations before
they enter into a new venture, with just under half choosing one host or source
country over another on the basis of CSR issues. Indeed, the most striking link
between CSR and competitiveness is made through codes of conduct, developed by
buyers to manage social and environmental issues within their supply chains. These
have become among the most widespread tools of the existing CSR agenda, alongside
the compliance or monitoring schemes that are used to ensure that suppliers
implement the codes. In Vietnam, the direct benefit of helping the domestic footwear
sector to understand and adhere to labor codes of conduct is securing international
contracts that would otherwise be awarded elsewhere. There may also be indirect
benefits for individual enterprises in terms of productivity and quality improvements
2
,
and for the sector as a whole in attracting other buyers and investors. Cambodia
accepts that its textile industry cannot compete with China simply on the basis of low
input costs, and instead is seeking to position itself as a location for responsible
purchasing by building the capacity of suppliers to implement labor codes of conduct.

If codes of conduct can lead to the exclusion of enterprises (particularly SMEs) from
international supply chains, there is a clear rationale for government support to help
enterprises respond to them; we discuss possible interventions below. Having said
this, it is important not to overstate the significance of codes of conduct. It is clear that
they are being applied within the supply chains of a core of multinational enterprises
in certain industrial sectors, notably garments and footwear, and to some extent
agribusiness.
3
For enterprises aiming to supply these sectors, there is increasing

1
J. E. Berman and T. Webb 2003 Race to the Top: Attracting and Enabling Global Sustainable
Business: Business Survey Report, Washington, D.C., World Bank.
2
Jrgensen et al. (2003) note that there is currently little understanding of the indirect business benefits
of adhering to codes of conduct, such as improved productivity and lower staff turnover.
3
For detailed information and analysis of codes of conduct applied to five sectors (apparel; footwear and
light manufacturing; agribusiness; tourism; mining; oil and gas), see G. Smith and D. Feldman 2003


pressure to implement codes of conduct. But this is often not the case for enterprises in
other sectors or for those supplying domestic markets.

A second reason for government engagement with CSR is to address current gaps in
government capacity. This is a pragmatic response to situations where government
agencies lack capacity to secure enforcement of legislation (for example in countries
where codes of conduct are seen as a good tool to enforce implementation of the law)
or resources for government expenditure (for example in El Salvador, where the fiscal
gap undermines government investment in education). The idea of CSR filling
temporary gaps also extends to the global regulatory context CSR may prove to be a
symptom of the current lack of a mature global governance framework, and
developments in global governance may eventually reduce the need for codes of
conduct and other CSR tools.
4


Thirdly, the government can apply CSR to facilitate partnerships and create
synergies that use the complementary skills of government, private and civil society
actors to achieve public policy goals. Even where there are fully functioning and
well-resourced regulatory structures, it still makes sense to make the most of what
different stakeholders can offer. For example, in El Salvador, the business community
is able to provide financial expertise and mentoring for school managers, while in the
Philippines, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources sees communities
as active partners, not beneficiaries in the context of the mining sector.
5


A fourth rationale for government engagement with the CSR agenda is to ensure
that it is in line with the interests of local stakeholders and with national policy
goals. The current CSR agenda, and its emphasis on top-down codes of conduct,
reflects its primary association with large multinational companies and their
stakeholders, particularly consumers, investors and international civil society
organizations. As discussed above, government interventions may be necessary to
ensure that domestic companies (particularly SMEs) are able to meet the supply chain
requirements imposed by foreign buyers. But there is also a need to support the
positive practices of domestic companies, including those operating outside
international supply chains. Local visions of what it means to be socially responsible
may well be quite different to those of international buyers. In Vietnam, some invitees
to a conference on CSR assumed that the topics to be discussed would be assistance for
flood victims and other needy people, rather than labor codes of conduct. In the
Philippines, there is a need for mechanisms that involve and engage local stakeholders

Company Codes of Conduct and International Standards: An Analytical Comparison (Parts I and II),
Washington D.C., World Bank.
4
Michael Klein, Vice President Private Sector Development: The World Bank, and Chief Economist,
International Finance Corporation, addressing the International Conference on Public Policy and CSR,
Washington, D.C. 8-9 November 2003.
5
Edwin G. Domingo, Assistant Director, Mines and Geosciences Bureau, Department of Environment
and Natural Resources, addressing the International Conference on Public Policy and CSR, Washington,
D.C. 8-9 November 2003.


in planning a sustainable future for the mining sector. Workers and their
representatives, the perceived beneficiaries of codes of conduct, are not often involved
in their development or even in the implementation. The government has an interest
in promoting worker involvement in CSR and, more generally, in promoting stable
and effective systems of industrial relations.

Given the complexity of these drivers for government engagement, it may be useful to
take a systematic approach to deciding on the most appropriate responses. The range
of roles that government agencies might play can be situated within an overarching
framework under four broad categories: mandating, facilitating, partnering and
endorsing.
6
The aim should be to map the overlaps between the CSR agenda and
existing government activities, and to identify interventions that align business
activities with public policy goals.
7
For example, the Government of El Salvador is
seeking to integrate CSR into a national plan for education, and sees its roles as, firstly,
to establish clear policies in relation to CSR, and secondly, to facilitate partnerships
between the private sector and educational institutions.
8
The Government of Angola
has passed legislation to set targets for hiring of local labor by foreign oil companies,
in order to develop local skills and training.

There is clearly a range of activities that the government could play with respect to
codes of conduct and other supply chain requirements. Ensuring consistent and
transparent enforcement of the law is fundamental to supporting responsible business
activity. A logical next step is providing information, training and other capacity
building for local enterprises, both in terms of what standards are required and how
they relate to national legislation. This could involve key stakeholders such as trade
unions, industry associations and civil society groups. By coordinating the different
actors, the government may be able to encourage collaborative capacity building that
pools resources and expertise. But a more dynamic response would be to attempt to
shape the codes of conduct and their implementation processes, both in the interests of
domestic enterprises and the economy as a whole, and to maximize the benefits in
terms of higher standards. For example, stakeholders in Vietnam have discussed the
notion of a national framework for codes of conduct, which might form a basis to
encourage coherence between different buyers codes and national legislation, and
may even facilitate joint audits of factories.
9



6
See Fox, Ward and Howard (2002) for a discussion of this framework and examples of public sector
action under each of the categories.
7
See the Diagnostic and Appraisal Tool developed by Michael Warner for the CSR Practice, which takes
users through a series of steps, helping them form recommendations on appropriate public sector
interventions and instruments.
8
H. E. Rolando Ernesto Marin Coto, Minister of Education, El Salvador, addressing the International
Conference on Public Policy and CSR, Washington, D.C. 8-9 November 2003.
9
Jrgensen et al. (2003) note that one of the main barriers to implementation of codes of conduct by
suppliers is the fact that different buyers interpret even identical provisions in codes of conduct in
different ways. This appears to be a greater barrier than the absolute number of different codes.


But there remains a need to explore how auditors inspecting against private codes of
conduct, and the information gathered by them on standards within individual
enterprises, could usefully complement and built the capacity of government
inspectorates. By doing so, there may be scope to raise standards not only in export
sectors, but also in enterprises producing for the domestic sector and in industries
beyond those touched directly by codes of conduct. And questions remain about the
limits to the implementation of codes of conduct in sectors characterized by short-term
contracts and complex supply chains.

While the case of Angola demonstrates how the CSR agenda relies on transparency
with regard to the activities of the government, government also has a role to play in
ensuring the provision of transparent and reliable information on the activities and
impacts of enterprises. It is in the interests of individual companies to differentiate
themselves within a market in which discerning buyers (and increasingly, investors
10
)
favor high standards. There may be a role for the government in establishing a
comparative framework to allow this, possibly linking higher standards to incentives
such as tax concessions or export licenses.
11
In addition to these enterprise-level effects,
data collected could be aggregated and used at a national level in positioning the
country as a location for responsible sourcing or investment.

To make the most of the leverage that transparency can bring to bear on corporate
performance, it may also be necessary for the public sector to support the capacity of
civil society to demand and make use of this information, thus creating additional
local pressure for better practice. Providing balanced information on the positive and
negative impacts of business activity also has the potential to bring stakeholders into
constructive debates. For example, in the Philippines, there is a clear need for broad
civil society engagement and a mechanism that builds mutual trust and informed
choices between stakeholders, as well as expanding each stakeholders awareness of
the possibilities presented by the mining sector.
12


In exploring and performing its potential roles, the government can play an important
function in shaping a national CSR agenda not only responds to external pressures
such as codes of conduct, but is also in line with local needs. In assessing the
opportunities that CSR provides, the challenge is for governments to identify priorities
and incentives that are meaningful in the national context, building on the strengths of
local enterprises as well as those of foreign multinationals. By doing so, there is a

10
For example, ten leading banks recently adopted the Equator Principles, a voluntary set of guidelines
for managing the social and environmental issues related to the financing of development projects.
11
For example, the Government of Cambodia has linked the granting of export licenses to garment
manufacturers to their engagement in an ILO standards scheme.

12
C. L. Hubo (2003) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Public Policy in the Philippine Mining
Sector, paper presented to the International Conference on Public Policy and CSR, Washington, D.C. 8-9
November 2003.


significant opportunity for the government to harness current enthusiasm for CSR to
delivery against public policy goals and priorities.

3. The CSR program in Vietnam

About this section
This section summarizes the objectives and activities of the CSR program in Vietnam and the
research framework.

Strengthening CSR is seen as an important mechanism for building Vietnams
comparative advantage as a responsible sourcing location for global companies.
The goal of the technical assistance to the Government of Vietnam has been to identify
potential government roles in strengthening CSR, to build agreement around that
analysis and to develop a subsequent implementation plan to serve as a roadmap for
future action by the government.

The objectives of this technical assistance were:

1. To build awareness about CSR among key government officials (representing
government ministries and agencies concerned with social and economic
policies), to engage in a discussion about government roles in strengthening
CSR;
2. To identify realistic and appropriate government roles for strengthening CSR
in Vietnam using labor standards and the footwear industry as a case study;
3. To support government in stimulating broad dialogue with key stakeholders in
key export sectors about proposed government roles in strengthening CSR.

In partnership with the Institute for Labor Sciences and Social Affairs (ILSSA) and the
Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) the key activities
implemented under this Program of Technical Assistance included:
Multi-stakeholders Seminars on CSR (HCMC and Hanoi)
Establishment of a multi-sectoral Advisory Group
Research to support further study of proposed public sector roles to strengthen
CSR

The research framework
The research was undertaken by a team from ILSSA, coordinated with the Advisory
Group as stakeholder representatives, to ensure common understanding and
enhanced ownership of the research process and outcomes.





Goal of the research

To strengthen CSR by providing input to a dialogue on stakeholder roles with specific focus
on government roles, to strengthen corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Vietnam and feed
into the governments strategic planning on Vietnamese business competitiveness within a
globalizing economy.

Objective of the research

To identify the challenges/barriers and opportunities in the existing CSR environment in
Vietnam, with a focus on identifying government roles in addressing the challenges/barriers
and extending the opportunities with respect to CSR implementation, and policy dialogue.

Intermediate objectives

1. To provide viable options for addressing challenges to information dissemination among the
various CSR stakeholder groups;
2. To identify the challenges/barriers and opportunities and prioritize viable options for
addressing challenges to CSR implementation by identifying the
comparative impact in improving working conditions through various CSR practices;


comparative costs vs. benefits, and associated tradeoffs of the various initiatives;
sustainability of the comparative approaches and the associated assumptions of
stakeholder roles and capacity in ensuring the sustainability of the approach or in
compelling companies to undertake CSR.
3. To determine the governments role in


supporting and strengthening existing initiatives/approaches and;
stimulating broader implementation of particular models embodied in various
initiatives for adoption/implementation by various scales and profiles of enterprise.
The research focused on the apparel and footwear sectors in Vietnam, given their
importance to the national economy, their demonstrated susceptibility to market-
based CSR pressures, and their urgent need to adapt to a quota-free world post 2005.

Enterprises represented in the research were both from the north and south covering
enterprises of varying scale and types, targeting both the suppliers and the buyers,
surveying state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and national private enterprises, serving
both national and international markets The sample was self-selected, with enterprises
volunteering to share their experience on CSR implementation: this suggests caution
in extrapolating conclusions for the sector as a whole.

The researchers selected enterprises in three categories: 1) those undertaking CSR; 2)
those initiating CSR and; 3) those presently not engaging in CSR. The research
framework was based on why there is CSR engagement (i.e. the drivers); how
enterprises engage in CSR (i.e. the profile of the CSR strategy); what is the content (i.e.
the systems and mechanisms); and what next has been planned. This framework
formed the basis for semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and focus group
discussions.
1



Enterprise

CSR implemented CSR initiated CSR detached
Enterprise
profile
Scale/ ownership/ sector /
Reason for disengagement

How
Approaches/
Strategies
- Nature/profile of CSR
initiative
- Process of initiation;
assistant & support
- Stakeholder
engagement/capacity
(union, community,
etc.)
- Nature/profile of CSR
initiative
- Process of initiation;
assistance & support
- Stakeholder
engagement/capacity
(union, community, etc.)
- Status of implementation
of labor legislation
- Level of awareness of CSR
- Stakeholder
engagement/capacity
(union, community, etc.)
What
Systems/
Mechanisms
- Process and content of
implementation
- On-going barriers/
challenges
- Auditing process
- Costs and benefits (short
& long term)
- Effect and impact (in &
outside the work place)
- Reporting initiatives
- Process and content of
implementation
- Initial barriers/
challenges
- Costs and benefits (short
term in & outside the
work place)
- Reporting initiatives
- Working conditions/
outside the work place
- On-going barriers/
challenges
What next
Further
Approaches/
Systems
Time frames & targets
Barriers and trade-offs
Time frames & targets
Barriers and trade-offs
Time frames & targets
Barriers and trade-offs


Background to the two sectors
International economic integration for Vietnam takes an important step forward with
the implementation of the bilateral trade agreement with the United States; application
for WTO accession, and; the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA), which requires
the reduction of tariffs and import barriers among all ASEAN member nations by
2006. This will further advance Vietnams process of integration, exposing domestic
enterprises to expanded opportunity as well as fierce competition within the current
export-led growth strategy of Vietnam.

The labor-intensive apparel and footwear sector are important sectors for economic
growth for Vietnam, accounting for approximately 23% of exports. The WTO
Agreement on Textile and Clothing calls for the elimination of quotas by 2005 and is
expected to cause major shifts in global production. This offers both an opportunity
and a challenge for Vietnam: government allocated quotas will be replaced by market-
based decisions. In a highly competitive marketplace with no quotas, most experts
agree that Vietnam will be unable to compete on the basis of cost + quality alone.
Building Vietnams comparative advantage will require an enhancement of Vietnams
reputation on the basis of cost, quality and demonstrated standards.
1


The implementation of CSR at enterprise level focuses mainly on labor and
environment issues. Most individual buyers specify their requirements within a Code
of Conduct (CoC). The research documenting enterprise level experience within
Vietnam, shows many enterprises see benefit in raising their standards in this way,
due to their improved reputation, better working conditions, increased productivity
and quality.

Vietnam is not alone in seeking to attract and retain buyers by emphasizing labor
standards: the Government of Cambodia, for example, has pioneered a transparent
factory monitoring and reporting initiative with its 200 garment factories, and is
competing aggressively to retain CSR-sensitive buyers and investment post 2005.


Textile sector status
13

By December 2002, 1200 textile firms were operating in Vietnam, with 1 million
workers. 65% are SMEs. By quantity, non state-owned enterprises constitute the
highest proportion; by investment, foreign invested enterprises top the list.

Table 1: Structure of Textile enterprises by investment rate and ownership (Unit: %)

State-owned
enterprises
Non state-owned
Foreign invested
enterprises
By quantity 22 44 34
By proportion of investment to total
investment in textile industry
28 32 40
Source: Vietnam Textile Association (VITAS)

In 2002, the textile sector stood second after petroleum and gas, responsible for 15% of
national exports. Between 1995-2002, exports increased from US$850m to US$ 2750m.
The Vietnam-United States Trade Agreement and the US Bilateral Agreement on
Textiles and Garments generated favorable conditions for the export of Vietnamese
textile and garment products, seen as a temporary period (2003-2004) for the
Vietnamese sector to identify business partners and increase exports.

The sector relies on cheap labor, overwhelmingly young female migrant workers.
Productivity and quality are still low, prices are not competitive. Many firms have
poor management and technology. Almost 80% of materials and accessories are
imported: cotton, rush, thread, chemical, dye, accessories.

13
Based on Sub-segment Report on the Textile Sector, ILSSA-WB Initiative.
1


Footwear sector status
14

There has been rapid growth in the footwear industry in recent years, in terms of
number of firms, output and export turnover.

Table 2. Total of production and export turnover of Footwear Industry
Products Unit 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
Production Mil. Pairs 212.65 240.82 302.80 320,01 360 Shoes
styles Export Mil. Pairs 333
Production mil.
Units
27 28.5 31.3 32 33.7
Hand bag
Export mil.
Units
32
Production Mil. Sqft 10.75 12.57 15.1 17 25 Tanned
Leather Export Mil. Sqft 12
Total export turnover
mil. US$
1.000,82 1.334,46 1468.12 1.575 1.846
Source: LEFASO

Between 2000-2002, footwear exports increased from US$1,468 bn to US$1846bn.

Table 3: Export turnover by ownership forms
1999 2000 2001 2002
Ownership mil. USD % mil. USD % mil. USD % mil. USD %
787,33 59 778,95 53,1 811,25 51,1 884,08 47,9
386,61 26,3 331,49 21,0 347,86 18,8
392,34 26,7 479,76 30,0 536,22 29,1
VN Enterprise
State-owned
Non state-owned
100% of foreign
capital
471,58 35 838,65 45,4
Joint -venture 75,54 6 123,4 6,7
Total 1345,5 1468 100 1575 100 1846 100
Source: Report of LEFASO

Main export markets are in the EU, with Germany, the Netherlands, France, Belgium,
and the UK accounting for nearly 80% of exports. Sport shoes and womens shoes are
on the increase, with fabric shoes getting a smaller share of exports, but a larger share
of the domestic market. The output of leather products is increasing rapidly.

Vietnam is among the 10 largest footwear producers and exporters worldwide, with
350 enterprises employing 450,000 workers in HCM City, Dong Nai, Binh Duong,
Hanoi and Hai Phong. Many firms are boosting their investment and improving
production capability, especially FDI and joint venture enterprises.

Table 4. Development target of Footwear Industry to 2010
Products Unit 2002 2005 2010
Production 1000 pairs 360.000 470.000 720.000 All styles of
shoes Export 1000 pairs 333.150 427.700 655.200
Production 1000 units 33.700 51.700 80.700
Hand bags
Export 1000 units 32.000 50.500 78.470
Production 1000sqft 25.000 40.000 80.000
Tanned Leather
Export 1000sqft 12.000 25.000 65.000

14
Based on Sub-segment Report on the Footwear Sector, ILSSA-WB Initiative.
1

Total of export turnover 1000 USD 1.846.000 3.100.000 6.200.000
Source: LEFASO.

The sector has not been subject to an export quota regime, and is exposed to fierce competition,
now increased by economic integration. As with textiles, Vietnamese production capacity lags
behind regional competitors, with outdated technology insufficient high-skilled workers, and
poor design.

4. Research findings; recommendations for public sector roles

About this section
This section summarizes key findings of ILSSAs research in the two sectors, and offers World
Bank recommendations on appropriate public sector roles to help address identified
challenges. The recommendations are in blue and bold.

The research found that almost all suppliers, textile and footwear, first confront CSR
through Codes of Conduct, or CoCs, developed by individual buyers. This
relationship sees the buyer specifying social and environmental standards through the
code, and acting as the monitoring partner (directly or through third-party
involvement). Suppliers implement the buyers code, in the hope of improving their
reputation and attracting larger and more stable contracts. Suppliers commonly work
with more than one buyer, and therefore implement more than one code, with the
number ranging between 2 -6 at any one time. Suppliers reported that the buyer is the
primary source of information. The business associations (VITAS - textile or LEFASO
footwear) also play a role in basic information dissemination, but do not disseminated
detailed information about CoC content or requirements.

This relationship between supplier enterprises and buyers creates a top-down
approach, with most Vietnamese firms passively implementing their buyers codes,
rather than proactively seeking increased market share through CSR practices.
However, the research found that some suppliers that were initially responding to
their short-term buyer requirements now see CSR investments can help them win
more stable and numerous contracts. A small number have also identified that CSR
investments can increase worker satisfaction and hence factory production, with less
worker turnover or ill health.

Firms told the researchers that CSR implementation is contributing towards
enterprises meeting their customer demands with regard to delivery time, improving-
product quality, and noticeable reduction of defective products. For some firms, order
quantity and customers are increasing, especially from those US buyers (export
turnover into US market is up to 11% from 7%), with a high tendency to consider CSR
1

considerations while engaging in production contracts overseas
15
. In some cases
Vietnamese enterprises have built their reputation with clients, such that they not only
purchase directly from enterprises but also choose enterprises as manufacturers when
signing business contracts through intermediate partners. Further, enterprises
implementing one CoC can provide other potential clients with confidence that
requirements will be met.

#1 Knowledge/Information disparity
The CSR agenda is relatively new in the country, although safeguards for workers
rights and working conditions are well articulated in national legislation. The term
CSR is not widely used and often creates confusion when translated into
Vietnamese due to its dual business and social agenda. The research revealed that
knowledge and understanding of CSR varies between firms, and within them. The
majority of Northern enterprises work mainly as subcontractors for mid-level or
intermediary partners (Korea, Taiwan), who often focus only on quality, quantity,
delivery time, monitoring and supervision as technical concerns, with third party
assessment and monitoring, while consultancy, information provision on CSR for
enterprises remain limited. Southern enterprises have more chances to promote
enterprise development as they are often acting as subcontractors or producers for
brands such as Nike, Adidas, Reebok, Timberland, Bata. These buyers inform and
provide CSR advisory support to the suppliers.

The consequence is that understanding and capacity within enterprises and their key
stakeholders often varies, with senior management having the most knowledge and
workers the least. Unsurprisingly, CSR and OSH staff have a greater awareness than
finance staff. Managerial staff often lack CSR competence, restricting their ability to
provide appropriate guidance: many managers have been promoted from the workers,
and lack professional and management skills.

This pervasive lack of awareness and capacity contributes to Vietnamese firms
generally being passive implementers of CSR, reacting to buyer requirements, rather
than proactive seekers of market gain through improved standards. Each Vietnamese
firm has to analyze potential CSR costs and benefits, in the context of their own
resources, competencies and business plan, but few have access to the information that
would enable them to do so.

Recommendation: MOLISA should continue its work of the last 12 months in
providing factual information on CSR codes to Vietnamese enterprises and their
stakeholders. This should involve continued data gathering to enhance information
dissemination approaches; a website and written materials, perhaps in collaboration
with the business associations.


15
For more data on US firms prioritization of CSR issues, see J. E. Berman and T. Webb 2003 Race to
the Top: Attracting and Enabling Global Sustainable Business: Business Survey Report, Washington,
D.C., World Bank.
1

#2 Multiple code management
All CSR codes cover the same broad areas, but implementation requirements vary
widely. The research found suppliers adopting multiple CoCs, dealing with different
implementation requirements for the same provision (e.g. fire extinguisher position
and other health and safety specifications). This causes inefficiencies due to multiple
audits, time and resources used to comply, and different management requirements,
creating an unnecessary burden for suppliers. The extent to which suppliers comply is
highly dependent on the suppliers profit margin and capacity. The research found a
lack of proactive and more sustainable engagement on the part of Vietnamese firms.
This reactive approach contributes to the tendency of Vietnamese firms perceiving
CSR-related improvements as a cost not as an investment.

Recommendation: MOLISA should encourage collaborative approaches amongst
buyers towards monitoring and agreement on one single audit for multiple buyers
from the same factory, focused on the high percentage of shared CSR code content.

#3 Unequal access to capacity-building resources
The multi-stakeholder Advisory Group for this program was intended to support and
inform the research work; it also illustrated the need for partnerships that use the
complementary competencies of government and the private sector to achieve
common goals. The suppliers and buyers, the trade union responsible for protecting
the rights of the worker, the business associations, NGOs all of these actors have
skills and resources that could be brought to bear on the capacity-building challenge.
(Refer Stakeholder Driver Matrix: Appendix B)

Enterprises expressed the lack of a level playing field to investment and capacity-
building resources, based on ownership and scale. They argued for incentive systems,
advisory services and revised policies on capital borrowing, with improved access for
all types of enterprises, to encourage improved CSR-related standards.
Recommendation: MOLISA should facilitate a process to get CSR capacity-building
undertaken collaboratively, in a manner that pools the complementary
competencies of buyers and other stakeholders, and reaches a larger group of
Vietnamese suppliers and potential suppliers. This should include: data gathering
on responsive capacity building packages and approaches; identifying relevant
buyers to participate in capacity building activities; facilitating collaboration
between buyers and business associations to develop capacity building packages
for suppliers, sub-contractors and potential suppliers as well as other key
stakeholders. This should have a particular focus on SMEs, and MPDF could play a
useful role through their relationship with the business associations, helping
achieve economies of scale in delivery of training and information, and in
negotiating with buyers.

#4 Differences between the Labor Code and CSR codes
CSR codes generally refer to national legislation as the standard of reference, and state
that national law must be respected. These statements are backed up by codes
1

rigorous monitoring and inspection systems. The research confirmed that CSR
implementation is therefore helping ensure law enforcement at the firm level. CoCs
and their associated guidelines are also raising awareness on labor standards, and in
some factories are facilitating continuous improvement, including to standards that
exceed national law stipulations.

However, a small number of elements of some CSR codes do not currently align with
national legislation requirements. Critical elements include overtime and freedom
association.
Overtime: Some CoCs allow a maximum that is higher than the
maximum of 300 hours/person/year stipulated by the Labor Code.
Research interviews with workers, particularly from rural areas, show that
most want to work overtime to increase their income while also saving on
subsistence expenditures, as they often have meals, bathe, wash at the
enterprise premises. Interviews with enterprises senior management revealed
that almost all are not currently complying with the Labor Code regulation, but
were instead allowing 450 - 600 hours/person/year of overtime. The key
objective in the overtime debate is not reducing worker's income, but instead is
that the expected productivity gains from reducing overtime translate into
higher wages or at least equal total income: the real issue is productivity, and
has strong potential for a win-win outcome if framed as a multi-stakeholder
dialogue with a focus on capacity building/productivity.

Freedom of association: Under Vietnamese law, workers are given the right to
have their own organization. However, this organization must be the Trade
Union which is part of the Labor Federation system and must be approved by
the same. Other forms of association are not legally recognized. Some CoCs,
on the other hand, require that if freedom of association is restricted by law,
the employer provides parallel means of independent and free association.
This discrepancy is creating confusion for Vietnamese firms, and masking the
real question - the capacity and genuine interest in defending worker's
interests.

Recommendation: MOLISA should build on its comparison of CSR code content
and Vietnamese national law, to determine shared content, and to advise on areas of
discrepancy. This should include discussion with buyers and CSR standards
agencies about those areas where harmonization appears possible. On overtime,
robust evidence from other countries shows that a reduction in excessive overtime
generates productivity gains for the enterprise, as well as improvements to worker
health. On freedom of association, the fact that SAI, for example, is currently
certifying Vietnamese firms suggests that harmonization is possible. MOLISA
should include discussion with buyers on a common strategy to reach consensus,
especially on overtime. This work should be led by MOLISAs Legal Department,
with input from industry, workers and outside experts.
1


#5 Parallel inspection systems of factory standards
The research revealed parallel inspection and support systems. The national labor
inspectorate has approximately 400 inspectors, seeking to ensure that the Labor Code
in enforced in all workplaces in Vietnam. At the same time, an increasing number of
Vietnamese firms are adopting CSR codes that involve regular and robust monitoring
systems, and external audit of standards. The first of these two systems is regulatory,
with the potential penalty of state sanction; the second is voluntary, with the potential
penalty of market loss and the potential reward of increased business. The research
revealed that the current disconnect between the two systems is imposing significant
opportunity cost on the Vietnamese firms that ironically have the highest standards
and least need of such scrutiny. This finding is consistent with other reports that
enterprises throughout the country regularly complain about their production
activities being hindered by repeated inspections from different State agencies.

Recommendation: MOLISA should seek learning opportunities for its labor
inspectorate through improved collaboration with the private sector monitors and
auditors associated with CSR codes, both for-profit and not-for-profit. This could
include data sharing, with buyers providing aggregated data from their CoC
monitoring, that would reveal useful patterns of violation patterns and trends. It
could also include information sharing on inspection techniques. The Labor
Inspectorate should be fully briefed on the comparative analysis of the national
labor code and CSR codes, and able to offer advice and support to Vietnamese firms
in dealing with these matters, maintaining the sanctioning power of inspectorates,
but shifting the focus to technical assistance for those firms that are developing
their own CSR benchmarks and improvement plans. MOLISA should pilot joint
visits for its inspectors with those of CoC inspectors, to reduce the time burden on
enterprises of multiple visits, and to increase learning opportunities for MOLISA
inspectors and for the private inspectors. MOLISA should re-prioritize the
workload of its inspectorate, with less emphasis on those enterprises that are
subject to regular robust monitoring and inspection through CoCs, and more on
those enterprises that are not involved with any CoC and typically have far lower
labor standards. These steps should be linked to the ILO project which is seeking
to build capacity of the inspectorate and enhance efficiency by working toward
integration of the various departments and ministries responsible for inspection.

#6 Transparency
As in any market-based system, CSR depends on accurate information flows in order
for firms to receive a market reward for their CSR investments. Similarly, in Vietnam
wishes to position itself internationally as a country that takes standards seriously and
that CSR-sensitive buyers can source from with confidence, the country needs data to
back up its claims of high standards. Other countries are experimenting with new
information systems, but Vietnamese firms to date are highly secretive about the detail
of their labor standards. Transparent, voluntary reporting on labor standards at
1

enterprise level will help individual firms distinguish themselves in the global
marketplace, and will enhance Vietnams reputation as a place to do business.

Recommendation: MOLISA should encourage increased transparency and reporting
on labor standards, including firm-level reporting on core data. This would help
individual firms distinguish themselves in a highly competitive marketplace, and
the data could also be aggregated anonymously at national level to show how
seriously the country takes this issue. MOLISA should work with MPI on the new
Trade Promotion Agency which the Government has decided to create, since labor
standards data generated by firms would be directly helpful to this promotional
effort. Vietnam needs to compete internationally on the basis on cost + quality +
demonstrated standards.


























1

APPENDICES
2

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n

m
o
s
t

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e
s

i
n

t
e
r
m
s

o
f

c
o
n
t
e
n
t
,

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

a
n
d

p
r
o
c
e
d
u
r
e
.

N
o

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e

r
e
p
o
r
t
i
n
g

s
y
s
t
e
m

r
e
l
a
t
e
d

t
o

C
S
R

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

t
h
e
r
e

s
e
e
m
s

t
o

b
e

n
o

a
p
p
a
r
e
n
t

c
h
a
n
g
e

i
n

t
h
e

r
e
p
o
r
t
i
n
g

p
r
o
c
e
s
s

o
f

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e
s

a
f
t
e
r

h
a
v
i
n
g

a
d
o
p
t
e
d

C
S
R

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
.

H
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

t
h
e

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

o
f

r
e
p
o
r
t
i
n
g

h
a
s

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

a
f
t
e
r

C
S
R

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

t
o

m
e
e
t

a
l
l

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

a
s

w
e
l
l

a
s

C
o
C
s
.

T
h
e

c
o
n
t
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

r
e
p
o
r
t
i
n
g

s
y
s
t
e
m
,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

h
a
v
e

b
e
c
o
m
e

m
o
r
e

d
e
t
a
i
l
e
d

a
n
d

c
o
v
e
r

l
a
b
o
r

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
,

f
i
r
e

p
r
e
v
e
n
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

s
a
f
e
t
y
,

h
e
a
l
t
h
,

w
o
r
k
i
n
g

h
o
u
r
s
,

r
e
s
t

p
e
r
i
o
d
s
,

w
a
g
e
/
s
a
l
a
r
y
,

l
a
b
o
r

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
,

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

a
n
d

l
a
b
o
r

s
a
f
e
t
y
.



2
2


A
p
p
e
n
d
i
x

B
:

S
t
a
k
e
h
o
l
d
e
r

d
r
i
v
e
r

m
a
t
r
i
x

f
o
r

C
S
R

i
n

V
i
e
t
n
a
m

O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s

S
o
u
r
c
e

o
f

D
r
i
v
e
r
s

L
e
v
e
l
/
t
y
p
e

o
f

i
n
d
u
s
t
r
y
/
s
t
a
k
e
h
o
l
d
e
r

m
o
s
t

r
e
l
e
v
a
n
t

t
o

(
A
)

S
t
a
k
e
h
o
l
d
e
r

o
p
p
o
r
t
u
n
i
t
y
/

i
n
c
e
n
t
i
v
e

(
B
)

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

o
f

D
r
i
v
e
r
s

(
C
)

P
r
o
c
e
s
s

o
f

r
e
s
p
o
n
d
i
n
g

&

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

(
D
)

E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

o
f

D
r
i
v
e
r

i
n

a
c
h
i
e
v
i
n
g

g
o
a
l
s

(
E
)

E
f
f
e
c
t
/
I
m
p
a
c
t

(
F
)

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

p
o
l
i
c
y

l
e
v
e
l

(
I
L
O

C
o
n
v
e
n
t
i
o
n
s
;

D
e
c
l
a
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
n

H
u
m
a
n

R
i
g
h
t
s
;

e
t
c
.
)


B
R
:

C
o
C
s

a
r
e

b
a
s
e
d

o
n

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
o
n
v
e
n
t
i
o
n
s


G
o
v
t
:

S
i
g
n
a
t
o
r
y

t
o

s
o
m
e

o
f

t
h
e

r
e
l
e
v
a
n
t

C
o
n
v
e
n
t
i
o
n
s



S
P

t
o

d
e
l
i
v
e
r

t
o

t
h
e

C
o
C
s

f
o
r

w
i
n
n
i
n
g

c
o
n
t
r
a
c
t

a
g
r
e
e
m
e
n
t
s



C
F
:

C
o
n
s
u
l
t
i
n
g
/

b
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

o
p
p
o
r
t
u
n
i
t
y


I
N
P
:

L
a
w

e
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t


B
R
/
S
P
:

T
h
e

d
r
i
v
e
r

c
o
m
p
e
l
s

a
c
t
i
o
n
,

b
u
t

b
a
s
e
d

o
n

a

m
o
r
e

t
o
p
-
d
o
w
n


a
p
p
r
o
a
c
h


S
P
:

R
e
s
t
r
i
c
t
s

b
o
t
t
o
m
-
u
p

i
n
i
t
i
a
t
i
v
e

f
o
r

S
P


S
P

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t

C
o
C
s

i
n

o
r
d
e
r

t
o

w
i
n

l
a
r
g
e
r

a
n
d

m
o
r
e

n
u
m
e
r
o
u
s

c
o
n
t
r
a
c
t
s


S
P
:

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

t
o

e
n
g
a
g
e

d
i
f
f
e
r
s

w
i
t
h
i
n

a
n
d

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e
s


S
P
:

T
h
e

f
i
n
a
n
c
i
a
l

d
e
p
t
.

o
f
t
e
n

i
s

n
o
t

a
c
t
i
v
e
l
y

e
n
g
a
g
e
d


S
P
:

T
h
e

s
e
n
i
o
r

m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
,

C
S
R
,

O
S
H

o
f
f
i
c
i
a
l
s

m
o
r
e

a
c
t
i
v
e


S
P
:

F
o
r
e
i
g
n

i
n
v
e
s
t
e
d

a
r
e

m
o
s
t

s
u
c
c
e
s
s
f
u
l



S
P
:

S
M
E
s

c
a
n
n
o
t

a
f
f
o
r
d

t
o

e
n
g
a
g
e


B
R
:

b
r
a
n
d

v
a
l
u
e
,

r
e
v
e
n
u
e

g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

c
u
s
t
o
m
e
r

a
t
t
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
,

l
i
c
e
n
s
e

t
o

o
p
e
r
a
t
e
,

r
i
s
k

m
i
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n


S
P
:

r
e
v
e
n
u
e

g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

c
u
s
t
o
m
e
r

a
t
t
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

(
b
u
y
e
r
)


W
K
/
T
U
:

W
o
r
k
e
r

w
e
l
l
-
b
e
i
n
g


G
o
v
t
:

T
r
a
d
e

&

i
n
v
e
s
t
m
e
n
t
,

n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

l
a
w

c
o
m
p
l
i
a
n
c
e
,

w
o
r
k
e
r

w
e
l
l
-
b
e
i
n
g
,


T
r
a
d
e

&

I
n
v
e
s
t
m
e
n
t

P
r
o
m
o
t
i
o
n


(
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

a
n
d

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e

l
e
v
e
l
)


G
o
v
t

i
n

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

t
o

(
e
x
p
o
r
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

i
m
p
o
r
t
i
n
g

c
o
u
n
t
r
i
e
s
)

b
i
l
a
t
e
r
a
l

t
r
a
d
e

a
g
r
e
e
m
e
n
t
s


S
P

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e

p
r
o
m
o
t
i
o
n
/

i
m
p
r
o
v
e
m
e
n
t
s

t
o

a
t
t
r
a
c
t

c
o
n
t
r
a
c
t
s

f
r
o
m

b
u
y
e
r
s


B
A

p
r
o
m
o
t
i
n
g

t
r
a
d
e

a
n
d

i
n
v
e
s
t
m
e
n
t


E
N
T

a
r
e

e
x
p
o
s
e
d

t
o

c
o
m
p
e
t
i
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

o
p
p
o
r
t
u
n
i
t
y


W
K
:

I
m
p
r
o
v
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

w
o
r
k
i
n
g

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s


E
N
T

p
r
o
v
i
d
e
d

t
h
e

o
p
t
i
o
n
s

a
n
d

o
p
p
o
r
t
u
n
i
t
y

t
o

e
n
g
a
g
e


E
N
T

c
a
n

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

s
i
z
e

a
n
d

n
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

o
r
d
e
r
s

o
v
e
r

t
i
m
e


S
P
/
B
R
:

B
u
t

a
l
s
o

t
e
n
d
e
n
c
y
f
o
r

u
n
s
t
a
b
l
e

c
o
n
t
r
a
c
t
u
a
l

a
r
r
a
n
g
e
m
e
n
t
s

d
u
e

t
o

p
r
i
c
e

c
o
m
p
e
t
i
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

l
a
c
k

o
f

m
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e

o
f

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s


W
K
:

A
t

t
i
m
e
s

p
i
e
c
e
-
m
e
a
l
/
p
a
t
c
h
y

i
m
p
r
o
v
e
m
e
n
t
s


B
A
:

L
a
c
k

o
f

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
s
e
m
i
n
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

r
e
s
t
r
i
c
t
s

e
n
g
a
g
e
m
e
n
t


T
U

l
a
c
k

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

t
o

e
n
g
a
g
e

f
u
l
l
y


S
P
:

U
n
e
v
e
n

a
w
a
r
e
n
e
s
s

l
e
v
e
l
s

h
a
m
p
e
r

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

(
w
i
t
h
i
n

a
n

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e
)

a
n
d

e
n
g
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

(
a
m
o
n
g

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e
s
)


S
P
:

F
o
r
e
i
g
n

i
n
v
e
s
t
e
d

a
r
e

m
o
s
t

s
u
c
c
e
s
s
f
u
l



S
P
:

S
M
E
s

c
a
n
n
o
t

a
f
f
o
r
d

t
o

e
n
g
a
g
e


G
o
v
t
:

E
c
o
n
o
m
i
c

g
r
o
w
t
h


S
P
:

R
e
p
u
t
a
t
i
o
n
/

b
r
a
n
d

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
,

r
e
v
e
n
u
e

g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n


B
A
:

I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t

f
r
o
m

B
A

m
e
m
b
e
r
s
;

a
s
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

t
o

p
r
o
f
i
l
e

t
r
a
d
e

p
r
o
m
o
t
i
o
n

s
t
r
a
t
e
g
y
;

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

n
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

c
o
n
t
r
a
c
t
s

a
m
o
n
g

m
e
m
b
e
r
s




2
3


M
a
i
n
t
a
i
n
i
n
g

m
i
n
i
m
u
m

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

(
W
e
a
k

e
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

l
o
c
a
l

l
a
w
s
)


G
o
v
t
/
I
N
P
:

E
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
e

e
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

t
h
e

L
a
b
o
r

C
o
d
e


T
U
:

S
a
f
e
g
u
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

r
i
g
h
t
s
/
b
e
n
e
f
i
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

w
o
r
k
e
r
s


B
R
:

E
n
s
u
r
e

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

C
o
C


S
P
:

E
n
s
u
r
e

s
t
a
b
l
e

c
o
n
t
r
a
c
t
s


B
A
:

T
r
a
d
e

p
r
o
m
o
t
i
o
n


C
F
:

C
o
n
s
u
l
t
a
n
c
y

o
p
p
o
r
t
u
n
i
t
y


I
N
P
:

L
a
w

e
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t


W
R
/
T
U
/
G
o
v
t
:

I
m
p
r
o
v
e
d

w
o
r
k
i
n
g

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s


G
o
v
t
/
I
N
P
:

W
e
a
k

l
a
w

e
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t


T
U
:

L
a
c
k

o
f

h
u
m
a
n


(
C
S
R

a
w
a
r
e
n
e
s
s

&

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
)

r
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s

r
e
s
t
r
i
c
t
s

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
i
v
e
n
e
s
s


B
R
:

C
o
C

e
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

d
o
e
s

n
o
t

g
u
a
r
a
n
t
e
e

i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s


S
P
:

L
a
c
k

o
f

f
i
n
a
n
c
i
a
l

a
n
d

h
u
m
a
n


(
C
S
R

a
w
a
r
e
n
e
s
s

&

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
)

r
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s

h
a
m
p
e
r

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n


S
P
/
B
R
:

P
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y


G
o
v
t
/
T
U
:

W
o
r
k
e
r

w
e
l
l
-
b
e
i
n
g


B
R
/
S
P
:

W
o
r
k
e
r

w
e
l
l
-
b
e
i
n
g
,

b
r
a
n
d

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
o
n

P
a
r
t
n
e
r
s
h
i
p
/

s
t
a
k
e
h
o
l
d
e
r
/
c
i
v
i
l

s
o
c
i
e
t
y

d
e
m
a
n
d
s

(
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

a
n
d

i
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

l
e
v
e
l
)


B
R
:

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
i
v
e

t
o

c
o
n
s
u
m
e
r

a
n
d

c
i
v
i
l

a
c
t
i
o
n

g
r
o
u
p

d
e
m
a
n
d
s


G
o
v
t
:

T
o

e
n
s
u
r
e

l
a
w

e
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t


W
K
:

P
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
n
g

w
o
r
k
e
r
s


r
i
g
h
t
s


S
P
:

B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

r
e
p
u
t
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

c
o
n
t
r
a
c
t

s
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y


B
A
:

T
r
a
d
e

p
r
o
m
o
t
i
o
n


C
F
:

C
o
n
s
u
l
t
a
n
c
y

o
p
p
o
r
t
u
n
i
t
y


B
R
/
S
P
:

T
h
e

d
r
i
v
e
r

c
o
m
p
e
l
s

a
c
t
i
o
n
,

b
u
t

b
a
s
e
d

o
n

a

m
o
r
e

t
o
p
-
d
o
w
n


a
p
p
r
o
a
c
h


S
P
:

R
e
s
t
r
i
c
t
s

b
o
t
t
o
m
-
u
p

i
n
i
t
i
a
t
i
v
e

f
o
r

S
P


S
P
/
T
U
/
W
K
/
B
A
:

L
a
c
k

o
f

a
w
a
r
e
n
e
s
s
/

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g
/

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

r
e
s
t
r
i
c
t
s

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
i
v
e
n
e
s
s


S
P
/
E
N
T
:

D
o
e
s

n
o
t

r
e
l
a
t
e

t
o

t
h
i
s

d
r
i
v
e
r
.

H
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

e
n
s
u
r
e
s

b
e
t
t
e
r

w
o
r
k
i
n
g

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

C
o
C

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n


B
R
:

B
r
a
n
d

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
,

l
i
c
e
n
s
e

t
o

o
p
e
r
a
t
e

N
O
T
E
:

B
u
y
e
r
s
:


B
R
;

S
u
p
p
l
i
e
r
s
:

S
P
;

W
o
r
k
e
r
s
:

W
K
;

T
r
a
d
e

U
n
i
o
n
:

T
U
;

E
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e
s
:

E
N
T
;

B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

a
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
i
o
n
s
:

B
A
;

C
o
n
s
u
l
t
i
n
g

f
i
r
m
s
:

C
F
;

I
n
s
p
e
c
t
o
r
a
t
e

:
I
N
P

(
A
)
:

L
e
v
e
l
/
t
y
p
e

o
f

i
n
d
u
s
t
r
y
/
s
t
a
k
e
h
o
l
d
e
r

m
o
s
t

r
e
l
e
v
a
n
t

t
o
:

N
o
t

a
l
l

d
r
i
v
e
r
s

p
e
r
t
a
i
n

t
o

a
l
l

t
y
p
e
s

o
r

l
e
v
e
l

o
f

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e
s
/

s
t
a
k
e
h
o
l
d
e
r

(
B
)
:

S
t
a
k
e
h
o
l
d
e
r

o
p
p
o
r
t
u
n
i
t
y
/

i
n
c
e
n
t
i
v
e
:

W
h
a
t

d
r
i
v
e
s

o
t
h
e
r

s
t
a
k
e
h
o
l
d
e
r

i
n
c
e
n
t
i
v
e

a
n
d

w
h
a
t

i
s

t
h
e

e
x
i
s
t
i
n
g

o
p
p
o
r
t
u
n
i
t
y

t
o

e
n
g
a
g
e
?

(
C
)
:

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

o
f

D
r
i
v
e
r
s
:

W
h
e
t
h
e
r

t
h
e

d
r
i
v
e
r

i
s

s
u
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

t
o

c
o
m
p
e
l

a
c
t
i
o
n

(
D
)
:

P
r
o
c
e
s
s

o
f

r
e
s
p
o
n
d
i
n
g

&

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
:

W
h
o

d
e
c
i
d
e
s

t
o

r
e
s
p
o
n
d

o
r

i
g
n
o
r
e

a

d
r
i
v
e
r

w
i
t
h
i
n

t
h
e

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e

a
n
d

w
h
a
t

i
s

t
h
e
i
r

l
e
v
e
l

o
f

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

t
o

e
n
g
a
g
e
?

(
E
)
:

E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

o
f

D
r
i
v
e
r

i
n

a
c
h
i
e
v
i
n
g

g
o
a
l
s
:

W
h
a
t

a
r
e

t
h
e

l
e
v
e
l
s

o
f

a
c
h
i
e
v
e
m
e
n
t

a
t

v
a
r
i
o
u
s

t
y
p
e
s
/
l
e
v
e
l
s

o
f

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e

(
F
)
:

E
f
f
e
c
t
/
I
m
p
a
c
t
:

e
.
g
.

b
r
a
n
d

v
a
l
u
e
,

r
e
v
e
n
u
e

g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

c
u
s
t
o
m
e
r

a
t
t
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
,

w
o
r
k
e
r

w
e
l
l
-
b
e
i
n
g
,

l
i
c
e
n
s
e

t
o

o
p
e
r
a
t
e
,

i
m
p
a
c
t

o
n

n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

l
e
g
i
s
l
a
t
i
o
n

c
o
m
p
l
i
a
n
c
e



2
4


A
p
p
e
n
d
i
x

C
:

G
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t

R
o
l
e

M
a
t
r
i
x

-

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
e
n
i
n
g

C
S
R

i
n

V
i
e
t
n
a
m

G
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t

r
o
l
e

S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s

M
a
n
d
a
t
i
n
g

D
e
f
i
n
i
n
g

m
i
n
i
m
u
m

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

f
o
r

b
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
,

e
m
b
e
d
d
e
d

w
i
t
h
i
n

t
h
e

l
e
g
a
l

f
r
a
m
e
w
o
r
k
.

E
.
g
.

s
e
t
t
i
n
g

m
i
n
i
m
u
m

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s
,

t
h
e

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
i
e
s

o
f

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
o
r
s

a
n
d

i
n
s
p
e
c
t
o
r
a
t
e
s
,

a
n
d

l
e
g
a
l

a
n
d

f
i
s
c
a
l

p
e
n
a
l
t
i
e
s

a
n
d

r
e
w
a
r
d
s


L
e
g
a
l
l
y

c
r
e
a
t
i
n
g

a

l
e
v
e
l

p
l
a
y
i
n
g

f
i
e
l
d

f
o
r

a
l
l

t
y
p
e
s

o
f

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e
s

-

C
o
n
c
r
e
t
i
z
e
,

o
r
g
a
n
i
z
e

a
n
d

m
o
n
i
t
o
r

a
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

a
n
d

c
o
m
p
r
e
h
e
n
s
i
v
e

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

p
o
l
i
c
i
e
s

r
e
l
a
t
e
d

t
o

l
a
n
d

u
s
e
,

i
n
v
e
s
t
m
e
n
t
,

f
i
n
a
n
c
e

a
n
d

t
a
x
a
t
i
o
n
.


D
e
f
i
n
i
n
g

m
i
n
i
m
u
m

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

f
o
r

b
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
,

e
m
b
e
d
d
e
d

w
i
t
h
i
n

t
h
e

l
e
g
a
l

f
r
a
m
e
w
o
r
k

e
.
g
.

s
e
t
t
i
n
g

t
h
e

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
i
e
s

o
f

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
o
r
s

a
n
d

i
n
s
p
e
c
t
o
r
a
t
e
s
,

a
n
d

l
e
g
a
l

a
n
d

f
i
s
c
a
l

p
e
n
a
l
t
i
e
s

a
n
d

r
e
w
a
r
d
s
.


B
u
i
l
d

c
o
m
p
r
e
h
e
n
s
i
v
e
,

a
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

l
e
g
a
l

s
y
s
t
e
m

t
o

h
a
r
m
o
n
i
z
e

e
m
p
l
o
y
e
e

a
n
d

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e

b
e
n
e
f
i
t
s
,

a
n
d

n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

b
e
n
e
f
i
t
s
,

w
i
t
h

r
e
l
e
v
a
n
c
e

t
o

t
h
e

i
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

i
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
o
c
e
s
s

i
n

o
r
d
e
r

t
o

f
a
c
i
l
i
t
a
t
e

a
n
d

e
n
c
o
u
r
a
g
e

e
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e
s

t
o

e
n
g
a
g
e

a
n
d

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
l
y

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t

C
S
R
.


M
o
d
i
f
y

t
h
e

r
o
l
e

o
f

t
h
e

i
n
s
p
e
c
t
o
r
a
t
e

i
n

o
r
d
e
r

t
o

p
r
o
m
o
t
e

C
S
R

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

i
n

e
n
t
e
r
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2
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.



2
6


27
LIST OF REFERENCES

Sub-segment Report: The Textile Sector, ILSSA-WB Initiative, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2003.

Sub-segment Report: The Footwear Sector, ILSSA-WB Initiative, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2003.

Segment III Report, ILSSA-WB Initiative, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2003.

Codes of Conduct in Vietnam: Labor Content of CSR Codes of Conduct in the Footwear
Industry in Vietnam, December 2003. Analysis undertaken for the World Bank by D.
Feldman, G. Smith, F. Hoag, LLP, Washington DC and Bui Thi Phuong and F. Burke, Baker
Mckenzie, LLP, HCMC, Vietnam.

J. E. Berman and T. Webb 2003 Race to the Top: Attracting and Enabling Global Sustainable
Business: Business Survey Report, Washington, D.C., World Bank.

G. Smith and D. Feldman 2003 Company Codes of Conduct and International Standards: An
Analytical Comparison (Parts I and II), Washington D.C., World Bank.

T. Fox, H. Ward and B. Howard (2002), Baseline Study of Public Sector Roles in Strengthening
Corporate Social Responsibility, IIED for the World Bank, October 2002.

M. Warner, Diagnostic and Appraisal Tool, for the CSR Practice, World Bank.

C. L. Hubo (2003) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Public Policy in the Philippine
Mining Sector, paper presented to the International Conference on Public Policy and CSR,
Washington, D.C. 8-9 November 2003.

H.B. Joergensen, P.M. Pruzan-Joergensen, M. Jungk, A. Cramer, Strengthening Implementation
of Corporate Social Responsibility in Global Supply Chains, for CSR Practice, Investment Climate
Department, World Bank, 2003.






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