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King Saud University King Saud University

College of Engineering College of Engineering


Chemical Engineering Dept. Chemical Engineering Dept.
Chemical Engineering Laboratory
Chemical Engineering Laboratory
ChE 40
ChE 40
Drying
Drying
E!" #
E!" #
Meshal Al-Saeed 423105653
Meshal Al-Saeed 423105653
Alawi Al-Awami 423101724
Alawi Al-Awami 423101724
Meshal Al-Juhani 424105851
Meshal Al-Juhani 424105851
$roup #
$roup #
Dr.: Malik Al-Ahmad
Dr.: Malik Al-Ahmad
Date of Due: 13 / 5 / 2008
Date of Due: 13 / 5 / 2008
%able of Contents %able of Contents
Summary Summary
&ntroduction &ntroduction 4 4
%heory %heory ' '
E(perimental "rocedure E(perimental "rocedure ' '
)esults )esults * *
Calculations Calculations + +
Discussions Discussions , ,
Conclusions Conclusions , ,
)eferences )eferences -0 -0
2
-. Summary -. Summary
The objective of this experiment is to produce drying and The objective of this experiment is to produce drying and
drying rate curves for a wet solid being dried with air of fixed drying rate curves for a wet solid being dried with air of fixed
temperature and humidity. temperature and humidity.
Drying in general mean usually means removal of relatively Drying in general mean usually means removal of relatively
small amounts of water from material. In drying the water is small amounts of water from material. In drying the water is
usually removed as a vapor by air. usually removed as a vapor by air.
Amount of water was put in the pan upon the dry sample and Amount of water was put in the pan upon the dry sample and
the weight and the weight of water was recorded every five the weight and the weight of water was recorded every five
minutes until there was no more water in the sample minutes until there was no more water in the sample
(eaching the e!uilibrium". (eaching the e!uilibrium".
#y plotting the drying rate and moisture constant in $igure %& #y plotting the drying rate and moisture constant in $igure %&
the trend shows the following behaviors' the trend shows the following behaviors'
$rom point (#" to point ((" in $igure % the line is $rom point (#" to point ((" in $igure % the line is
straight& and hence the slope and rate are constant straight& and hence the slope and rate are constant
during this period. during this period.
At point ((" the drying rate starts decreasing in the At point ((" the drying rate starts decreasing in the
falling rate period until it reaches point (D". falling rate period until it reaches point (D".
At point (D" the rate of drying falls even more rapidly& At point (D" the rate of drying falls even more rapidly&
until it reaches point ()". until it reaches point ()".
The most important region in the diagram is (# * A" The most important region in the diagram is (# * A"
because the change in + is very simple. because the change in + is very simple.
The moisture is decreasing with the time and by the time The moisture is decreasing with the time and by the time
it become totally dry. it become totally dry.
%
The falling rate period can ta,e a far longer time than The falling rate period can ta,e a far longer time than
the constant rate period even though the moisture the constant rate period even though the moisture
removal may be less. removal may be less.
.. &ntroduction .. &ntroduction
Drying in general mean usually means removal of Drying in general mean usually means removal of
relatively small amounts of water from material. In drying the relatively small amounts of water from material. In drying the
water is usually removed as a vapor by air. water is usually removed as a vapor by air.
In some cases water maybe removed by mechanically from In some cases water maybe removed by mechanically from
solid materials by presses& centrifuging and other methods. solid materials by presses& centrifuging and other methods.
This is cheaper than drying by thermal means for removal of This is cheaper than drying by thermal means for removal of
water. The moisture content of the final dried product varies water. The moisture content of the final dried product varies
depending upon the type of product. depending upon the type of product.
Drying is usually the final processing step before pac,ing and Drying is usually the final processing step before pac,ing and
ma,es many materials& such as soap powders and dyestuffs& ma,es many materials& such as soap powders and dyestuffs&
more suitable for handling. more suitable for handling.
Drying processes can be classified as batch& where the Drying processes can be classified as batch& where the
material is inserted to the drying e!uipment and drying material is inserted to the drying e!uipment and drying
proceeds for a given period of time& or as continuous& where proceeds for a given period of time& or as continuous& where
the material is continuously added to the dryer and dried the material is continuously added to the dryer and dried
material continuously removed. material continuously removed.
There are different types of drying e!uipments li,e' There are different types of drying e!uipments li,e'
%ray dryer. %ray dryer.
/acuum0shelf indirect dryers. /acuum0shelf indirect dryers.
Continuous tunnel dryers. Continuous tunnel dryers.
)otary dryers. )otary dryers.
Drum dryers. Drum dryers.
Spray dryers. Spray dryers.
-eat is added by different ways& such as& by direct contact -eat is added by different ways& such as& by direct contact
with heated air at atmospheric pressure and the water vapor with heated air at atmospheric pressure and the water vapor
.
formed I removed by air. The other way is to add the heat formed I removed by air. The other way is to add the heat
indirectly by contact with a metal wall or by radiation. indirectly by contact with a metal wall or by radiation.
. %heory . %heory
/oisture content (+ /oisture content (+
t t" is one of drying terms. " is one of drying terms.
As time As time 1 1 & + & +
t t 1 1 +0 +0
1here +0 is )!uilibrium /oisture (ontent. 1here +0 is )!uilibrium /oisture (ontent.
) 2 0 3L ) 2 0 3L
S S 4 56 3d! 4 dt6 1 3-6 4 56 3d! 4 dt6 1 3-6
! !
t t 2 7 4 L 2 7 4 L
S S 1 3.6 1 3.6
7here8 7here8
)8 )8 ate of drying 2,g water3m ate of drying 2,g water3m
. .
hr4. hr4.
L L
S S8 8 1eight of dry solid 2,g dry solid4. 1eight of dry solid 2,g dry solid4.
78 78 1eight of water 2,g water4. 1eight of water 2,g water4.
58 58 5urface area 2m 5urface area 2m
. .
4. 4.
! !
t t8 8 /oisture content at time t 2,g water3,g dry solid4. /oisture content at time t 2,g water3,g dry solid4.
4. E(perimental "rocedure 4. E(perimental "rocedure
A dry sample was put in the drying pan and the weight was A dry sample was put in the drying pan and the weight was
recorded& then the balance made to read 6ero. recorded& then the balance made to read 6ero.
Amount of water was put in the pan upon the dry sample and the Amount of water was put in the pan upon the dry sample and the
weight was recorded& then the balance made to read 6ero. weight was recorded& then the balance made to read 6ero.
The hot air was turned7on to pass through the sample. The hot air was turned7on to pass through the sample.
The weight of water was recorded every five minutes until there The weight of water was recorded every five minutes until there
was no more water in the sample (eaching the e!uilibrium". was no more water in the sample (eaching the e!uilibrium".
8
Dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures of the hot air were recorded Dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures of the hot air were recorded
three times during the experiment across the flap before the tray three times during the experiment across the flap before the tray
and after the tray. and after the tray.
The hot air was turned7off. The hot air was turned7off.
'. )esults '. )esults
1eigh of 9late : %;< g. 1eigh of 9late : %;< g.
1eigh of 5ample (= 1eigh of 5ample (=
5 5" : 2<. g. " : 2<. g.
1eigh of 1ater (1" : 8< g. 1eigh of 1ater (1" : 8< g.
Tray Area (A" : 2>.8 cm ? ;@.A cm : 8;;.8 cm Tray Area (A" : 2>.8 cm ? ;@.A cm : 8;;.8 cm
2 2
: 8.;;8 m : 8.;;8 m
2 2
. .
%able-8 Data of 7ater 7eight 9ith %ime %able-8 Data of 7ater 7eight 9ith %ime
%ime: t ;min< %ime: t ;min< 7ater 7eight: 7 ;g< 7ater 7eight: 7 ;g<
< < 8< 8<
8 8 .@ .@
;< ;< .% .%
;8 ;8 %A %A
2< 2< %< %<
28 28 2; 2;
%< %< ;8 ;8
%8 %8 ;; ;;
.< .< A A
.8 .8 2 2
.> .> < <
A
*. Calculations *. Calculations
Sample calculation8 Sample calculation8
5t t 2 0 min8 5t t 2 0 min8
$rom e!uation (2"' $rom e!uation (2"'
+ +
t t : 1 3 = : 1 3 =
5 5 : 8< 3 2<. : <.2.8 ,g water3,g dry solid. : 8< 3 2<. : <.2.8 ,g water3,g dry solid.
+0 : + +0 : +
t t (t : B" : + (t : B" : +
t t (t : .> min" : 1 (t : .> min" 3 = (t : .> min" : 1 (t : .> min" 3 =
5 5 : < 3 2<. : < 3 2<.
: < ,g water3,g dry solid. : < ,g water3,g dry solid.
+ : + + : +
t t * +0 : <.2.8 * < : <.2.8 ,g water3,g dry solid. * +0 : <.2.8 * < : <.2.8 ,g water3,g dry solid.
d+3dt : 2 + (t : < min" * + (t : 8 min"4 3 2(t : < min" * (t : 8 min" 4 d+3dt : 2 + (t : < min" * + (t : 8 min"4 3 2(t : < min" * (t : 8 min" 4
: (<.2.8 * <.2%8" 3 (< * 8" : 7 <.<<2. : (<.2.8 * <.2%8" 3 (< * 8" : 7 <.<<2.
$rom e!uation (;"' $rom e!uation (;"'
: 7 (= : 7 (=
5 5 3 A" 0 (d+ 3 dt" : 7 (2<. 3 8.;;8" 0 (7<.<<2" 3 A" 0 (d+ 3 dt" : 7 (2<. 3 8.;;8" 0 (7<.<<2"
: <.<>C@ ,g water3m : <.<>C@ ,g water3m
2 2
hr. hr.
%able .8 %he rest of calculation %able .8 %he rest of calculation
=oisture Content =oisture Content
;>g 9ater4>g dry solid< ;>g 9ater4>g dry solid<
! ! d! 4 dt d! 4 dt
)ate of Drying: ) )ate of Drying: )
;>g 9ater4m ;>g 9ater4m
. .
hr< hr<
<.2.8 <.2.8 <.2.8 <.2.8 7<.<<2< 7<.<<2< <.<>@2 <.<>@2
<.2%8 <.2%8 <.2%8 <.2%8 7<.<<.C 7<.<<.C <.;C88 <.;C88
<.2;; <.2;; <.2;; <.2;; 7<.<<AC 7<.<<AC <.2>%> <.2>%>
<.;>A <.;>A <.;>A <.;>A 7<.<<8C 7<.<<8C <.2%.A <.2%.A
<.;.> <.;.> <.;.> <.;.> 7<.<<@@ 7<.<<@@ <.%8;C <.%8;C
<.;<% <.;<% <.;<% <.;<% 7<.<<8C 7<.<<8C <.2%.A <.2%.A
<.<>. <.<>. <.<>. <.<>. 7<.<<%C 7<.<<%C <.;8A. <.;8A.
>
<.<8. <.<8. <.<8. <.<8. 7<.<<.C 7<.<<.C <.;C88 <.;C88
<.<2C <.<2C <.<2C <.<2C 7<.<<%C 7<.<<%C <.;8A. <.;8A.
<.<;< <.<;< <.<;< <.<;< 7<.<<.C 7<.<<.C <.;C88 <.;C88
<.<<< <.<<< <.<<< <.<<< <.<<<< <.<<<< <.<<<< <.<<<<
Drying charts8 Drying charts8
=oisture Content ? %ime
<.<<<
<.<8<
<.;<<
<.;8<
<.2<<
<.28<
<.%<<
< 8 ;< ;8 2< 28 %< %8 .< .8 .>
%ime 3min6
!
Figure 1: Diagram for moisture content with time. Figure 1: Diagram for moisture content with time.
Drying )ate ? =oistrue Content
<.<<<<
<.<8<<
<.;<<<
<.;8<<
<.2<<<
<.28<<
<.%<<<
<.%8<<
<..<<<
<.<<< <.<8< <.;<< <.;8< <.2<< <.28< <.%<<
!
)

3
>
g

9
a
t
e
r
4
m
.

h
6
@
Figure 2: Diagram for drying rate & moisture content. Figure 2: Diagram for drying rate & moisture content.
+. Discussions +. Discussions
$rom $igure %' $rom $igure %'
Figure 3: Drying rate and Moisture content. Figure 3: Drying rate and Moisture content.
$rom point (#" to point ((" in $igure % the line is straight& and $rom point (#" to point ((" in $igure % the line is straight& and
hence the slop and rate are constant during this period. hence the slop and rate are constant during this period.
At point ((" the drying rate starts decrease in the falling rate period At point ((" the drying rate starts decrease in the falling rate period
until it reaches point (D". until it reaches point (D".
At point (D" the rate drying falls even more rapidly& until it is reach At point (D" the rate drying falls even more rapidly& until it is reach
point ()". point ()".
The most important line in the diagram it is (# * A" because the The most important line in the diagram it is (# * A" because the
change in + is very simple. change in + is very simple.
@. Conclusions @. Conclusions
The moisture is decreasing with the time and by the time it The moisture is decreasing with the time and by the time it
become totally dry. become totally dry.
C
The falling rate period can ta,e a far longer time than the constant The falling rate period can ta,e a far longer time than the constant
rate period even though the moisture removal may be less. rate period even though the moisture removal may be less.
,. )eferences ,. )eferences
1. Chirstie J. Geankoplis, "Transfer Process and Unit Operation", 1. Chirstie J. Geankoplis, "Transfer Process and Unit Operation",
3 3
rd rd
edition. edition.
2. Department of Chemical n!ineerin! "Chemical n!ineerin! 2. Department of Chemical n!ineerin! "Chemical n!ineerin!
"a#orator$ %% &an'al". "a#orator$ %% &an'al".
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