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Coronal Palatal Non-coronal (Sonorant Consonants)

Obstruents Obstruents Obstruents Laryngeals Affricates Nasals & Liquids Glides Vowels
[+cons, -son, +cor] [+cor + dors] [+cons, -son, -cor] [-cons,-son] [+cons,-son -/+cont] [+cons,+son] [-cons, +son] [-cons, +son]

J













t'
t
h
t t d s z I [ O j c j j p b I v k g x
y
q G y n h \ h n 1 tj d ts dz kx pI m n p p I r + n j w q
cons + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - cons + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - -
son - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - son - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
C
l
a
s
s

f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s

syll - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - syll - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
labial - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - lab - - - - - + + - - - - - - - - - - + + + +
round 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 rnd 0 0 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - + + -
coronal + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - cor + + + + - - - + - + - - + - + + - - - - -
ant + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ant - - + + 0 0 0 + 0 - 0 0 + 0 + + 0 0 0 0 0
dist - -
+
- - - - - - - - + + + + + + 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 dist + + - - 0 0 0 - 0 - 0 0 - 0 - - 0 0 0 0 0
dorsal - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + - - - - - - + + + + + + + + - - - - - dor + + - - + - - - + + + + - + - - + + + + +
high 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 + + + + 0 0 0 0 0 0 + + + + - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 high + + 0 0 + 0 0 0 + - + - 0 + 0 0 - + + + +
low 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - - - - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 low - - 0 0 - 0 0 0 - - - - 0 - 0 0 - - - - -
back 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 + + + + + + + + 0 0 0 0 0 back - - 0 0 + 0 0 0 + - - + 0 - 0 0 + - + - +
tense 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - - - - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 tense - - 0 0 - 0 0 0 - - - - 0 - 0 0 - - - - -
pharyngeal - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + - - - phar - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
P
l
a
c
e

f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s

ATR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - 0 0 0 ATR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
voice - - - - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - - - + - voi - + - + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
SG -
+
- - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + - SG - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
L
a
r
y
n
g
e
a
l

f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s

CG
+
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + CG - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
cont - - - - - + + + + + + + + - - + + - - + + + + - - + + - - + + + + + + - cont - - - - - - + + + + + + + + +
strident - - - - - + + - - - - - - - - - - - - + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - strid + + + + - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
lateral - - - - - - - + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - lat - - - - - - - - - - - - + + - - - - - - -
del rel - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - d rel + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
M
a
n
n
e
r

f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s

nasal - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - nasal - - - - - - + + + + + + - - - - - - - - -
i i u o c c o 5 a y . o c m
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - cons
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + son
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + syll
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + lab
- - + + - - + + - - + + + - + + rnd
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - cor
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ant
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 dist
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + dor
+ + + + - - - - - - + + - - - + high
- - - - - - - - + + - - - - - - low
- - + + - - + + - - - - - - + + back
+ - + - + - + - - + + - + - - + tense
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + phar
+ - + - + - + - - - + - + - - - ATR
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + voi
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - SG
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - CG
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + cont
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - strid
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - lat
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - d rel
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - nasal
Front Central Back

i y u
I Y U
e O e P F o

E o \
Q
a A
Place and
Manner of
Articulation L
a
b
i
a
l

L
a
b
i
o
d
e
n
t
a
l

D
e
n
t
a
l

A
l
v
e
o
l
a
r

R
e
t
r
o
f
l
e
x


P
o
s
t
a
l
v
e
o
l
a
r

P
a
l
a
t
a
l

V
e
l
a
r

U
v
u
l
a
r

P
h
a
r
y
n
g
e
a
l

G
l
o
t
t
a
l

Plosive p b t d | q c j k g q G 1
Nasal m p n p p N
Trill B r n
Tap/Flap r
Fricative
f v O s z , j x y y n h \ h n
Lateral
Fricative
I [ j
Z
Approximant t + j
Lateral
Approximant
l [ L
labial + + - - - - - - - - -
coronal - - + + + + + - - - -
dorsal - - - - - + + + + - -
pharyngeal - - - - - - - - - + -
Variants More Sounds
s = j bilabial click
c = tj | dental click
y = j ! (post) alveolar click
r = + palato-alveolar click
j = | alveolar lateral click
c = ts l alveolar lateral flap
I = t simultaneous j and x
z = q voiced labio-palatal approximate
j = d h voiceless epiglottal fricative
u = y \ voiced epiglottal fricative
o = c [-voi] alveolo-palatal fricative
a = o z voiced alveolo-palatal fricative

Feature Geometry
(prosodic)
Skeleton: C,V

Root Tier: [consonantal]
[sonorant]
Root-linked
Tiers: [cont]
[lat]
[nas]

Laryngeal LAR
Tier:
[voi] [SG] [CG]

Place Tier:
PLACE

[labial] [coronal] [dorsal] [phar]

[round] [ant] [dist] [hi] [low] [bk] [ATR]
SONORITY SCALE (varies somewhat across languages)
1 vowels 2 glides 3 liquids 4 nasals 5 fricatives
6 stops &
affricates
+syllabic syllabic
consonantal + consonantal
+approximant approximant
+ sonorant sonorant
+ continuant [ -cont] [ cont] continuant

NOTES though nasals are specified [-cont] due to obstruction of the oral cavity, nasal airflow makes them more sonorous than stops
the vowel [a] is central (not front, as in some charts) because it can participate in a 3-way color contrast: [] vs. [a] vs. [o]
this feature system is 3-valued with 0 = unspecified (assumed to be obligatory for place features whose mothers value is -)
DIACRITICS SUPRASEGMENTALS
voiceless n d breathy voice b a ' primary stress
voiced s t creaky voiced b a secondary stress
aspirated t d linguolabial t d : long half long
more rounded 5 labialized t d extra short
less rounded 5 ' palatalized t' d' | minor (foot) group
advanced u ` velarized t` d` | major (intonation) group
retracted e ' pharyngealized t' d' . syllable break
dental t d nasalized e TONES AND WORD ACCENTS
apical t d " nasal release d" e 1
extra high
11
rising
laminal t d ' lateral release d' e 1
high
11
falling
centralized e no audible release e ! mid
11
hi rising
md-centralized e velar or pharyngeal l e !
low
1!
low rising
syllabic n ATR e RTR e e 1
extra low
!1!
rise fall
non-syllabic e lowered e downstep

global rise
rhoticity c raised e upstep

global fall
Phonological Features Chart
Low
[high +low]
Mid
[high low]
High
[+ high low]
[+front back] [front back] [front +back]
[-rnd] [+rnd] [-rnd] [+rnd] [-rnd] [+rnd]
[+tense]

[tense]

[+tense]




[tense]

[+tense]

[tense]
Jason Riggle University of Chicago
version 11.02, February 2011
comments/corrections: jriggle@uchicago.edu
palate
nasal
velum
pharynx
uvula alveolar
esophagus
teeth
ridge
pharyngeal
lips
epiglottis
wall
larynx
Adams apple
nasal cavity
vocal folds
trachea
oral
pharynx
laryngeal
pharynx
oral cavity
tongue
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lung lung
pharynx
soft palate
Vocal Tract
(v11.02)
diacritic
examples