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H 0El:.!AAONIKH KAlA lHN lOYPKOKPATlA:

LTOU~ nevre rtepirtcu ckovec T1i~ TOUPKOKPOTioC; T) 8EOOOAoviKT] rlTOV T) 5E:UTE;PT] ~n6 mv npwreuouoc at OiKoVO~IKri ortouocnomrc nOAT] T1i~ Eupomoucnc Toupxlcc ani ~16 ana TiC; nOAunAT]- 8tOT£pEe; Tr;c; ouroxoo roploc. 'IOIOiT£PO XOpOKTT]PIOTIKO Tr;e; nCAT]C; crtcrexece ri ouv8E:0T] TOO nAT]BuOIlOO TT]~ crto rpclc KupiwC; 5l0q>OPCTlKtC; e9VOTT]TEe;, ""EAAT]V£C;, TOUPKOUC; KOt 'Eeoutouc. Ol GIl£oec; nxncococtcc rtou EXOUIlE Yla TOV nAT]9uOIlC OTr')V neotooo OLlTr') npotpxoVTOI one Tic; TOUPKlKE:~ unovpooec-trtou oIEE,aYOVTav vro CPOpOAOYlKOU~ AOYOUC;), orto TOUe; E,tvoue; TOE,15IWTE~, TTiV npoE,evIKr; aAAllA.oypoq>io KOt rtc OIOq>OPEC; YEwypocpi£e; Koi OOllYOUC;. "OA£C; aUTtc; OIlWC; otv EtVOl OLlTE OUOTllIl0TlKeC; OLlTe aE,lcmOTE:C;, rtcoouotozoov IlEYOA£C; anOKA.iOEIC; (6nwc; ontveror Kal o-ro orcvpouuc nou rtoocrtaeror OTr')V EiK. 2) KOt uoc; crvouv I-l0VO ilia nOAu Y£VIKr') £iKDVO Tne; t~tAIE,T]C; - tE,eAIE,l1e; rtou npOKunTEI Kupiwc; one ucrcsrvnoerc ouoocov ni\118uolloO Koi cno TtlV m:ploolKr') tl-lcp6Vl0T] 80VOTT]cp6pwv tmollllu.i)v Kat anOTEi\EL TT)V TCi\IKr') aUVIOTO!lE:VT] TWV tntl-ltpouq OlJE,OIlEIWOEWV.

'AAiKIl IalJou.,Ai~ou - Ai"IIAio ITE<pavi~ou-cJ)wTl(]~OU 'ApXlTtlnOvgc;

Mero rnv "M-,wOll KOt TriV aiXl1ar.woia XIAIQOWV KOTOtKWV cnouewcv 110VO Aiyee; xtAU]OEe; "EMIlVEe; (cno Tie; 40.000 rtou cveccccv ol 6EVETlKte; £KStOEle; TaU 1423) moue; onofouc rtoocreanscv I1EpIKte; XIAlOOEe; roooKOI tnOIKoL 'H nOAIl Sev tXEl rtcvto 6.n6 6 - 7.000 KOTOiKOUe: yupw ere 1470 OTOV apxt~Ouv vc epxovTOI KOTO KUl10TO 'Edpnim rtcoceuvec ana oloqmpEe; EupwnolKte; XWpEe;, Kupiwc; mv 'toncvtc. nou OUVTEAOUV ern I1EyaAT] tl1nOplKIi av81lor') Tile; nou 86. KpOn;OEI we: 1:0 uecc TOU

170u ct. 'Anc TO 1530 <ouv an') 8EOOOAOViKIl 25 - 30.000 KCHOlKOI nou aU~OVOVTQl 6.pya we; TO TEAll TOU 180u ct. errore crcvouv Kat ~EnEpvouv TIe; 40.000

Tliv tnoxri OUTri 6flXi~El vee O(KOVO- 111Kri avoooe; TTie: ncxnc. nou dVOI TWPO H) npWTO AII.JOVI TfIe; EupconulKTie; 'rouoetcc. cmv onere 0 KUplOe; pOAoe; rtepvc orcaeoc OlO 'EUllvIKO OTOIXEio. ria rnv ncotoco OUTri «ct we; TO 1870 ot nxncococtcc I1IAOOv Via 50 - 80.000 aT0I10, xwpie; vc 010- YPOqlETOl «cno.o OUOTT]I10TlKi[ t~tAl-

~T] I1EOO 0' aUTO TO core. 'AKOAou8er ilia Ol08EPli Kai tnnaXUVOI1EVIl 6v6.nTU~1l TOU nAT]8uol1ou rtou oVE6a~El TOUe; KaToiKOUe; at neve ana 100,000 TO 1900, ce 150.000 TO 1910. 'H 6noypoqlri nou exove Ii tAAllvlKri OIOtKIlen 1:0 1913, rtou f[1:0V KOt Ii npwTTl OUOlT]110TlKIi. tbWOE tva nxnaoouo 158.000 KOTOiKWV.

Meoc o' aUTri Tri VEVlKri t~Al~1l ri KOSE KotVOTT]TO OKOAou8EI Tit bll(ri me. OlnOVOI1T] at l1eyOAO 6a8~0, bIOKU~avOTJ

01 "EUT]VEe; cnorcxouccv nectrtcu 53

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3. XQPT'l~ Tfj~ 0£oaaAovj,,'l~ TOU 1882-83. lI'lI'OOU;UT'lKt TO 1981 ano TOW Eyice.·O X"PT.,~ T'l~ 0£oaoAovjt<'l~ 1'£ i)I'EPOI''1vio H 1300 (1882-83) nOU Tunw9.,"E o"TIi TunoYPo<pEio TOU r£VIKOU ETIIT£' Adau i:YIVE aKp'9£~ oVTiypo<po Koi I'ETOYpti ... .,KE at AOTfvllli) ypoo:pi) ono TOV 90'190 0PXITtllToWo I. Birol Alpay (I'ETOippoO'1 TOllPK1Kij.; Ae~ovTo~). 01 op191'01 OVTlarOIXouv: 1. nu1.'1. 2. ¢lpoUpIO. 3. nupyo~. 4. T~ol'r·Xwpo~ npaoElIXij~. 5. ·EKKA'1oio·Movoarljpl. 6. IlIvoywyi). 7. BoMoU"". 8. nnolxaKo. I/EIO. 9. MOVOOli)PI lItp6fo'1i!wv. 10. MOllowAEIO. 11. ·ltpoliloooKoAelo. 12, TOUPKIKO IXOAE10. 13 Ixoh10. 130. nop8£WOYWYEio. 14. AOUTp6. 15. Mnt~EartYi. 16. ·AvopCi. 17. XOVI. 18. Bpuo.,. 19. ·AVOIKT6.; xwpo.;. 20. 'Ayopo KOI'6pa~. 21.ll.tOtK'1Ti)PI0. 22.ll.IOIMflTi)Plo IoYT~OKIOU. 23. nOAtoll.IKoari)plo. 24. "*,UAOMt.;. 25.ll.I£uSUV0'1 Tdwwtiou. 26. IIToTlo9ijK~~ (OllYKtVTpWo£W~ Til.; i!tMOTfl~). 27. StoTpO. 26, ·AVOI/OfjipWTijPIO. 29. NOOOKOlltio. 30. MtTO~OllpytIO. 31. A'90arpwTo~ oPOIlO~. ITO XOPT'l noPOTflPOUVTOI apKcTt~ nopoA£hl'tl~ 0'lIlOVTlKWV I'v'1I/£lwv, on"", a npOo:pi)Tfl~ ·HAlo.;, 01 Ta~16pXE~, Ii novoyio XOAMEWV K.O. ·Enlo".; elvo. npa6A"l'aTIMr\'; nop66tOfl Til.; OVOI/oolo.; Yedi Kule MOna arow nupyo Tfj.; ·AAuaew~.

54

TO 20% TOO rtxnauopoo We; TO ueco TOO 180u ct. 6non:,I1E TTi YEVlKf) avo(So nie; KOlVOT'1TOC;, OUSf)8'1KE 6 cote- 110e; KOt TO rtooooro TOUe;, 6h,\6 Kat I-IET06hf)8'1KE f) OUV8EOl'j TOUe;: 'EKTOe; ana TO. iJEh'1 nov 14 OUVTEXVlWV, urrcoxouv TWPO KOt noxxot tl1- rtopot 6,\,\6 KO( tmOTf)iJOVEe;. LTl')V crtovcocn TOO 1913 ot "E'\'\'lVEe: i'jTOV 40.000. neptrtoo TO 25%

'H I-I0UOOUAI-IOVIKf) KOlVOTT]Ta anOTE' Mm'lKE Kupiwe; crto Ku6EPV'lTlKOOe: uno'\'\Ilhoue; «or KTTlI1OTtEe:, a'\'\6 Koi revvtrec covcvouevouc tniOTJe; at OUVTEXVIEe:. 'Arto TO uecc TOO 160u KOt vro <SUo oiwvee; 6noTEAEi TO 20 - 30% TOO nh'l8uDI100, Yla va OUSll8El covoreoo. tV1OXUI-IEV'l KOt I1t I-IEPIKte; Xlhlo.oEe: tSlOhO).llO\-ltvwv 'ESpoiWV, Kat vc ~nEPOOEl TO 40%. rev 190 ctevo TO nococro rnc unoxwpEI n6hl oro 20 - 35%. To 1913 ot I-IOUOOUh).lOVOl nrcv 46.000, rtococro 29%.

Oi "Edpolor crto rnv tYKOTOOTOOTJ TOUe; we: TOV 170 ctcvc ~nEpvoOoOV TO I-IlOO TOO n,\'l8uol-ioo TIle; nOAIle;. H OIKOVOIlIKf) ncocsun rnc KOlVDT'lTO~ KOt f) anOXwp'lOTJ TWV NTOViJt(Swv I-IEIWVEI mv cvcxovto TOUe; at 40 - 50% we; TO 1750. 25 - 40% we; TO 1870, 6noTE ectverct vc tiJtpovi~el KD.nOlO VEO avooo. To 1913 KOTOyp6- tpOVTOI 61.500 aTOI-IO, TO 39%.

~Titv nOAll um'jPXov 6~oj.la ct KaElaA'~al Tll<; 1lPoVKOAEBaVlivLKll<; rrccorocc, ~iyOL ·APj.ltVLOI. rU<pTOl «cr npor:; 10. t~~'l -rou 190U ct. :!:tpBo! xni Bou.\vopOI.

ITO lieulEpo 1'106 roc 190U ai.'; 6ElWj.lDVIKI'JOU- 10KPOTOpio cmtowae 8EDiJLKI\ iOOTf]lD o· iiAOUr:; roue UTlTl~OOU<; rnc. TOTe. usee oui YCVLKr\ npoanli.8cla tKoU¥XPOV,OiJOO toU KpQ10U<; tv" vaVKDlrlDM6tpY06vomu(laK6.t~uvlovTLKIi. t~poiarIKa. «cr Ii oiKo6ol"Kii ~iv'lDll ou~1'J9'l~r K01QKcipu<po L·oJ.au<;loU<;r1POllVOUj.lCvou.;olWv£';f1ouli nciAlll'tveLKilEI0j.ltVl")l'toom61eixrt~oinou6 nJ.1")8uoj.lo<; Kal., otscvourc TTl<; j.l£toBoMOV10' j.lt6pyoU<;puElj.lOU';.KUPlOl£PlloiTlOT"ij<;oiKo_ 60j.lIKij<;/'iP<lOTT]PLOTTllO<;onolt1.EoOvoiouXyl:.; nupKoYIE<; nou Kli.ge 1000 onon.:'I'PWVOUV oAOKAllPE<; neplOxt<;. 6nw~ TO 1510. 1545. 1560. 1569.1597.1610.1620.1734.1740.1840.1849 1877. 1890KOi191O

'H tlKova Tile; noAIle;

Oi TOSlO((i.lTEe; nee crcvouv ouvf)8we: one rr; scxcccc, cvnaotzouv ilIa noM I-IEyai\.'l, 6.1l~18EOTPIK", rteouo.er- 0I-lEVIl cno tva loxupo Koi emShllTlKO uixoe;, LTOV Lithgow rtou epXETol oni 8e:ooohoviKIl TO 1609 8UI-I[~EI «crncc TTi N6.nOA'l, crov Barskij, TO 1726, ni PWI-IIl, O1"OV Tozer, TO 1863, m revouo. To rpcnezro nee OXllI-lOTi~ETOI

ana TO neptvocuuc TWV H:IXWV TT]e; cctveror ana flOKPIO ccv tva W:yOAO rotvcvo ue 80011 TO 80AOOOIO T£lxae; Kat KOPU<jl!') mv cH<;p6nOAT]. 'Arro uoKPlO ~£xwPl~OUV 1:0 <jlPOUPlOKO OUYKPOTr,llOTO 1:00 T£ixoue; KOt TO uevcxc 8PT]OKWTlKO KT10IJOTO, ~t Tie; crevec KOt TOUe; tcouxxouc TOUe;. To uovo K01:0KOPU<jlO cronetc nou npo- 8oMouv EiVOl at OEKOOEe; ccnoor fllvopt05Ee; Kat TO «urtcotccro TWV TOUPKIKWV OUVOIKIWV.

·OMTEAo OIO<jlOP£TIKt~ nTOV OIJWe; ot evrurtcce«; ana TO tOWTEPIKa Tfie; e£OOOAOVtK'l~: MIa nOAT] UVOTOAtTlKT], 8opu6woT]e; KOt 6PWIJIK'l, ue 01:£voce ooououc onou cuvccrttcrcr tva tTEPOKAITO Kat nOAUYAWOOO MfJBOe;. Elvo! a~loOTlfl£iwTO OTl uecc ana Tic: nEpIypOlPt~ TWV Eupumokov TO~IOIWTWV ncocxoxouest KOVEie; utc £UOIOKPITT] tmo£ivwOTl ere nepl66AAOV IJt TO rteooouc TellV Xpovwv KOt we; TO TtAoe; TOU 190u oi. ·AVT18£1:0 ol TOOPKOI eruoxerrrec £lVQl ncvrc a;loou tvBoUOlWO£Ie; crtc rteorvcccec TOUC:

·H £KTOOll Kat TO neotvocuuc TfJe; noA'le; noptlJEIVOV m08£p6 we; TO 1870 rteotrtou. Kat ot cxxcvec rteotoorcrnKOV OTr, crr00510KTl OIKOOOIlT]OTl TWV fl£y6Awv K£VWV xwpwv, crnv rtuxvcoOT) me 061lT]0Tle; xct, nocc T6 1:tAoe; TfJe; TOUPKOKpOTIOe; ce avamu~T] rev OIKOOOl1ellV at Ul\Jo~. M£To60Ate; eYIyay, ere RHO OIOm'lIlO, one e~w ana TO TelXTJ neotorec. To Al~OV\ TOU M. Keivctcvttvcu OTO N6. CtKPO TIle; noAIle;, nco unfipxe a: OAT] Tr, 6U~OVTlvTl n£p(0050 aPXLO£ vc tmxwIlOTWV£1:al one TOV 150 ai. Kat tKei OTWlOUPyr')B'lKE covcreoc cvooc. :H uercveveOTEpT] tnoxr, OX'lIlOTim'lK£ KOt ilIa mEVTl nopOAIOKTl l;WVI1 unooorc ana TO 90MoOlO tetxoc

·H otjJTl Tfie; 0EOOMOviKTle; CVJ...o~£ ere TtAI1 TOO 190u at. 'H KOT£056<jlIOll TI1T]1l6Twv 1:WV 1:ElXWV. Ii tntKToar, TT]e; oU1:IK6 «ct. «uonoc, 6VOTOAIKO, ri PUIlOTOIlTlOTJ TIlTl).10TWV TI1e;, Tl 616voI~Tl TWV Il£YOAWV 6pol1wv, ri OU~TlOfl TaU utjJouc: TWV 0lKo60ll(ilV «ct !') KmOOKEUTl I1vTlIl£lw6wv KOOJ.lIKWV K1:lp[WV, cvarpeipcv 6PIOTIKO Tr;V KAl!lOKO Koi 1:te; tcocoornec nou StcuoolPWVOV rnv eteovc rnc noxnc.

'H OPYOVWOI1 Tr;<; n6"11<;

Kcvoi XWPOL 'H nepLTElXlolltvl1 neproxr, nepIA61J6ov£ uevcxcuc. KEVOUe; xwpoue;. ~Ttc: coxec TOO 160u oi. um;pxov OKOIJO uecc OTTiv ncxn 611-

ntAlo KO[ XWpOlPlO. r' eva axtOLO TOO 1685 - 1687 1:0U Gravier d' Otieres. rtou tfl0[VETQl vo 6nOOtOei IJt OPK£Tr, QKpi6£l0 'rt'[v cteovc Tfle; noxnc. 6Mrtouue l-I£YoA£e; xtpoee; esrocerc crnv OVOTOAIKi] KOt OUTIK!') nxeucc Tfle; never noxnc. nou eLaxwpouv 60- Blo ueco crtc «croucurevec rteoroxte;, LTo 1734 6 Souciet SAtn£1 KQlvouorocrtcvuevc ottmc cmv rteproXr, TOU 'trmozpoutou Koi cuurtecctvei mcc i] nAoTeio rtou OXT]110Ti~£TOl EK£l B6 elXE noonvouusvec nOAu ll£yaAuTEpee; OIOOTooele;. LTOV XOP~Tl TOU 1882 - 1883 (ElK. 3) <jlOiVOVTOl OKOI-IO «evec Awpioee; KOla I-lTiKoe; TWV T£IXWV, ana TO uljJOC; TIle; 'Avlou 6.TlI1T]rptou «ot neve. K08we; xul hl£yOAOl «ever XWPOI KOTW ana T!') Movn BAOTOOWV, cvcueco at zoururevec rteprexec. oi ortotor ruacvcc vc !lTOV I-I0UOOUAIlOVlKO vexporcoetc.

·EKTOe; one Tie; neploxte; n;e; neve n6ATle; rtou cvooeooue. flOUOOUAIJOvIK6 vexoorocsto unflpxov Koi e~w cno Tel OUTIKO TeiXTl. K09we; KOt t~w crto mv 6KpanOATl, tvw TO<jlOI uouaOUAIJOVWV 8piOKOV1:0V KO[ at rtcct- 60AOUe; T~OIlHilv, onwe; oro rOOlAl T~al-li. NEKpOTOtfleTo unr;pxav KOt t~w ana TO OVOlOAlK6 tetxn 60PEl6TEPO TO tM'lVIKO, mo V6TlO TO t8POlKa KOi, XOl-ll1AOTEPO OKOIJO, TO 1l0UOOUAflOVIKO

.dp6.,ol • m"cTEiec;. '0 apxaloc; KOVO- 60e; TWV lJeyMwv Al9aOTpwTwv Socflwv, now ot yvwpi~oUI-I£ ce Ti 6081-10 elXE i510Tl1PT18eT we; TiC; apxte; n;e; TOUPKOKpOTlae;, unoxwpei crvc - 01- yo, KupIO Moe; rtou i510OXi~El rnv noAI1 elvcn T'] 'EYVOltO, 6 'l>ap6ue; ecc- 110e;, cmcc MYE1:Ot, rtou ~eKlva i5UTlKO «no TTlV nUAI1 TOU BopMPI1 Kat T£AEU.i.lVEI 6.VOTOAIKa OTTiv nUAI1 n;e; KOA0)10pIOe;

'H KaTOOTp0<jln r'11:ov ecsjnctc. rev 160 ol. 0 B£V£TOe; Cavazza 6Atn£1 cmv nOAI1 "nAOTEte; «cr eoctouc tipOIJOUe;~, tvw ere uecc TOO 170u ct. 6 'E6AlytO urtooet vc OIOKpivel TO YEVIKO nAtYIJO TWV OPOIJWV KO[ vc unoeecer nwc.; rl nOAT") xop6XTT1K£ t~opxTic: at KOv080. lltv unoPXEl OJ.lWe; KOI-IIO KpaTlKrl I-ItPlflVO Yla Tr') 610TrlPTlOTl KOt Tr; cuvrncncn TWV 05pOl-lwv. noMte; eooec TO orunc nou XTi~oVTQl KOTOAOll66vouv TllrlIJOT6 TOUe; Koi OAAOT£ oK£n6.~ovTol T£A£iwe; crto Tie; npOE~oxte; TWV opeqxov. To KOT6OTpwl16 TOUe; KOTOOTptcerci IJt 1:0V KOlpO. 'H OloiK'lOfl S£wpel TOUe; rtectoocouc 6p1-I6610ue; Ylo

rn cuvrnonon TOUe;. Lt 1-110 tilaTovtt TOO 1814, O<jloO emcnuctverci OTl KUpre ctrto KOTOOTpOq:JTie; TWV AIB6- OTpWTWV elver ol erucseuec TWV ui5poywywv, titVeTOl tVTOArl moue; KaTOtKOUe; vc tm0510p9woouv TO. AIaocrpcrrc. KaTOoKeUO~OV1:ae; O"TO ouo dcpc n£~oop6).1lo, KOt OlO ueco -trmozpouov-. Yla vc neovocv 1'6 ~wo.

nap' OAD cure OflWC:, 600lKOt 05pOflOl TTie; nOATle; crcmonanccv. rTO XaPTT] TOU 1882 - 83 t~OKOAou90uv vc tilOKpivoVTOI ot Il£yOAOl napOMTlAOI ana mv 'EYVOlio Il{:Xpt rnv xccccveoou. Ko9we; Koi aPK£TOi K68£ToI 0' auTOUe;. 'AA},WO"TE Kai ot uercvevecrepee olovoi~ele; OKOAOu8Tloav at IJEYc1AO 608110 TO 'iXVI1 TOUe;. 'AKOIJO, Ixvl1 £w9uYPOIJIlWV i5pollwv, at SrclPOP£TIK6 6.~ovo, tpOtVOVTOl Koi OTe rtpiv mv nvoecrc TOO 1890 TIJTillo Tfle; ncxnc vutxo cno rnv 'Avtc rO<jlla «ct we; T!')V rtcccxtc. OTT'] aeon ortou a Vickers ronoeeret mv apxoio 0tPJ.l11 napa mv unap~'l tK1:eTOI1{:vwv KEvwv xwpwv atv unr;pxov epyovwlJtVEe; rtxcxcorpcrsc rtxcretec. "avec tmI-lTlK'le; cvoocroc xwpoe; [.It Mvtipo OXI11l0Tl~01:av OTT') eecn TOU 'lrrrtooP9flOU «ct pre nxcrctc Unr;PXE OTTiv cvopc - 1:0 Kortovr. noMte; eccec OTr;V never ncxn OlO OTOUPOOpOJ.lIO O:XT]llaTi~ovTOV nAOTWI-IOTO 1-1£ atvopo Kat eoccec. now crtorexocaov I-IIKpte; «nA01:£Tee;" Yla TIe; Y£ITOvrec.

'Ayoptc.;. To euncpto nTOV auyKEV1:PWlJtvo ot ocvoveuevec ayopee. vurxc crto Tr') OTlI1£pIVr; Bevl~tAOU, KOTW crtc 1:0 UljJoe; Tile; 'Evvunee. Ko9wc.; «ct e~w crto TO TeLXT] rnc on0608poc.;. Mayo~16 unopxouv Kat aVaJ.lIK1:0 I-It KOTOIKi£e; crtq vupco neploxte; TWV tBPOIKWV OUVOIKIWV Ka{ OTO <jlPOYKolJoxaA6, ·ApyOT£PO, TOV 190 ct.. !') oyopo tn£KTeLV£TOl YPOIlIlIKO KOT6IlflKoe; Tile; 'Evvcrtcc. 'H oyopo (CarSI) 6.n01'£AoUVTOv crtc Eva OUVOAO IlIKPWV iJ.OYO~IWV KOTO IlTiKoe; Kat TWv euo rtA£UPWv. napaAAflAWV Kat Ka9£TWv, OpOI1WV. Oi 6po- 1J0l D1:av IlIKpoi Kai o-rcvol Kai OUXVO oKena~OV1:0V Ilt ~UAIV!:.e; KQTOOK£UtC; Kai I-It KA00510 05tvopwv, Kl hOI yivovTOV oKlepoi TO KOAOKaipl 6M6 Kat lJeplKte; <jlopte; 6nonVIK1:IKoL 'Evuc TtTOtOe; OpOI-lOe; rtoertet vc nrcv cno nOAIO TO Tl1fJl-IO Tr'je; Bevll;tAou ono TDV 'EyvQTtO iJ.tXpt rnv TOLIJIOKfI, nou Kp01:11oe 1l0AlOlO KOt rnv erncvuutc "~KEnoOT6".

55

'EE,w cno to TelXIl rrrcv ri -AivurrnoKf) ovocc- (MISlr j::ar~ISI) fl.t TO rrprrrnPIO nilv t-EYOIlEVWV HanO(KIOKWV", TO ecoooeeeetc KOt TO E,Ut-qJnOPIKO. Ka8we; Kat ilia U~OO}lOTayopO. il Lonca. KeTO Tf) uuprupin TOO XOT~fi KOA" tpn. '"HOTl crtc apxte; TOU 180u ai. unapxouv tKel ncvrorncxetc Koi KOoevetc Koi, apyOT£PO. «ct Xavlo. Mtaa ana TO nixo" ~Tav ot 6yopt<; TWV X0)"IWV TWV nonouTOlwV, rev o~ou<pwv. Hl po<p,Ot5IKO «xn 'Ertbccvrpc Tii, cvcoec ~nlv TOl-'n£~£on':· VI. Eva ililoiwpo vccoencvucvo «neue. OE aVTISeOT) I-It TO mO np6xelP'lC; «crcceeunc nco on"wvovTOV vupw TaU. ~T6 IJn£~EDT£VI nou},oiJ· oov nO"UTiI-'O £lli11. OpWj.lOTO Koi U'IIaOjlOTo, AVOT'J},IKOT£PO i'jTOV ~ ci)"eupoyopci Koi ~ nAon:ioonOU'IIltpvOVKoinou},ouoavrpo<pltC;KOi ~wo. one TO. yupw XWPIO

H KoBE t5p61-10 T'iTOV aUYKEvTpWI-I£Va I-'oyo~ld ,udc;auvn:xviac;.eit5IKeUl-ltvoo'evaeit5o<;EI-'nOp£01-'0To<;n00 aUTO, ii ~ FlPOE/l,EUofL TOU, t/il-a: Toiivo>,amOo.VTimoIXOTIl1l>'O TOU1iPOIJOU 'H oSW>tOV1Krl OloiKTJOll npoanoSoiJoE va ~pon;· ael niv otsovourc Ko6i]lIwIJtvll a' ouniv ritv tt50'l'IKr\ OpyCtVWOT] VlO Val-'nOP~OEL va /'iUW1PtiaeLTQvf"eyxoTT)c;.onwC;'l'aiv1:lmanorlC;Ka!(l KOlpouC;/iloTOYEe;KOi6novopEuO£LC;

~t 6Mo IJtpoc;. rnacvcc vupw ana TIW nuM"t TaU 80p056pf]. cvcuccc oro. cnrnc T1']e; OUVOL' «tee. 6piaKoVTov TO. rouC;rpoyouolortC;

To KovaKI. To 1l10lKTlTripm, EOPO TOU 8aM] Tfie; eeoooxovtsnc. BPlOKClTOV OTi] 8tOTl rtou elver «ct cnpeoc TO "['!.lOlKIFriPIO" Tile; no'\T]e;. To cnorcxoace eve aUYKpOTT]j.lO «npkov, yupw ana ilia n'\OKOOTpWTT] OUAr'], OlO cnoto I5Eono~e TO "KOVOKI". EVO KT(oro anpoOOIOPIOTOU cuauoo. crnoc TO XOPOKTTlPi<ouv 01 eruoxerrrcc TOU. LTa ~u'\lva «rtcucrc vucro ana mv ~UAi) ctevczovrcv. E:KTOe; ana TO 010- ueotcucrc TOU xopeillou. OOlUVOfll«ec apXEe;, urmocctec. ~U'\OKEe;. BOTlBnTlKOi XWpOl KOt OTa8,\01. KoBwe; Koi TO TT],\eYPOttIlKO KEVTPO, Llin'\o OTO aUYKpOTI]1l0 unilpx£ '\OUTPO xui T~oj.lL Ln'jV 'iolo neplOXi], OVOTO'\IKOTepa, nTOV TO Kovcj« TOU IOVT<OKIOO esoooxovtsnc, tvw VO"T10TepO urtnoxcv cpUhOKEe;. LTi]V neploxr'] ouni OXTlfl.QTi<€"TOl TO TOUPK1KO blOlKllnKo KEVTPO nee cciverur vo 8piOK£TOl cmv 'i010 BEOTl IlE TO Bu<ovnvo

net vo OIOIlOpcpwBIlKe OTa ueco TaU tabu 01 .. crcv TO IlCYO'\UT£PO ueooc TWV 'EBpoiwv nooccovev £X£I f10ll tYKOTOOT08£i cmv nMT] £vw nopdxAT]AO erovv cuvrcxecrct «c! oxec o! ucrcrponec tKKAIlOlWV at T~alllO. £KToe; on' OUTr']V "Tile: PQ"TDVTOe;.

Ana Tie; necrvccoec TWV TOl';IOIWTWV Kai "TO OTlIlOOlCUj.ltVO OPXelOKa croiX£lo oe urtopouus vc nooco.octcouue ue aKpi8E:10 TOV apl8j.lo TWV cuvOIKIWV. 'm 8tOTl TOUe;, Koi rnv oUOTT1- POTTlTa Tile; ouorovcve.cc TOO nxnauouco TOUe;, KOTO "Tie; olacpop£e; cnoXEe; Tile; TOUPKOKpOTioe;'. Mrtooocue OIlWe; vc OXIlIlOTtaOUj.l£ uto Y£VIKi] etcove Tile; KOTOVOllfie;. orncc eix£ 010- 1l0pcpWBci Kupiwc; TOV 190 at.

'0 oUOTTJpae; OtDXwpIOIlOe; TWV KOlVOmnov zcrtcce ore rexoc TOU 190u ot .. OTaV uevcxc Wr']1l0TO Tau nAf]8u- 01-10U usrcceoovrct at necrcxec £KTOe; TWV TElXWV, OUTlKO TO xctxorspn. aVOTO'\IKO TO IlCOOomIKO. tvw ol nAOUOlOTepOl, OAWV TWV K01VOn'jTWV KOTOOK£uooav noxurcxcrc tnou'\ele; KOla flilKoe; Tile; OVOlO'\IKtie; nopoxtcc. "TOUe; -rtupvovc-.

TOUPKIKtC; cuvcuoec. Ot QUVOlKi£e; TWV 1l0UOOUAj.lQVWV KOTaAOfl80vov Tr']V neploXTi Tile; novo rtoxnc - CPTOVOVTOe; IltXPl Ti]V 'EYVOTio OTf) ounKr'] n,\eupa KOt orcucncvroc 8apEIOTE:PO crnv aVOTO'\IKf) - KI QKOIlO Tie; n£ploxte; Tile; nu,\fJe; n;e; KOAOj.lOoruc. Kai Tile; OTlfl£pIvTie; nxcrercc Ncucplvou

'H TOUPKIKTl neploxi] rlTOV il WPOlOT£pn TTie; noxnc. f10UXTl «ct aPOlOKO""[OlKlllltvll· TO. crrrnc rlTOV «nouevc onMxwpo j.lE K'\E:IOTee; ouMe; KOt IlnaXTOtOE:e;. ·APX1KO. rtoerter va nrcv ctpcuuevc rtooc Tf)V ouM Koi va tppaOOOVTOV ue LVIl,\i] llaVTPO ana TO OPOIlO, ana T1i llE:pl6 TOU cnorov £1- xov IlIKpa ii Ko80AOU ovorvuorc Eivrn KOTOOKCUOOIl£VO, TO. nAOUOlOT£PO, ana nerpc. set TO uno'\Olna ana ~Ut-IVO OK£AeTO KOt Wj.lte; rtxtvaouc h ana l';U'\IVOUe; ni]X£Ie;, 1lE: KOvtcuc ana Monll KOt tlXUPO - roue rcctucccc KOI TO uncvocnc. Oi xwpot TWV ovbpwv (selamhk] KOt ol Xw~ cor TWV YUVQlKWV (harem) ElVOl 010- XWPIOl-ltvOl «ct OlO Il£YOt-UT£PO 011[no ol ouo OIlOO£e; xwpwv cvcrrrucGOVTOl at XWpIOl£e; ccxec. OIOTIlpWVTOe; naVTO town;P1KTi erusorvo-

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VlKri KOTovOIlf) TWV neploxwv 80 nee- LTOV cooco BpiOKOVTaI ot KUP10l XW-

56

pOL. tvw at aonannsor o-r£y6~OVTOl 010 XOIlIl'\Wj.ltvo iOOYE:IO. To aVWTOTO uuroc TOUe;. ornoc K080Pl~OTOV IlE I5laTaYIlQ T.OU 1559 unoooooe vo orccei TOUe; 12 mixele; (7.68 11,) E:Vt!J TO ortmc nDV POYlaOWV otv erutpenO"TOV vc oncoeoov TOUe; 9 miXE:le; (5.76 11.) - OPlO nou otv rtpenet vc tcruov vro rc enrcrurc KTlP10 «cacc tXOUIlE nxnoocootcc Yla -rpucooco '\18oKTIOTO O£POYlO" OTOV 170 Koi TOV 180 okcvc. Oi OpO~OI noocsexcuv. OXIlIlOTi~oVTOe; TO oaXVlOlO. tvw TO ncocaooc exouv nuxvc «ccootoro l';uAlva olacppaYllOTa "Eyouv evrovc XPWIlOTO nou Kl QUTO eivOl «caoo.cuevc «ct cncvooeuuevo crtc aAAce; «orvorrrrec,

METo. TO 1864, tneKTEtV£TOl Kai ortc tnopxiee; i] loxue; TOU veou OIKOOOIlIKOO 1',.0VOVlOllou. nco eecouocmse ana TO xcovo aUTO OTTiv Kcovcrovnvouno'\ll, Koi rtou rtooeexenc cvorcTO ULVOe; Yla TO. E;UAlVO orttnc TOUe; 14 ni]X£Ie; (10,5 j.l.) tvw YIO TO A1BoKT1- crru TOUe; 20 mlX£te; (15 u.), xwpic; eeBOla vc yiVOVTOl rue OIOKpio£le; ovaueoc orouc UTll1KOOUe; Tile; OUTOKPOrootcc. ITa IlEYOAUH:pa TWPO cntnc TWV TOUPKWV TO. i5101l£pioIJOTO TWV yUVOlKt!JV IlETOlptPOVTOl OTO zecrcco oooco. E:VW crov npWTO ncocuevouv "TWV ovopWV KOt OTO unOYEIO creve~OV"TOI no.Al 01 801l81lTlKOi XWpOl. Ot OPOlPOl npoe~txouv KAlj.lOKW"TO OTO Spouc

TUITIKO nop6t5&!yI-'0 TPIWPO'l'OU TOUP~IKOCt GnlTlouroiJlituTepOUIJLoouTou190ual.anOT£II&1 T6 crnn ortou ytVVI'l9rjK& 0 Mouaro<po 1',.&1-10 .... ATOTOUPK, DT1']v 0156 'Anoo-roxou nou)"ou, t5in .... o ere cnoto 6piaKeTOI TO TOUPKLKO ncoecveto. KTiOTT]Ke TO '870 ':IITO Hi LOPUIJO ron Muderris HacLMehmedKolYLoevaXPOV!KOO!O OTTJiJo elxe vewcoret an6 Tr,V OIKOVtVtlO IOU K£IJ611

'E6pai"Ktc; QUVOIKiEC;, Oi tBpo'iKtC; OUVOlKlEe; ant-WVOVTOV OTriV KEVTP1- Kf) 1',.01 OUTlKi] nepIOXr'], cno TO ULVOe; ""[tie; 'EYVOT10e; j.ltXPl ni acxcccc KO- 8we; KOt 0' eVO runuc neve an' tnv 'EYVOTio YUpW ana Tf)V Flnvnvin TWV XO'\KE:WV

m:ploxilc: «crccrpccnse crnv nupKo·l6 TOO 1890 onere. cnec YP6tpEl 6 rtcnovetoovrou -n ounooo Kat xceuplv8wo'le; iOPOIl'\iTlK'l cuvouco 6VE«rtcen EK VEOU uYlelVr; Kai nee.sex.\r;c;"

'EAAIlYll';tC; OUYOIKitC;, LTo O£UT£PO 11100 TOO 190u ai. urtupyouv em aceOO.\OVtKIl owo£Ka tM'lVIKtC; OUVOlKlEe;_ 01 errrc en' curse ax'lllaTI~OV TI') ouurrcvn tM'lVIKri m:ploXI') oro NA runuo. vupco err' mv koucoc KOt TO "rrmocoouro. OUO 6p[OKOVTOV cmv neve 110.\1l 6Vo.).1EOO mic; TOUPKlKtC;, aM£c; OUO usee OE I1£PIOXtC; t6po"lKEe; Koi f-lic o-rnv n£plOXI') TOO 80pMPIl- 'Ano £VO "Tt!pTtPI scrcvoccncnov KOTOiKWV Tile; 8EOOO.\OV[KIlC; TOO I1PWTOU TtTOPTOU TOO 160u oi .. 110U i5rH.IOoiWOt 0 B. 1l'lI-lIlTp100Ile;, yvwPt~OUIlE milc; unrlPXov otKa t'\'\IlV1- KtC; OUVOlKite;, tvw vrc TOV 'lOIO ctevc TOUPKlKtC; 6PXtlaKte; n.\IlPo!popiEC; ovccepouv 14,0 'E6'\IYla TaV 170 oi YPa!Ptl YIO 16, tvw crtec aVOlptp8'lKt KOTa TOV 190 ouovo ot ouvorxtec rrrcv 12. 'Ano TiC; nxnoococtec curec unopouue vc onoaecouus on 6 6p181-10e; TWV OUVOIKlWV nrcv 10 - 12 we; TO. Tt.\11 TOO 190U cl., ofv\a otv yvwpi~oUIlE KOTo. 11600 oi 8to£II::; TOUe; ncoeuevcv crceeoec". xcnoro IltT060A!,) noener vc csoxocence Tr; perccooc TriC; MIlTp6I1o.\'lC; TO. 1590- 91 cno TI') POTOVTO on; 8tOll nou eiVOl xui crureoc I') MIlTponoAIl, ere vee TOO 'Avicu cnunrorou. cnou iopu8'lKOV covoreoc «owouxcxcr !plxovapcmuco KOTDOTr;IlOTO.

TO. t,\AIlVIKo. cntnc. olwpotpa «ot 1-10- voooec KI aUTO., ~TOV ern KOTDOKWI') Kat cmv tE,WTEPIKI') euccv.cn OIlOIOU rurtou Ilt TO. TOUPKIKO, 6M6 ouvneeoc me IlIKpo. Kai me vuuvc. I-It 00- XVlOTO OTOUe; opooouc. «onere w: uucccc miMe; Koi cevopc. 'H town> PIKI') TOUe; i51appU81l10ll ollWe; !lTDV Ola!popE:1lK!,) Ko9wC; 6KO.\ou8000£ oroeopensc oxl')l-IOTD ~wrie;

nuprivec;' TWV t'\'\IlVIKWV OUVOlKIWV nrov ot tKKArJoiee; rtou chcv nopauetver 016 xtpla TWV xptcncvcv. AuTte; !lTOV Kupiwe; Ka80AlK6 1-I0VQ01fj-

PlWV ii W:T6XlQ Yl' DUT6-Kai eixov £1- OIKI') IlnaXeiplOll

EKToe; cno Tie; roetc 6U~DVTlvtC; tKK.\IlOi£e;, TI') Mcvn BAm60wv, T6v AYlO Nucoxco 'Op!pav6 «ct TI') MgTQ- 1l0PlPWOT) TOO rtornoo. oi uncxomec sptoxovrov o-rf 8tOT) TWV I..I£T06u(ovnvtcv tKK.\fjOlWV nou unopxouv xoi cnusoc ~ KOTompo(PIlKoV rtpoo!pOTO. ITI') O11f-l£PIVI') TQUe; uoprprt etVOl «rtouorc LOO 180u set TOO 190u at. BpioKOVTOV 010 tOWTEPIKa OtKOOOI..lIKWV TETPOYWVWV Kai I')TaV unoxpeWTlKo. XOIl'l.\a KTLOI-lOTO cxrtc vo f1l')v nooecxxovrcr.

«oro TTl Ol6pKEla Tile; rouocospcrtcc otv erntpenorcv I') cveveocn vtwv EKK.\rIOlWV, «ot crucxcoec I..Inop00- oav vc tKTE.\E01OOV 1..16vo I1ETO 6n6 £iOIKI') ooEla one TI')V ·YI.jJIl)..1')

'H Oi5EIO, rtou OIVOTOV I..IET6 one TOI.jJ[O, cncvoceue «cee npo081')KIl, un£pUlj!wOll, enexrccn Koi TOn08tTIl- 011 oul..l66.\wv, xo! ertcecxxc TTlV TTlPIlOll TOO -ncxcroo pu81-l00". 'Avooepovrct ncpceoccrc TWV «cvovtov OlJTWV OTie; 6Pxte; TOO 180u ai. Koi coornccc ruuootec TWV napa60TWV ETm ol tKK.\TloiEC; nap' O)..Ee; Tic; ceopee. Tie; ~'ll-llte; ii Kat Tie; KQTOOTPO!pte; nou rtcacrvcv. iOIOtTEpa I..It Tie; ouxvte; rtuosctec crnv n6)..fj, erncxeuczovrcv «c! auvtXI~av TI') ~wl') TOUe; o-rnv IOIO aeon.

TO. anOYOPWTlKa OUTO I-IETPO coenKOV cntcnuo TO. 1856 I-lt TO. XOTTI XOUI..I0YlOUV_ IT!'1v npaE,1l ol-lWe; ot cxeuaeptec coree iipYIlOOV vu eoocv tcpoPI-IOYI') Kat ctvcr xapOKT'lPI01IKO OTt np608ETO Kwowvomoma KTt~OVTOI 1l0VO KOTO TO Tt.\OC; TOU 190u al.

'0 <llPOYKOjJoXa1.oC;_ To 1685 ii5pu81l«e UTI') 0eoaOAOviKT] TO rO.\.\IKO ncoE,EVEIO Kat csoxouenoov. oro npWTO 11100 TOO 180u ol. TO. nootevetc «ot 6.,\AWV Eupwna"iKwv xwpwv. To 1742 KTiUTTlKe !') Ka80AlKI') tKK)..fJOia TOO 'Avtou i\OUOO6iKOU oinAo 016 YO}..AIKO rtooseveto. Ot np6E,£vol, no}..Atc; copcc t.\AllvlKfje; KOToVwyf)e;, ol illOOUiTEe; Koi ueoucec oeK6i5e~ £WIOPOI ucvocv 0.\01 O1I')V neploxl') nou 80 OVOl..la01£( 'PpaYKol..laxoMe;, uecc otto T!') Nil ywvio TWV TEIXWV, KOVTO 010 .\II..lOVI KOt -rnv cvooc. once I..It TOV KOlPO 80 OXllf-laTlOTE:i 1..110 6PK£TO rtoxunxnenc «owrovtc cooveoxeeovttvov. 'Eow TO cntnc elver noxurexn. netorvc. ouvri8we; i5lWPOtpO, ue uevcxooc t~wmEe; Koi «nnouc. Kat nooocsoouv. cmoc ypotp£t TOV 180 ct.

yea TO cntno nov ontcrov ItnOPOUoav va txouv ~wIlPO XpWI..IOTO OTic; t~wT£PLKte; OljJ£lC;

To TOUPKIKO KTfolJoTO

IT!')V neptooo me rouoscsocrtcc elXOV KTIOTEl noxxc 8PIlOK£unKO Kai !pl)..ov8puJnlKo. iOpUIJOTO. £j,£v z.ivrn OI-lWe; vvccroc cnuepc 0 coreuoc TO. OVOl-1aTO, noxu ot nEplOOOT£PO XPOVo)..oy[o, OAWV OLITWV TWV

TWV.

Oi 9ETlKOTEpEe; nxnoocoorcc YI' auTO npocpyovroi 6n6 TO. 6.p8po TOO A S. Onver non cmckerc. at XPOVo'\Ovrurcvc OTOlXEio TWV tTWV 6n6 1602 we; 1889. onou OiVETOl «crcxovcc tKQTO TOUPKlKWV I-IVIlf1£LWV nou unfjpxav mri ecoccxovtcn Kai 010. yupw. L' OUTO aVOtptPOVTOl ru 6v6- perc TOUe; l..Ia~[ ue TI')V rlllep0l-lllvia TOO K6.8£ VTOKOUl-ltVTOU OUXvo. Kal rl OUVOIKLO crnv oriole SPIOK6TOV ii 6 lopuTI')e; roue. LUl..IlPWVO Ilt TO. 6.p8po unf)pxov mv rteptooo OUTI'): 15 uevroececec (iepooloooKO'\£ia) «ot uexreun (oxo.\£la O1OlX£IWOOUe; tKnaiOEUOTJC;)' 47 T~al-lla Kai I..I£OKIT (Ill«pot XWPOI npooEUxf)C;)' 19 T£Kti5ec; «ot zaviye (I..IOVam!')plO i5Ep6iOllowv) 3 LI-10ptT (nTwxoKOIl£la)' 15 OIOCjlOPO BOKOUtplO (acpl£PWIlOTO) Kat 2 eeocYWYEio

LTOV KaTO.\OYO aUTO otv cvceepovTot I-I£PIKa YVW010 6n6 Q.\'\ec; rmvec «rtoucrc. Kortotc ana aUTO. ruacvcc vc £tXOV KOI O£UT£PO cvouo. tvw Q.\'\0 va rtep.xcuacvovrcr ere 6aKOUoro. onwe; TO. XOI..IOI..I ii TO xaVlO. ana TO onotc Mv 6VO<ptPETOl KOVtVO 'Ana TOUe; nOAlOUe; uevtocoecec KOt I..IEKTtl-ln, TO. «rtprc Ofl.\oi5l') TfJC; £Knotoeoonc TWV Toupxtov M OW~£TQl crureoo «cvevc. 'Yn6PX£l f-lOVO TO Idadiye mektebi (rtooncocoxeuconxn OXo)..1') vrc 6VWTaTfj EKnatOeuOll) KTi- 01-10 TOO 1887, ortou we; ncooccrc crcvccorcv n <llIAOOOtpIKI') IXOAI') TOO A.n.8., co! TO OllI-l£PIVO 1I.10lK'lTI')PlO. ortou OTie; opxte; TOO creve (1907) xcrrcupvnce NOl..IlKil IxoM TWV rooocov. To OUO cure KTiOf-laTO so- 8We; Kat TO O.\AO, rtou KOTaOKEUOO1'l«uv one TO. TOUP-KIKO 61l1..l00l0 Yla Qlo.'POp£e; XPTlO£IC; 010. T£.\11 TOO 190u 01. Kai crtc opxte; TOO 2000 Kai T6 anoia osoxouaocv eopcmotsc ncoTuna, M 86 neorvooeoov tow

57

4, Hamza bey eemu. rn""'16noljl~ ana NA «(IIWT, 19BJ), SprOKETOIIIETO~UTbiY 6&biy 'EYYOTlo, eev,~t,l,ou, x, SOll8oKO Koi PtjJnc,l,ou,

5. Hamza bey camll. l:KopiljlrJl.lO KaIOIjl~C; {l:xt· iI'OTouM,Klelj,

T~a~II], noMoi nEpiTlYTlrtt; OTl)1EIWvouv TOV cuvcx.so 6pIS~o TWV T~O' )1IWV nou Urn;PXE OTr)V nOATl Ti]V ertoxli rtou rnv erncxerrrovrcr. Oi nATlPOccctec TOUt; D)1wt; 6tv unocoav vc 8cwPTl800v o.f,lonlOTtt;,

0ETtK6Ttpt<: Koi rue OUYKEKPllltvEt; rtxnooeootcc rtooecxovrc, {:Ina TOUt; IltAETTlTtt;, Oi Texter Kat Pullan (tK6 1864) cvceeccov OTt um'jPxav 38, 6 Mcoctrortouxoc (tK6, 1882) 59, 6 Eyice YLa TO 1882·3 neotrtoo 50 Kat 6 Tafra!i (1913) 37, nOVTWt; otpoO o! TOUPKlKt<: cuvoudec nTOV 48 one TOV 160 at" urtoooaue va urtoeeoouue OTI TO T~O~llCl ~£n£pvaucov TOV co.a- 116 aUT6,

XapOKTT]pIOTIKO e:lVOL OTI ot necutvntee ncorvoccouv «ct acuuczouv KU· piw<: TiC; naAlt<: XP1OT10VLKtC; tKKAIlelse nov )1tTOTpanT]KOV ot T~a)110 Koi, cnovro cvcceoovror c' OlJTa nee €K'1:100V ot ToUpKOI. Oi IlETOOKWOouevec tKKAT]OitC; rtcerter vc nTOV KOt TO Il£yOAUTtpO SPT]OKtUTtKcl KTiO)1OTO TT'je; nOAT]C;, Ko9we; TO rteotcooTEPO ana TO veotccucevc T~0)11a Mv nTOV napa 1l1Kpa tnoPXloKO Tt)1tVTl, noilll cuvcrrnee Imopci Ya crTl\.lC,U>9C\ on 01 IIEIOlponte:; TWV t~~1\'10'Wv ce t(OI.IIO tVloni(ovrc, ~up;wc:;. t~TOe:; 6no TnV aMoVn TOU ovo IJ.OTtX; 10Ue:;. (lIoVO" Avio 10$;0 KpoTO novTO re tcrc OVOIIO ~oi 06 t~o(Jll. OTnV npooBnK'1 <1''1' I\ou IIIVOP,t OT" NiOo ywviq. t~TCPI~ne:; ~ul\lvllC:; crcoc Koi n;e:; onopoiH1Tlle:; ~plivlle:; OTOV unol· 8PLOXWPO OT"v TonoStT'1Ofllot cnOVII:e:;O(JWe:; nl:ptnTWOCte:;1. .tv8UIII1110TWV Kol tmvpo<pWv m!\v Kal\ul~r) TWV tiKOVOVPO<P'1~tvwv tnL<po'

58

6. Alaea [marel caml!. rn'KI\ 6no",~ 6n6 .0., (no· ""0 Toxullp. KOpTO). Bplo~ETO' at jJ'Kpl\ n"'oTclo ~ETO~U TWV 66Wv Koooovilpou, l:O(lloKJotouc;, 'AVTlIT6pol,l ~ol'AV[ou N'KO"'OOU

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To TIli't).lO aUTO. OUlllj)WVo jJt ~'O tmYPDIfII'j. ~Timr)K£ TO fToc; 1467· 68 (H. 872)ono Tn Hafsa Hatun, ~6pr) TOU Ilnl:lll\tpl-lnl:'1 Hamza Bey, OTPQT'lIlTUlOu i5'OI"r)Til tnl MOUpOT S'. ~E: TO OVOIIO Tau onoiou 1'\10V yvwcrr6 TO T~Oj.IL 'Avo· <ptpeTOL on nplv ano TO 15926 xwPoc; OUTOe; npoo£uxiie:;).lcVoMlvcI~oi)JuOTptnnOlot T~a· lJi y,6 Tnv t~unr)ptlTjOTlTWI/ ouqwtvwl/ avoy I\;WVTIle:; noAr)e:;, KOla ~io tKlioxT'] (K;ell TOll: crt crnxcv ~a[ aAce:; ot npooflilKcc;, o'1~obf] 01 nap/)· nAcupOIXWPOl.IlO~i ).ltTlivoul\ti Koinj crcc. T6 OiyoupoeivOIOTLIICyOAr)e:;fKTOOTlc;tPvooic<;;yi. VOVTOIOUllqlIllVOj.l£!"(0i:mYPo<p!\T61618-16t9 (H. 1029) an6 tov Kap,c. Mehmed Bey, VLa Seyid, on61& «cr OAOKAr)PWVI:TOLnArjpWC;" 1I0p<Pn TOU ,niOj.lOToe:;.1Tie:;6UoontvOVTtrV.cupte:;Tile;oi. flouooe:;npool:uxile:;fxouvnpOOaplTj6CiOuoOp· flOVWVLO'XWPOI ncu KO"UITTOV10(otxoIIIlMTC' cc tnincbo IlE rtoocp,C; 1I0voOTTlpmKoue:; 80' xcoc. 'H K0100K£Ut'j lWV XUlPWV oUT';'v fPX£TOI oe ol/TiScOI'])Jt 10V CmIJI:AIlj.ltvo aPX'KO xwpo. ITl'\v IpilTj n.'o.cupQ, onou dvo' <i 1:10000e:;. om· Ilop<pwvno\ IJI:y6All 001\1))Jt ru:P'1l1:1p'~il moo (revak) OKOVOV'OTOU OX"IlOTOe:; ~oi xwpie:; ii~vQ OUIIIlClpioe:;,'H OT06. KaI\umnOlllt OTtXVOUC; )JOVOOTllPIOKOUe; Sol\oue:; KOt uevc jJrtpOOTO ar"v £looooTou l(Oj.l'ou KO; tf)e:; ou"'ft<.:linoPXI:' 6no tvoe:; Unl:puljlwllcvoc; TpouMoc;_ 111'\ OTOO fXouvXPl1otjJonOtl1ScinOM6 ul\i~60nonoI\010- rcpc ~TtO)JOTO (KIOVOKPOVQ K"n.l_ U tno",,, IJt 16 80Pt.o nop6.n.'o.cupo xwpo Ko; T6 iiKPO tI'I~ crccc Iinilpxl: )JlVopte; ono TOV oncto oW(no, cove t'i MOT), npo61\r)jJon"t~ noVTwc.; nccccevcuv ct OiK0601l.~te:; 1j1601:Le:; TOU KliojJOloc; Mnov£vtml:pce:; npoXE,poKGTOO~cute:; tXOUI/ ohl\0lWOl:110 KT10II0,'H j.lcv6l\n oul\n Kol\uIjI6r)' Kty,ovoOTeyaOt'Tt'ivo'iSouOoTOuK'V1)\.IaTo, Vpo<Pou.tvwmouc:;un6I\o,noue;xwpOUC;OTI:YO~OVTO' tllnop'Ko KOTOanillolO «cr an08ilK~<;;

Alaca imaret camtl ~ Ishak pa~a camll (ElK. 6,7). To 'AhQT~O tucoer T~alll KTiO'TT]KE cuueevc Ilt mv KTI'lTOPlKtl TOU tmypoql!i TO 1484, 30.1 - 28.2. (MouxoptlJ 8a9jl. 'lopuTI;e; elver 0 Ishak pasa. vroc TOO Ibrahim coo TO lneqo! Ttie; M. 'Aaioe;, oOVT~aKlJnE:T]e; Ttie; 0EOOOAoviKIK 'Eow '(OpUOE eoKOUqll, oouccvc I-it TO CI(PlEPWTliPlO evvpoco TaU 1487 (H, 892), now nEplMI1BoVE, tKTOC; otto TO 'A'\aT~O T~al-li, tva fuocer «ct eva ).JEVTptOt, «ct TO ncotccc I-lt EKTOOEle; Kat noooooocooc ltipu).JOTo,

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Yen! camii. To revt T~olJi (vee) BpiOKtTOl OTriV nEplOXTl TtiC; 'Avice tp.cooe;, j..llo.~ ana Tie; rtprirtsc 6vaTo'\IKEC; OUVOlKiEe; nov 6rUllOUPV!'J9T]KOV tKTOC:; TWV TEtXwv, KTiOTIlKE T6 1901 - 2 6n6 TOV 'ITOM 6.PXLTtKTova v. Pesself we; Tl;olli TWV NTovlltowv, Eivm TO VEOT£PO T~Ol-ll Ttie; 0EOOaAOvlKllC; Kat XopOKTl1pi~ETOl one tnv rtoucxtc TWV crorrcuov KOt uorteciv rtou XPIl-

0I1l0nOlOUVTOl OTiC; OI./JEIC; «ct now ciVal tvtiElKTlKa Eupwno'lKwv Emopo.O£WV. lTtYO~E we; TO 1968 TO 'AoXOIOAOVlKO Mouoeto cot TWPO XPI')Ot- 1l0nOlEiTOl cov 6n081lKeuTlKoC; XWpOC; TOU.

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TOUPl-lnE3£c; (tOrbe - l-loUOWA£io), Oi rouourteoec nrcv lOtpOl erneovcv

59

npootcnov «ui KTi~OVTQV auvij8we; 6inxc at rzcuro. nice ana TOV T01XO kible (ortou lmf1PXE TO ~lxpa~n) ueoo at neoreocvuevo Xwpo, 'HTOV terceywva il nOt-uywvlK6 Kat onOVLO ooeoYWVla ~IKPO «rtoucrc aoxooecnn ueoc ere onotc TOno8ETOOVTQV rl ccoxoecvoc TOU «rnrooc TOUe; rvecro! elver ot TOUpj.mEOEe; TOO Kadir Baba KOVTO Olav oucvuuo TEKE, TO KeVOTOqJlO TOU Gulbaba, xtvc flt· TpO esw ana TO Teix'l Ttle; csponoMe;, l1a~i I1E TOV 6l1wvu~0 TeKE:, TOU Musa Baba omv nxcrctc 'teoqnaeoc Kat TOU Hortect Bana. TOU oEp810ll nou aVilKe oro H1Yila Halvetl, oro OV0i-10 TOO onotou l1eTOvol10O'TIlKe 11 POTOVTO, '0 TOUPl1nte; TaU Hortact Baba rrrcv eva opBOYWVIO «neue rtou eptcsorcv 01'0 OVOTOt-lKO TOO tepoO Tfle; POH)VWe;, orcv rtcoreoxo Ttle; onotcc urmcxcv «ct 6.AAOl TOqJOl. '0 Musa Baba turbes.. nou OW~ETOl oeouc Kat crurecc elver evcc rouounec ruruxnc ~opqJile;, 6KTay~VIKOe; oe K6TOI.\Jl1 nee «cxurrrercn ue TpoOhAO. I!'Jj..lEPO XPTlOlIlOnOleiTOl ccv MOXIl cno TOV rtozoccc.orso OUAAOYO Tfie; YEl1:0VIOe; (ElK. 9)

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60

mOTWVOUj..lE Eva TtTOIO OUOXETlOIJO TOUAOXLOTOV ce nevre ncorrrreoerc. TETOIa I1IKPO «evrpo OOTlKilC; - 8P'lOKEUTlKfie; ~Wtle; rtocner vo rrrcv too«crovcunuevc OVOj..lEOa crtc TOUPKI«eq OUVOIKlEe;

ria TO ow~6l1Eva crureoc xa~ol1 unopocue vc OllI1ElWOOUj..lE cvcxunscrepo TO t~fie;:

Bey Hamann (elK. 11,12) To Mnt'l xaj..l611 eivrn TO l1eYOALITEpo Kat I1EYO' xortoeneorepo AOUTPO nie; eecccxovucnc Kat ucxrcrc Yl' OLITO jJlAO a 'E6AIYIO I1t tYKW~lam\Ka AOYIO. To xal16j..l «ttomce ana TOV couxrcvo Moupor B " OUllqJWVO I1t n'iv cocerKri tmypaqJ!'J rtou unoPXEI n6vw crto mv KUPlO elOOCO TaU, ri onotc OiVEI Koi Tn XPovohoyia TfiC; KOTOOKEUfje; TOU. KOTO rnv 6v6yvwOll 0I1We; TaU

o npWl0C; xwpOC; noli OUVOliTQ Kav~ic; CiVOL Ta carnegah,iSTJ"oiSr;la"anoiSun'1pLa"KaioXLilpo<; OvOnouOT]c;.n~pL"npLK010U XWPOUOLLlOUClPECltlv6unr;pxtuncpUljJw"tvo<;t~0TT]<;(ani6tOT] TWV noxu "nOVEvtcrU:PWv OT]"CPIVWV KOTOOKEUWV ono "nnov) iinou m90vOTOHI 60. 6piOKOV10V TO. "aTOIJIKO o.nolilJ"n'jPIQ" tnllpovwv npoownwv. 'liSlO'ilcpo np06a""oOL TO OHOYWVIKO cameqan TWV avlipWv It O~V~Xf:lO' I1£OW crcvev eopev KoilJLKPWVDTlolTtwvlilQlipolJwv, xwpwv VLO rev 6I\Ot~"~0"OTIK6n:po fk~yxo T!jC; 6EPIJOKpooio<;, unOPxeloHoywVIKO soi;jukluk. r; "~puo cteoucc-. xwpOC; <'i'lko<'iL'j lJ£rpIOC; S~p"o, «ocotcc nee XPTJa[~~uf: VIC OVOTIQUOrj ~ai rtooeTOI"ooio TOO OWIJOTO'<; VO 1:i~x6d IJ~VaA(Ll~P'l ecoucxccctc. Mt Tr;V ,,~puO' ctacoec .. Iim~oL VWVOUOQV cuvnecc 6on6flTlKOi XWPOI (YIO TO !;UpLO>lO Kai KOUpC>lQ. i1noXWP'lnipIQ Kkn.) E<'iW. >lE rr;v -xpuc o.,60uoa .. TOU 1:ilolJEpiolJa 10<; tdrv av<'ip<iJv tmKOlvwv~i «ui Eva" xapaKTT[pIOl'IKO" apBoywv,o<; OpKno. lJ~voko<; xwpo<; nee ~aT6 Tr; VVWlJfl rou Kiel XPfloiIJEU~ VIa TO Ko60PIO"O - crTtVVWIJO rev rtercerov, It ouvt· xcrc eproxcrcr TO sicakilk. L'j "S€PIJ'; oiBouoo onou oVOiVOVTOI 6pBoYWVL€<; tooxt~ (<<l XOPQKTrlPLOT'Ka eyvan nououvovnaV1olo'Ok010€'i-

11. 8ey hamaml. r&VI~" Cino,,,,,, im6 Nt. (II""T. 1978), 8pioKEHU tn; l"'V 6i5Wv ·EyvoTio. 'Apl' OTOTt.l.OIlC; 1(0; M"Tp. r~vy06;ou.

XPOVOYPOjljlOTOC; Tiie; tmYPQqJlie; one TOV Eyice npOKUnTEI TO eroc; 1436 (H. 840)-tvw KOTO T!'JV cvovvccn TOO Kiel TO eroc 1444 (H. 848)4. EivOIOtrlka"ourpa.tX£L1:i'lko<'iL'lxwPIOTaO'O[J£· ctcucrc VIa TOU<; 6Vi'iPEC; KO[ "Ti<; yuvoiKe~. Oi Qua tvaTT[T€<; ovamuaoolllUl KaTO ~rl~OC; 1:iuo nopoUr;kwv <o~6vwv Koi ol ~",,,tpou<:; xLilpol oKokouElouv T';V nccczccrcen lilOTOfll 0,000' xnc XWPUlV. oi 1:it Ota(J"lOO€L<; roue auvtxwc; IJL Kpoivouv

'Exouv XWPLOT~<; etcozooc oe lilo<popnIK£C; nk!:uptc;rou KTioiJOTO<;.·H Eioo<'iOC;lWvov<'ipWv !:ivOlntotrll"C}"wtv'lKoltKeilmoPXE1>'jHf]10 P'~>'j tnlVPolJlTi. revl~o to eroucctcucrc 1WV ov1:ipwv CiVQllJEyokuTCPO sot mo nrplnoLlwtvo one to aVTi(J"lolXo lWV yuva'~wv

12. Bey hamaml. Kino",,, (IXt':610 TOU r. BtAt· .,)

TWV OPXWV TOU 160u ni. ruecvcc TIle; £noxlic; Tne; ucrctoonec'rnc Y£ITOVI£"''''A11Dioe; TWV 'Ayiwv 'ArtocroT~al1i.

6n.\6

13. Yahudi hamami. ru",'; iinOlj/I] ana A. (IIIwT. 1983). 6pioK&TII' IlUII!;u T .... V o6Wv KOIlV'lvWV. 6 HPOKllEillu Klli¢lpaVKivl].

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Yabudi harnarrn noerter vc A£lTOUpyOOo£ ccv '\OUTPO I1EXPI TO 1912. Mere mv aVTO}o,,\ayl'j creveorrpccv «orcctrurcrc «ol vro mv t!;urmoemon TOUe; MXTIlKe a.PK£T£C; uerorponec. LTr, eoce.c 110'\IOTO 04JIl KTiCTIT)KOV TO YVWOTO AOUAou50- ou«r

14. Yahud, hamarm. KOTOIj.I'l (.rxdl,o TWV E. Ioui",,· 0. TOITPOU.I.'l),

Pasa namarrn (£iK. 15). EivQI «rtouo

vent hamami (Nee XOJj0I--l) BptOKeTOI rtloco ana TOV '"AYIO l'l.IlI1f)TPIO set i']rev ertrcnc 5tnM flouTpa. ll'jI-lEPO TO I1EYOAlJTEPO runuc TOU elver KOTEctpcuuevo. l'l.laTllPOOVTOl 110VO TO bUD iOOJj£yt8T] KOt I1EYO'\O «ortooumprc- nco «oxurrrovrcr I1t OlpOIPlKOOe; aoxooc. oi cnotor i']TOV ertevouuevor OPXlKO I1t l1oA06t. '0 OIOXWPlOTIK6e; ToTxoe; OVOI1£OO oro CtVOPIKO KOt YUVQIKEIO cameqah eXEl YKP£I1IOTEl YIO vo crevccer TI;V cteoucc TOO Xell1eplVOO OlV£110 "AlYATl" nov A£ITOUpyOOo£ we; rroooccrc tK£1.

MIKPO TI1nl10 TOO unoxomou KTiOI1QTOe; 6pioKeTQI KOTW ana TOVe; t!;wcrec roc 8t:plvoO otvcuc, tvw TO OAAO txel tooneotcaet. 'H eKTOCIT) novTWe; rtou ",oroA0116oVE rpoiverm ere vvccro XOPT'l me npiv cno TO 1917 ocoocxovro-c.

'Otl<m; I-lnop~i va ouoeece. KOv£Io:;, one (JlWTOvpmplo (~[K. 16) cnou ..,o[vnQl 6MKAr]po. TO. KT{0i-l0 cecxcuecoce TrJV "[i510 TUflI~n 010.10!;!] lI,olloxiic; llilv xwpwv. 'Ym')PXE 6i-lwC; I-lEyolluT~PI] cuuuerptc i-l~lO~U T .... V IiLOI-l~PlOI-l''nWV TWV o.VlipWvKOlyuVQlKWV.·Enlol]C;<polvHQlVarJTOV TOVLOl-ltVEC; olMo "e&p~EC; O"iBO~OEC;~ ot ox!:on ~I: TIc; «\lJuxptc;" scr oi lEI.EUT01E~ nptn~1 vc dxov op60YWVIKO ox:ril-lo. TO. OTOlX~;O OLmt OU~ipWVO I-le lrJV lunoAoylo TWV XOI-l01-l nou nccrervcrcr eno lav Kiel, pnopouv va BEWPI]aoov tvi5E[!;~lC; YLa I-lla. OUYKPITI~'; TOUI.6X1- crTOV. ~oT6To~'1 TOU KT10l-lOToc; I-lE10~U TWV uno/"olnwv XQI-lal-l nco OW~OV10l onucpc 0TJi eeoocxovren. nptn~1 vc ElvOI TO VEaTqjO ono ClUTC.'

Kute hamarm. Elver TO 110VOQIKO 1511- 110010 AOUTPO Tfic; 6u~ovTlvfie; rtco.oOOU nco OW~l:TOl, KT10I-IO TOU rexouc TOO 130U KOt TWV 6.Pxwv TaU 140u ct. Avctpeoercr tow tnElor') KOT6 mv neorooo Tne; TOUPKOKpOTioe;, YVWOTO I-It TO 6VOI-IO KouAt XOI-IOIl, t!;OKOAou900m: Tr') ACITOUPY[O TOU OqloO otXT'lK£ optcuevec uercrponcc t~Olnee me oMoyr;e; rou cno onM ce OtnAO AOUTpO. 'HTOV at xpnOll I1tXPl TO 1937

Mn£~£OTtvl (Bedesten). ~T6 KtVTPO 61

ncvrc Tile; cvoooc 6PlOKOTOV TO urtezecrevr. kcae jJeyliAll nOA'1 eiXE TO I-lne~emtvl Tile;, onou nOUAOCJoOV TO l-leTrj:~1. oMo aKPl6a U'+JelOlJ-OTO KOt covoreoc YEVlKa TO nOAlJTljJO Eii3f]. "HTOV ocv tva KOf..O OO'+JOAlOl-ltva KOt vepo 81l00UPO'+JuAo.KlO rtou

erumoonvrov cucrnoc

TO. AISOKTlma OllTO KT[OI-lOTO, GTOV tunc TaU -ulu T~OI-lIOU", Ol0'+J0POrtorouvrcr I-lnof,u TOUe; jJOVO we; nooc TO j.lt.yeSoc; KOt rnv nOAuTtAEIO Tali OlOKOOj.lOU TOUe:

To unczectevr Tile; GWOOAOVtKf]C; DvT'jKel 000 60KOU'+Jl nou "ii3PUOE 0 OOUATOVOe: BaYla~iT B' GTo. TEAEUrete XPOVIO TaU 1 Sou cl. (elK. 17).

Tr'Jv tnoxr'1 TiiC; Y~VlKr'1" c'lvoIKo1ioll'lOl1C; Tnc; eeoooi\ovi~'1" lleTo niv nupKoy,O TOU 1917, noocrcansc mriv rteplpe tpo TOU crtcucrcc 1"0 OCIPO KOtomT)iJorwv. cure liT)haliri nee urtnpxouv KoimiiJ~po. O(llriVOVTO<; thcu6qlf) 1ri Si:Ol1 TWV rcoccccov Eiooliwv. Eivut nollU mElovo va OVTlKat£O"TT)OOV nO"I£<; ~D"IV~" «crccscuec nouunl'ipxovcrn;v·ililoBi:Ol1.ITlivi:nloKeur'1

Itcoouoro !-It TO j.ln£~EOTtvl Tile: eecoaAoviKIle:. uevcxonocnecrepo OJ.lWC; KOt rtcxcroreoo an' OUTO elver TWV Ieppwv. nciVTWC; crcv '[5(0 6KP16wC; torte. t~cl.TpouMwv, or]Aool'] uneceOTEVIWV, uno.PXouv xot 6.Mo YVWOTQ ncoocetvucro cruoc TO 6VOKOTOcxeuccuevo oro Beysehir, ere IepCiVIE80, ern poroecro. omv KohAinoA".

X6VIO.To ccnso XOvlo.aunl rtou KT[~OVTOV uecc crnv nOAIl, ~TOV 6 reo- 1-'0TlKOC; mo81-l0C; me oloop0l-lile; TWV tl-lnopwv «ot vevrsc TWV TOf,Ii31WTwv

XPlloil-'EUOV we; OO'+JOAEie; on081'jKec; TWV tl--lnOpEUIJOTWV Koi niJV uerccoor KWVjJtoWv.we; XWPOI i3101-l0vrie; KOt we; XWPOl El--lnOplKwv ouvoMoywv «ul 6.vTOAAayf]e; 10Ewv. Mt TOV KO\pO e-ric OiKOVOl--IlKO ucxrcrc cvcrrruvuevee; noxcrc. TO XOVlO I-lETOTptnovTOI oe j.lEyOAO KtVTPO ovoocrnoxqctcc. tvw nopOAAllAo anOTEAOLiv EmKEpoeIe; tmxelpf]oEle; YlO TOUe; KTT'jTOptC; TOUe;. 'HTOV OUYKEVTPWl-ltvO cuvn- 8we; crnv 'iOlO nEploxf] Kat KOVTa omv cvooo Tile; rtcxnc. 6 apl8l-lae; i5t KOt TO I-ltYE8ae; TOUe; i3r'jAwve rnv otKOVOl--IlKf] cnuccto Kat KiVf]01'l TI")C;.

To XaVla Tile; 8eoOOAOVtKTle; XPIlCJlI--IOnorocvrcv ana TaV 170 ct. OKOI-IO we; 1-l0VII-lE~ KOTOIKiEe; KO[ ere lcovero TOUe; noencr vo AelTOupyOUoov Konl1- Aeta. Bp[OKOVTOV uecc Ka[ KOVTO oro nixoc; Ttie; crtoecapcc. covoreoc ot KOt ef,w. ruacvcc ana rtc 6pxte; roe 180u at Elvm cnucoo vvcicro TO

6VOl-lOTO TWV XOVlWV: Sutuca. Mustafa pasa Kat M(a)lta ana TOV XQT~T'j KaA'+JO Kal OKOI-lO TOU koooooouxou cno TOV ·E6AlYla. To xavlo TWV cnokov yvwpi~oul-lt: KOt Til aeon elVOI TO Bosnak, Tahtakale. vern «o! Mjajlta. TO onotc OTWEL1DVOVTOl mov XOPTll (EiK 3).

Ano TOV 190 ot. ni aeon TWV XOVlWV apXloov vc noipvouv TO "oleSvT'j E,eVOOOXE10" onou i3ltl-l£vav ot rno eoKOTomaTOl, Eupccrtcirn Kupiwe;, tl-lnopor. AUTO apXIOOV vo KTi~oVTOI KOVTo. cmv nxorctc 'EAeu8Eptac; clVal M vvcorrrc aPKETa cno aUTO 'Avrtaerc TO XCiVlO apXIOOV vc uno- 609I-ll~OVTOI cuverec Kat vc I-IETOrpertovrct at Ao'iKO f,evoi3oxeio. Ot tlJnOpIKi:e; OUVOAAoyte; i3tv y[VOVTOl rtxeov cmv toWTEPlKf] OUAr'j aAf..O uercceoovrcr oro i3POI-l0 onou 6Atrtouv TO ucvczio KOt OVEf,OPTOnOlOUVTOl ana TOUe; ToE,Ii31wTee; nov «crcxuouv ere OWI-lOTlO TOU coocoo

"OTOV r'j nOAIl iJpXloe vc ertccrstveror ere i3UTlKO tKTOC; TWV TelXwv, apXIoav vc KT[~OVTOl XOVlO KOVTO orriv nUAll TOU BopMPIl Ka[ KOTa I-lriKoe; Trie; MOVOOTTlPlou.

cctvercn em TOUAOXlCrTOV we; TO 1839 Mv unf]pxov XOVlO fE,w ana TO OUTl«o TEiXTl. Mercvevecreoc Xo.VlO o:

OUTf] ni St011 riTOV TO 'AOAaV, TouAOUl-lnO, IoouA ii kooucoeo. Movocmpr. KOPUTOa KOt rtcrsoo X6vl.

To X6VlO rtou ow9T1KOV we; onueoo ii VlO TO ortotc unopxouv nsoroootepee; nxnoocootec eiVOI KTtO/-lQTQ TOU TtAoue; TOU 190u Kat TWV apxwv TOU 2000 at.

To KOPUTOO XOVI mn QIOO"TOuPWOTl Movo01T] piau KO[ 'Oliuooi;wC; mo BopMpl elver KTiol-'O TOU 1902. It YEVIKI':C; YPOI-'I-'E~ ~POTOTOV nnpnOOOIOKO nino 6vamu~T)<; yupw ana Illa 00",.,. ~i: EVa TI-'iil-'a TOU IOOYEiou 6pioKOVTOI 01 ana 9nK~C; Koi 01 mo6"01 nou OVOiYOVIOI crn;v au"'"

1978). BpioMCTO' KOYlIi ar,., /i,oaroupwon rlilv lii!iwy KliA60u Koi nOTlOPP'lyOTlO,j"ou.

62