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Casey Coleman
Title: Mass-Mass Lab
Stoichiometry is a formula used in chemistry to find how much of a reactant is used in an equation. Or vice versa,
how much product is created using a given amount of reactant.
A balanced equation is needed to do most types of chemistry related equations. A balanced equation is when the
number of atoms for each element in the reaction and the total charge are the same for both the reactants and the
products. In other words, the mass and the charge are balanced on both sides of the equation.
In this activity, a double replacement reaction will occur when an aqueous solution of lead (II nitrate is mi!ed with
an aqueous solution of potassium iodide. "he products of this reaction are lead (II iodide and potassium nitrate.
#hen you have two or more reactants, the equation does not always use every atom of the reactants. "he reactant
that is used all the way is called the limiting reactant$ when you run out of the limiting reactant, you cannot create
any more of the product. "he e!cess reactant is the reactant that has atoms left over after the reaction ta%es place, the
reaction stops only when the limiting reactant runs out.
If &.'( grams of lead (II nitrate reacts with potassium iodine, then appro!imately ).*g of lead (II iodide will be
produced. I also believe potassium iodide will be the e!cess reactant because we have a starting amount of &.+',
which is more than our lead (II nitrate.
Materials and !rocedure:
-ilter .aper
Stirring /od
/ing Stand
Iron /ing
( beac%ers
"o begin, we started with the basics: gathered supplies, wrote a balanced equation, and measured out our &.'( grams
of lead (II nitrate and &.+' grams of potassium iodide. #e then used the mass of the lead (II nitrate to calculate a
theoretical mass of lead (II iodide (product, which we determined we should finish with ).*0 grams. #e then
mi!ed our lead (II nitrate and our potassium iodide with )'ml of distilled water in clean, dry bea%ers (one for each
reactant, also )'ml per reactant$ we mi!ed with a stirring rod ma%ing sure all crystals were dissolved. 1e!t, we
poured our potassium iodide solution into the lead (II nitrate bea%er. #e then obtained our filter paper, found its
mass, folded the paper, and then placed it in the funnel. 2autiously, we then poured our solution into the filter paper,
ma%ing sure it never raised about the edge of the filter paper to %eep from spilling. Another bea%er caught the water
that was filtered. #e then added water to the bea%er with our mi!ed solution and %ept pouring it into the filter until
it was empty of all solution. -inally, we put the filter paper on a drying oven overnight and allowed the water to
evaporate. "he ne!t day, we found the mass of the dry precipitate and filter.
"he balanced equation was .b(1O() 3 )4I .bI) 3 )41O(.
"he mass of lead nitrate was &.'(g.
"he mass of the dry filter paper was *.+(.
"he observations consisted of: #hen the two solutions mi!ed together, the product was yellow and loo%ed li%e paint
(thic% and smooth

,ass 5 ,ass 2alculations:
&.'(g .b(1O() 6 ((&.)*07g6mol .b(1O() ! (& mol .bI) 6 & mol .b(1O() ! 89&.**708g6mol .bI) : ).*0g .bI)
&.+'g 4I 6 &99 g6mol 4I ! (&mol .bI) 6 )mol 4I ! 89& g6mol .bI) : ).8(g .bI)

2alculating ,ass of ;ead (II Iodide .recipitate:
).+8g (dry filter paper precipitate 5 *.+(g (dry filter paper precipitate : ).*&g (;ead (II iodide precipitate

2alculating the <!perimental <rror:
().*0g .bI) = ).*&g (lead (II iodide precipitate 6 ).*0g .bI) ! &** : 8.8>

2alculating the .ercent ?ield:
().*&g (lead (II iodide 6 ).*0g .bI) ! &** : 0'> yield

2alculating the <!cess:
).*0g .bI) 6 89& g6mol .bI) ! (&mol .b(1O() 6 &mol .bI) ! ((&.)*07 g6mol .b(1O() : &.'*)g .b(1O() used
&.'(g .b(1O() 5 &.'*)g .b(1O() : *.*)7g .b(1O() e!cess
#e ended up with ).*&g .bI) left after filtering our mi!ture. #e calculated that we should end up with ).*0g .bI)
after the filtering process. So we ended up with a 8.8> e!perimental error. #hich relatively, is quite accurate due to
we were rushed at the end of our lab so we did not have time to finish clearing our bea%er of our mi!ed solution.
;eaving appro!imately *.*0g of .bI) in our bea%er.
I previously hypothesi@ed that this lab will yield ).*g .bI) and that the potassium iodide would be the limiting
reactant. "o begin, the chemical reaction yielded ).*&g .bI)$ however, this is slightly incorrect due to e!perimental
errors. So we should have ended up at ).*0 (theoretical mass. So my hypothesis was very close. I was also correct
about my e!cess reactant, potassium iodide.