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Mitosis and meiosis

Cells divide into two different ways to make new cells.


Mitosis
Mitosis is used to produce daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cells. The cell copies - or
'replicates' - its chromosomes, and then splits the copied chromosomes equally to make sure that each daughter cell
has a full set.
Meiosis
Meiosis is used to make special cells - sperm cells and egg cells - that have half the normal number of chromosomes.
It reduces the number from 23 pairs of chromosomes to 23 single chromosomes. The cell copies its chromosomes,
but then separates the 23 pairs to ensure that each daughter cell has only one copy of each chromosome. A second
division that divides each daughter cell again to produce four daughter cells.










5.1 Mitosis
Cell division starts with the division of the nucleus.
There are two forms of nuclear division: mitosis and meiosis.
Mitosis is a division of the nucleus to produce two new daughter cells containing chromosomes identical to
the parent cells.
Significance of mitosis
1. Growth: Mitosis allows a zygote to produce more cells in order to grow into a multicellular organism.
2. Repair and replacement: Mitotic cell division allows the body to repair itself, or even regenerate
following injury. For example, a house lizard will regenerate a tail that is lost to a predator. Mitosis also
allows a multicellular organism to maintain its tissues, many of which require frequent replacement, for
example skin cells and blood cells.
3. Asexual reproduction: Mitosis provides the basis of asexual reproduction, in which offsprings are
formed from a single parent. the offsprings are called clones.
The cell cycle
1. Cell division is just a small part of the cycle of cell growth and asexual reproduction known as the cell
cycle.
2. The cell cycle is defined as the period from the formation of a cell by division to the point when that cell
divides itself. The length of a cell cycle is very variable, depending on the type of cells.

Interphase (G1, S G2 phase)
1. Interphase is not a resting phase. During interphase, the cell is metabolically active and is involved in
protein and DNA synthesis.
2. Interphase may account for 90% of the total cell cycle.
3. Interphase is divided into 3 shorter phases G1, S and G2 respectively.
4. During G1 (gap or growth phase 1) phase, the cell is sensitive to internal and external signals that help it
decide whether to divide or not. Once decided to divide, the cell becomes metabolically active. The
cytoplasm increases in volume due to the synthesis of a new proteins and organelles.
5. During S (synthesis) phase, DNA replicates and two sister chromatids form from each chromosome. In
animal cells, the centrioles duplicate.
6. During G2 (gap or growth phases 2) phase, organelles and proteins necessary for cell division are
synthesised.


Mitosis (M phase)
1. Mitosis is a continuous process, but it may be subdivided into four main phases, based on the appearance
and behaviour of the chromosomes:
2. Prophase
The chromosomes condense, that is, they shorten and thicken and finally become visible under the light
microscope.
Each chromosome consists of sister chromatids attached at point called the centromere, The two sister
chromatids correspond to identical molecules of DNA formed during the S stage.
The nucleoli disappear, the nuclear membrane breaks down, and the centrioles migrate to opposite
poles of the cell. Centrioles are absent in plant cells.

Metaphase

The spindle fibres are fully formed.
All chromosomes are arranged with their centromeres along the equator of the spindle.

Anaphase

Anaphase begins with the separation of the centromeres.
The sister chromatids are drawn to opposite poles of the cell. Once the sister chromatids are
separated they are referred to as daughter chromosomes.
The poles move further apart, lengthening the cell.
5. Telophase


Telophase begins when the two sets of daughter chromosomes have reached the two poles of the cell.
The spindle fibres disintegrate, the nuclear membrane forms around each set of daughter
chromosomes, and the nucleoli reappear.
The chromosomes uncoil and become less visible under the light microscope.

6. Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis is the process of cytoplasmic division to form two daughter cells.
Cytokinesis usually begins before nuclear division is completed.
In cytokinesis the organelles become evenly distributed between the two daughter cells.
In animal cell, a cleavage furrow forms at the equator of the cell and deepens until the daughter cells
separate.
In plant cell, the Golgi apparatus buds off carbohydrate-filled vesicles that line up along the cells
equator.
The vesicles fuse, producing the cell plate. The cell plate extends outwards to the existing cell wall
and separates the two daughter cells.
7. Most animal cells are capable of mitosis.
8. Only specialised groups of plant cells called meristems are capable of mitosis.
9. There are 3 type of meristems.
- Apical meristem
These are found at the tips of shoots and roots. Apical meristems are responsible for the increase in
length of plants.
- Lateral meristems
These are found in stem and roots. Lateral meristems contribute to an increase in girth.
- Intercalary meristems
These are found at nodes in monocotyledonous plants. Intercalary meristems contribute to a
an increase in length of monocots.
Controlled and Uncontrolled Mitosis
Controlled Mitosis
1. Regeneration is the ability to restore lost or damaged tissues, as well organs or limbs.
2. Regeneration involves controlled mitosis.
3. Some lizards drop a jumping and twisting tail to entice a pursuing predator, and then regenerate itself a
new tail ready for the next encounter.
4. Another type of regeneration is the healing of wounds. Whenever we have a cut on our skin, the healing
takes place over a period of time because new cells are made to replace the destroyed and damaged cells.
5. Many plants are capable of total regeneration, that is, the formation of a whole plant from a leaf, stem or
root. For example, if a Begonia leaf together with its petiole is detached and laid on damp sand, roots
develop at the end of the petiole and vegetative buds are generated on the lamina. Entire new plants
develop from these buds.
Uncontrolled Mitosis
1. Cancer is a disorder of the bodys growth in which cells multiply due to uncontrolled mitosis.
2. Tumour cells undergo mitosis without cytokinesis. This process produces single cells with many nuclei.
3. The result is a population of abnormal cells called tumours.
4. Tumours of two types: benign tumour and malignant tumour.
5. The cells in a benign tumour normally grow slowly and remain constrained in one area, but the cells of a
malignant tumour grow uncontrollably and destroy other tissues.
6. Cancer kills more than six million people worldwide each year.
Cloning plants by tissue culture
1. Cloning is the production of one or more individual plants or animals that are genetically identical to
another plant or animal.
2. Commercial plant growers can clone plants by a technique called tissue culture.
3. Tissue culture is a technique or process of keeping tissues alive and growing in a culture medium.
Scientists are able to produce whole plants using cells, tissues or organs from different parts of a plant.
Tissue culture is also called cell culture or micropropagation.
4. Advantages of tissue culture
Can produce plants that are difficult to reproduce by traditional methods.
Many clones can be produced quickly in large numbers.
The plantlets are free from diseases.
5. An outline of plant tissue culture
All apparatus and materials used in this technique must be sterilised.
The surface of a leaf is sterilised with ethanol or dilute sodium hypochlorite solution.
The leaf is then cut into small pieces. The small pieces of plant tissue are called explants.
The explants are then placed inside a test tube containing nutrient agar and growth hormones.
After six to eight weeks, the explants develop new shoots.
The shoots are then cut free from the explants, and placed in a flask containing a new medium that
helps roots to develop.
The rooted plantlets are then transferred to soil and kept in a controlled environment until fully
acclimatised.
From one original plant, hundreds of genetically identical plant could be produced.
5.2 Meiosis
A cell with two sets of chromosomes (one set from the male parent and the other from the female
parent) is referred to as diploid (symbol 2n). Somatic cells or non-reproducing body cells are diploid.
A cell with a single set of chromosomes is referred to as haploid (symbol n). Gametes or sex cells are
haploid.
Human somatic cell has 46 (23 pairs) chromosomes while the ovum or sperm has 23 chromosomes.
In humans n= 23.
There are 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes in each humans somatic cell. Members of a
homologous pair are identical in length and in the position of the centromere and can be identified by
their characteristic shape.
Gametes are produces by a process called meiosis.
Meiosis is a division of the nucleus to produce four daughter cells each containing half the
chromosome number of the parent nucleus. Meiosis is associated with sexual reproduction.
Meiosis is preceded by an interphase during which the cell replicates its DNA and organelles.
Meiosis (reduction division)
1. During meiosis, the cell undergoes DNA replication once, followed by two nuclear divisions.
First meiotic division (meiosis I):
The behaviour of chromosomes differs from mitosis. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair up
and exchange DNA whereas chromatids remain connected to each other. Meiosis I is divided into
four phases: prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I and telophase I.
Second meiotic division (meiosis II):
The behaviour of chromosomes are typical of mitosis. Meiosis II is divided into four phases:
prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II and telophase II.

2. Prophase I

Chromosomes shorten and thicken and each is seen to comprise two chromatids joined at the
centromere.
The homologous chromosomes pair up. Each pair of homologous chromosome is called a bivalent.
The maternal and paternal chromatids intertwine to form crosses or chiasmata (singular: chiasma).
The formation of chiasmata results in exchange of DNA between maternal and paternal
chromosomes, a process called crossing over.
Nuclear membrane breaks down and the nucleoli disappear.
Centrioles migrate to the poles and the spindle forms.
3. Metaphase I

The bivalents become arranged around the equator of the spindle, attached by their centromeres.
The arrangement is completely random relative to the orientation of other bivalents, leading to
genetic variation in the gametes.
4. Anaphase I

The spindle fibres contract and pull the homologous chromosomes, centromeres first, towards the
poles of the spindle.
One of each pair is pulled to one pole, its sister chromosome to the opposite pole.
5. Telophase I

The chromosomes reach their opposite poles. The chromosomes for two haploid sets, one set at each
end of the spindle.
The nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, the spindle fibres disappear and the
chromatids uncoil.
Cytokinesis usually occurs and two haploid cells are formed.
The nucleus may enter interphase but no further DNA replication occurs.
6. Prophase II

The nucleoli disappear and the nuclear membrane breaks down.
The centrioles divide and move to opposite poles.
Spindle fibres develop.
Chromosomes condense and move to the equator of the spindle.

7. Metaphase II

The chromosomes arrange themselves on the equator of the spindle.

8. Anaphase II

The centromeres divide and are pulled by the spindle fibres to opposite poles, carrying the
chromatids with them.



9. Telophase II

The chromatids uncoil and become indistinct.
The spindle fibres disappear.
The nuclear membrane and the nucleoli reform.
Cytokinesis occurs and four haploid cells are formed from one parent cell.