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Independent Student Learning Weekly Tasks

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Task 1 Session 2
Principles of teaching listening and speaking skills: differences between listening
and spoken language, listening processes and the conventions of spoken language

Choose two of the following sources to read and make connections to your input
The characteristics of spoken language
Speaking sub-skills
Listening processes

Task2 Session 3
Principles of teaching listening and speaking skills: communication processes and
factors affecting listening and speaking skills

Read the sample chapter and note how using strategies can affect the listening
process in a positive way

Task 3 Session 4
Developing listening and speaking: identifying listening and speaking skills and
integrating listening and speaking skills

Review the listening and speaking sub-skills at the locations below. After reading
about the sub-skills for each, take note of any similarities and differences.

Listening sub-skills
Speaking sub-skills

Task 4 Session 5
Developing listening and speaking: Techniques for teaching listening and speaking

Use the web page below, especially the sections teaching Ideas/activities and
Assessment Ideas to preview a range of teaching options for developing speaking

Now you have some ideas about teaching techniques for speaking skills, go to the
website below and choose one listening topic from the following categories; easy,
medium and difficult. As you look at the listening tasks, evaluate what the learners
are being asked to do. What techniques are involved?

You can also evaluate a lesson plan and materials, which aim to encourage learners
to listen. How does the teacher want learners to process the information? What do
they do with it and how do they do it?
Download the lesson plan and work sheets from the links below:
Lesson plan
Work sheets

Task 5 Session 6

Planning for teaching listening and speaking: principles of lesson planning, lesson
plan format and pedagogical principles

After your input session, choose two out of the three topic areas below to explore
Principles of lesson planning
View the suggestions on how to write and effective lesson plan.
Read the short chapter on planning principles and think about your responses to the
discussion questions at the end.

Lesson plan format
View the range of lesson plan formats available for teachers to use on the page
below. Pick a sample of contrasting formats and look through them. How does the
plan position what the teacher does and what learners do? Are there any built in
assumptions? What approach or method might the plan suggest is used, e.g., PPP or
TBL? Does the plan identify potential problems ahead of time and suggest solutions?

Pedagogical principles
Read the key points in the chapter from Teaching Listening and Speaking, Richards
(2008). This is a useful book and a key text; so, it will be worth downloading for your

Task 6 Session 7
Planning for teaching listening and speaking: principles of lesson planning, lesson
plan format and pedagogical principles

Download and read the two lesson planning guides from The Times Educational
Supplement. You will need to register with your e -mail address to be able to do this.

Further and more detailed guides in Power Point format are available from the same
author at:

By now you should have a very full picture of planning and planning principles. Keep
these resources so that you can use them for your micro- teaching and practicums
later on.

Task 7 Session 8
Planning remedial and enrichment activities: designing remedial and enrichment
activities, phonological awareness, drama, story telling, and elocution.

Designing remedial and enrichment activities
The web page below make some interesting contrasts between the nature and
purpose of remedial and enrichment activities. Read and note how the two items
differ in principle.

The Government of Hong Kong Education Bureau website has an extensive section
on remedial learning needs, strategies and materials.

Task 8 Session 9
Selection and adaptation of materials and activities.

Principles of selection and adaptation
View the slideshow below, which discusses the pros and cons of materials selection
and adaptation. Note the principles suggested by the author in the second part of
the presentation.

Criterion for evaluation of materials
Use the quick view link below to read a well presented set of criteria for evaluating
text books or any learning materials.

Task 9 Session 10
Selection and adaptation of materials and activities

Devise listening and peaking tasks based on selected learning outcomes
As you read the following article, pay special attention to the principles and ideas on
page 553, where Marand (2011) discusses the importance of considering your
learners intellectual and emotional needs, as well as how you want students to
learn. This second aspect, of how you want students to learn, is important because
your ideas on how learning should take place will shape the way you design
materials and tasks. Therefore, if you are predominantly designing materials and
tasks for choral drilling or whole class work, you will not be developing learners
communicative competence.

Task 10 Session 11
Selection and adaptation of materials and activities

Devise listening and peaking tasks based on selected learning outcomes
Read the action research project and note the following: how the learners are
profiled what are they expected to be able to do? And, how the tasks are designed
in order to guide and support learners to meet the profile needs.

Task 11 Session 12
Assessing listening and speaking skills

Assessment strategies
As you read the report by Jun, Osterwalder and Wipf (2000) note how the
researchers devised criteria for evaluating the qualities of thoughtful listeners and
effective speakers. This is important as it clearly demonstrates teachers need to
have criteria in mind while designing assessment tasks and match these criteria
against expected learning outcomes.

Giving feedback and support
Read the article on supporting learning with feedback by Watkins (2010) and note
the suggestions he makes for learner training in relation to feedback.

Task 12 Session 13
Assessing listening and speaking skills

Issues in assessing listening and speaking
While reading the report by Nakatsuhara (2009) pay attention to page 5 and the
authors discussion of the relationship between listening and speaking skills. This is
especially relevant when assessing learners through pair-work, group-work or open
discussions as listening skills will influence what learners are able to do.

Teaching vs. testing
While there is considerable discussion about teaching vs. testing, Herbert (2012)
takes the position that it is better to integrate the two.
The following article discusses the impact of testing on teaching and learning.

Accuracy vs. fluency
Read the discussion by Nakagawa on approaching language learning by focusing on
accuracy or fluency and note the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.

Task 13 Session 14

Read the reflection by teacher Jeff Bucchino below; note how he focuses on specific
incidents and examines these in some detail rather than attempting to describe the
whole lesson. Also, note how Jeff uses a structure to focus, support and guide his
reflection, for example, event description, feelings and actions and learning point.
A key element of reflection is how you feel about the event and this is often
overlooked in favour of a description of a series of events.
Why do you think it is important to consider the feelings associated with classroom

Task 14 Session 15

Note how the teacher approaches reflection systematically, by breaking the lesson
down into specific areas. Also notice how she values reflection as a tool for
continuing her professional development and learning.

Task 15 Session 16

Peter Papas (2010) has operationalized reflective stages in relation to Blooms
Taxonomy. This provides teachers with a graduated framework to support reflection
from the more concrete to abstract levels.