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This book is a reprint of:

Glosses on the Book of Documents

Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastem Antiquities, No. 20. 1948.
Glosses on the Book of Documents. II.
BMFEA No. 21. 1949.
Reprinted in offset
The present work is a direct sequel to my papers Glosses on the Kuo feng Odes,
1942, Glosses on the Siao ya Odes, 1944, Glosses on theTa ya and Sung Odes 1946
(BMFEA 14, 16, 18). In order to facilitate brief references, the present glosses
are numbered in sequence to those earlier ones, our first gloss here being n:o 1207.
A fundamental principle in all my glosses is a constant reference to the Archaic
Chinese phonology. Only with the aid of the archaic pronunciation of the words
is it possible to solve the intricate problems of the so-called k i a - t s i e, phonetic
loans, and the true meaning of a word can often be. best decided by etymology,
i. e, through determining to which word family it belongs, what js its word stem
(cf. B. Karlgren, Word Families in Chinese, :BMFEA 5, 1933). The correctness of
the decisions thus reached with the aid of phonology presupposes that the phonetic
system of Archaic Chinese is sufficiently known and that my reconstruction of
that system (as summed up in my Grammata Serica, BMFEA 12, 1940) is in the
main trustworthy. Some writers have called in question the reliability of this
reconstruction or have simply sweepingly condemned it. Their reason for this
judgment is principally th!s: that the language of the Odes is not homogeneous,
that it is a conglomerate of a series of disparate ancient dialects, and that no
reconstruction of one definite High-Chinese>> early Chou language can be effected
with the aid of the two principal sources, to which I have had recourse: the rimes
of the Odes and the composition of the h i.e she n g characters (those characters
which have a >>phonetiG>>).
In favour of the thesis that the language of the Odes is heterogeneous, repre-
senting several or many ancient dialects, two arguments have been advanced.
One is the classical tradition that the section Kuo feng means The customs
(moeurs) of the states>>, ~ t n that they are popular songs culled in various feudal
states and simply brought together in a collection. This thesis was long ago
definitely refuted by H. Maspero, and, as we shall see presently, it is utterly
untenable. Moreover, as I have proved in Gloss 757, though fen g 'wind' can
certainly mean in many contexts :a current, a custom', its meaning in the Odes
is quite different. It means 'air', melody, and the Kuo feng (Pei feng, Cheng feng
etc.) are court poems composed in the Chou capital but sung with the airs of the
various feudal states (>>the airs of Pei, the airs of Cheng>> etc.). The second argu-
ment, which has sometimes been advanced with strong emphasis and in a very
apodictic way, is that the earliest d i a I e c t dictionary, the Fang yen,.
reveals that many words that occur in the Odes were d i a I e c t w o r d s, not
general words (what the Chinese call t 'u n g hi n g h u a): words used only in
certain provinces and quite unknown in other parts of early China. The hete-
rogeneous nature of the Odes seems thus to be definitely proved, since part of its
vocabulary can be shown to be )>dialect words)>.
This argument only goes to prove that its propounders lack even an elementary
knowledge of linguistic science, its laws and methods. Fang yen was written by
Yang Hiung, who died in 18 A. D. It depicts the dialect vocabulary of middle
Han time. The Odes were composed for the most part in Western Chou time
(1027-771 B. C.), a few of them slightly later, but none later than the 6th century
B. C. T h e r e i s a g a p o f 600-900 y e a r s b e t w e e n t h e 0 d e s
and t h e F a n g y e n. It is quite impossible and unallowable to draw any
conclusions whatever regarding the language of the Odes from a document like
the Fang yen written so4ll.any centuries later than the former. If a writer in the
field of Anglo-Saxon philology were to propound that a word now only occurring
in certain English dialects but not in High English must eo ipso have been merely
a dialect word and not a general word in the language 1100-1200 A. D., he would
be dismissed immediately as an ignoramus. The simple fact, known to every
serious linguist, is that when a word becomes obsolete and dies out in a language
it does not do so suddenly and simultaneously in all the parts of the language field.
When a once frequent and general word loses ground and beeomes forgotten in the
leading regions of the total field, it almost invariably lingers on, sometimes for
many centuries, in certain parts of the field: from being a g en e r a l w o r d it
becomes a d i a 1 e c t word, and finally, perhaps, dies out altogether. We can
never conclude from the fact that a word is today limited to one dialect only that
it was not a general word some centuries ago. A few examples: In Ancient Nordic
there was a general and regular frequently occurring word which meant 'head':
Icelandic hauss, Anc. Swedish and Anc. Danish hos. In Medireval Nordic texts it
recurs passim as a normal word for 'head'. Today it is entirely forgotten in most
parts of Sweden and Danmark; in central and northern Sweden it is entirely
unknown, and in High Swedish it is so dead that a Stockholmer has no idea what
a hOs means. But in some dialects in the south of Sweden and likewise in a few
Danish dialects it still lingers; there it is still a living dialect word meaning 'head'.
An English parallel to this is the word bairn ('child') which is now a dialect word
(Scottish dialect), but which earlier was a general word (it already occurs in Beo-
wulf in the form bearn). It would be easy to adduce scores of English examples
of this kind. In precisely the same way a word which Yang Hiung (in Fang yen)
in middle Han time describes as a dialect word occurring only in the provinces of
Yen and' Ts'i may very well have been a general and regular t ' u n g h i n g
Chinese 900-600 years earlier, and as such occur in the Odes. Fang yen
can prove nothing whatever to the contrary. From being a general word in early
Chou time it has become more and more obsolete in the lapse of many centuries
and lingered on in middle Han time as a dialect word only, in the regions of Yen
and Ts'i (just like hOs and bairn).
If the arguments adduced for the linguistically heterogeneous nature of the
Odes thus fail utterly, it does not necessarily follow that the theory as such is
wrong: a true theory can sometimes be advocated with faulty arguments by
ignorant writers. Let us therefore examine the case somewhat more closely.
The principal source used for the reconstruction of Archaic Chinese is the rimes
of the Odes (Sill king). In my Grammata Serica (pp. 90-110) I have tabulated
all the rimes in the Kuo feng, Siao ya, and Ta ya sections and those parts of the
Sung which have a regular riming system. There are altogether 1815 characters
which occur in a riming position (the words are actually more numerous, for many
characters occur with two or several meanings, and sometimes with two or several
readings). They stand as rimes in 4925 stanzas. These high figures are important.
We have here a very extensive material indeed, and thanks to these voluminous
materials it is possible to determine with a great measure of certainty w h i c h
r i m e s a r e r e g u I a r and which are not. In other words, it has been possible
to establish t h e r i m i n g c a t e g o r i e s of the Odes. Such and such finals
rime regularly with. such and such other finals, the large collection of
rimes. In this way, basing myself largely on, but further developing, the results
of a number of great Ts'ing scholars, the best of them being Tuan Yii-ts'ai and,
particularly, Kiang Yu-kao, I have established 26 r i :in e cIa sse s, each of them
comprising a certain number of Archaic finals. The 4th class, for instance, con-
tains the finals which, when supplied with their reconstructed sound values, were
as follows: an : wan : an : wan : jan : jwan : ian : iwan : an : : jan : jwan. All these
finals rime freely and regularly with each other. Similarly, the riming finals of
class 21 were: ak: wak : jak : jwak: ek: wek: juk : ag: wag: jag : jwag: eg : weg: jug.
If we now examine those rime lists more closely, we shall find that the number
of cases in which a word rimes with one or several others in a reg u 1 a r way,
i. e. within the limits of the established rime classes, is 1571. Besides these 1571
strictly regular rimes, there are, on the one hand, 92 rimes which might be called
subsidiary rimes, i. e. rimes that are not strictly regular (keeping within the
established classes) but are still phonetically very understandable, a slight licentia
poetica, the phonetic similarity being still sufficiently strong to warrant a makeshift
On the other hand there are 27 frankly bad and faulty rimes, e. g.
d'iok: d'ieg; twar: gjwed; gljam: xiang; iam:tsong.
) Such subsidiary rimes have: l. The same final consonant, but principal vowels which do not
rime in the strict system: m (a) which properly rimes in the m (at) class, in 14 ca8es rimes in the
en (et) class; &.! and og, which in the strict system are not allowed to rime, form subsidiary rimes in
13 cases; 6ng ("k, &./)occasionally rime with ung (uk, ug); am a.nd/im with am. 8d with ad, an with en.
2. The same principal vowel, but different final consonants, which in the strict system do not rime
(however, they are still consonants that are cognate: both dentals, or both gutturals),
e. g. 9d with 11r; m with ar; -ag with -ang.
------------------ ----
These figures: 1571 strictly regular rimes (often with quite a number of words
in the riming series) and 92 subsidiary rimes as against 27 faulty and irregular
rimes, afford indeed absolutely crushing evidence. Such a high degree of regularity
is remarkable. It reveals two important facts:
First, there cannot be any possibility whatsoever that the Kuo feng odes are
popular songs culled in the various farmers' regions. The system is far too strict
(the faulty rimes in the Kuo feng are indeed very few: 8 cases). No folk songs
have ever such precision in their rimes. The Odes, even the Kuo feng, are' all
court poems composed by scholars who had a marvellous versificatory technique,
quite remarkable in view of the early era of the Odes.
Secondly, the language of the Odes must on the whole be quite homo gene-
o us. If it were heterogeneous, if the various odes represented different archaic
dialects, it would be absolutely impossible to establish those 26 riming classes, so
strictly adhered to (1571 and 92 cases against 27). The consistency, indeed the
very severity of the system in the Odes at once and irrevocably proves
that the language of the odes is one, i. e. the language of Chou, the Royal
But let us for a moment suppose, for the sake of argument, that, after all, a
certain number of )>dialect \-lords)>, not really belonging to the court language of
Chou, had crept into some odes. Would they, eo ipso, by their presence in the
Odes, invalidate our system of phonetic reconstruction? By no means. In order
to be )>dangerous)> they would have: l. to stand in a riming position (since the
reconstruction is solely based on the riming functions; words in the middle of the
lines are not pertinent to the reconstruction question); 2. to be the only repre-
sentatives of certain reconstructed finals. As a rule, however, this never happens.
If we examine the said 1815 characters which occur as rimes, we find that circa
1200 (two thirds, a very high figure) are such as belong to the most common stock
of the general language: m a 'horse', k u o 'state', tung 'east', y u 'to have',
etc. The remaining circa 600 are less common, but the great majority of them
are such as are, after all, attested in three or four other archaic texts independent
of the Odes, and may therefore, with a large measure. of certainty, be expected to
have been general (t ' u n g hi n g) words. But then there are, at any rate, a
few riming words, which are indeed exceedingly rare, some of them even quite
unknown outside the Odes. Are these not risky materials, since we have no means
of judging whether they are general words or )>dialect words)>? No, because the
reconstruction scheme is not based on them. In ode 8 we have a rare rime word
~ ~ *kiet I kiet I k i e 'to take in the held-up flap', but the r c h a ~ c final iet was
not reconstructed with the aid of that hapax legomenon but of common and general
words like 'fffl *tsiet jtsiet J t s i e and *fi kiet I kiet I k i e. In ode 28 the rime
word Ji] g'ang I yang I hang is a hapax legomenon; but the Archaic final ang is
based on a long series of very common words, riming in the Odes, such as JIJIJ #
~ ~ -*
The general conclusions that can be drawn from the preceding are as follows:
l. The language of the Odes is on the whole quite homogeneous (the court
language of Chou) and can safely be used as a basis for the reconstruction of its
Archaic phonology. 2. The rimes of the Odes are sufficiently numerous and
sufficiently strict in their rules to allow of a systematic reconstruction. 3. The
Archaic phonology thus reconstructed (as recorded in dictionary form in Grammata
Serica) can safely be used for philological purposes, in the interpretation of difficult
If we now revert to the present glosses on the Book of Documents, we should
add a few remarks.
The Shu king (Shang shu) is a collection of exceedingly difficult and, largely,
very obscure texts, and it is doubtful whether it will ever be possible definitely to
determine its correct form and interpretation. In the cases in which we happen
to know (through ancient quotations) the so-called Kin-wen version, we frequently
find that it deviates badly from the traditional Ku-wen version. This makes it
tempting to conclude that in the numerous cases, known only in the Ku-wen ver-
sion, which are obscure and difficult to construe, the text is too badly corrupted
to admit of a successful analysis. But in my opinion this should not deter us from
endeavouring to unravel as much of its secrets as is possible by the aid of the
materials available. If we can arrive at a fairly reasonable interpretation of a
difficult Ku-wen passage, there is always a good chance that the text is not spoiled
but is simply difficult because of its high age and archaic language.
Owing to the great difficulties of most' of the Shu chapters, the divergences
among the Chinese scholars as to the true division of the lines and meanings of
the phrases have been very considerable. The Shu king literature is immense,
and it would be impossible to adduce, in every case, all the proposals for inter-
pretation that have been advanced. That would have required several stout
volumes. It has been necessary here to select and submit to the student the
opinions of a limited number of leading scholars. The authorities most frequently
referred to are the following:
Ancient and mediaeval authors:
Cheng Huan (2nd c. A. D;); the glosses of this author that are known today are
all recorded, for instance, in the works of Kiang Sheng and Sun Sing-yen below.
A few glosses of Cheng's teacher Ma Jung are likewise known.
Pseudo-K'ung An-kuo (3rd c. A. D.; his name here always abbreviated into;
PK'ung), in the main embodying the teachings of Wang Su. His glosses are to be
found in the Sh'i san king chu su.
K'ung Ying4a; (beginning of the 7th c. A. D.), in Sh'i san king chu su.
Ts'ai Ch'en (beginnirig of the 13th c. A. D.) the summarizer of the Sung school
interpretations. In: Shu king tsi chuan.
Ts'ing and later scholars: .
Kiang Sheng, in: Shu tsi chu yin su (in: Huang Ts'ing king kie).
Sun Sing-yen, in: Shang shu kin ku wen chu su (ibid.).
Liu Feng-lu (largely incorporating the ideas of Chuang Shu-tsu) in: Shang
shu kin ku wen tsi kie (in: Huang Ts'ing king kie su pien).
Wang Yin-chi, in: King yi shu wen (in: Huang Ts'ing king kie).
Ch'en K'iao-tsung, in: Kin wen Shang shu king shuo k'ao (in: Huang Ts'ing
king kie su pien).
Yu Yue, in: K'un king p'ing yi (ibid.).
Sun Yi-jang, in: Shang shu p'ien chi.
Chang Ping-lin, in: Ku wen Shang shu shi yi.
Wang Sien-k'ien, in: Shang shu K'ung chuan ts'an cheng.
Yu Sing-wu, in: Shuang kien yi Shang shu sin cheng.
More occasional references are made to many more scholars, for instance, Su
Shi, Lin Chi-k'i, Lu Tsu-k'ien, Chu Hi (all Sung), Wu Ch'eng (early Yuan), Huei
Tung, Wang Ming-sheng, Tuan Yu-ts'ai, K'ung Kuang-sen, Chu Tsun-sheng, Yuan
Yuan, P'i Si-juei (all. Wang Kuo-wei, Ku Kie-kang.
Yao tien (including the Shun tien of the orthodox version).
1207. Y ii e j o k i k u t i Y a o y ii e Fang h ii n 1.
y e 2 the variant 3 in quotation by Li Shan:comm. on Wsiian. In Wang
YI s Luling kuang tien fu we find 4, which suggests that Wang had a Shu version with 3.
Yiie jo:
A. Y ii e, written 2 or 3 or 5 (all *gjwiitfNwvtj y ii e) is a common initial particle, un-
very common in the Shi etc. J o 6 is similarly often a mere initial particle,
cf. Shu: Kun Shi 7, where j o does not mean 'if', since it is equal to Shu: Ta kao 8 both
j o and ! ii e. being mere particles equal to wei 9 (for more ex. see Wang Yin-chi: King
chuan shi ts'I). In our phr. above, y ii e- j o is a binominal initial particle as already
recognized by Ts'ai Ch'en ( = 10), though he tries to invest it with a fuller akin to
y u e 2 'to speak': Y ii e- j o = 11 >>the saying is like this>>, i. e. mamely, enim>>.
!his IS vetoed by and 5 of the particle, and it cannot be carried through
m Shao kao: y u e J o I a 1 s an y ii e 12, where y ii e j o is obviously an empty
partiCle (cf. Gl .. 1715). - B. Various ancient comm. took j o 6 to be a verb, see
Yang Hmng had already understood it as a verb, since in his Ki Ts'in mei sin
(U: Wsiia?) says j o k u c he c h' eng Y a o Shun 13 Among those who accorded
with antiqmty, one praises Yao and Shrm>>, evidently alluding to our Shu passage. -
C takes both y ii e j o in their modern sense: >>I say, if>> we examine etc.).
This disregards the ancient variants of y ii e. - A is confirmed by conclusive text. par.
The whole sentence:
The oldest, i.nterpr. be gleaned Yi Chou shu: Wu mu: Y ii e j o k i k u,
Y u e. h a o t I en c h 1 tao 14, which can only mean: >>Examining into antiquity
(we ft?d that) the way of Bright Heaven .... >>. It is quite evident that k i 15 here must
have Its common meaning of 'to examine'. The phr. is modelled after our famous Shu
and it is clear that the Chou time author prmctuated after k u : y ii e j o
k I k u, t 1 Y a o y ii e Fang- h ii n and interpreted: Eumining into antiquity (we
find that) the emperor Yao was called Fang-hiin. (So also Legge). Cf. Shu: T'ai shi (ap.
Han shu: P'ing Tang chuan): Cheng k i k u, k i en kung 16. Here the first phr.
ends by k. i k u, just as in our y ii e j o k i k u, t i Y a o y ii e above.- B. Various
Han and later authors punctuated after Y ao: Y ii e j o k i k u t i Y a o, Y ii e ]' a n g-
h ii n. This must already.have been the opinion of Pan Ku, for in Po hu t'ung: Sheng
jen he cites the quite analogous phr. in Shu: Kao Yao mo (Y ii e j o k i k u K a o Y a o
y ii e Y ii n t i etc. 17), in a way which shows that he punctuated: y ii e j o k i k u K a o
Y a o, y ii e Y ii n t i: >>Examining into the ancient Kao Yao (we find that) .... >>, and he must
necessarily have understood our Yao tien phr. above in the same way. For the rest, the
interp. vary. -a. Cheng Hiian: j o 6 = 18 'to accord with, to be concordant, obedient'
(common); k i 15 = 19 'to accord with': k u 20 = 21 'Heaven'. Thus: >>The emperor
Yao who was j o concordant (obedient) and k i k u agreed with (>>the ancient one>>===)
Heaven, was called Fang-hiim. For support have been adduced: Li: Ju hing 22, on which
Cheng Hiian says k i 15 = 23: The scholar has present men with whom he associates,
and ancient men with whom he accords>>; but k i 15 here may equally well be taken in
its ordinary sense: >>and ancient men with whom he studies>>; Hanfei: Chu tao 24 - here
k i is sure enough combined with t 'u n g 19, but it still means 'to examine': We keep
on our course and scrutinize and accord with ih>; Chou Ii: Siao tsai: >>He regulates the
Conscriptions for war and hunts 25 according to registers and (investigations =) calcula-
tions>>-!- though Cheng Chrmg here says k i means 26 'counting' or 23 'bringing together',
i. e. >>summing up, it frmdamentally means 'investigation', and Cheng Chung's h o 23
has here not the sense of 'to accord with'; Chuang: Siao yao yu 27 - here Lu Te-ming
reads k i and Si-ma Piao says k i = 28 >>The great flow (comes to, reaches:) joins Heaven>>,
but Sii and Li read k' i as in k' i s h o u 29: >>The great flow knocks against Heaven>>,
which is certainly preferable. Thus Cheng Hiian's gloss k i 15 = t ' u n g 19 lacks true
support; k i never really means 'to accord with'. K u 20 = 21 'Heaven' refers to_ Yi
Chou shu: Chou chu 30. But this is exceedingly scholastic. - {3. PK'ung: j o 6 = 18
(with Cheng above), k i 15 = 31 'to examine' (common), paraphrasing: 32 >>The one
who could accord with and scrutinize the ancient (norms) and practise them was the
emperor Yam>.- I' Ts'ai Ch'en simplifies the interpr. by taking k u as an attribute to
t i ya o : >>Investigating the ancient emperor Yao>>. - A is the earliest interpr. and sup-
ported by a good Shu par.
A. PK'ung reads *pjwangfpiwangf fang in rising tone: >>(The one who) imitates the
merits (of the ancestors)>>.- B. Cheng Hiian and Wang Su read *piwang in falling tone:\
>>(The one who) spread everywhere his merits>>. -It is really futile to try to choose be-
tween these attempts at the etymology of the name.
1208. K ' i n m i n g w e n s i an an 33.
For k 'in 'respectful', min g 'enlightened', wen 'accomplished' there are various
lengthy abstract definitions in the early comm., not worth while reproducing here.
/ El g JP(t./Lt, El 3 lt. -t ;fi 1-Ji;f, .?. '- 7, ,k t;:t. ,_
J;.. !f_,l/L r.tti 10. 11. Jt 3. <5 14. e-=##.i\!; 3
.:K_ .Z.di_ IJ.A1i It /7_. E1 ;!i $- J1l!l,19.f<.\ ;UJ. i; t/. A.t.t.1f&;{f
J....fft,j! iJ 2-:J. -@-.t-1 f;f ffM:f tc"!t ft:...23
.tj 30 J;;..J?.. -;t; J/ 4f ..ll .1f ;t;-Q. :t.. -1j' j! tc Jo/. x-.
A. PK'ung (Ku-wen) read as above: wen s 1 an an. Shiwen reads 34 *sjaglsil s 1
in falling tone, or in the ordinary way, in even tone. Cheng Hiian took it in its ordinary
sense of 'to think', thus: 'thoughtful'. Ma Jung on the other hand says 35 >>the virtue
being pure and complete is called s i>>. This is based on Yi Chou shu: S h i fa 36. Some
Ts'ing scholars imagine that Ma took 34 *sjag to be loan char. for 37 *sgk 'sincere' of B
below, but this is not convincing. His definition, that of Yi Chou shu, may just as well
be a free paraphrase of s i 34: 'thoughtful = wise, sage'. There is nothing to prove that
the Chou shu definition refers to our Shu passage. PK'ung took k ' in m i n g w e n
s i as subject and an an as verb: >>By his reverence etc. he tranquillized (the world)>>.
Ts'ai Ch'en more nq,turally takes an an as an adjective coordinated with the preceding:
>>He was respectful, enlightened, accomplished, thoughtful and peaceful>>. - B. Another
version (Kin-wen) ap. Shang shu k'ao ling yo read wen s e yen yen 38: Respectful,
enlightened, accomplished, sincere, peaceful (mild). For 39 *sakjsgkl s e 'sincere' see Gl. 73,
with text par. Whether the orig. Shu had 40 *an I an Ian or 41 *an I an I yen, the
meaning is 'peaceful, mild', with Ts'ai Ch'en above. -We have s e 39 in precisely this kind
of enumeration of virtues in the Shi (see Gl. 73), and version B therefore seems pre- ferable.
1209. K u an g p e i s i pi a o 42.
PK'ung (Ku-wen versionf'read like this; the Han shu: Wang Mang chuan (Kin-wen
version) had 43.
A. Cheng Hiian (foll. by Ts'ai Ch'en), disregarding the Kin-wen, ,takes k u an g 44
with its ordinary reading and sense: His brightness (glory) (covered=) reached to the
four extreme points>>. - B. PK'ung, saying k u an g 44 = 45 'fully (extensively)'
takes 44 as short-form for 46 (Erya 46 = 46), which is a variant of 47 (both *kwdng,
falling time), thus considering the Ku-wen form k u an g 44 as a variant for the k u an g
47 of the Kin-wen: He extensively (covered =) possessed the four extreme points. This is
logically best and confirmed by many text par., see Gl. 899. PK'ung thinks that the
subject of the clause is the virtue told before: >>(His virtuous fame) (fully =) extensively
(covered ==) spread out over the four extreme points>>, but the parallels adduced in Gl.
899 show that the subject is Yao himself. The following phr.: (Ku-wen:) k o y ii shan g
hi a 48 (Kin-wen: k i a y ii shan g hi a 49 - the words 50 *klfik I kvk I k o and
51 *kd I ka I k i a were synonymous) should be explained thus: >>He reached to (Heaven)
above and (J1Jarth) below>>, i. e. he obtained the favour both of God in Heaven and the
people on earth. - We compare: Shu: Kao Yao mo (now Yi Tsi): T i k u an g t' i en
c h 1 hi a c h 1 y ii h a i y ii 70. Here again (with Kiang Sheng and Sun Sing-yen)
k u an g should be equal to 46, thus: Oh emperor, extensively, all under Heaven, even to
the corners of the seas ..
1210. K ' o m i n g t s ii n t e 52.
The word *tsjwiJn I tsjuen 1 t s ii n 53 means 'great, eminent', and in the Odes it is often
wr. 54 (same reading), see Gl. 561. Li: Ta hiie quotes our line k' o min g s ii n t e iSiS,
the 66 *s-jwiJn I s-juen Is ii n meaning 'high, lofty', a cognate word. It is impossible to
tell whether the orig. text had *tsfwiJn or *siwrm. Probably the Chou graph was simply
57, and the Han scholars have supplied either rad. 'man', taking it to be *tsjwJn 'great',
or 'mountain', taking it as *siwgn 'lofty'.
A. The oldest interp .. is that of the Ta.hiie author, who clearly expounds the meaning
as: He was able to make bright his lofty (great) Wang Ch'ung (Lun heng: Ch'eng
ts'ai) follows this interpr., and Cheng Hiian in comm. on Li: Ta hiie. - B. Cheng Hiian
in eomm. on Shu says t s ii n t e means 'men of eminent virtue' and PK'ung expounds
further: >>He was able to (make bright =) promote those of eminent virtue>>. (Both Legge
and Chavannes MH I, 41 take t s ii n and t e separately: >>the t s ii n eminent, able and
the t e virtuous>>, but that was certainly not Cheng's idea). -

c. Si-ma Ts'ien (Wu ti pen ki) renders the line n eng min g h ii n t e 68. Possibly
Si-ma had a text with h ii n t e, but that is not certain, for he frequently replaced words
in the Shu text by interpretation synonyms (e. g. here n eng for k 'o). It is therefore
more probable that he thought the 53 *ts-jwan or 66 *siwiJn of the text was a loan char.
for 59 (or, perhaps, for 60 *(l'iwiJn f dz'iuen Ish u n 'docile, obedient', which he then
glossed by 69). This 59 *xiwan I xiuiJn I h ii n is etym. id. w. 61 (same sound). The
stem means 'to teach to train' and also '(taught, trained=) docile, obedient, concordant'.
Sii Kuang (early 5th e.) briefly says 59= 61. But Si-ma's line has been understood in
two ways:- a. Si-ma Cheng (8th c.): 59= 60 (cf. above): He was a?le to make his
(docile:) concordant virtue>>. -fl. Sun Sing-yen: 59= 61 as an active verb, referrmg to
Cheng Chung's comm. on Chouli: T'u hiin (h ii n = 62 'to guide'), thus: l>He was able
make bright his (training =) instructing virtue>>, which is more far-fetched. - There IS
no reason to abandon the earliest interpr. (A).
1211. Y i t s ' i n k i u t s u 63.
>>And so he made affectionate the nine branches of the family>>. There have been two
expl. of the term k i u t s u.
A. Ma Jung and Cheng Hiian, foll. by PK'ung and Ts'ai Ch'en: the 9 branches were from
great-great-grandfather down to great-great-grandson, all of the g 64
name. Pan Ku (Han shu: Kao tiki) records that in 200 B. C. >>one the office
of t s u n g c h e n g 65 governor of the clan in order to regulate k I u t s u 9
branches of the family>>; here k i u t s u can only mean those who had the same s 1 n g
and clan temple. -B. The schools of Ou-yang and Hia-hou (ap. K'ung comm.
on Tso: Huan 6): the 9 branches were collateral branches on both the s and the
mother's side and those relatives by marriage for whom one wore mournmg. Po hu
t'ung: Tsung tsu (compiled by the same Pan Ku quoted A above) _enumerates
in detail, adding the amusing speculation that though k I u 66 certainly mne
branches at the same time it means k i u 67 'exhaustively'' all those who are tiCd together
by bonds' of t s 'in kinship affection.- It might seem since Yao. personally,
through his virtue, >>made affectionate the 9 branches>>, this mterpr. A, have
in view 9 generations alive simultaneously. But the expressiOn k 1 u .t s u may? of
course, have been generalized from the literal and technical sense of >>the mne
of the clam into a more general and vague expr. for >>the whole clam. In archa1c China
it was certainly the branches which had the same s i n g 68 were felt to be _the funda-
mental unit of the family, and those who had a different s In g 69 - on the
female side and relatives by marriage - were much more outsiders. Hence mterpr. A
in the general sense of >>the whole clam is more plausible than B.
1212. Pien chang posing 71.
It has long been established that p 'in g 72 (small seal form 73) is a scribe's error
for p i en 7 4. (small seal 7 5) = pie n 76 'to distinguish' (S'i-ma Ts'ien rendering it by
loan char. pi en 77, and Cheng Hiian reading pien chang 78), see Gl. 716 With
\3 17. :38. 37 4; 1-.i .J'L :f:Jt \'9 fJJl# ;It, H
47:1ii J: 1- 1t1 t J:. -r:: so. ;tr.J)J 7ttJJl
. .0:-... AJ:':lcr: jtltl,
70. $ 1- .?i.r rl..f-31 B ft?:i Sf 73. <5 rJ.llf R:fit. rrcD!?SmftH
Shl P.arallels. When foll. bY: Ts'.ai Ch'en takes 72 in its ordinary reading p 'in g
and sense: >>He tranqmllized ... >> he IS wide of the mark. P o s i n g the hundred clans>>
in spite of the fact that it often means the people>> generally (passim in the Shu) here'
with Cheng Hiian and PK'ung, undoubtedly means >>the gentry>> (those who held
positions), shown by the context: Yao's regulates first k i u t s u his family,
then p o sIng the gentry (the great families), then wan pang the myriad feudal
anf finally l i min of the (common) people>>. Sun Sing-yen
pomts out that we fmd the same distmctwn in Kyii: Chou yii: p o s i n g c h a o m i n
79 hundred clans and the multitude of the (common) people>>, on which Wei Chao:
p o sIng = 80 the hundred officers>>. For Ts'ai Ch'en's idea that p o sing here
would mean >>the common people of the Royal domain proper>> there is no support whatever.
Thus our line means: He distinguished and (gave marks of distinction to =) honoured the hundred
clans (the gentry)
1213. L i min y ii pie n s hi. y u n g 81.
l i m i : not >>the people>> but >>the numerous people>> see Gl. 430.
believes li 82 IS equal to 1 i 83 'to benefit'; but the standing phr. I i
m I n IS very common m contexts where 83 would make no sense.
A. The version 'reads as above. PK'ung says nothing of the awkward y ii
84 and explams: >>The numerous people were (changed:) transformed and then became
concordant>>. Y ii 84 has been explained in two ways.- a. Ying Shao (2nd c. A. D.) in
comm. on Han shu ( cf. below) says y ii 84 = y ii s h i 85 'thereupon'. It is true that
b?th and Mao's comm. on Shi say y ii an 86 ('thereupon') = y ii 84 and Sun
Smg-yen m consequence that y ii pie n is equal to y ii an pie n 87 >>thereupon
was. But m fact there are no text par. whatever with y ii 84 alone and
by m the of y ii s hi 85 = 86. Moreover, in the Shu the regular
prepositiOn IS y ii 88 (*g1wo), not yii 84 (* jo); in a few instances the present orthodox
text has 84, ?ut then there are always early text variants with the 88 that is typical of
the and IS hence correct, and the 84 is due to errors of scribes. - fl. Ts'ai Ch'en,
84 cannot the preposition y ii, therefore reads the char. 84 *oj-uo 1 w u,
an common m the Shu and the Shi, thus: The people - lo! - were trans-
formed>>. This, however, is equally impossible, for this interjection must always commence
(passim in and the line should then have run: w u, l i min pie n
s :fun g. - B. An Imperial edwt of 23 B. C. (Han shu: Ch'eng ti ki) quotes the line:
li mIn. Y: ii fan s hi y u n g v This, been differently explained: -a. Ying Shao
(comm. takes fan 90 (*b 1wan I b If an) as loan char. for the 91 (*plian 1
pjan I pie n) of the A version, which is plainly impossible.- {3. Wei Chao (comm. ibid.)
says f a n 90 = 92 'much, plenty', which is the ordinary meaning of the word ('luxuriant,
ample, prosper??.s') .. Again, Wang Fu in Ts'ien fu lun: K'ao tsi (2nd c. A. D.) expounds
Y a o y a n g li m I n e r c h i s h i y u n g 93 as >>Yao nourished the numerous people
and caused them to be concordant. Sun Sing-yen thinks that by yang 94 'to nourish'
Wang e:cpounded the word fan 90, but that is not correct. Thew. 95 *jo 1 'i.wo 1 y ii
this word had no final consonant in Archaic Chinese is. proved by a rime in Ode 164)
t? give plenty of fo?d, to satiate' had a variant 96. Tso: Siang 26 k i a s h an t s e y ii
s I. >>When they mcreased the number of their dishes, they gave abundantly (to their
(:ru Yii: y ii = 98, :to satiate'f This expr. y ii s i 99 recurs written y ii
100 to give plenty of food m Hou Han shu: Ma Jung chuan. The variant 96 for 95
IS not known from any text earlier than this, but Wang Fu's explanation of our Shu line
above . (y a. n g 94) reveals that it was current in Hari time and that Wang took the y ii
84 (* I I y ii) of the text to be a short-form of 96, a variant of the well-known
archaic word 95 (* io I jwo I y ii) 'to give plenty of food'; this is the reason why he glossed

it by y an g 94 'to nourish'. Just as in the preceding line p i e n c h a n g 1 is a com-
bination of two analogous words: 'to distinguish' and 'to (give marks of distinction to =)
honour', so here we have y ii - fan, two analogous words: y ii 84 ( = 96 = 95) 'to
give plenty of food to' and fan 90 'plenty, ample, prosperous'. Thus the B text line
means: The numerous people were amply-nourished and prosperous, and then became
concordant. The short-form 84 for 96 has nothing astonishing about it. In the same
way the phr. y ii y i 2 (Ch'u: Kiu pien) recurs vi'ith the short-form y ii y i 3 in a Wei-
time stone inscription.- C. A Han-time stone inscr. in the Li shi has a third text version:
4. The Ts'ing scholars discuss whether pie n 5 is a loan char. for the 91 of A or the 90
of B. Chang Ping-lin would take this pi e n 5 = 6 t = Shuowen 7) to mean 'to rejoice',
since Mao Heng defines it as such (then loan char. for 8) in Ode 197; but that is not admis-
sible, see Gl. 591. There is thus no safe text corroboration for a meaning 'to rejoice'.-
In the orthodox A text the char. 84 constitutes an almost insuperable difficulty, whether
with interpr. a or fl. No such difficulty mars the version B, which is attested early (W. Han
time) and makes very good sense. On the other hand, it can hardly be claimed that the
pie n 91 (*pljan) of A was a loan char. for the fan 90 (*pjwan) of B. We have, in fact,
two different and irreconcilable versions, of which B is decidedly preferable.
1214. N a i m i n g H i H o 9.
In my paper Legends and Cults in ancient China (BMI!'EA 18) I have extensively studied
this and the following paragraphs and arrived at the conclusion that the Yao tien is here
composed of two different parts. The primary part consists of the first 18 words: N a i
m i n g H i H o k ' i n j o h a o t ' i e n, l i s i a n g j i y ii e s i n g c h ' e n, k i n g
s h o u j en s hi >>And then he charged Hi Ho (i. e. one person, the cult-master of the
sun) reverently to follow the august Heavem etc. followed by the calendar passages: j i
c h .e n g s i n g n i a o, y i y i n g c h u n g c h ' u n, k ii e m i n s i, n i a o s h o u
t s i w e i; j i y u n g s i n g h u o, y i c h e n g c h u n g h i a, k ii e m i n y i n,
n i a o s h o u h i k o; s i a o c h u n g s i n g s ii, y i y i n c h u n g t s ' i u, k ii e
m i n y i, n i a o s h o u m a o s i e n; j i t u a n s i n g m a o, y i c h e n g c h u n g
t u n g, k ii e m in y ii, n i a o s h o u j u n g m a o. This primary passage has been
embellished and tampered with by the editor in Western Chou time. He wanted to have
the four seasons 0f the calendar specially represented each by one cult-master, and so he
took the Hi Ho above to be two men: Hi and Ho, and invented younger brothers for them,
who were sent to the east (Hi Chung), the south (Hi Shu), the west (Ho Chung) and the
north (Ho Shu). He therefore added a secondary part, four passages inserted at the head of
each season of the original calendar: F e n m i n g H i C h u n g t s e Y ii - y i y ii e
Y an g - k u, yin c h ' u j i, p ' in g c hi t u n g t so ... ; s h e n m i n g H i
S h u etc. That this is so follows clearly from the fact that in the primary text it is said:
N a i m i n g H i H o, whereas, if these were originally meant to be two and the elder
brothers of the rest, the passage would necessarily have run: N a i m i n g H i P o H o
Po (corresponding to Hi Chung, Hi Shu, Ho Chung, Ho Shu). The rea,sons for concluding
that Hi Ho was primarily one person are fully detailed in my paper cited above. But
to the editor of the Yao tien, such as we have it in the Shu, the phrase certainly meant:
>>And then he charged Hi and Hm>.
R_ to B it .r;$_tt 8'3.4:.1 !l5.ffl 1l -f'
3.77:' '1. ;r, ft 7. "# /7
1215. L i siang j i y ii e sing c h' en 10.
A. Cheng Hiian: s i n g - c h ' e n is a binome: >>To calculate and delineate the sun,
the moon and (the other) heavenly bodies (i.e. stars and constellations)>>. For this general
meaning 'heavenly body' of the word c h 'en 11; cf. Kyii: Lu yii: >>The emperor K'u
could 12 determine the (order =)courses of the 3 heavenly bodies (sc; sun, moon, stars)>>.
Evidently Cheng thought that the phr. sing c h' en referred to the four constellations
in the following calendar (n i a o, h u o, h ii, mao). - B. The same Cheng Hiian,
in comm. on .Chouli: Ta tsung po, same phr. j i y ii e sing c h ' en 13 says sing
means 14 'the five planets' and c h' en means 15 'the .conjunctions of sun and moon',
or, with Legge, the zodiacal spaces>> in which the firmament is divided by the.places of
conjunctions. Thus: To calculate and to delineate the sun, the moon, the planets and
(regions of) conjunction. (Chavannes on the other hand translates: Le soleil, la lune
sing les constellations, ch'en les syzygies de conjonction). For ch'en this is based
on Tso: Chao 7, phr. 16 (The regions of) the conjunctions of sun and moon, those are the
c h ' e n. - Both meanings (A and B) of c h ' e n are thus attested in early texts. But
A suits the context better; since sing - c h ' en reasonably (with A) alludes to the fol-
lowing four constellations (this is evidently why Chavannes translates sing by 'con--
stellation', not 'star'). -
1216. Tse Yii yi 17.
The Ku-wen reads 18 (*d'iiJc I a'vk Its e). The Kin-wen version lap. the Stone classics
of 175 A. D.) read 19 (*d'ag I d'uo It u), both meaning 'to dwell, to reside'. For 19-
in this sense see Gl. 794. For Yii-yi there are a great number of variants. In the present-
glosses I shall refrain entirely from discussing geographical names and their-localization ..
For my reasons for this see BMFEA 18, p. 208.
1217. Pien (p'ing1) chi tung tso 20.
A. In Gl. 1212 above we saw that, in a phr. there, .p ' in g 21 was simply a scribe's.
error for p i e n 22. The present case is much more complicated, but some early sources.
evidently had p i e n 22 = 23 or 24 'to distinguish, distribute, arrange', for Cheng Hiian
(comm. on Chouli: Feng siang shi) quotes pie n chi- 25, and Kia Kung-yen (ibid.)
says Shang shu ta chuan had 26 and S i - m a Cheng says it had 25. Thus: To arrange,
and regulate the works of the Eash. (For another interpr. of tung t so: the [heavenly]
actions of the east>> see Gl. 1226 A below). -B. Si-ma Ts'ien (Wu ti pen ki) evidently
likewise read pie n, for, as in the case Gl. 1212, he replaces the char. by pie n 2r
(loan-char.). But he reads the next word differently: pie n c h' eng tung t so 28:
>>To arrange and set the tasks for the works of the East>> (Chavannes translates c h '.eng
by 'promulguer', which is certainly not correct). Probably, however, the c h 'eng of
Si-ma's does not indicate a variant reading but is his gloss word for c h i 29: 'to regulate'"
taken in -the sense of settling the c h ' e n g 30 'measures, quota' of the daily work. -
C. There were, however, early versions which actually had p ' in g 21, not pie n 22'
(cf. D below). Shuowen quotes 31 (32 is a variant for 29, same reading and meaning);
To equalize and regulate the works of the East>>. Both Chao K'i (2nd c. A. D.) 1n comm.
on Meng: Wan Chang and PK'ung read p ' i n g c h i 33, and this has been accepted as
the orthodox version. - D. Ma Jting (ap. Shiwen) says p ' eng 34 =35. This shows
that in the character he really had, as phonetic, p ' i n g 21 and not p i e n 22. His
p 'eng 34 is a shorter way of writing 36 (*p'eng I p'eng I p 'en g), var. 37, in Ode 257
= 'to cause'; the same word as 38 (same sound) 'to cause' in Shu: Lo and Li cheng
(cf. Gl. 973). Thus: >>Causing a regulation of the works of the East>>. -E. It would appear
tha.t there is one more possibility. PK'ung and Kuangya have a gloss pie n 24 = 35 'to
cause'. H that could be duly substantiated, we could abide by the p i e n 22 = 24 of
the early versions but interpret this pie n as meaning 'to cause', synon. w. the p ' eng
/34 of Ma Jung's versions (D) and translate: >>Causing a regulation of the works of the East.
_,As we shall see immediately below, however, the gloss pie n -24 = s hi 35 is hardly
-:- All the rea<lings pie n (A, B), p ' in g (C) and p ' eng (D) make good
in such a . case we should follow the earliest attested version: p i e n (Shang shu
ta chuan, Shi ki). ---., We compare:
Shu: Tsiu kao: W u p i en n a i s i min mien y ii t s i u 39. A. PK'ung says:
pie n 24 = s hi 35 'to cause' (Kuangya has the same definition), and takes w u 40
as the ordinary imperative negation, s i m i n as 'those who govern the people' = offi-
cials: Do not cause your officers to plunge into wine. For this one slender support has
been adduced. In the Shu sii (Preface) we find wang p e i J u n g p o t so 41 The
king caused the prince of Jung to compose>> etc. ap.d Shiwen says: Ma Jung's verskm for
-p e i 42 'to cause' had p i e n 24. This, of course, cannot prove that p i e n was syno-
aymous with p e i and meant 'to cause'. In Ma's version the clause means: >>The king
(distinguished =) selected the prince of Jung to compose>>. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en takes u
10 as an ordinary negation ( = 43), which is in early texts, and punctuates after
s i: If do not properly arrange your officers, the people will steep itslllf in wine Shuowen
p i en 24 = c h i 44 'to regulate, arrange', properly 'to distinguish, distribute,
arrange', as y.J:>pye. - C. Kiang Sheng: p i e n 24 = p i e n 45 'all round'. In several
passages in Yili (IJiang yin tsiu li, Yen li), where the current text has 24; Cheng Hiian
says the Kin-wen version had 45 'all round', and later comm. all say that 24 *b'jan is loan
char. for 45 *pian. That is hardly necessary; there is simply an extension of meaning:
.24 '*b'ian 'to distribute, seriatim, all round'. So far Kia:q.g's theory is
admissible. But he explains,: >>If (in your admo:pishments) you do not go all round to
your officers, the people will plunge into wine?>, which is very forced. - B, which takes
.the word p i e n in normal sense and which divides the line in a rhythmically satis-
factory Wl).y: w u P i e n n a i s i, m i n m i e n y ii t s i u, is surely best.
N i a o s h o u t s i w e i 46.
Si-ma Ts'ien renders the line 47 .. The t s i are interchangeable and mean 'to
breed'. W e i 48 and 49 .were *mjwar (though in different tones) and can serve as
loan char. for each other (a person was called 50, in Lun and 51 in- Ts'e).
A. , Shuowen as quoted by P'ei Yin says wei 48 ('tail') == 52 'to copulate', evidently
alluding to our Shu passage. The present Shuowen text says 48 = '49 'a small thing'
fan appendix', pefinition by sound similarity, COJllii10n in Shuowen; h\)re certainly the
author was influenced by hjs knowledge of reading). But since 49 'a small thing'
is his definition of the qommon char. for 'tail', it is evident that Hii (or whoever form-
Ulated this version of the Shuowen) t!)ok Si-m,a's 49 'tlie small thing' to be a variant
!1:8 'tail' and our line to mean: "Birds and breed and (taih =) copulate. PK'ung
and Ts'ai Ch'en (with Legge) followed this. - B. Kiang Sheng insists that 48 'tail' is
a loan char. for 49 'small', and thl)-t Si-ma meant: birds and beasts breed and (are
small =) there are small ones>> (accepted by Chavannes). He refers to Kyii: Lu yii shang,
where n i a o s h o u y ii n 53 >>birds and beasts breed>> (spring time) is placed in
opposition to n. ia o s li o.u c :h' eng 54 >>birds and beasts are groww> (summer time),
: ::i.ffi.: t1 f-j li:fff;.>. a 'lil z lt. a .B z -'t _)tt,,._
16. ;t ./'i)If.j.o, 3f 21 :f- li )I(
Of) _L
3ft is 4.1 lfj 911 ;;.fJ *t .\
' . ' - . ' .
giving the same idea of spring as being the time when the animals have small ones. Since
there is no text par. of wei 'tail' meaning 'to copulate', it is tempting to accept B.
But we have no reason for believing that Si-ma really had a Shu text reading 49. His
49 may be, as often, his own gloss word. In accepting B we should have to assume a
k i a t s i e loan char. 48 for 49 in the Shu text, whereas A takes the actual word of the
text: 48 'tail' with a perfectly natural extension of meaning. A therefore seems safest.
T s e Nan k i a o, see Chavannes MH I, p. 45.
1219. Pie n c h 1 n an n go 55.
For variants and expl. of the first two words, see Gl. 1217 above.
A. The line above is PK'ung's orthodox version. 56 was *ngwafnguaf n g o. This
graph is interchangeable with 57, same sound. Si-ma Ts'ien's Shi ki in the version of
Chang Shou-tsie (foil. by the Sung Po na ed.) had this variant, reading 58 (Chang reads
57 *gwiafjwif1./ wei, but Ts'ie yiin, correctly identifying it with 56, reads *ngwafnguaf
f n go). Shang shu ta chuan and Cheng Hiian in gl. on Chouli: Feng siang shi both
likewise quote 59. This *ngwa (56 or 57), however, has three different meanings in the
ancient texts: a. synon. w. t so 60 'to act, to do, to move, to work', in this sefl:SC
sometimes also wr. 61, see Gl. 508, with Shi examples. b. 'false', see Gl. 306, with Shi:
examples. c. 'to change' f= 62) e. g. in Ode 191. This has given rise to different interpr.:
a. PK'ung (foil. by Ts'ai Ch'en, Kiang Sheng and Legge) n go= 62 'to transform',
thus: >>To arrange and regulate the transformations of the South. {Cf. also Cheng Hiian in
Gl. 1226 A below). - {J. Chang Shou-tsie: 57 means 'to do, to act, to work', thus: To arrang&
and regulate the works of the South, forming an exact par. to the preceding tung t so 63
>>works of the East>>. - B. The Shi ki in the version of Si-ma Cheng (now foil. by most cur-
rent editions) read 64, and Si-ma Cheng insists that this 67 should be read in its ordinary
way *gwia I jwif1. I wei 'to do, to act' (Han shu: Wang Mang chuan writes 65- this 66
*gwia 1 jwif1./ wei 'to fake, to concoct' is etym. the same word as 67 'to make'). The
meaning comes to the same as A fJ (curiously enough Sun Sing-yen quotes Huai: T'ien
wen 68 When the year is dry the grain is not [made =] achieved>>, i. e. does not ripen,
and suggests that nan wei means >>the achievement [of the crops] of the South>).
-Whether Si-ma Ts'ien wrote 57 (*ngwa) or 67 (*gwia) is immaterial; the meaning comes
to the same thing. The Shu text obviously had the former 56 v.. 57 *ngwa, and quite
as obviously in the sense of 'to do, to act', with A {J, as proved by the parallellism
with' 63 (so also Chavannes). It should be added, however, that the expl. of 56 = 'to.
change, transform' in A a above is influenced by the corresponding winter paragraph
69, which PK'ung thought meant >>the transformations>> (Cheng Hiian even believed that
tung t so 63 etc. referred to celestial phenomena, see Gl. 1226 below) and hence
conceived of as being a case of parallelism: n go 56 v.. y i 70. But, as we shall see in
Gl. 1226, y i 70 as well means simply >>work, like t so 60, n go 56, c h' eng 54
(>>achievements>>), so that all through the parallelism is in favour of A fl.
1220. King chi 71.
A. PK'ung connects this with the preceding: and respectfully bring about>> sc. the
things pertaining to -summer. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en (foll. by the best Ts'ing authorities,
Kiang Sheng, Sun Sing-yen and others): c h 1 72 means the summer solstice>>, thus:
And pay careful attention to the (summer) solstice. This is based on Chouli: Fang siang
shi 73 >>In winter and summer he brings to its utmost point the sun>>, i. e. he determines
the solstices (as explained in detail by Cheng Hiian). Similarly in Tso: Huan 17 it is
said that the astronomer chi j 1 74, more correctly 75 (variant of 72, see Gl. 820).
Chavannes, who accepts A, brushes this expl. aside as being far-fetched, but in fact it
is not. The difficulty is that there is no parallel phr. in the passages relating to the other
seasons which could help us to decide. Since, however, it is here throughout a question
of astronomical observations, and since c hi j i 76 is a technical term attested in two
ancient sources, B after all seems the most convincing.
1221. K ii e m in yin 77.
This phr. is one of the four referring to the occupations of the people during the seasons.
Spring: the people s i 78 disperse (leave the houses and go out into the fields); summer:
the people yin 79, as above; autumn: the people y i 80 are at ease (common meaning
_ Si-ma paraphrases it by y i 70); winter: the people y ii 81 keep in the warmth of
their houses. A. PK'ung: yin 79 = yin t s i u 82 (after Shuowen 79 = 8.1), expound-
ing: The old and weak yin t s i u (lean upon, associate themselves with =) join
company with the strong men in the fields and help in the husbandry work. It is, of
course, impossible to read this into the short Shu phr., and Sun Sing-yen simplifies: >>The
people (lean on each other =) ally themselves with each other>>, sc. in the field work.
Cf. Tso: Chuang 19: They made an insurrection and 84 (leaned on =) allied themselves
with the Su clam. This is better and would be quite good if the Shu phr. had run: k ii e
m i n s i a n g yin 85. Without the reciprocal s i an g the expl. is hardly admissible.
_ B. Ts'ai Ch'en: yin 79 = 86 >>they disperse and even more disperse>>, i. e. y i n
= 'to follow up, to go on, to continue', referring it to the s i 'disperse' of the preceding
paragraph. Thus: The people continue>> sc. to disperse. Y i n in the sense of 'to base
oneself on something as a point of departure and follow it up, carry on' is common, e. g.
Li: Li k'i 87 The Hia created (the rites), the Yin (followed them up =) took them over
and continued them, carried them om. It is, however, a curious idea that the dispersing>
of spring time was not complete and had to be followed up by a still greater dispersion
in summer. It would then be better to interpret in a more general way: >>The people
follow up (carry on, sc. the work of the year)>>. Even so, the interpr. is strained. -
C. Kiang Sheng therefore reverts to Shuowen's definition yin 79 = t s i u 83, but goes
on: Shu6wen defines t s i u 83 as = 88 'go to high places' (a typical script etymology
of Hii's, the graph 83 containing 89 'height'), thus: >>The people go to high places>>. A
frightful speculation. The w. yin of course has no such sense. -D. Yii Yiie points out
that yin 79 is the original graph of 90 'a mat' (they are etymologically the same word:
the fundamental sense of the stem * ien, even tone, is 'to lean on, rest on, rely on' and
*jen 'mat' means 'that on which one rests'), and this yin 90 is defined in Shuowen as
= 91 'double mat in a carriage'. Hence, .Yii says, yin 79 = yin 90 has the sense of
'double', and the Shu phr. means: >>The people have double covers>> (as protection against
the summer heat). Shuowen's definition, however, has very little value. Yin 90 means
'mat, mattress', certainly not 'double'. If yin 90 were a coarse and plain straw mat,
it would have been tempting to think of the custom that the farmers during the busiest
summer time did not go home but slept in grass huts in the fields, thus: >>The people
(straw-mat =) sleep on straw-mats>> (in the field huts). But yin 90, which is common
(Li, Yili, Hanfei etc.), always means a fine mat or even a mattress, which makes this
interpr. unlikely. - E. Another interpr. Yin 79 as an independent word often means
'to avail oneself of the opportunity, to take advantage of the suitable time, make the
best of the occasion'. Lii: Shun shuo 92 >>By availing himself of the opportunity (Kao
.>-Y.A'>-.YY:f-.#. r:1 <t
cs.A* *- -1--#.% 49 if'jj $i ra 7,/ :1-- {*.13 7/r)t{
1:3 11itt3 71 ffi: {;(. ?8.-#7'1 \B 5t>. rr1 JY@(tVf@ 16:1 &:.fiT-
il'ij X,;.fff- s 1 t5: t'l. ieto 1'8 r1 1- i 1.2 18 t?{ ...r ;t it 93. Ji.Jf<.
Yu: yin = 93) the poor and low can surpass the rich and high>>; Lii: Kiie sheng 94
>>Always in regard to war one esteems highest yin the seizing of the opportunity; yin
to seize the opportunity, that means to yin avail oneself of the danger of the enemy
to make oneself secure; Tso: Chuang 18, phr. 95 The people of Pa availed themselves
of the opportunity and attacked Ch'u>>; Tso: Wen 11, phr. 96 >>He seized the opportunity
to offer congratulations on Ch'u's army not being harmed>>; Tso: Chao 10: >>The dignitaries
of the feudal lords 97 wish to avail themselves of the opportunity to have audience with
the new prince>>; Tso: Ting 14, phr. 98 >>The prince of Yiie seized the opportunity and
attacked him>>. Now, in our Shu line this meaning suits the context admirably. In spring
the farmers s i 78 scatter over the fields; in summer they yin 79 avail themselves of
the suitable time, make the most of the occasion; in autumn they y i 80 rest. 'l'hus
our phr. above means: The people avail themselves of the (suitable) time (make the best
of the season).
1222. N i a o s h o u hi k o 99.
Since k o 100 in the primary sense of the char. always means 'hide', skin with the
hair removed, never 'fur', h i cannot be an adjective to k o: >>thinned fur>>.
A. Cheng Hiian: The birds and beasts are thin(-haired) and hide(-like) . - B. PK'ung
(foll. by Ts'ai Ch'en others): k o 100 means 'to change' (common), thus: >>The birds
and beasts are thin( -haired) and change>>. - When it is precisely a question of the
covering of the animals' bodies, it would be strange indeed if \with B) k o would not
mean 'hide' but 'to change'.
1223. Y i n t s i e n n a (j u) j i' 1.
. N a j i. Shang shu ta chuan quotes j u j i 2 'the (entering =) setting sun', and so
It is also rendered by Si-ma Ts'ien. 3 *n<Jp I In a 'to cause to enter, to introduce'
(transitive) and 4 *nj<Jp I nij<Jp I j u 'to enter, go in' (intransitive) are two aspects of the
same word stem. 3 is only an enlarged form of 5 in its reading *n<Jp 1 1 n a 'to intro-
duce'; in bronze inscriptions we have 5 in this sense and reading (e. g. K'o Ting 6, phr.
7). but the same char. sometimes also serves for *rijJp 1 nijJp 1 j u ( = 4), e. g. Wu Huei
Tmg 8, phr. 9 = 10). The original Shu text in some early version evidently had j u j i
11, and because of the graph 5 some Han scholars erroneously enlarged this into n a j 'i
12, not realizing that 11 was simply a variant graph for 2 (just as 9 for 10 above). We
should thus decidedly read j u j i, corresponding to the c h ' u j i 13 in the preceding
A. Shang shu ta chuan quotes as above 14. 15 *dz'jan 1 dz'jan Its i en properly
means 'to give a farewell feast to', i. e. 'to say farewell to'. Thus: >Respectfully to say
farewell to the setting sun>. PK'ung hence defines t s i en by sung 16 'to convey'.
Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases 17: >>Respectfully to lead (away) the setting sun>>, a free mode
of expressing the same, just as in the spring paragraph he pa:raphrases the line 18
(>>respectfully [receive as guest =] to welcome the rising sum) by 19: >>respectfully lead
(on) the rising sun>>. - B. Ma Jung (ap. Shiwen) says t s i en 15 = m i e 20 'to extin-
this again equal to m o 21 'to cause to disappear', thus: >>Respectfully to let
disappear the setting sum. There have been several expl. of this gloss. -a. Sun Sing-yen
refers to Shu sii 22 Then he (trampled down =) destroyed Yim, on whi9h Ma Jung says
t s i en 23 (*dz'jan) = 20 'to extinguish'; and to Yili: Shi yii li, where Cheng Hiian says
that for t s i en 15 the Ku-wen version had (as loan char.) the homophonous 23. He
concludes that Ma took our 15 as loan for 23: >>Respectfully to (trample down, destroy =)
cause to disappear the setting sum. If this was really Ma's idea, it must be said to be
foolish indeed. - {J. The Sung scholars Ting Tu (in Tsi yiin) and Kia Ch'ang-ch'ao
(in K'iin king yin pien) read 24, and Ting asserts that 25 (*ts'jan I ts'jan f t s 'i en) was
Ma Jung's version which he glossed by his m i e .20. Now 25 *ts'jan 'shallow' has no
such sense, and 'l'uan Yii-ts'ai, who believes that the 15 of K'ung Ying-ta and Lu Te-ming
(Shiwen) is a 'r'ang-time corruption of Ma's original 25, concludes that Ma Jung took
25 as loan char. for 23 *dz'ian 'to trample down, to destroy' (as a above). Tuan, however,
goes one step further and denies that Shang shu ta chuan and Si-ma had a version with
16 _ both must originally have had 23 *dz'ian; the Ta chuan has been corrected after
K'ung Ying-ta; and Si-ma meant, by his tao 26 'to lead', to gloss the presumed 23 of
his text, taken in the sense of 'to tread', here causative: 'to cause to tread' = 'to lead
on'. Tuan's speculations have been rightly refuted by Ch'en K'iao-tsung: there is no
reason to prefer the testimony about Ma Jung's text of the Sung scholars to that of the
T'ang scholars. Still less is there any reason to suspect the present Shang shu ta chuan
text. Si-ma's tao 26 is a good paraphrase of 15 but not of the presumed 23 ('to trample
down'). - C. Chang Ping-lin: the pin in the preceding line: yin pin c h' u j 1
18 as well as the t s i en 15 in the present are technical terms for sacrifices, thus: >>To
do p in sacrifice to the outcoming sun>>, and >>to do t s i e n sacrifice to the setting sum.
He refers to Chouli: Ta tsung po: y i s h 1 c h ' a i s 1 j i y ii e sin g c h ',en 27 >>By
a full-piled fire-sacrifice he sacrifices to sun moon, stars and constellations>>. Here Cheng
Hlian says that >>an old versiom had the variant y i pin c h ' a i s i 28, and Chang
now builds on this: if this variant is preferable, p i n 30 ought to be the spring sacrifice
(why?) and c h 'a i 29 ought to be the autumn sacrifice. And then our pin 30 and
t s i en 15 (23, 25) would refer to those sacrifices, since the words of the 31 series (31
*dz'an, 25 *ts'jan, 15 and 23 *dz'jan) are phonetically similar to 29 (*dz'ar I dr/ai / c h 'a i).
Very speculative. - A alone is satisfactory in sense, and forms a good par. to the spring
paragraph phrase.
1224. K ii e min y i 32.
A. SI-ma Ts'ien paraphrases y i 33 by y i 34: >The people are at ease. This is a
common meaning of y i 33. PK'ung defines it by p ' in g 35, .and Ts'ai Ch'en has taken
this to mean the same: at peace (when K'ung Ying-ta says: p 'in g = they are even
with>> what they were in the summer, i. e. at the same places, sc. in the fields, this is
plainly impossible). - B. Kiang Sheng: PK'ung's p 'in g 35 means 'level' (which y i
33 can also mean) and the line means: >>The people live in the plains>>. This is because
he took the summer paragraph k lie min yin 36 to mean >>go to high places>>, which
was refuted in Gl. 1221. - B is a very unhappy speculation.
1225. N i a o s h o u m a o s i e n 37.
A. Cheng Hiian, foll. by PK'ung: s i en 38 (*siJn I sien f s i en, rising tone), means
39 'orderly'. He expounds: the new-grown hair is 40 well-ordered, in good condition.
Thus: >>The birds and beasts have their hair (well-ordered =) in good condition. There
is no other ex. of a stem *si<Jn with that sense of 'arrange, order'. - B. Shuowen: s i en
38 means and should be read as 41 (*sjwan I sjwan I s ii an) 'to select', thus: >>The birds
1!-nd beasts have hair that is selectable>>, i. e. suitable for use as furs etc. A very bold
01 c !ill e. A.... r3Z.V{1-t1":tt.G: 01 L
*f ::f.ttl (rQ !7: I. 13 :l.. A 8 3. 't. A. s:- vi<J I{ 7. (fV
9. 0i!l"1/tl A.r,/1. r".. e 1.2. #.rva rsl:!: 8 '"'
.i\.EI IS. )1lJi_ ti(}:f. 13 19 13 .it15A-l! #:
1E e f-l R.u JX JJ[ .11 :it M. J -f I@ 3?: .t 18
speculation based on a slight sound similarity. - C. Another ip.terpr. S i en 38 is homo-
phonous with 42 (*siJn I sien I s i en, rising tone) 'metal that is brilliant, shiny' (Erya,
Shuowen), which occurs in Kyii: Tsin yii. This again is probably etym. s. w. a. 43
(*sian, rising tone) 'to wash, to cleanse', thus 'cleansed, clean and bright'. It seems
evident that we have the same word here, the char. specifyingly written with the radical
mao 'hair': 'brilliant, shiny, glossy'. Thus: birds and beasts have the feathers and
hair glossy
1226. P i e n t s a i s h u o y i 44.
For t sa i 45 = c h 'a 46 'to examine', see Gl. 751.
A. The oldest gloss attainable is that on shu o by Fu Sheng in Shang shu ta chuan,
who quotes our line as 47 (ap. T'ai p'ing yii Ian and the Preface to the Sh1), saying
s h u o 48 = s h 1 49 'beginning'. Thus: >>To arrange and examine the beginning and
the change (of year)>>. Shu o in this sense is common: shu o j 1 50 is the first day
of the new moon, and in a general way it means >>the beginning>> in Li: Li yiin 51 >>All
these kings followed the usage of the beginning (the earliest time)>>. (Hu Shen in Shuowen
explains this s h u o 48 by s u 52 'revival, new beginning', a speculatipn based on the
flimsy sound similarity *sak: 52 *so), reverently repeated by Ts'ai Ch'en. Cheng
Huan in comm. on Chouli: Fang siang sill has the same reading 47, and, as pointed out
by Yuan Yuan, since the paragraph in the Chouli describes the cycle of 12 years, the 12
months, the 12 hours, the 10 days, the 28 constellations, the determining of their order
and the divisions in the firmament, and since Cheng Hiian quotes our four Shu phrases
tung t s o 53, nan n g o 54, s i c h ' e n g 55 and shu o y i 50 as illustrations
of this, Cheng Hiian referred them all to the astronomical phenomena: >>the (Heavenly)
actions of the east>> etc. and not to the agricultural works of the people. - B. The Shang
shu ta chuan, on the other hand, has in another place another line (as quoted in the So yin
to Shi ki: Wu ti pen ki) pie n t sa i f u w u 56 >>to arrange and examine the things
that lie hidden, and since Si:-ma Ts'ien renders our Shu passage by this phrase, Kiang
Sheng and others have concluded that the A version has been interpolated in the Shang
shu ta chuan and that both ]'u Sheng's and S1-ma's Shu version read p i e n t s a i f u
w u. Ch'en K'iao-tsung rightly refutes this. The phr. pie n t sa i f u w u in the
Ta chuan is, he says, a variant - we should rather say: a gloss - containing a curious
speculation which has appealed to Si-ma and hence been adopted by him. It is well
known that shu o 48 also means 'north' (in the precedi!J.g Shu line and Ode 168 Shu o
fang 57, etc., very common), and Fu Sheng could not fa:il to realize that in the present
Shu phr. it balances tung t so (east), nan n go (south), s i c h' eng (west) and
hence must refer to the north while at the same time it means (according to him) 'beginn-
ing' -north corresponding to winter and the >>beginning>>, renewal of the year. Now
p e i 58 'north' was Arch. *pak and fu 59 'to lie hidden' was *b'juk. In the classics there
is a constantly recurring theme that the winter was the epoch of hoarding and concealing.
Li: Yiie ling says that in the first winter month the king orders the officials to 60 pay
respectful attention to the covering and hoarding, and orders the si-t'u to inspect the
t s i t s u 61 hoarded stores. This has very early given rise to an amusing etymological
speculation. Sh1 tsi 62 says 63 >>The p e i f an g region of the north (*pak) means f u
fang the region of things that lie hidden (*b'juk)>>. This idea has been seized upon by
Fu .Sheng who (quoting the Li: Yue ling passage) maintains that the Shu phr. pie n
t s a i s h u o y i 47 while meaning >>To arrange and examine the s h u o beginning
(= 49) and the 64 change (of year)>>, at the same time implies: >>To arrange and examine
the s h u o things of the north and the y i change (of year)>> - the things of the north
58 *pak being = f u w u 65 (*b'juk) the things that lie hidden, are stored. Hence his
commentating line 56. This curious and typically ancient Chinese speculation of a double
meaning in shu o 48: 'beginning' (= 49) and 'north', the time of 58= 59 'hoarding'
has been embroidered upon by Wang Su and others. - C. Another interpr.
48 simply 'north' has nothing to do with the >>beginning>> the
year, nor the >>hoardmg>> m Winter of the north), as is clearly shown by
the par. With tung, nan, s 1 m the preceding paragraphs. Y i 64 does not mean
>tthe change>> or >>transformation but is quite analogous to the t s o 66 'works', n g 0
67 'actions, works' and c h ' en g 68 'achievements' of the preceding paragraphs, which
obviously refer to works of the people. Y i 67 (*dfek I iak 1 y i) like those words
means 'works' and 1s a loan char. for 69 (*dfek I iak I y i) 'service, work, task'. This loan
of y i 64. for y i 69 has good parallels (Sill, Meng), as is fully examplified in Gl. 871.
Thus the hne means: To arrange and examine the works of the
1227. K u e min y u 70.
A. Cheng Huan reads 71 = 72 'the interior' (of the house). This char. with this sense
is read * 6g I au I a o in Ts'ie yiin and also in Shiwen on Lun: Pa yi, where it occurs in
the co:ner of the h?use' (Erya: Sh1 kung has this definition, Shiwen
there likeWise readmg 1t *og). The PK ung version has the loan char. 73 defined, in the
by 74 char. _used_ in this sense is likewise read *6g 1 au 1 ao
m. Ts Ie yun! hence Ts ai Chen reads It. so m Shu passage (k u e min a o). Thus,
With the A mterpr.: The people keep m the mterior of their houses>>. - B. The char.
?J.has also. the reading *:iok I juk / y u in the sense of 'warm' (ex. in Ode 207), and then
It IS sometnnes enlarged mto 75 (same reading). Si-ma Ts'ien evidently took the original
71 of the Shu text (ef. Cheng Hiian above) to have this sense, for he writes 76, thus: >>'I'he
people keep in the warmth>>. Ma Jung, who already has the loan char. 73 takes this to
be a loan for 71. = 7?, defining 73 = 77, and Shiwen, in consequence, 73 should
be * 1ok I (, Y : k e m i, n , y u: - .There is not a very fundamental
difference m sense, for 1ok warm and *og the mterwr, south-west corner of the house'
are probably cognate words ( *og = 'the warm place'), and the context shows that the
meaning practically comes to the same. With B it will be: The people keep in the warmth
(of their houses) . Both * og and * jok make good sense, but in the choice between two
good alternatives we should follow the oldest interpr. attestable (S1-ma Ts'ien)
as havmg the greatest chance of representing a tradition handed down from Chou time
1228. N i a 6 s h o u j u n g mao 78.
A. is the text since S!-ma Ts'ien has it. Both Ts'ie yiin
and Shiwen read 79 *n1ung I nz1wong I J u n g (rising tone). Ma Jung defines it as = 80
:warm and soft', PK'ung as = 81 'downy and tiny'. Yet Sii Kuang (d. 425 A. D.) says
1t was read like 82>> (*tijung I nzjwong I j u n g, even tone), and he evidently meant
that 79 was identical with 82, which means 'bushy' (see Gl. 105). Su J\'Iiao on the other
hand, it *njwan I nijwiin I j u an (taking it to be a variant of 83 ;niwan 'soft').
a?out *njung is sufficiently strong to be decisive, whether
With 82 n1ung even tone ?r only a variation of the same stem
( nlung rismg tone, Lu Fa-yen and Lu Te.mmg), It Is sure to have the same sense as 82
'bushy', since it is a question of the thick:coat of the animals in winter. Thus: The birds
m *47J'#;(L913 Ji) 1.r. iftM?h 521 B
*,n:i.1f:. JV 7J o/-#i
:J-"J-it." -t/Ri.H!:: ...--1 6sA .r91Jt :l!A{

r;. t.5f n Pt .flo
:md beasts bushy hairn. - B. Shuowen quotes 84, this 85 being *njwan I nijuen I
J n. (":s'w yi:m; when_ Ts'ie yiin adds that it can also be read *njung 1 nijwong 1 j u n g>>,
this IS Simply because 1t corresponds to the 79 of A, and the phonetic 86 *8njwr;n shows
that the latter sound gloss is quite wrong). Shuoweu defines it as = 87 'the hair being
Thus: >>Birds and beasts have ample hair>>. Shuowen in another section quotes
differently: 88, the ancient reading of which is uncertain. - The A version is far better
attested than B.
1229. S h u t s i hi en hi 89.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases 90: this is bases on Erya hi 91 = hi n g 92. The Ts'ing
comm. on Erya believe that h in g 92 here means 'elated, joyful', and that h i 91 is
loan char. for hi 9.3: Shuowen 9.3 = 94 'to rejoice, joyful'. This 9.3 is not known from
pre-Han texts, but we could say that 91 (*xjgg, even tone) would be the same word stem
as 95 (*xjag; rising tone) 'to rejoice' and 96 (*xiag, even tone) 'to amuse oneself'; indeed
Yang Hiung (in Ki Ts'in mei sin) writes 97, and if Yang took this hi 95 in its ordinary
sense, it seems clear that he already had this interpretation of hi = hi n g 'elated,
joyful'; but it is doubtful whether Yang really had 95 here in its original sense, see C
below. In any case, the Erya gloss refers to our Shu passage here or to the phr.
t s ' i hi 98 in the Shi, a meaning 'elated, joyful, joy' makes very poor sense here (All
ac_hievements will be joyful), and it seems doubtful whether the Erya glossist by
his hI n g 92 really meant 'joyful' ( = 95). Probably he took hi n g in its normal sense
of 'to rise', and his gloss is one of the exceedingly common ones in which a word is defined
by sound similarity: 91 *xjgg expl. by 92 *xj'Jng. Thus: >>The achievements will all (rise =)
be successful. There are no text par. in support of this. - B. PK'ung says hi 91 =
k u an g 99 'wide', thus: >>The achievements will all be (wide =) extensive>>. This is
based on Kyii: Chou yii, hia, where an orator explains the phr. w u t s 'i hi 100 of
Ode 271, and where he defines hi 91 by k u an g 99 'wide'. But hi 91 certainly
has _no such meaning, and both Cheng Chung (lst c. A. D.) and Wei Chao have already
realized that k u an g 99 in the Kyii text is a loan char. for k u an g 1 'bright,
brightness' (the two series 1 and 2 are often interchanged in loan practise: see Gl. 1209
where 1 in its turn is loan for .3 or 99). - C. The true and fundamental meaning of h i
91 is 'brightness, bright' (common), and that was surely the meaning of the orator in
the Kyii: Chou yii, see B. above. This 91 (*xjgg, even tone) is the same word as 4 (*xi'Jg,
even tone) 'to shine, brightness' (text ex. in Kuan etc.). There is no reason why we should
not give hi 91 its ordinary and proper meaning in our Shu phr.: nThe achievements will
all be resplendenh. Indeed Tuan Yii-ts'ai and Ch'en K'iao-tsung think that when Yang
Hiung writes 97 (see A above), his hi 95 'joy' is but a short-form for 4 'shine' bright-
ness'. If so, the correct interpr. of the Shu line was already given by Yang Hiung. When
Pan Ku in Han shu: Lii li chi paraphrases 5 >>All the achieveme:i,lts will be beautiful>>,
this is merely a free mode of expressing the same idea. - We compare:
Yao tien (later ori): Hi t i chi t sa i 6. A. PK'ung hi 91 = 99, thus: >>To make
wide the emperor's undertakings>>- To be rejected, see B above. - B. Si-ma Ts'ien
paraphrases 7 >>To make beautiful Yao's undertakings>>. This is the same free rendering
as in C. above. More literally the phr. means: MTo make resplendent the emperor's
undertakings n.
Shu: Kao Yao roo (Yi Tsi): Po kung hi t sa i 8. A. PK'ung and Ts'ai Ch'en: hi
91 = 99: >>All the officers are extensive (in their achievements)>>. -B. Sun Sing-yen: hi
91 = 92: >>All the officers are elated>>. - C. Kiang Sheng: kung = 9 and hi 91 = 92:
>>All works will (rise =) be successful>>. - D. All the works will be resplendent&, which
is a striking par. to the phr. shu t s i hie n hi discussed above. And that this is
really the meaning here is confirmed by the fact that to our p o kung 10 'the hundred
works' here corresponds in the second verse shu s hi 11 'all the affairs' and in the
third verse wan s hi 12 'the myriad affairs'.
1230. C h ' o u t s i j o s h i t e n g y u n g 1.3.
C h' o u 14 is a loan char., the word 'who' being wr. 15 or 16 in Shuowen.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases 17 Who can (conform himself to=) carefully attend
'to these things>>. Sun Sing-yen expounds this in a curious way: Si-ma's t s' i 18 'this'
is a gloss to 19 (Erya:. Shi ku an entry 19 = 18), and his s hi 9 'affair'
is his gloss to 20 The line would then be equal to c h' o u t s i j o s hi 21
Who will conform himself to these affairs>>. But in the first place that is a wrong word
sequence; secondly there are no text ex. in support of Erya's gloss (when later expounders
say 19 *t8j<1r is equal to 22 *t8jag, this is phonetically impossible). Thirdly 20 = 9 is
exceedingly unlikely. Si-ma in fact simply expounds s h i 20 'this, that' (very common)
by t s' i s hi 23 'these affairs'. He adds a k 'o 24 'can' which is not in the Shu text.
It is tempting to think that his 24 renders the t s i 19 of the text, t s i being loan char.
for the homophonous (*t8jar) 25 'to furnish' (>>who will furnish to conform>> - >>who will
be able to conform), just as 25 serves as loan char. for 19 in Li: Piao ki. But after all
that is not correct, for later in the chapter we find c h ' o u j o y ii k u n g 26 >>Who
will (conform himself to =) carefully attend to my works>>, and there again Si-ma inserts
a 'can': 27, which shows that his k 'o 24 here is a free addition. Thus Si-ma simply
skips the t s 'i 19 of the Shu text. PK'ung likewise passes it in silence. - B. Ma Jung,
without glossing c h 'o u t s i, explains j o s hi 28 as 'conform himself to the (four)
referring the precedin,g which is very far-fetched. -- C. K'ung
Ymg-ta takes t s I 19 as = 29 alas, and punctuates after it: c h 'o u t s i - j 0
s hi t c n g y u n g : >>Who, alas, (is there); if (someone) conforms himself to these
things, I will raise and use him>> (the 'alas' being a sigh over the difficulty of finding
a good man). - D. Ts'ai Ch'en, foil. by Kiang Sheng, takes t s i 19 in the sense of
'to deliberate,_ (Erya 19 = 30, Ts'ai = 31), a common meaning of the char.,
th?s: Who will_ mvestig_ate about ":ho) conforms himself to the times? (I will)
raise and use him>>. This, however, Is a partwularly poor expedient, for all subsequent
parallels show that e h ' o u 'who' refers to the choice of the man who is to be promoted
not to adviser who is going to search. Just as later we have: c h ' o u j o y ii k u n
>>Who will carefully attend to my worksh - answer: >>Ch'uei>>, so here we have e h' 0 u
(t s i) j o s h i t e n g y u n g >>Who will conform himself to thl.s, I will raise and use
him>> - answer: >>Chm>. - E. Pan Ku in Han shu k. 18 (introductory lines) has the
e h ' o_ u t s i s ' i en t a i former generations>>, taking c h ' 0 u
t s I as a broome with the sense of to mvestigate , and the same binome recurs wr. 33
'to investigate' in an essay by the Eastern Han writer Ts'uei Chun (ap. Hou Han shu
k. 82). It is that this is a style allusion to our Shu phr. above, and that
these authors did _not c h' o u = 'who' but as a verb 'to investigate', syno-
nymous and formmg a b_mome w1th the following t s l. Thus: )>(I will) investigate
(about someone who) Will conform himself to these things>>. This interpr. will hardly_do
&t:ft n i._1l ff<J/J <73. t.F.%
9'l;i I<'V;&?hf@.< I. 1t..t.1i 3.;f{fi;;._ $: s. t#-* r.
z f. s ii ..:r: "l It) 9 .:r.. J.t --;l J. 13 w- '!n; 14<lllj 12 JJ ;cr r:r iii -;if
JK JtL/9 ;.-.zo. iff v lli$-J):t.-:it * ift-t:J p, "f .t>.'it $ 47fi f .:r. f .J:..
U %_$..;,; %>JJ?,'J :12. J{l-;,j( t JJ.:G-111tf{f :.-* :>7.1'1'
in the par. text c h' o u j o y u kung, where it would be very forced to take c h 'o u
alone as a verb = 'to investigate'. - E. Tuan Yu-ts'ai says that t s i 19 is the ordinary
exclamation >>ah>>, so common in the beginning of Shu phrases (in the preceding line:
t s i j u Hi 34 >>Ah, you Hh>), and that the line should properly be: t s i, c h' o u j o
s hi 35 >>Ah, who will conform himself to this>>; but, he says, the emperoJ.' >>spoke eagerly
and inverted the order: c h 'o u, t s i, j o s hi >>Who, ah!, will carefully attend to this.
In fact, Tuan is near to the true solution. T s i 19 'oh, ah', is an exclamation particle
analogous to the common t s a i 36, and this t s a i is often used as an emphasizing
enclitic to interrogative pronouns and adverbs. Lun: Yen Yuan: H o t sa i, e r so
w e i t a c h e 37 What is it you call being distinguished h (the same h o t s a i in Meng
paBBim). In the same way our t s i is evidently used as an emphasizing enclitic in the
Shu: c h ' o u t s i = c h ' o u t s a i 38: c h ' o u - t s i j o s h i t e n g y u n g :
Who will (conform himself to=) carefully attend to this!' I will raise and use him. It seems
probable that Hii Shen already held that view, for under 15 he says: >>c h ' o u is a 39
grammatical word; the Yii shu (i. e. Shu king) says: c h ' o u t s i 40>>. That he does not
quote the whole. line, in his usual way, but only the two syllables c h' o u t s i, reveals
that he took them to form a unity: c h ' o u - t s i, forming a >>grammatical word ('who').
1231. Y i n t s i C h k ' i m i n g 41.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases: 42, thus: heir-son Chu is enlightened. Yin 43
in the sense of 'descendant' is common (e. g. Tso paBBim). - PK'ung: t s i means
'prince', and Yin is the name of a state: >>The prince of Yin, by name Chu., is enlightened.
He refers to the (now lost) chapter Y i u c h eng 44 of the Shu as proof of the eavly
existence (in Ria time) of a state Yin. But even in this name of the Shu chapter it is
contested whether Yin is the name of a state or a person. The B interpr. (though
accepted by Yii Yue) is an unsafe speculation.
1232. H u y i n s u n g k ' o h u 45.
A. This is the orthodox PK'ung version: Alas! He is deceitful and quarrelsome, will
he doP. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases 46. It was already recognized by Chang Shou-tsie that
h i u n g 47 does not mean 'baleful' here but is a short-form for h i u n g 48 'to quarrel',
a common word (Shi etc.). Thus Si-ma: >>He is perverse and quarrelsome and cannot
be used>,. In the same way, in Sun: T'ien lun 49 >>The noble man does not stop his actions
because of the (clamoming:) wrangling of mean mem, 47 is a short-form for 48. -B.
Ma Jung read: h u, yin, y u n g k' o h u 50, carrying y u n g to the following
k' o h u. This can be interpr. in two ways. Either (with Sun Sing-yen) y u n g is the
common interrogative adverb 'how': >>Alas! He is deceitful, how can he doh; or (with
Kiang Sheng) y u n g alludes to the preceding line t e n g y u n g 51 (>>I will raise and
use him>>), thus: >>Alas! He is deceitful, y u n g to use him k 'o h u will that do?>> -
Ch'en K'iao-tsung thinks that the last words in Si-ma's paraphrase: p u y u n g 52 >>he
cannot be used>> reveals that Si-ma had Ma Jung's text version with y u n g 53. But that
is certainly not correct, for then Si-ma would have rendered one word of the text: yin
54 by two words wan hi u n g 55, which is very unlikely. It is quite evident that his
w a n h i u n g renders the y in s u n g 56 of the Shu text, which supports the A text
as the older and preferable.
1233. C h ' o u t s i j o y u t s ' a i 57.
A. Ma Jung: t s 'a i 58= 59 'officials': >>Who will (conform himself to =) carefully
attend to my officials h. This is based on Erya 60 = 59. T s' a i 58 could only indir-
ectly have this sense. It sometimes means 'appanage' given to high officials, e. g. Li:
Li yiin 61 Dignitaries have appanages>> (in the sense of 62 cullab]e territories>>, territories
from which to take their incomes). Our Shu phr. would then mean: >>Who will carefully
attend to my appanage(-holders)>>. Another possible etymology though even more

------ -------------
far-fetched - would be to take t s ' a i 58 in its sense of 'variegated', with reference to
Tso: Wen 6: >>(The ancient kings established sages as officers) 63 and distributed to
them (variegated things =) fine emblems>> (sc. of their ranks). In such a case our Shu
line would mean: >>Who will carefully attend to my (variegated ones =) emblem( -hol-
ders)>>. - B. PK'ung: t s 'a i 58 = s h_ i 64: will. (conform to =) care-
fully attend to my affairsP . Of. Shu: Yao hen (Shun t1en) l1 an g t s a 1 65 (see Gl. 786
and 1281) 'to aid in the works' (Si-ma Ts'ien liang t s' a i = 66; Cheng Huan t s' a i
58= 67 'actions'); Shu: Kao Yao mo, same phr. liang t s' a i 65, on which Ma Jung
t s ' a i 58 = 64; Shu: Kao Yao mo t s a i t s ' a i t s ' a i 68 >>He initiated the various
works (Si-ma paraphr. 69); Yi Chou shu: K'o Yin S h a o k u n g S hi 70 aided in
the works. - B is on the whole much better supported, but the choice between A and
B depends also on a case of parallelism. Further on in the Yao tien we find: c h ' o u
j 0 y u kung 71. Ma Jung and PK'ung: kung = (artisan): >>Who
(conform himself to =) carefully attend to my workmen>>. Th1s IS a common meanmg
of k ri n g, cf. U: K'ti li: >>The l i u kung 72 six classes of artisans of the king are
73 earth artisan, metal artisam etc. Chouli also has many similar phrases: 74 wor-
kers in metah etc. Li: Wang chi 7 5 >>the hundred (kinds of) artisans>>. Indeed we had
this same phr. p o kung 75 earlier in our chapter here, though in a more general
sense: y ii n l i p o k u n g >>If you earnestly regulate the hundred functionaries>. It
is on the analogy of this that Ma Jung wants our j o y u t s' a i 57 above to refer to
functionaries: >>Attend to my officials. But it is very doubtful whether kung 76 really
means 'artisan' here. Immediately after follows: >>Oh, Ch'uei, 77 you shall be Master of
works>>. Kung Kung, originally the name of a mythological hero, is here by the Shu
author reinterpreted into the title of an official, cf. BMFEA 18, p. 219. Kung 78
must here (with PK'ung) be equal to kung 79 (a very common short-form), and means
'to furnish, to supply'. And Kung kung cannot very well mean >>the furnisher of artisans
but must mean >>the furnisher of works>>, the one who sees to the execution of the work
O'r the artisans. It then stands to reason that the immediately preceding c h ' o u j o
y ii kung must mean: >>Who will (conform himself to =) carefully attend to my
works>>. And this being so, the earlier phr. j o y ti t s ' a i 57 must mean, with interpr.
B, >>attend to my affairs.
1234. Kung kung fang k i u chan kung 80.
Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases: 81. The last three words cause little difficulty. K i u 82
(*kf/jg I I k i u) = 'to collect, bring together' ( = 83) is common. Shuowen, quoting
our phr., has 84 *g'j6g I I k 'i u instead, but the meaning is much the same: 'to
bring together'. (In another quotation Shuowen has 85 *kj6g, a loan char. for 82.) The
cha,r. 86 is read *dz'an f #'an 1 chan in Ts'ieyiin and Shiwen. Ma Jung defines it by
87 'to procure, supply', PK'ung by 88 'to exhibit', and Si-ma, as above, by 89 (spread
out =) 'exhibit', which all comes to practically the same. (Shuowen in one quotation has
86 in another short-form: 90). Su Miao, on the other hand, read itJ*d?'iwan I d$'iwlin /
. I -&4-t AL-J-.4;;:/:t}eJJ
4'- ft. affi'!0t fil 4'7 1.61 4-S "Mifi. 5Zl. 'f sf .;7. P,.;:r;fl]
.16. 1' ;fl ff1.;ilJ7. ift '" Jtr;Aj;;_ n-*. .:t..*-
1*J t9. $ a;(.y tf j: 10. .:r.. 7.t. A L 7-J ..::1::.
;;. 1'1.:... Z.:I:. -rr fi k "K. .:r.. >'ll" .ft..:r..y A >'9. {:r- 6.(1 #t..:L. 7J :rJJ 8l :# .:.
----------------------------------- --------
c _h u a n, considering it to be a variant of 91 in the sense of 'to procure'. The real
concerns fang 92 (*pjwang), Si-ma p 'an g 93 (*b'wang). The latter is
not a gloss word of Si-ma's but represents one Shu version, since Shuowen quotes
94, whwh thus (through Si-ma) is the earliest version attested.
, A. The version with p' an g 93. Shuowen 93 *b'wang = 95 (*p'ag 1 p'uo 1 p 'u)
vast, great , thus: >>Kung kung vastly has accumulated and exhibited his merits>>. Hii
Shen really defines *b'wang by the second syllable of a well-known binome 96, varied in
: ,g., 97 in Chuang:. Siao yao yu; 98 (*b'wang-p'ak) in Sun:
Srng ngo, 99 ( b wang-b m Han shu: Yang Hmng chuan, always meaning 'vast, wide'
authors ha,ve va,ned f?!aphs 100 etc.). Since Kuangya: Shi ku says
p an _g 93 = 1 _ and 2 , most Ts rng scholars (Wang Nien-sun, Kiang Sheng,
Sun Smg-yen) mluntam that p an g really has such a sense and adduce various
examples in which p' an g standing alone would have this (cf. Gl. 772 and
the ex. But all the time p ' an g really means 'everywhere', as an extension
of meanrng from 1ts fundamental sense of 'side': 'side-wise, to all sides, in all directions'
(the binome p' an g- p 'u 96 etc. gives the same meaning: 'everyside-wide'; the second
member: as a:bove a of the word-stem 3 *pdk 'wide').
So we have 1t m J:l. Ptilg y1 4 >>His smcere straightness comes out (to every side =)
Chouh: Nan. wu 5 >>Prom all sides he calls them by aid of m a o herbs>>;
L:: Yue ling 6. all sides =) everywhere to cut up Yi Chou shu: K'uang
kie 7 >>(In all duectwns =) everywhere he corrected the multitude>>. In all these cases
Wang Nien-sun defines p 'an g by 'great' or 'wide', but in fact there was no word
*b'wang = 'great' (it is significant that Erya, which has :39 words all defined as = t a
'great' no p ' an g or fang among them); there was only *b'wang 'side' which
by extensiOn could mean 'to all sides, everywhere'. Thus we must translate our A text:
11Kung kung (to all sides =) everywhere has accumulated and exhibited his merits" - B. The
versio? with f n .. PK'ung defines f an g 92 as = 8 'in all regions,
everywhere , fan g regiOn givmg much the same meaning as p ' an g 'side' above.
- {3. Ts'ai Ch'en: f an g 92 is the common adverb 'just now': Kung kung just now
has accumulated>> etc. This disregards entirely the existence of version A.- y. Kuangya
has an entry fang 92 = 1 'great', and Wang Nien-sun and followers believe that the
fan _g of the B text has this sense, just as they think that the p ' a n g of the A text
had It (see above); thus: >>Kung kung greatly has accumulated>> etc. But except some
moot examples, in the Shu,, there are no safe text par. - The sense of p ' an g
or f a n g = everywhere IS certamly best established. We compare:
, Shu:_Yao,tien: Shang shang hung shuei fang ko 9. For shang
see Gl. 655. As to the k o 10 (*kat 1 kat 1 k o), it is defined by PK'ung
as = h a 1 11 (*g'ad I r ai I h a i) 'injurious'. The T'ang and Sung scholars still took it
to mean 'cutting' = 'injurious' (hence only cognate to 11 *g'ad), and still read it *kat
and so does Kiang Sheng. Sun Sing-yen believes that 10 is a variant graph for 11 (and
hence to, be *g'ad I yai I h a i), referring to Shu: Ta kao 12 (PK'ung version), where
Jung s verswn had 13. But then again in Shu: T'ang shi we have shu a i k o Hi a
y I (where. Si-ma paraphrases k o 'to cut, to slice' by 15 'to rob'): >>He (cuts:) injures
the mty of Hm>>, and there Sun does not propose to alter k o 10 into h a i 11. Since
in our present case we know of no version that had 11 instead of 10 we have no
sufficient reaso:r: to read in any other way than 10 *kat 1 kat 1 k o. 'cr. Gl. 1404.
A. PK'ung agam takes fang 92 as = 'to all sides', thus: >Voluminously, the great
waters everywhere are injurious >. - B. The Ts'ing scholars (after Kuangya, see above)
say fang 92 = 'great': >>The great waters are vastly injurious>>. For this there is no
sufficient text support.
Sh . Kao Yao mo (Yi Tsi): K a o Y a o fang chi k ii e s i.i, fang s hi
s i'a :g hi n g 16. For s ii 17 'work, actions, arrangements' see Gl. 1047. :For
siang hing see Gl. 1267. A. Ts'ien 18: >>Kao Yao now rever-
ently carries out Yii's (virtue =) vutuous thdat
. he _tooktf a: n g
92 = 19 to be the adverb 'thereupon, then, _JUSt now . e secon. me IS no giVen
b S
, .. nla but in consec1uence of the precedmg, fang there will have the same
y 'el- thu's >>Kao Yao reverently carries out your work, and now applies the
legally defined punishments>>. (Legge says he >>would gladly>> take the first
fang 92 as = 'now' with Si:-ma, b,ut the f a n g = p ' an.? an
jtnpossible inconsistency). - B. Po hu tung: Sheng Jen p a n g s h 1 s Ian g
hi n g with p ' an g 93, and PK'ung takes both f a n g of his text to mean the same:
24 ('in the four quarters, in all regions =') 'everywhere', thus: Kao Yao everywhere reve-
tly carries out your arrangements and everywhere applies the legally defined punishments.
:ren h f" l" l f '
:.__ c. Sun Sing-yen says nothing of the an g m t e ust me am . says p an g
93 (version B) in the second: = 95 'vastly'. (after Shuowen,_ see But Sheng
is more explicit. He read p ' an g 93 m the second hne (With the B verswn) but
preserves the f an g 92 of version A in the first and glosses the latter by 20: thus:
Kao Yao fa n g 92 (side by side with =) together (you) out
:vour work, and p ' an g 93 vastly applies the legally defmed It IS true
that fang 92 can have the meaning of 20 (as in Shi and Yih, see Gl. 551, 547), and
it is JlOssible that Cheng Hi.ian already held this view, since he tha:t the emperor
attributed the virtue to both ministers>> (Yii and Kao Yao), but It IS certamly very bold
to follow one version in half the line and another version in the other half, moreover
glving fang 92 a meaning contrary to its ordinary in the_ Shu. Interpr: A as
to both f a n g is unreconcilable with the B text whiCh, all, _Is the _earliest
attested one and as applied only to the first fang {With Legge) entails an mconsistency.
c is equally. inconsistent. B alone is wholly consistent, suitable to both text versions
and in full accord with the preceding Shu examples.
Shu: Li.i hing: F an g k a o w u k u y i.i. s h an g 21. A. PK'ung_ f a n g
;;:: 8: Everywhere they declared their innocence to (God on) High>>, Tlus IS confirmed by
the version in Lun heng: Pien tung: p ' an g k a o w u k u etc. 22. P ' an g,
as above, means 'to all sides, everywhere', not (with Kiang and Sun) 'greatly'. - B.
Ts'ai Ch'en: fang.= 'then'; this is refuted by the Lun heng variant.
Shu: Li cheng: Jf.a n g hi n g y ii t ' i en hi a 23. PK'ung: f an g = s i f a n g
24 'in the four quarters, in all regions', thus: nEverywhere to travel in the here
even Ts'ai accepts this obvious interpr. But Kiang and Sun still insist on fang
(= p 'an g =) 95 'vastly'.
Shu: 'I's1 ts'ai: T so hi u n g t i fang l a i 25. A. nAs brothers they came from all
quartersn. So both PK'ung and Ts'ai Ch'en.- B. Kiang Sheng and Sun Sing-yen: fang
92 = 20: >> ... they came side by side>>. - No reason to attribute this rare (though in
some cases attested) meaning to the char.
m.l'/J tJ:t.!tlhgj &f. 9o.A- 9/ m9'.2 jt; .:J:.
9C -;s 97. 9"1 11 / A 2..1f 3 r1 <i, 111J
;IJJi 9 ;o."t1t'- r$-.'lKI3..A.
g_ 1s-1l16. Jt9 :r -t
15r-.2l 7J 1;- f .1:. .ti. .tJ :liff -f t: :llf. -& 15 u-(f;_ JL.if -Ji PRZ +-
Shu: Wei tsi: S i a o min fang hi n g 26. A. Si-ma Ts'ien renders fang 92
by P In g 20: >>The people (side by side =) all together rise, which is admissible
but hardly commendable, see the preceding ex. - B. PK'ung: The small people
everywhere risen. - C. Ts'ai Ch'en: >>The small people then rise>>. - Best to follow
(with PK'ung) the general rule of the Shu, as registered above.
, have seen that in no_ single case is a meaning p ' an g or fang = 'great' or
Wide supported by unamlnguous texts. In all the instances the fundamental sense of
'to all sides, everywhere' can be carried through with consistency and is hence preferable
1235. Tsing yen yung wei 27.
A. The version above is that of PK'ung and also of Chung lun: K'ao wei. Han shu:
Sun chuan reads 28; char .. and 30 having as fundamental meaning 'still,
are homophonous . nsml? often interchangeable. Lun heng:
K uei kuo reads 31. We I 32 ( j ')Wf),t I w e I) transgressing erring perverse' and
hue i 33 (*g'war / I hue i) 'deflected, perverse' make the here. But
the phr. has been construed in various ways. -a. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases 34, which
translates: >>(Kung kung) est un bon parleur, mais quand on le met a l'oeuvre
il est mauvais>>: I. believe, is a double mistranslation. In the first place, a phr.
shan .Yen m Itself 1\'an mean he IS good at talking>> (Chavannes here follows Chang
Shou:tsiC who paraphr. 35), but t sing yen, which Si-ma renders by shan yen
certamly cannot mean that. Tsing 'quiet' is defined by shan 'good' as an
of meaning: 'quiet' ) 'nice, good': >>he nicely speaks>>, just as in Ode 89 in the Han shi
phr. 36 t sing is defined as = shan 37. Thus t sing is an attribute to yen:
(qmetly =) smoothly speaks>>. PK'ung has realized this, for he explains (after Erya)
ts1ng Y,en by .mou yen 38 >>He (quietly, ponderingly, planningly =)cunningly
s;peaks>>. The ph7. Is analogous to the k ' i a o y en ling s e 39 >>Smart talk and a
fme appearance>> m Shu: Kao Yao mo. On the other hand y u n g 40 (Si-ma k ' i y u n g
41) _was taken by PK'ung to refer to the ten g y u n g 42 'to raise and empoy' in an
earher paragraph, y u n g here thus being a transitive verb = y u n g e h i 43 >>if one
employs him>>. (which has accept?d by Chavannes). But y u n g here has Kung
kung for subJect (not for obJect). Th1s was already realized by Chang Shou-tsie, who
paraphr. the second part: 44 >>His applying his mind (sc. in his actions) is perverse>>. In
fact Y u n g 40 means actions', just as later on in the Yao tien 45 >>They
were clearl! by their achievements, they were (>>charioted and garmented>> =)
w1th chariOts and garments (by norm of =) according to their works (actions).
This IS a (Erra y u n g 40 = 46 'to toil, to work', cf. 1916,
P 194) .. That this IS the meanmg here and was so conceived by Si-ma is evident: there
1s a typical chiasma (a: b: b: a); t sing (a): yen (b): y u n g (b): wei (a). yen
'to spea:k', stands contrast to y u .n g 'action' and t sing 'quiet' stands in contrast
to we I perverse. Thus: He (qwetly =) smoothly speaks, but his actions are perverse.
Ts'ai Ch'en tried a parallelism in another way, contrasting t sing y u n g and
yen we I; he paraphrases: 47 >>T sing when (at leisure =) unempoyed yen he
speaks, y u n g _when employed wei he contravenes (his words). Very scholastic. -
B. verswn ap .. San Wu chi: Lu chuan reads 47 b (quoting T'ang
shu 48, 1. e. our .Yao tien). This 1s because that lme occurs in Tso: Wen 18 there said
of the wicked K'iung K'i (whom commentators all from Fu K'ien of Han' time have
identified with Kung Kung, see BMFEA 18, p. 255), and the author has
that the Tso passage is an allusion to the Shu. K'ung Ying-ta, not aware
?f this, has mterpreted the Tso line: >>He (found peace in =) was at home with slanderers
and employed the perverse ones>>. Bu)' obviously we have to interpret the Tso line on the
analogy of the A text. Chen 49 (*tjam) means 'to slander', but the char. is sometimes
--- ---------------------------------
-- ---
used (see Gl. 958) for the cognate w. 50 (*tsiam) 'to be untruthful, to lie', and even when
meaning 'to slander' the fundamental sense is really 'to speak untrue things about (some-
body)'. Thus here: >>He (quietly =) smoothly lies but his actions are perverse>>. This
comes very close to A. Since Tso does not expressly cite the Shu, we dare not accept
the B text as a real quotation: c h en 49 for y en 52 may be a paraphrase made by
the Tso author.
1236. S i a n g k u n g t ' a o t ' i e n 53.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases: 54. The phr. has to be understood in the light of the
following paragraph: >>The great waters 55 ... vastly they swell up to Heavem. The
man ,56 of Si-ma's has the same meaning (Shuowen defines t ' a o 57 by 58; cf. Chuang:
Ma t'i 59 >>They [overflowingly =] excessively made music). PK'ung has realized that
the first phr. simply is a metaphor anticipating the second, and in both cases of t 'a o
t' i e n he has the same gloss 60 >>as if overflowing Heavem. Thus: He is in appearance
respectful, but he swells up to Heaven. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en dare not accept this but believes
that the anticipation, in the first phr., of the t' a o t' i en which occurs in the second
is a mistake due to text corruption. (Legge, following this, translates: >>He is respectful
only in appearance [See! The floods assail the Heavens]>>). But Si-ma's paraphr., which
closely follows the tradition text, clearly shows that there has been no text corruption.
_ c. Kiang Sheng and Sun Sing-yen both think that Si-ma's man 56 stands for
man 61 (Kiang even suggests that the 56 in the present Shi ki text is a corruption of
61) 'to despise, to be careless, impudent', and that t ' a o 57 of the Shu had the same
meaning, thus: In appearance he is respectful, but he despises, is impudent towards
Heavem (Kiang) or: >> ... but he despises, is careless about (t ' i en 62 = t ' i e n
sing 63) his heavenly nature>> (Sun). In support of this they adduce Ode 255, phr. 64
>>Heaven has sent down to them an (overflowing, swelling =) reckless dispositiom, on
which Mao Heng: t' a o 57 = 56; and Tso: Chao 26, phr. 65 >>The officials should not
be {reckless =) careless>> (Tu Yii: t ' a o 57 = 56). This is all very well, but it would
be strange indeed if in two consecutive lines of our text the same phr. t' a o t' i en
69 should have two entirely different meanings: first: >>(he) despises Heavem (or: >>he
despises his heavenly nature>>) and secondly: >>(the waters) swell up to, assail Heavem.
This, of course is quite excluded. - D. Sun Yi-jang: t' a o 57 is a loan char. for
t' a o 66 (both *t'og) 'to doubt', which occurs e. g. in Tso Chao 26, phr. 67 >>Heavens
norms are not doubtful; and 66 would then have been altered into 57 under influence
of the following t' a o 57. The line would mean: >>He is in appearance respectful, but
doubts Heavem (has no confidence in Heaven). Besides that this makes poor sense,
we would have t ' a o t ' i en 68 'to doubt Heaven' and t ' a o t ' i en 69 'to swell
up to Heaven' in two consecutive papagraphs, which is very unlikely. - E. Chang
Ping-lin: In Kyii: Chou yii the mythical hero Kung Kung 70 is simply called Kung 71,
by abbreviation. Our kung 72 here should really be kung 71, and siang kung
t( uit_33 Jt
:Jt: :Ji.:r:f 114' 111. itfl1 t-.z 3.JfJ-<. .!=ms
oA &i':.JY-;r/J f. A/k.J!< .. k:. 17. ftJ rH 0 1fft 1'9.
52.--@ P. j?.__-ffi 56fi..Ml!< ff.iJtA'-.... ;,f_575-f;l S?.
6'!'\j ""* (J.kl:!i.:4' ?1.' t0 .:-s. 1'7. .;t?.i(_
t '.a o t 'i en 53 >>He Kung Kung and (causes the waters to) swell up
to .. An amusmg speculatiOn. - A alone can satisfy the text such as it stands.
and IS confrrmed by Si-ma.
>>The emperor said: Oh, Si Yiie>> - for this personage, see BMFEA 18, p. 261.
S h an g s h an g h u n g shu e i fang k o see GI. 1234.
H u a i s h a n s i a n g I i n g - for a i a n g 'to rise above' see Gl. 215,
1237. H ii, f u t sa i 73.
_A. PK'ung: f u 74 (*b'jwat I b'juat If u) = 75 'to offend, offensive' agreement.
With Shuowen: f u 74 = 76 'to transgress, oppose, offend'). Thus: nOh, he is offensive.
Cf. Shu: Wei tsi 77 >>One offends the aged elders>>. The same word (*b'iwat) is sometimes
wr. _e.g; Li: Hiie ki _79 >>In their seeking (sc. knowledge) they are" oppositional>>. _
B. Ts ai Chen: f u. 74 IS a forceful negation, thus: Oh, certainly not, by no means>>,
No text par. - A IS better supported.
1238. F an g min g p i t s u 80.
Fang ming:
A .. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases 81 >>He turns the back on, he neglects (my) orders>. Both
JUng, Cheng Hiia14,.and Ying Shao in accordance with this take fang 88 (read
falling tone) as a short-form for fang 82 'to let go neglect' and the phr is
already wr. 83 in an edict _from the end of Western Han shu: % Hi chuan). _
B. On the phr. fang mIn g n ii e m in 84 in Meng: Liang Huei wang, hia, which
clearly alludes to our Shu pill., Chao K'i defines f an g 88 by y i 85 'to go against, to.
here: >>He my .. Ts'ai Ch'en quotes a >>Mr. Wang>> who
explams th1s. whereas yuan round IS >>mobile>>, fang square is >>stationary immo-
bile>>, thus Hence >>He my orders>> would mean >>He my
orde;s';. A Idea., 88 = t? oppose' could only be a short-form for fang
86 ( p 1wang) to as m Tso: Ym 3, phr. 87 The mean oppose the nobles, an(l
the ;young agamst the elders>>. - C. PK'ung takes f an g 88 in its ordinary
readmg (*p1wang, ev:en tone): 'square' = 'straight, upright': >>He is fang straight
(apparently), but mIn g when charged (he ruins his kin)>>. An impossible forcing of
the text. - No reason to abandon the oldest interpr. (A).
pi t s u 89.
, A. S_i-ma renders .. by 90, and Ying Shao expounds 91: >He ruins his kin ..
IS nothmg show that SI-ma by t s u or the expounder Ying Shao by his t s u
1 e I meant anythmg else than 'clan, kin', for t s u I e i as a binome with that sense is
"":ell known. Tso: Ch'eng 4, phr. 92 Those who are not of our kin, their hearts will be.
from ours>> (the context here referring to the prince of Tsin as being t s u 1 e i
a kinsman, whereas the prince of Ch'u was of a different clan). Lei properly means
'category, class', here then those who belong to the same category: t s u I e i = 'kins-
men-classmen'. - B. Ts'ai .Ch'en paraphrases pi t s u 89 by 93 >>not concordant with
crowd>>, thus t u as equal to I e i in a more general sense::
(km =) cat_egory,. >>He rums his (category=) crowd>>, which Legge has turned.
thus, >>He to InJure his peers>>, and Chavannes thus, >>Il est funeste a ses collegues>>.
T u can have such a more general sense, cf. Li: Tsi fa 94 >>Those (men and
which were not of these categories (kinds, classes) were not pJ,aced on the list of
sacrifiCes>>.:--- C. _foil .. by Ying-ta, Chang Shou-tsie and even Sun Sing-
yen, commits a cunously illogwal tnck. Lei 95, besides meaning 'category class' also
frequently means' good' 'up to the standard'), and so we have it 'in 257,
phr. 96 >>The _men rum the good>> (see Gl. 830, with text pal'.). Now, since t s u
?an equal to I e I m the phr. t s u I e i 'kin' above, t s u should - those scholars
Imagme - also be equal to I e i in the sense of 'good', and the 1? t_ s. u 89; 0 our text.
is equal to the }J a i l e i 96 of the ode; thus: >>He ruins the good>>. There is, of course,
not. the slightest text support for t s u having ever had the sense of 'good', and PK'ung's
:false analogy is a warning example of bad philology. - There is no reason whatever for
abandoning the oldest interpr. (A): Kun was the chief of a powerful feudal family and
by his demeanour he ruined the fortunes of his house.
1239. Y ii e y u e y i t s a i 97.
'rs'ie yiin and Shiwen both say y i 98 had two readings: even and falling tone.
A. Cheng Hiian (ap. Shiwen) read 98 like 99 (falling tone), evidently taking it to be
:a variant graph for this word. This is confirmed by Lie: Yang Chu 100 >>Wherein does
it diller1>>, where y i 98 is equal to 99 (similarly Tso Si, 3rd c. A. D., in his Wei tu
fu writes 1 meaning 2). Tuan Yii-ts'ai believes that Cheng Hiian interpreted: >>How
strange!>> (sc. that you should say so - a protest against Yao's criticism of Kun). J>oss-
ibly this was already the opinion of Lu Fa-yen, for in Ts'ie yiin he says y i t sa i t' an
J y its ai is (a sigh=) a regretting exclamation. But, as pointed out by Liu Jung-tsung
.(19th e.), Cheng's idea probably was quite different, based on Si-ma Ts'ien. Si-ma in
Wu ti pen ki simply reproduces the y i t s a i of the Shu text: but in Hia pen ki, in
the same context, paraplrrasing the same Shu line, he says 4 >>In classifying them, there
is nobody so wise as Kun>>, which shows that he took y i t sa i 5 C""' 6) to mean He
is (different from others=) remarkable. - B. Shuowen: y i 98 = 7 'to lift, to promote',
thus: >>Promote him>> (into office). No text par.; probably Hii's gloss is a mere script
etymology, the char. containing 8 two hands. Moreover, with this sense the line should
not end by t sa i. - D. Ts'ai Ch'en says the meaning of y i t sa i is doubtful, but
he surmises that it means something like: >>After all he shall have to do>>. I suppose y i
98 should then have to be a variant of y i 9 'to finish' with a free extension of meaning:
'to let off =never mind'. (Legge: Well but ... ). Couvreur frankly takes 98 = 9,
explaining: >>Desinas (eum respuere) Stop (criticizing him)>>. - A, besides being the
oldest interpr., is the only one which is supported by text par. Moreover, the preceding
phr. f u t s a i >>He is offensive>> is best balanced by the present y i t s a i 5 >>He is
1240. S h i k ' o n a i y i 11.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphr. 12 >>Try him and if he cannot be used, then (finish him =)
dismiss him>>. Si-ma has introduced a negation that is not in the Shu text. In order to
agree with Si-ma's paraphrase, this latter has to be taken as a violent ellipsis: s hi try
him (whether he) k' o will do, (if not) then dismiss him>>. This is exceedingly unreason-
able and cannot be saved by Sun Sing-yen's amusing theory that k 'o 13 is >>a quick
way>> of pronouncing p u k' o 14. PK'ung makes it still worse, interpreting: s hi
to try him k' o will be all right, (if he is unsuccessful) then dismiss him>>. - B. Ts'ai
Ch'en therefore takes n a i y i as equal to the common final e r y i 15 >>and that is
all, expounding: >>Try him whether he will do, and that is alb, adding: >>whether he will
do>> refers to the work against the inundations - that will be all, he need not be a good
70, ;#;_:f.. ?'1. ?R.::ff, r.JYfa)f;.:;,;r.i!a!/J 'J.r.Jf;; 'Jlf;:_71."'/tJ:Jt 4Jf-fz?Y{/t 77..:#. 1..-Z --t!.d#/ JO, n--&f_;tcc.
4 n-!,/J:_ ?:JiP:./fft!-./A?t;.:!i'f 4{ ff..i!Ltc#;r?. #';/J it:
.. 1. * A.
$t--t- :3.
s.- 1X 7. 11 Jt ,_ e /a .. Je -.;f /t /7 e.. -&R .:r: "'f Al f.i7 e. n ""f /lt. .:o- / iiii
------ ---------------------------------
man for other works>>. - C. Kiang Sheng (more fully developed by Yii Yiie): y i 9
and y i 16 (both *ziay IiI y i, rising tone) are interchangeable graphs, and 9 here stands
for 16 'to employ': Try him, and if he will do, then em11Ioy him. Cf. Yi: Kua 41, phr.
17, Shiwen variant 18; Li: T'an kung 19 (16 = 9); Lun: Sien tsin 20 (Cheng Hiian's
version 21); Meng: Liang Huei wang, shang 22 (16 = 9). Indeed, 16 and 23 (= 9) were
probably variants of one and the same archaic graph 24. Observe particularly Siin: Fei
siang 25 >>By means of what? = 26; here, just as in our Shu ex., y i 9 clearly serves
for 16. - D. Legge, though he quotes Si-ma (A above) with approval, translates quite
differently: >>Try him and then you can have done with him>>, which supposes a different
word sequence: 27. - C is strikingly convincing.
1241. J u n eng y u n g min g 28.
The phr. was introduced by: Oh, you Si Yiie, I have been in the high position (on
the throne) 70 years, j u n eng yu n g ming>>.
A. PK'ung: >>(If) you can (use=) execute my orders>> (I will cede the throne etc.),
thus referring min g 'order' to the speaker (Yao). PK'ung seems to have forgotten that
he took Si Yiie to be four princes: it is difficult to see how Yao could offer to cede the
throne to four gentlemen. Ts'ai Ch'en, who correctly took Si Yiie to be one potentate,
could with more reas6n interpret as above. - B. Cheng Hiian, likewise taking Si Yiie
to be four princes, has expounded accordingly, supposing a strong ellipsis, and moreover
he took min g 'order' = 'the mandate of Heaven': (If any of)' you (princes) can (use =)
execute Heaven's mandate>> (I will cede the throne to him). - Since it is a question
of imperial power, Cheng is undoubtedly right about min g; but Si-yiie was one person
(see BMFEA 18, Legends and cults passim), and so the line means: (ll) you can (use=)
execute (Heaven's) mandate (I shall cede etc.).
1242. S u n c h en wei 29.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien renders the line t s i en chen wei 30, thus making the Si Yiie
addressed the subject: >>You shall step into my high position>>. T s i en wei 37 'to
(trample, tread:) step into the high position' (as ruler) is a common expression, e. g. Li:
Ming t'ang wei 31 >>Chou kung stepped into the position of the Son of Heaven; Li: Chung
32 >>They (stepped into =) occupied their (sc. the ancestors') high positions>>. Sun
Smg-yen and Chu Tsiin-sheng believe that the 33 *sw<m I suan Is u n of the Shu text is
a loan char. for this 34 *dz'jan I dz'jan Its i en, which_ is phonetically highly improb-
able. On the other hand 34 *dz'jan in Chouli: Si tsun yi serves as loan char. for 35 *dz'ian
'to serve up food, to furnish', see Gl. 233, and it would be conceivable that Si-ma's" 34
would _mean 'to furnish', equal to 33 as a short-form for 36: >>I will furnish you (present
you w1th) my high position; but this is forbidden by the early existence of the well-
known. phr. t s i en wei 37 as above, the meaning of which in those ex. is quite
unambiguous. In fact, there are reasons to believe that Si-ma has freely deviated from
the Shu text above, and that he really knew that s u n 33 had another sense, c. B
below. - B. Ma Jung: s u n 33 = j a n g 38, thus making Yao himself the subject:
I shall (withdraw from, yield =) cede my high position. This means that Ma took 33
*swan as loan char for 39 *swan I suan Is u n 'to withdraw, to give way, yield, cede'
(common word, often abbrev. into 40). Sun 33 as loan char for this 39 is common:
Lun: Tsi han 41 >>(Yielding =) complaisant, gentle, mild words>>; Yi: Kua 4, phr. 42
His obedience and (yielding =) humility>>. And Si-ma already seems to have had this idea
about the sun wei 43 of our text, for, differing from his paraphr. of the Shu line in
A above, in Shi ki: Po Yi chuan he says 44 >>Yao would yield the high position and cede
it to Yii Shun>>, thus using the very phr. s u n w e i 45 = 43. - C. PK'ung: s u n
33 = shun 46, paraphrasing: >>I shall (let you) sun (accord with=) carefully attend
to (the tasks of) the high position. - D. Kiang Sheng: sun 33 = 47, again t&king
:\::. ::. ...J:it.:tue &S the subject: >>You shall enter my high position. This is based on Yi: Shuo kua:
means j n. But it is very doubtful what this really means: >>s u n means
or: >>B u n means penetrable>>? I know of only one real text in which s u n
mean enter': Yi: Kua 50, phr. 49 >>By entering wood into fire, one cooks food>>.
it is quite possible that sun here again has its fundamental sense of 'to yield': )>By
(yielding to =) being consumed by fire, one cooks food)>, so the ex. is not conclus-
- B alone is sufficiently substantiated.
}' 0 u te 50.
'.A SI-ma renders this by pi t e 51. >>(I have) an inferior virtue>>. - B. PK'ung:
(J:.mve) not the virtue. The char. 52 has two readings: *pjiJ.g I If o u 'not' (very
and *b'jag I b'ji I pi 'to obstruct', see Gl. 1021. But it is also attested as
char. for 53 *pjag I pjwi I pi 'vulgar, inferior, bad', e. g. Yi: Kua 50, phr. 54 >>It
.i& .. advru1tage<>US to eliminate what is bad>> (Shiwen 52 *pj9(J I pjwi I p i). - 52 as loan
is rare, whereas it is exceedingly common as = *pjiJ.g 'not'. Since B takes 52 in
ordinary sense, without any loan of char., and makes good sense, it is certainly prefer-
a,.ble. -We should compare:
l,un: Yung ye 55. Confucius had visited Nan-tsi and Tsi-lu disapproved. The master
s.aid: yii so fou che ...
Itead *pjiJ.y I If o u. Si-ma Ts'ien: K'ung tsi shi kia renders it 56 (57 and
62 both *pjug). a. The ancient interpr. >Wherein I have made (incorrect =) wrong.
p, Liu Pao-nan: >>If I had not>> (sc. gone and visited). - B. Read *pjag. Wang Ch'ung
in Lun heng: Wen K'ung reads 58, thus replacing 52 by 53: >>Wherein I have been bad>>.
. . a. Wang Pi 59 and others read 52 *b'jJ(J I b'jwi I pi, thus: >>Wherein I have
(obstructed =) been refractory>>. - Here again the ordinary reading *pjiJ.y is certainly
most simple and convincing (in the A a interpr.).
1244. S hi s i t i y ii e 60.
As to s i 61 'to give, to present', Chang Ping-lin proposes that the original graph was
simply 62 (as in the bronze inscriptions), but this would not mean 'to present' but 'to
to transmit' from one place to another, hence 'to report' to the emperor.
In .support of this he adduces Shu: P'an Keng 63 >>I shall not let you propagate your seed
j,n.;j;his new city>>; but here y i really means 'to exchange' = 'to renew your seed', hence
1)0 prppagate. Other ex. adduced by Chang are the y i in Tso chuan discussed in Gl.
and the s i in Yii kung discussed in Gl. 1366 __... none of them has the sense of
A, Si-ma Ts'ien renders s h i 64 by c h u n g 66 'the crowd', thus: nAil (presenting =)
tOe ;the emperor said. S hi in this sense is very common. - B. Cheng Hiian: s hi 64
me&b.s 66. This could be taken to mean, with A, >>The crowd of princes>>, but probably
idea was different, for, in comm. on Chouli: Hiang shi 67 and Tien shi 68, he:
;t:.v...< /'J. It< $ n. .umJ..:<.t,J,F.t:r 6 2.r+f e
t,_,'l1.gJV7 "f e. u.;..kf;i:t.J4(; zr. .ffl1: z {J.:. i.tJt1'.2. JJ
... 1.
'f' 4t 11 A. It!..{ r'?. l!< ->f _Jt X 1 ..I'd:, e f2. 'f- D . .tJp' 59.*')
rr.=ffit 1?-1i' jl; 1' ffi' ;J" .... 11f I?. ..:F. S1.1" f'l. l'.f. '-1
f' e. cd-tt{Jtz .. T.Pifttpa{ii] itl HI -r 11 5t:&!&f Jt<
says: s hi 64 = chang 69. Thus (with Sun Sing-yen) he probably meant c h u
h o u chi chan g. Thus: >>The leaders (of the princes) said to the emperor>>. S hi
= 'master, leader' is likewise common. - Cheng evidently was influenced by his opinion
of another Shu passage: Shu: Kao Yao mo 70 which he interpreted: >>In the provinces
there were 12 leaders>>. But as we shall se in Gl. 1335 this is not acceptable. Hence we
have no reason for abandoning the oldest interpr. above (A).
1245. K' o hie y i hi a o chen g chen g y i p u k o k i en 71.
A. The Han-time authors on the one hand took the two words hie and hi a o as
coordinated expressions, on the other hand carried the c h e n g c h e n g to the first
line. Thus Liu Hiang (in Lie nu chuan) paraphrases the first 4 words thus: 72 >>Shun
could treat them with concordance and serve Ku Sou with filial piety>>. And Ts'ai Yung
in an inscription (Kiu yi shan pei) writes: >>Shun ... 73 he was able to be concordant
with the stupid (sc. father) and the arrogant (sc. brother) and to be (in filiality grand =)
grandly filial>>. In a memorial to the throne Sung Yi 74 (1st c. A. D., ap. Hou Han shu
k. 71) says chi hi a o chen g chen g 75 >>grand in extreme filiality>>, alluding to
our text; many more ex. in Wang Nien-sun's notes on the Knangya, which has an entry
cheng cheng =-hiao 76 'to be filial, filial piety'. In fact cheng cheng
has here fundamentally the sense of 'grand, fine, splendid', as in Odes 244 and 299 (see
Gl. 1151), here specially pertaining to his attitude towards his parents. Lu Kia (Sin
yti: 'l'ao ki) says 77 Yu Shun was grand towards his father'and mother>>, i. e. grandly
filial. Our first Shu line k ' o hie y i hi a o c hen g c h e n g thus means: He
has been able to be concordant and to be grandly filial'' These same authors then took the
following yi 7 8 together with the rest. Si-ma Ts'ien renders y i 7 8 by chi 79 'to
govern' (common meaning) and Liu Hiang (Lie nil chuan) paraphrases 80 >>Shun further
(was inwardly governed =) controlled himself and had no wicked thoughts>>. Thus our
Shu line y i p u k o k i en: >>He has controlled himself and has not come to wickedness.
Sun Sing-yen has adopted this Han-time -interpr. - B. PK'ung divides the line
differently: k' o hie y i h i a o, c h c n g c hen g y i, p u k o k i en : >>He has been
able to make them concordant by his filial piety; chen g chen g (advancingly =)
more and more y i they have controlled themselves and not come to wickedness>>.
Cheng 81 = t sin 82 'to advance' is based on Erya, but Erya's gloss really means
t sin 82 in the sense of 'to bring forward' = 'to present' (sacrificial gifts) and it
does not mean 'to advance' as an intransitive verb (see Gl. 1151). - C. Kiang Sheng
punctuates like PK'ung but says: 78 has a variant 83 (the two graphs are in fact
interchangeable, see Gl. 447, 481), and the latter is the proper char. here. It should
not be read *ngjiid 1 ngjvi I y i but *ngad J ngai I a i. Erya says a i 83 = 84 'to nourish',
and the line means: >>He is able to be concordant (with his brother) and filial (towards
his parents) chen g chen g a i he (grandly =) amply nourishes (them), (so that)
they do not come to wickedness>>. The Erya gloss a i = 'to nourish', however, has
no support in reliable text ex., see Gl. 447 and 1317. - Both B and C lack substan-
tiation through good text parallels in regard to the salient words (chen g and y i).
Moreover, the earliest interpr. (A) is far superior in content, since it praises Shun's
own qualities and not the effect on his family of his actions; and finally the ancient
lore unanimously present his parents and brother as bad, perpetrating all kinds of wicked
deeds (BMFEA 18, p. 296), and it certainly cannot be said that they did not come to
1246. L i k i a n g e r n u y u K u e i j u e i p i n y ii Y ii 85.
For K u e i j u e i 86 >>the nook of the Kuei river>> (the place of its juncture with
another stream) and not >>the rivers Kuei and Juei>> see Gl. 910.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien foll. by PK'ung, refers the" line to Shun (the clause has no expressed
>>He (Shun) regulated and submitted the two daughters in the nook of the Kuei
and they served as wives in the Yu house>>. L i 87 frequently means 88 or 89 'to
..,.. .... ,. ... T.A, e. g. Ode 276 phr. 90 >>The king regulates your achievements>>. The line would
that though of very noble birth the two girls were brought into decorous obedience
.$0-. Shun by his great virtues. - B. Sun Shuang (ap. Hou Han shu: Siin Shuang chuan)
e r n ii as the subject: >>The orderly, submitting two daughters in the nook of
.'fJle J(uei (river) served as wives in the Yu (house)>>. - C. Ts'ai Ch'en takes Yao as sub-
Ject: He (regulated = ). and sent down the two daughters etc. This is certainly
.tight as far as the subJect Is concerned: the whole context (the lines before and after)
that the line refers to Yao. But Legge rightly considers l i as a more general term
the arranging of the bridal equipment: He (Yao) (regulated, arranged =) directed and
down his two daughters to the nook of the Kuei (river) to be wives in the Yii (house) u,
.ilao tien continued; in the orthodox version: >>Shun tiem; the first 28 characters in the
()rthodox version are spurious.
124?'. She n hue i w u tie n 91.
Shen .h uei:
, Si-ma Ts'ien renders it s h en h o 92 >>He carefully (harmonized =) adjusted
the five rules>>. ]'or hue i in that sense there is no text support. Sun Sing-yen says
93 (*xmiwar I xfwr;.i I h u e i) was >>similar in sound>> to 94 (*snjwar 1 swi 1 sue i)
comfort', is very wrong. Since h u e i fundamentally means 'rope, string'
.H.:lld from Han was the term for the attachments of the strings to a lute, Kiang
SlJeng thinks that 1t means here 'to attune' the five rules, which is rather far-fetched. -
.... Ma Jung (after Erya): hue i 93 = 95. The sense 'good, admirable' is well at.tested
(Shl etc.); PK'ung says hue i = 96 'be1:1utiful, fine'. Thus >>He carefully made
gp.l!il; .made fine the five rules>>. . This is somewhat nonsensical. - .c. Another interpr.
Jil' \l e I 93 also means 'a pennon, a banner' (ex. in Li, Tso etc.), and this is an extension
<if :meaning: He carefully (signalized =) displayed the five rules. There are many parallels
metaphor. T sing 97 'banner': Tso: Hi 24, phr. 98 >>It will signalize a good
il'n,an>>; Tso: Chuang 28, phr. 99 >>It signalizes (displays) the great deeds of the prince>>'

i 100 '?anner': Tso: Min 2, phr. 1 >>It is a manifestation of the loyalty>>.
smts the context well; the line continues: >>The five rules then could be
t9llowed>>. Chang Ping-lin had a similar opinion, defining hue i by pi a 0 2.
)V'u tien:
five rules>> is an expr. which recurs in Kao Yao mo 3. It has been variously

.A, The oldest interpr. is that in Tso: Wen 18, where w u tie n 10 >>the five rules>>
to our Shu chapter) are identified with w u. k i a o 4 >>the five for
"WI1ic4 see Gl. 1285 be!ow: that fathers should .be y i 5 just, t s ' i 6 loving,
()l(ier brothers y u 7 fnendly, younger brothers 1>: u n g 8 respectful, sons hi a o 9 filial.
!'}.vi>.x_ ..,...r ... -<r :r. ;11: @.w , -* k ;1 .:t<- >-it :it z;'4f,
Lq x. Jt< 't- 7'.1.
.-,1. :h hJa 7-,j. Ll. .....,._ .lt-
t:''' .... r7: X:7 rd>'-.'lf. 8'0. rv :.Orfjl. qff 1<j< $"1 ;A rJ .>\._ Ff
Jt..-J; 1" s?fi. ff.i1i 12. 1:1,
1. %.:z7.!Jt .z. YZ4z: $.:ti..!1J( Ji-'!fz
;r. .Ji.. C .. 7. -1t s. 9 -tf. 1a 11 1 * n.ft. Z-ft'Vf. *l::'IE.!s:.Ji. m
Cheng Hiian, following this, says (in Yao tien here): w u tie n 10 is equal to w u
k i a o 4. Erya defines tie n 11 as= c h' an g 12 'constant norm', and PK'ung
on the basis of this defines w u tie n 10 as = 13 >>the teachings of the five constant
norms>>, .enumerating the list of Tso above, adding that they are man's 14 regular natural
disposition. - B. Pan Ku (Po hu t'ung: Ts'ing sing) has quite a different definition
of w u c h ' an g 15 >>the five constant norms>>: they are j en 16 goodness, y i 5
righteousness, l i 17 decorum, chi 18 wisdom and sin 19 faithfulness. Sun Sing-yen
in Kao Y ao mo accepts this list as corresponding to our w u t i e n, whereas in our
chapter Yao tien here he follows A. -C. Ts'ai Ch'en, while that
w u tie n 10 is equal to w u c h' an g 15, takes these latter to be Identical With the
w u l u n 20 >>the five social relations as defined by Meng: T'eng Wen kung, shang,
cf. Gl. 1285 below: the relation between father and son, between sovereign and subject,
between husband and wife, between elder and younger, between friend and friend. ----'
No reason to abandon the earliest interpr. (A).
1248. a. N a y ii p o k ' u e i, p o k 'u e i s hi s ii 21.
b. s hi t s e p 0 k' u e i 22.
The line b. follm'Q later in our Shu chapter. For s hi s ii see Gl. 1249. K ' u e i
23 means (with Erya) 'to measure, to estimate' (common), hence also 'to take measures
for, to regulate, to dispose'. .
A. The oldest interpr. is indirectly given in Tso: Wen IS', where a line is evidently
written as an allusion to our Shu passage: >>(They were given a certain office) y i k' u e i
p o s h i, m o p u s h i s ii 24 in order to dispose the hundred affairs, there ';ere
which were not orderly>>. The Tso author obviously took our Shu phr. p o k u e I 25
in the sense of >>the hundred disposals>> = the disposal of the hundred affairs. Thus our
Shu lines: a. aHe waa (entered into =) appointed to the (hundred disposals =) general mana-
gement, the (hundred disposals =) general management waa orderly; b. I shall make him
occupy (the hundred disposals =) the general managementn. - B. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases:
a. 26; b. 27. Thus, in line a. he adds a p i en 'all round' which is not in the Shu
text and renders p o k 'u e i by p o k u an (k u an means 'office' or 'officer'). Sun
Sing-yen says that Si-ma's j u is equal to 'introduce' in the sense of 'to select', and
SI-ma's line a. would thus mean: >>All round he (introduced =) selected the hundred
officers, the hundred officers were orderly>>. If this was Si-ma's idea, he deviated from
the Shu, whose y ii 28 in n a y ii p o k ' u e i 21 would then be inexplicable (unless
we turn it thus: >>He introduced [men] into the hundred offices>>, which is too strained).
Chavannes therefore translates: >>Il fut investi de toutes les cent fonctions (:Properly: >>All
round he (entered into =) was appointed to the hundred offices>>), which is very
unreasonable. On the other hand, in line b. Si-ma simply ,renders p o k 'u e i by
k u an: I shall make him occupy an office>> (strangely transl,ated by Chavannes: >>Je
lui donnerai l'autorite>>). In short, however we translate Si-ma's lines, this author is
inconsistent in his interpr. of p o k ' u e i and his version is not reconcilable with the
Shu texts. - C. Huainan: Siu wu like Si-ma takes p o k ' u e i = p o k u an 29, but
construes He paraphrases: >>He wiv.ed him with his two daughters in order
to 30 see his behaviour in his house; he 31 entrusted him with the hundred officials, in
order to 32 see his behaviour in public life>>. Here >>daughters>> and >>officials>> balance
each other, which shows that Huai took p o k ' u e i concretely as = >>the hundrea
officials (here Chavannes' >>les cent fonctions>> would not do). Thus our Shu text a: He
was (introduced into=) charged with the hundred officials. This interpr., however, is
not applicable in line b. and hence inadmissible. - D. PK'ung, influenced by Si-ma's
paraphrase k u a n for k ' u e i, believes that p o k ' u i was the of an office
(later comm. have identified it with the c hung t sa I 33 of Chou trme!), and he
k ' u e i 23 means 34 'to dispose', adding: 35 >>To dispose the hundred affairs
the hundred officers (or: offices), one (introduced=) nominated Shun to
Thus in an amusing way PK'ung juggles with the word k ' u e i, giving it
time the sense of 'to dispose' (of Tso chuan above) and of 'officer, office'
Having taken p o k ' u e i as a title in the first half of the line, PK'ung
carry this through in the second p o k ' u e i s h i s ii, and there he says
e i = p o s h i 36 'the hundred affairs'. This inconsistency has been accepted
Ch'en, Kiang Sheng and the Western translators. Legge: >>Being appointed to
k' u e i General regulator, the p o k' u e i affairs of each department (sic!)
in their proper season. - A alone is consistent and acceptable.
p o k' u e i s hi s ii 37.
has s hi s ii 38, the two char. 39 and 40 being homophonous and interchangeable.
does not gloss s hi 41 here, but in some other Shu texts, where we have
u, he says s hi 41 = s hi 42 (common in Shu and Shi): K'ang kao Y ii e k ii e
k ii e m i n w e i s h 'i s ii 43 >>Its states and its people s h i then s ii were
into order. K'ang kao N a i j u t sin sun y ii e s hi s ii 44 Then you will
compliant, saying: s hi s ii that is in order>>. In Tso: Wen 18, phr. m o
ii 45, K'ung Ying-ta follows PK'ung, explaining s hi 41 = 46, thus: There
that were not s hi then s ii orderly>>. Thus in our phr. 37 above PK'ung
took s hi s ii to mean the same: >>... then were orderly>>. Sun Sing-yen here
likewise says 41 = 42 (yet mentioning interpr. C below). But in K'ang kao
s hi 41 = shan 47 'good' (cf. D below), and, since Erya says: s ii 39 = y ii
since this y ii 48 can mean 'joyful' (Ode 254), he interprets: >>Their states and
were good and joyful>>. And in K'ang kao 44 he again says: 41 = 47 and
interpreting: >>You should by what is good continue it>>. An impossible in-
. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en. In Yao tien 37 he takes s hi 41 in its ordinary sense
11 were timely and orderly>>. In K'ang kao 43 he does not explain s hi; in
44 he says s hi 41 = 42 (as A above), explaining: that is properly ordered.
inadmissible inconsistency. - C. Wang Yin-chi (King yi shu wen): 41 *ajag I
h 1 was >>similar in sound>> to 50 *ajang / ijang / c h ' eng and is loan char. for this
a g, the binome s h i s ii 51 thus being equal to c h ' e n g s ii 52 (he tries to
this by the fact that the similar char. 53 *siag I si Ish i in two texts, Li: Nei
T'e sheng kuei si li, by Cheng Hiian is said to stand for c h 'eng 50, an
speculation of Cheng's: 53 is there obviously a loan char. for 54). This c h ' eng
55 occurs not only in Kyii: Ch'u yii 56 (which, in fact simply means: 1, Yi
eagerly accept your arrangements>>) but even in Shu: Lo kao n a i c h ' e n g
n i en 57, commonly interpreted: >>(The Yin) have received the orderly rules
l:jayriad years>>. But, says Wang, s ii in this phr. c h' eng s ii (and s hi s ii)
ntean 'order' but 58 'to follow, obey' and c h ' eng s ii (s h i s ii) means 59
(56: . I would eagerly be compliant; 57 >>The Yin will be compliant for
f atK13 fi t;.ff3 11'1'n u. "SJX<,.
:L!./k, .......... \3 ,;; at If ,n1. ;i: tf 'f .l'l. a 31.{4: 3t.lit.Jt?l '"
;t_ i3 f. irJif' it X. B 37. a .f..t :Jl f.1.
el i"t.llif4.(.y.f.JJ .).Jt!!,l!\3af 9f.ff fr::?r.3't. sf-
... 0/}
a myriad years>>). Thus: Po k_' u e i h 'i s ii 37: >>(The hundred disposals=) the
general was (m1ld, peaceable)>>; and similarly the K'ang kao
exa_mples: 43 >>Therr .states and their people will be compliant>>; 44 >>Then you will be
With. right compliant>> (in the former, Sun Yi-jang would divide
the line differently, readmg _ we 1 s hi s ii together with the following n a i k u a hi u n g
h ii 60 to the of your brother's). Indeed s hi 41 alone would
have this sense m Shu: Ku mmg e r s h an g min g s h 'i c h en yen 61 by PK'u
t t d "t l W ld th ' ng
m qm e s1mp >> ou at you would understand these my words>> (accepted
b;y Ts ai Ch en ar;d Kiang 41 = 50 and min g 62 = mien 63 (Sun
Smg?en adds: mIn g 62 was m to m eng 64, and Erya says 64 = 63),
you wo_uld mIn g stnve to s hi 41 be compliant to my words.
Agam, m Ta Ta1: Shao hien, 65 would not mean the obvious: >>Follow the times of
Heaven's =) seasons, use the but: (s h 'i = c h ' en g) >>Comply
to s ... >> T_hese various speculatiOns of Wang Yin-chi's are very forced
httle plausible. There IS no reason why c h' eng s ii 52 should mean 'compliant'
mstead of the ,normal of the words, still less reason why s h 'i 41 (aiag) should
serve for c h eng (awng). Such loan theories are acceptable only when the words
no good _their normal and well-attested meanings. - D. Another
mterpr. Wang Ym-cfiT IS right that s hi 41 should have one and the same sense in
those various cases of sh'i s ii 51 (38). Interpr. A (41 = 42) could be carried through
m the examples above, but its weakness is that it does not talre s hi s ii as a binome'
its that it really is. This is particularly clear in
m Kyu: Chou yu 66, where the bmome s hi s ii corresponds to the binome t s u an
s I u- here s hi 41 cannot mean 42. Now s hi 41 is common in the sense of 47 'good'
(Erya), but then fundamentally in the sense of 'correct'; for a full discussion and numerous
text ex. see Gl. 553. S hi 'correct' and s ii 'orderly' are practically synonymous and
form .. excellent binome: s h i s ii thus simply means 'orderly'. Thus:
Po k n e 1 s h 1 s u 37 11(The hundred disposals =) the general management was orderlyu;
43 >>Its states and peoples became orderly>> etc.
1250. P in y ii s i m en, s i m e n m u m u 67.
, The .. s i. m. e n fo_ur gates>>: both in Li: Ming t' ang wei and in Yi Chou shu: Ming
t kie It 1s described how the representatives of the foreign tribes (East: the 9 Yi
South: the 8 Man tribes; West: the 6 Jung tribes; North: the 5 Ti tribes) were
received at the four gates (east, south, west, north) of the Ming t'ang. This refers to
Chou time, but Kiang Sheng and Sun Sing-yen conclude that the >>four gates>> of our text
likewise refer to those of the Ming t'ang.
. A. An too comm. believe that the 2nd line has an ellipsis: He received the guests
(1. e. the feudal lords who came to court) at the four gates, (the guests at) the four gates
were m u m is aJ:eady indirectly indicated by the Tso chuan author (Tso:
Wen 18) quotmg our line,_ adds: 68 >>there were no ominous mem- they were all
good, whi()h 1s then expressed m the 2nd line. Si-ma Ts'ien expounds this more fu]Jy.
m u m u has been variously defined as == 69 'respectful' (Si-ma after Erya),
70 __ fmc (Ma Jung after Erya), 7! 'harmonious, concordant' (Ts'ai Ch'en after Cheng
Huan. on. Ode 260). - B. There IS no reason whatever to accept . this clumsy ellipsis.
T_he line IS to Ode >>And so he raised the outer gate, the outer gate was
high; and so ratsed the prmCipal gate, the principal gate was grand (72)>>. Here we
have: He reeelved the guests at the four gates, the four gates were stately>>. For m u
m u- 'stately' see Gl. 757.
1251. N a yii tal u 73.
A. Si-ma Th'ien paraphrases: >>Yao sent Shun 74 into the forest of the hills>>. L u 75
means 'hill-foot forest' (Kuliang: Hi 18). Thus He was sent into the great hill-loot
lent wind thunder and rain did not lead him astray))>. - B. Shang shu ta
honoured Shun and entrusted the feudal lords to him and handed him the
ii at a 1 u chi y e 76 in the wilds of the hill-foot forest>>. Sheng conse-
y took the n a 77 in the sense of 'to hand over'. _ Thus the Shu line:. )>I_Ie handed
realm) in the hill-foot forest>>. - C. Cheng Hiian follows up this Idea of B,
- di
"es it further. He says (after Ma Jung) that 75 (*luk I luk I l u) properly means
roo . . ' 1 ' B t "t
'hill-foot', but here it is loan char. 79 (*luk I luk I l uments . u m e
he dare not wholly emancipate himself from the pnmary Idea of l u 75 mear;mg
' ild forest' and so he gives a curious paraphrase in which he serves up both meamngs
w - . '>>When the Son of Heaven ordered some great affair or charged a feudal
ha made an altar outside the capital city (here he alludes to 1 u = >>the wilds of
htfiioot forest)> of the Ta chuan above); w_hen charged Shun to ascend to the high
osition and take the regency, he 80 let give him great emoluments>> (75 = 79). - D.
entirely eliminates the first meaning and unambiguously adopts the. second:
He (Yao) (entered him [Shun] into =) appointed him to great .. H1s
:for this is evidently the words n a y ii, which recur from the precedmg lme n a "[ u
.. _ k ' u e i He appointed him to the general management>>. But then the followmg
ke: >>Violent wind, thunder and rain did not lead him astray)> makes no sen8e, and
h _. ce PK'ung has to advocate another sense for this line: The violent wind, the thunder
the rain did not go astray>>, i. e. all the natudl phenomena were timely and with?ut
disturbances. A comic attempt to evade the difficulty. - A alone is natural, logiCal
and acceptable.
1252. S ii n s h i k ' a o y e n n a i y e n c h i k ' o t s i 81.
. C h 'i 82 means 83 or 84 'to settle, to achieve, to accomplish, to effect', see Gl. 820.
Erya says s ii n 85 = m o u 86 (foll. by all comm. here), but it is important-to observe
that this does not mean m o u in the sense of 'to plan' but in the sense of 'to consu!t,
take advice from' (very common), never 'to plan'. S ii n s hi cannot mean 'th_e affairs
you have planned' but must 'the affairs. on you have been consulted'.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien renders the line 87 The affairs on which you have been consulted have
(arrived =) been achieved, your words have been capable of results>>. It
is obvious that this cannot be a direct paraphrase of the Shu hue as It stands above,
and Sun Sing-yen believes that this is corrupted, the correct wording being found in a;
Shu quotation in Pei T'ang shu ch'ao: s ii n s hi k' a o yen n a i chi _k' o s I
88 thus lacking the second yen 89. If Si-ma's line were to correspond to this versiOn,
should have to say that his c h 'i 90 ('to arrive' = 'to be achieved') corresponds
the word k ' a o which often means 'to achieve', and that . his brief y e n k ' o t s I
corresponds to the fuller y e n n a i c h I, k ' o t s i ; s ii n s h 1 t_he on
which you have been consulted have k a o been achieved, yen n a I . c l
words have been accomplished k' o t.s i and have been capable of yiClding fme
results>>. But it is also evident that there are other possibilities: on the one hand Si-ma
may have had the orthodox version 81 above but deviated from it, skipping k ' a o Y en
(1, a1r c.t \lA t:Jft!lJi: 3; Jtl ..te .ztvt ''Elf Jf .;1{ f#f q --r "!l
,;s; 1t1 ;t;;f;-a 12.J!n 'f J\.. Jl 1'. A J,# -;zr: fit -f' ;k
?fi"J 1f.ll -ff 3:1/iK. if
..b.ll- :t:: .,!;6dr__-.k ;!;
8J Y. ;;;r-,1' _;t:, (.0 ""J 1'- ft. -'7 ;:; /./ /f<'-. "J -"'Jlil off. a ?0. _:J:. f/. T, F<. ?'"f"
and carrying the c h 'i 82 'to achieve' of the 2nd line to the lst and rendering it by c h 'i
90, a kind of free paraphrase, giving only the general content without following the
Shu line word for word; on the other hand the version 88 need not be interpreted in
accordance with Si-ma's line: it could very well be construed differently, e. g.: >>In the
affairs on which you have been consulted I have examined your words (and found that)
they have been accomplished and been capable of yielding fine results>> (which comes
very to B below)_. - B. The orthodox text 81 (with double y en 89) is supported
(as. pomted out by Kiang Sheng) by a passage in Kao Yao mo: n a i y en c h 'i k ' o
t s 1 91 Your words have been accomplished and been capable of yielding fine results>>.
This is exactly the wording in our text above, and the two passages confirm one another.
Sun's theory that the Pei T'ang shu ch'ao version 88 is preferable should therefore be
rejected. The exact meaning of the line must consequentlv be different from Si-ma's
rendering in A above. PK'ung interprets: In the affairs on. which you have been consulted,
I have examined your words; your words have been accomplished and been capable of yielding
fine results. (Legge modifies this into: >>I have consulted you on [all] affairs and examined
your words>> etc., which is certainly no improvement).
1253. shun jan g y ii t e f u s 'i 92.
A. S'i-ma Ts'ien in"'Wu ti pen ki renders the line 93. But in his Preface (Ts"i sii) he
says: >>T'ang Yao ceded the high position, Y ii Shun p u y i 94 (on which Si-ma
95 = 96 = 97). S'i-ma Cheng is evidently right that- Ts'ien's 95 (*djagl i j y i)
Is .. a short-form for 96 (same sound) 'to rejoice' (this expl. 95 = 98 was already given by
Su Kuang on another passage in the Ts'i sii, which contains the phr. p u y i 94). The
Kin-wen version thus was 99. This, however, has been understood in two ways:- a. S'i-ma
Ts'ien understood it thus: Shun (ceded in virtue =) considered himself inferior in virtue,
and was not pleased (with the proposal). That he took p u y i to mean this is revealed
?Y a he wrote (ap. Han shu: S"i-ma Ts'ien chuan): >>The emperor because of this
m eatmg does not enjoy the taste, in holding audience p u y i 100 is not pleased>>,
is an allusion to our Shu {J. Sii Kuang paraphrases p u y i by p u
w e I p o s I n g s o y ii e he was not liked by the people>>, thus: Shun considered him-
self inferior in virtue, not being liked (by the people)>>. - B. The present orthodox ver-
sion above, f u s 'i 1, that of PK'ung, was the Ku-wen version, earliest attested in late
Eastern Han time: Wei Chao, in comm. on Han shu says 2: >>the Ku-wen version for
y i 95 had s 'i 3)> (a passage in Han shu: Wang Mang chuan reading 1 must originally
have had 94, being the text alluded to by Wei Chao above, later altered after the
orthodox Ku-wen version). This has been explained in two ways: - a. PK'ung: Shun
(ceded in virtue =) considered himself inferior in virtue and f u s 'i did not (succeed =)
accept the successiom.- {J. Ts'ai Ch'en: >>Shun ceded (to=) in favour of (some one) vir-
tuous and did not accept the succession, a very forced construction. -C. Yii Sing-wu
our 3 *dzjag of the Ku-wen, the 95 *djag of the Kin-wen with 4 *d'ag 1 d'4i I
t Kan sh'i (5) and several more Shu lines, with 6 *djak in Lo kao (7), with 8
m To sh'i (9) etc. and believes that they are all variations of one and the same
word: the 6 *dflik / iak I y i which means 10 'to be tired of'; phonetically very uncon-
vincing. Moreover, in order to make any sense of our Shu line here he has then to take
j g 11 as wrong for siang 12 'to aid' and y ii 13 as = y i 14 (very risky), inter-
pretmg: Shun aided with his virtue, without becoming tired>>. A quite hopeless
speculation. - There is no reason for not accepting the oldest version attested, in its
oldest interpr. (that of Si-ma Ts'ien, A a), which is simple and good.
1254. S h o u c h u n g y ii w en t s u 15.
>>He accepted the (end=) abdication (of Yao) at (aupres de) the Wen tsw> (in the
temple of the accomplished ancestor[s]). For Wen tsu and various scholastic speculations
meaning see Chavannes MH I, p. 56-58. There is, of course, no possibility of
"lte1iLelJ;IJ.g any detailed knowledge of what the term purports.
sa i s ii an (s ii n) k i y ii hen g y i t s 'i t s 'i chen g 16.
t sa i 17 = 'to examine' (18) see Gl. 751. The char. 1.9 is read *dzjwan / zjwiin I
Shi:wen and Ts'ie yiin, but that is because (see below) the commentators
thought it identical with 20 or 21 *dziwan; the phonetic in the char. shows
should be read *dzjw;m I zjuen j s ii n (in Grammata p. 243 this reading
was stated to be that of Shiwen and Ts'ie yiin; it is on the contrary the sound
by the graph); in Han time thew. was written with the phonetic 22: 23 zjuen I
sec Shuowen.
Si-ma Ts'ien in Wu ti pen ki reads as above, but in Feng shan shu, in Lii shu and
kuan shu he writes 24 (*dzjwan I zjwiin I s ii an, var 21). In T'ien kuan shu he
2,5 The seven stars of the P e i To u Northern Ladle (not, with Chavannes, Le
septentrional, see Gl. 634) that is what is said (sc. in the Shu) >>S ii an k i y ii
g, by them he (adjusted the t s' i chen All froll\ Han time has
understood that Si-ma Identified the 7 stars of the Northern Ladle (a-1] m Ursa
with Siian ki and Yii heng, and that t s ' i c he n g meant something else. The
ts'iu yiin tou ch'u 26 (one of the wei-shu 27 of late Han time), quoted in Shi ki
yin, says: In the Tou 28 Ladle, the 1st is T' i en c h' u 29, the _2nd is S ii an 20,
3:rd is K i 30, the 4th is K' ii an 31 (the Balance), the 5th IS Hen g 32 (the
of the balance), the 6th is K 'a i- yang 33, the 7th is Y a o- k u an g 34;
1st to the 4th is K ' u e i 35, the 5th w the 7th is P i a o 36, together they all
the ']' o u 28 Ladle>>. The Wen yiie kou 37 (another of the wei shu) ap. Shi ki
; """'H.vJ.u says: The Tou 28 Ladle is the throat and tongue of Heaven, the Yii heng 88 is
attachment to the Ladle (the handle), and K'uei 35 is the Siian ki 40>>. According
interpr. Si-ma would have meant: >>The stars Siian ki (the four stars forming the
proper) and the Yii heng (the three stars forming the >>handle>>), by them he veri-
the t s ' i c h e n g>>. In such case the t s 'i chen g could not mean >>the 7 directors>>
sense of 7 stars, for that would make a meaningless tautology (by the 7 stars [of
he verified the 7 directors [= stars of the Ladle]>>, but t s 'i chen g would
something different (Chavannes: >>les sept gouvernements>>, cf. B below). But it is
all sure that this was Si-ma's meaning. On the contrary there are clear proofs
t s ' i c h eng he really meant 7 stars, and obviously the 7 stars of the Ladle.
shu he says: The Shu says (a quotation from some now lost Shu chapter): the
i . chen g 41 7 directors, the e r s hi p a s he 42 Twenty-eight Mansions (parts
firmament and constellations of these parts), the 1 ii l i 43 pitch-pipes and the
by them Heaven unites the forces of the 5 elements and the 8 governing
ptiuciples>>. Here the t s ' i c h eng the 7 directors obviously refers to some prominent
bodies, balancing the following 28 Mansions (with their constellations). It is
thns quite evident that S'i-ma in his Ilhr. 25 above by P e i To u t s 'i sing >>the 7
-f f.--r-. :F- 11. {; % 1?. j}L i3. Jl9r M( Ia' :J- / .r,
x_ J .g_ J.,!f.. ( '_K ll :ft i't J!_At -'h K U '1. Jf;. f f.}
II f;:'(;,t. :{. /3 ..y- !It If: il.f 1" ;(:..fJ! (1:: 4 ;1f t p3( li' 1' /8 /? J.U &
uif;"ufit..u: 641<-fl.. +";.21. ii.f l.u.
ltw- -#I.:u J.t 1' f/.
stars of the Ladle)> comments, not the words s ii a n k i and y ii h e n g of the Shu
line but its expression t s ' i c h en g )>the 7 directors)>. To Si-ma the t s ' i c hen g
7 directors were the 7 stars of the Ladle. His phr. thus means: The 7 stars of the p e i
To u Northern Ladle, that is what is said (in the Shu): s ii an k i and y ii hen g
by them he (adjusted =) verified the t s ' i c h e n g 7 Directors ( = 7 stars of
Northern Ladle))>. Consequently by s ii an k i and y ii hen g he meant something
else than these stars. There is really only one detail which could suggest that Si-ma
meant ii a n k i and y ii h e n g to be stars: in describing the constellation he calls
one of Its stars H eng 32 (Transverse of balance). But in all his elaborate treatise on
astronomy, with scores of names for stars and constellations, he never has s ii a n or
k i or a binome s ii an k i or a binome y ii h en g. It is quite evident, however
tha:t it is the detail just Hen g as Si-ma's name for a star in Ursa Major:
whwh has caused the Han-time astronomers to build up the theory of s il an and k i
or (binome:) s ii an k i as alternative names for certain stars or groups of stars in the
Ursa Major. They have misunderstood Si-ma and further embellished his system. We
revert to Si-ma under D below. - B. Fu Sheng in Shang shu ta chuan has another
theory. He writes 44 but explains 45 as equal to k i 46 'a little'. S ii an k i thus
means )>the one s ii a n revolving is infinitesimal', i. e. p e i k i 47 the Polar
Star (_which o?ly round on itself but does not change place in the firmament).
He sktps the mconvement y ii h e n g and says that the t s ' i c h e n g 41 the 7
governmg forces)> are the four seasons, t ' i e n wen 48 the configurations on Heaven
t i 1 i 49 the formations on Earth, j e n t a o 50 the principles of man. Thus:
examined the s ii an k i Polar star and the y il h eng (whatever Fu thought that
meant), and thereby (adjusted =) verified the 7 governing forces)>. But in another
passage the same Shang shu ta chuan explains that t s ' i chen g refers to sun and
moon and the 5 planets, saying that their regular or irregular behaviour shows the
correctness or incorrectness of the king's government, hence they are called t s' i
chen g )>the 7 (criteria of the) government)>. All this is plainly impossible. - C. Ma
reverts to the orthodox reading s ii n k i 51 (which even Si-ma has in Wu ti pen
k1). He says s ii n 52 = 53 'a fine jade', and k i 30 = 54 'a celestial globe', thus
taking the k i 30 as equal to 45 'apparatus'. But then he has not been able to withstand
the temptation to draw in the earlier speculations which replaced s ii n 52 by s ii an
20 (or 21), so he adds: It can be 55 made to revolve)> (here he plays the funny trick of
explaining s ii n 52 by 'fine jad!;l' but at the same time picking up the meaning of 'to
revolve' from those who took s ii n 52 as a variant for s ii an 20). Then he says that
the y il hen .g 'jade transverse' was 56 ))a transversal tube in the middle (of the appa-
ratus), by whwh one observed the constellations)). (Ts'ai Yung, 2nd c. A. D., is even
a?le to describe the apparatus in detail, with measures and all, see quotations in Sun
Smg-yen). Furthermore he adopts one of the Ta chuan ideas, that the t s 'i chen g
were sun, moon and the 5 planets, but at the same time he would save Si-ma's idea that
t.s '. i c .hen g refers to the 7 stars of the Ladle. He achieves this hy a similar syncre-
tistic tnck: the 7 stars of the P e i To u Northern Ladle each one governs one of the 7
mobile heavenly bodies: one star governs the sun, another the moon, a third the planet
Mars etc. .he concludes that the )>holy mam, anxious about his poor virtue, by the
apparatus verifies the movements of sun, moon and planets in order to find whether
his chen g 57 'government' is correct or not - here again he plays with the w.
c h e n g 57 in two senses; or rather in three senses: )>the 7 directors)> = the 7 stars in
the Ladle; the 7 directors = sun, moon and planets; and t s ' i c h e n g =:= )>the 7 (re-
vealers of) the goverment)>. Cheng Hiian adopts Ma's ideas of the apparatus: the revolving
part (like Ma, Cheng is here influenced by the s ii an 20 of the preceding speculators)
k 45 the regulator (of the apparatus) is called hen g 32, both being made
/;s respectively); the 7 directors are sun, moon, five planets; Shun observes
find out whether he is right or not in accepting the throne. - D. It was
under A that Si-ma Ts'ien by t s ' i chen g meant the 7 stars of the Ladle and
r took s ii a n k i as name of a star or of stars. The very fact that he
s ii n 52, preserved in his Wu ti pen ki, by ii an, 20 in the ,other
reveals that he thought s il n 52 was a loan char. for s u an revolve , and
(like Ma jung after him) regarded this s ii an k i a revolvmg
k i 30 = k i 45. In fact, Tuan Yii-ts'ai elaborately tnes to prove that neither
te:xt nor Si-ma (nor Han shu: Wang Mang chuan, .w?ere we find.
30 but always 45 )>Corrected by later copyists)>. This IS very unlikely, 1t 1s
for it is quite obvious that k i 30 does not her? mean. 'a pearl that not
it does in Shu: Yii kung and in Lii: Chung ki) but IS equal to k I 45
(made of jade and. therefore wr. ":ith the variant 30). Si-ma thus. took the
to mean: )>He exammed the revolvmg apparatus and thereby (adJusted =)
7 directors (=the 7 stars of the Ladle))>. But the whole idea of
ii an 20 (21) 'to revolve' or considering it char ... for that w. IS
inadmissible. S ii n in s ii n k i balances the y u Jade m y u he n g and
some valuable kind of stone. The word is attested in Tso: Hi 28, phr. 59,
both by the Shuowen ( = 60 'fine jade') and by Chang Heng: Si fu (the
Tso text has 61, a corruption substituting to the unusual s ii n a similar char.
common in the classics, particularly in the Odes). Since ii n k i does not
, heavenly bodies, t s ' i c hen g must do so, and there re?Iams the questwn whether
is right: the 7 stars in the Ladle, or those wh? take 1t to. mean sun,
'J'he decision is given by the context. Shun did not celestial bodies
his own virtue )>in the government)> (Ma Jung) nor his nght to accept the
(Cheng Hiian) so much is clear from a comparison with the beginning of the Yao
The account of Yao, after some general paragraphs praising his character. and
actions, starts by his first and most important task as a ruler: he orders HI,,,v., the sun and determine its course and the seasons. Now here Shun, havmg
succession starts his career by a similar ceremony: he verifies (by the
sun, moon planets and their movements. It is obvious that the
c eng 7 directors are these primary and fundamentally Important heavenly
and not the 7 stars of a certain constellation. The Shu line 16 thus means: He
the siin-stone apparatus and the jade transverse and thereby (adjusted =) verified
movements of) the seven directors (i. e. sun, moon and planets) " - just as Y ao had
to the movements of the sun. That the paragraph refers to Shun's first task
to the calendar is Ts'ai Ch'en's opinion and it is evidently correct. But
s ii n k i as an apparatus )>adorned with s ii n stones)> which is not.
S i lei y ii Shan g t i 62. .
)>And then he made lei sacrifice to God on High)>. There has been a volummous
&anussion about the meaning and nature of the 1 e i sacrifice. The commentators
.principally base their opinions on the meaning of the w. lei 'category, class, sort'
{Shuowen has the enlarged char. 63).
11/Z -r )' i'::r.rJI!e # fr. :tttf4 R. ;z 0: .51Ji1
rJ. f .s;zif;t fY . .1::. sr A' ?cJ. ,( 3i c1. f J:. <>J.
A. The Hia-hou and On-yang schools (quoted in Hii Shen's Wu king yi yi) defined
it: 64 >>to sacrifice on the occasion of (affair-classes =) certain sorts of affairs>>, and the
Ku-wen school (ibid.) likewise 65 >>to report (to the God) about certain sorts of affairs>>.
The former add that the sacrifice took place in 66 the southern suburb (the regular place
for a sacrifice to Heaven). The latter adds that the I e i thus was a sacrifice on a
special occasion, here the succession of Shun to the throne, and not a regular seasonal
sacrifice 67. Hii Shen says that since the Chouli in describing the sacrifice to Heaven
in the southern suburb 66 does not use the term l e i, it is clear that the lei was not
a regular (seasonal) sacrifice. Sun Sing-yen would confirm this further: there are two
texts refE>rring to such extraordinary (not seasonal) sacrifices. One is the present, on the
occasion of Shun's succession; the other is the I e i sacrifice to Shang ti in connection
with a warlike expedition described in Li: Wang chi: (68), of which we have an example
in Ode 241. And Ts'ien Ta-chao adds further examples of such extraordinary I e i
sacrifices. Chouli: Siao tsung po: >>Whenever there are great disasters (69) in Heaven
or on Earth, one makes lei sacrifice to the gods of the Soil and the Grain and in the
ancestral temple>> 70; Chouli: Si: shi: 71 >>When they make I e i and t s a o sacrifices to
Shang ti ace. to the commentators refers to warlike expeditions (which, however, is
quite unproved). -.. Cheng Hiian, stating that the sacrifice took place on the y ii an
k 'i u 72 >>circular mound>>, in comm. on Chouli: Si: shl and Siao tsung po explains lei
differently: it means >>of the same sorb> sc. with the same rites as the regular sacrifices. -
C. The same Cheng Hi).an has yet another explanation. In Chouli: Siao tsung po 73
>>He makes altars to the Five Sovereigns in the four k i a o suburbs; (in regard to) the
four wang and the four 1 e i (sacrifices) he does the same>>. Here the early comm.
disagree as to whom the four l e i were offered to: Cheng Chung says to San Huang
74 the Three August ones, Wu Ti 75 the Five Sovereigns, Kin Huang 76 the Nine August
ones>> and 77 the 64 peoples, but that is manifestly wrong, since the Five Sovereigns
were already recorded before; Cheng Hiian says the s 1 l e i were to sun, moon, planets
and constellations 78, adding: since their movements are not uniform, 79 he makes their
places of sacrifice according to the k ' i l e i category of their influences. Thus here
Cheng takes 1 e i to mean a >>category sacrifice>>, sacrifice according to the category of
those offered to. - D. It is easily demonstrated that these various speculations are
quite without foundations. Expl. C is not applicable to the phr. 1 e i y ii S h an g t i.
Interpr. A and B are both based on the assumption that the 1 e i sacrifice was an
extraordinary one, not seasonal. But the only early text which says anything precise
about the ] e i forbids this view. Kyii: Ch'u yii, hia (in a great discourse on sacrifices):
>>Anciently the former kings 80 every day made t s i sacrifices, every month made
hi an g sacrifices, every season made 1 e i sacrifices, and every year made s 1
sacrifices>>. Here it is clearly stated that the I e i (contrary to A and B) were precisely
seasonal sacrifices. And it is then very natural to conclude that the s 1 l e i four lei
in the Chouli passage 73 were likewise regular, seasonal sacrifices, just like those to the
w u t i and the s I w a n g recorded in the same line. The ] e i, in fact, seems to be
a very general term applicable to sacrifices not necessarily offered in the southern suburb
(in Ode 241 a 1 e i sacrifice was offered by Wen wang when away from his capital, see
Gl. 845) and offered to various divinities: both to Shang ti, God on High, and to She,
the god of the Soil (Huai: Pen king says that >>anciently>> the Son of Heaven when
annihilating a foe made I e i sacrifice to the She god of the Soil of that feudatory), Tsi
the god of the Grain and Tsung miao in the ancestral temple (see phr. 70 above). The
meaning of the name 1 e i 81 had possibly nothing to do with the sense 'category, class,
sort', for lei is common in the sense of 'good' (see Gl. 830) and is probably only a fine
denomination (>the good thing>) for the sacrifice.
yin' y i.Cli u t sung 82. .
l 1
. n sacrifice to the six venerable ones>>. :For y 1 n see Gl. 690. Legge
mace Y . f h t
. in their notes have only strifed the vexed questwn o w at was mean
>Six venerable ones>>. , ..
.. han shu ta chuan: they were Heaven, Earth and the four Seasons. (Sluwen
:fa followed this, but cf. C.) - B. The schools of Hia-hou and
Wu king. yi yi): they were Heaven, Earth and the four Quarters. ,Wang
hen : 'fsi yi) follows this. - C. The Ku shang shu school (ap. Kung
g S Moon the Polar Star [as presiding over planets _a,nd constellatiOns]
were un, ' , . h H (R' )
3 heavenly t sung venerable ones); the T a1 shan t e o -1ve:
the ocean ( = the 3 earthly venerable ones). Th1s was adopted by K1a
Cheng Huan says Ma Jung followed this (cf. A). This interpr. is un-
. the Shu there follows immediately 83 >>He made w a n g sacnfiCe to
smce m ' ' d h
and rivers>> - the preceding line should not to the T shan an t e
imli'i.W-rtams Cheng Hiian: Since the sacrifice was called y 1 n, like the sacrifiCe to Heaven
Ta tsung po) and since Li: Yiie ling says: >>They pray good harvest_to
84>>, the six venerable ones should all be 85 Heavenly Sp1_r1ts, mth
'l'a tsung po: sing 86 the planets; c h' en 87 ::=J
of the various >>mansions>>; s 1 c h u n g 88 (a star m s 1 1 n g
star in Ursa Major); fen g s h 1 90 the go.d of Wmd, w1th the
K i 91; yii s h 1 92 the god of Rain, id. w. the constell. P (Gl.
has been adopted by Meng K'ang (3rd c., on Han The Cho,?h:
-.:.,ora:c,:,!'lnm!l po passage referred to runs: >>By y in 93 sacnfwe the!' sacnfwe to. I_Iao t ten
94 Great Heaven God on High; by a 95 full burnt-offermg they sacnfwe to 78
planets and constellations; by a 96 fire-pile they sacrifice to Si: chung 88 and
89 to ]'eng shl 97 and Yii shl 92>>. - E. PK'ung (Wang Su): They were: the
heat and cold; sun; moon; planets; water and The text which this
has in mind is Li: Tsi fa, which says: >>By burying a s h a o l a _o at ofthe)
Brightness 98 they sacrificed to the four seasons; by makmg punfwatwr;ts and
at the pit and the altar 99 they sacrificed to cold and heat; at (the altar m) the
they sacrificed to the sun; at (the altar of) the Night Brightness 100 they
to the moon; at the honoured place of the darkness 1 (or: by a darkness
;&fi11'1tlrg 2) they sacrified to the planets (or: stars generally); at the honoured of the
by a rain offering 4) they sacrificed to water _and _drought; _at the 4 p1ts and
they sacrificed to the four quarters 6. - F. Lm !he s1x venerable
water, fire, thunder, wind, mountains and marshes 7. Th1s 1s based on the theones
in Yi: Shuo kua, giving these 6 powers as produced by Heaven and
Kiang Sheng (following up some theories of Huei Tung): They were the .Ftve
.<'emt1ernrs 8 plus the Polar Star. - Of all these speculations there are only two, v1z. D
that are airectly based on some pre-Han text clearly describing sacrifices, but in
r'-< " <t x.. .:J.Wf :t: J:. lit A. .Z

l-'9 fK.. n. a ;_ fo. 'H Jl .t.-1:!!. Jv. El '1 ?k!lJHe.- liX 1' :A -*. n Jr.
til' Jll if JUR JC.-ff K. li_ wft rt f J't ,,.Jjli.<-p 7/. }{ t.t. n4.f.r9.% J:;.Jfj
W 7t. 11& n I. ti!.llt-*. iJ!,;,t :J. ;t. 4 if s- ffi:,:J:_i
both cases the counting does not tally. The powers sacrificed to in Li: Tsi fa (E above;
are really seven: the seasons, cold and heat, sun, moon, planets, water and drought, the
om; quarters. In ?rder to them with I i u t sung >>the six venerable one&r
had (silently) to omit the last: the four quarters. The powers sacrificed tQ->
Chouh: Ta tsung po (D above) are really eight: sun, moon, planets, constellations .
SI Si ming, Feng shi and Yii shi. In order to identify them with the 1 i u t s u n g:
>>the SIX venerable ones>> Cheng Hiian has had (likewise silently) to omit the first two:
sun and moon. In spite of this, this last text is really the only one which comes close
to our Shu !? Shu w? have: >>He I e i sacrifice to Shang t i God on High,
he made. y I n to l1 u t s ng the six v_enerable ones>>; in Chouli we have: >>They
make yIn sacrifiCe to (Huang T wn) Shang t1, they make s hi c h ' a i sacrifice tQ->
su?I, moon, planets and constellations, they make y u l i a o sacrifice to Si chung, Sf
mmg, }'eng shi and Yii shi>>. The parallelism is striking, and there can be no doubt that
Chouli author (of late Chou time), when composing his theorizing and speculative
ritual system (a typical>>systematizing text>>, see BMFEA 18: Legends and Cults) had
the Shu text in mind and tried to invent a system that would on the whole tally with
the venerable Shu. The Chouli passage may thus be considered as the earliest commentary
on this text th!l!t;. we possess. It is indeed very plausible, as shown by the context,
that li u t s u n g were >>Heavenly Spirits>> placed immediately after Shang ti God
on High. But we have no reason whatever to throw out (,with Cheng Hiian) the sun
and the moon. On the contrary, among the 8 divinities in the Chouli text there are two
pairs that stand particularly close to each other and could naturally be summed up and
counted as one each: s i n g c h ' en >>the planets and constellations>> on the one hand
Si and Si ming_ (which belong to the same constellation: Ursa Major) on the
way we obtam two _sections, ?ach of 3_ the first group is of a higher
di_gmty an,d therefore obtams the fmer (s hi c h ' a i): l. sun, 2. moon, 3.
sIng c h en all the _(ot_her) heavenly bodies; the second group is of a more specialized
and lo:wer d_Igmty and_therefore a simpler sacrifice (y u l i a o): 4. Si
and SI mmg stars m the Ursa MaJor), 5. constell. Ki = Feng shi, god of
6. constell. = Yii shi, god of rain. This, we may confidently conclude, was
of the Chmll1 author and was the basis for his expounding of the Shu phr. y i n
y u l1 u t s u n g 82. >>He made yin sacrifice to the six venerable ones>>. His ex-
planation is, of course, a mere surmise, since at his time he could not know what the
author in Chou time really meant by his 1 i u t sun g. But the context
m the Shu confirms It as plausible that the l i u t s u n g following upon Shang ti
really referred to some celestial divinities.
1258. Pie n y ii k 'ii n she n 9.
A. Pie n 10 (*pian I pien I pie n) is the reading not only' of PK'ung but also of
Pan Ku (Han_sh_u: Kiao si chi), of Liu Hiang (Shuo yiian: Piao wu), of Wang Ch'ung
(Lun heng: Ts1 y1) and of Cheng Hiian (comm. on Shang shu ta chuan). Thus: He made
(all round =) comprehensive sacrifices to all the Spirits>>. - B. Si-ma Ts'ien in Wu ti
reads II. This pie n. 12 (*b'jan I b'jiin /pie n) properly means 'to distinguish'.
But shan shu he agam qu_otes 13, like A. It has often been stated that pie n
12 (b 1an) 1s a loan char. for 10 *ptan, but, as stated in Gl. 1217 above it could through
an extension of meaning: 'to distribute, distributively, seriatim= all 'round' a mere
synonym. Sii Kuang (early 5th c.) maintains that 12 (*b'jan) should here be read like
!4 pwan /pan 'to distribute' (the two words are cognate). And indeed, this
_Is ancient; for Yang Hiung in his T'ai eh'ang chen quotes an imperial stone
mscriptwn of the early 1st c. A. D. which had 14; these authors evidently conceived the
w. pie n 12 as meaning 'distributively, seriatim= all round'.
i w u j u e i k i y ii e n a i j i kin k i en S i Y ii e k' ii n m u 16.
Ts'ien paraphrases: 17 >>He gathered in the 5 (kinds of) insignia; he selected
month and day and saw>> etc., which shows that he punctuated after j i :
n a i j 1 ; but it does not tell us how he understood the crucial word k i 18,
simply skips. Kiang Sheng thinks it should be referred to the preceding: >>The
in of the 5 kinds of insignia k i 18 being finished, he selected an auspicious
a,nd daJl>. But if so the three words y ii e n a i j i should have to be equal to
ii e j i 20, which is plainly impossible. Grammatically the clause cannot be
unless we make k i 18 and n a i 21 correspond, just as in Ode 212 k i p e i
i 22 >>When all is ready we go to work, Ode 250 k i ten g n a i y i 23
had stepped up .on (the mat) he leaned (on the stool)>>, etc. (very common).
phrase thus means: 11He gathered in the five (kinds of) insignia; and (when he had
he ndayed =) when he had determined a month, he determined the day, and saw
and all the pastors. This way of using the nouns y ii e 'month' and j i 'day'
perfectly good and regular Chinese. - B. PK'ung like Kiang Sheng punctu-
k i 18, but not after j i 24 (as against Si-ma), thus interpreting: >>The gather-
o the 5 kinds of insignia being finished, y ii e in the (first) month, n a i j i
he daily saw the Si Yiie>> etc. This makes the word y ii e entirely hang in the
c. Ts'ai Ch'en, having realized this, punctuates after j u e i 25, and interprets:
titatinenla in the 5 kinds of insignia; k i y ii e having finished the month n a i j i
daily saw the Si Yiie>> etc. This would have been all right, if the text had
ii .e k i, not k i y ii e (k i cannot be a transitive verb). - D. Sun Yi-jang:
e 26 is equal to k i wan g 27 >>in the 3rd quarter of the month>>, which would
the h e n g y ii e s h a n g j i 28 >>In the first month, on the first day
in the chapter. N a i j i would then indicate an undetermined day: >>In the 3rd
of the month, on (some) day he saw etc>>. This is all very speculative and
by text par. - The construction k i y ii e n a i j i is definitely cleared
Shi parallels, which decide in favour of A as interpreted in the light of that
y ii e chen g j i t' u n g l ii t u liang hen g 29.
Cheng Hiian paraphrases: 30 >>He put in accord and rectified the four seasons'
of months and the day names>>. This means that he has inverted the order and
c h e n g as a verb coordinated with h i e .and placed it before s h i y ii e,
the Shu formulation; moreover he has taken s hi 31 in the genitive. Thus his
deviates badly from the text. - B. PK'ung likewise combines h i e and
as if the latter stood at the beginning, but he improves Cheng in taking s hi
', y ii e 'months' and j i 'days' as coordinated. - C. Ts'ai Ch'en reverts
sequence of the Shu, but still takes c h e n g 32 as a verb = 'to correct',
the line into tw<,>: hie s hi y ii e >>He put in accord the seasons and months,
eng j i rectified the days>>. - D. Another interpr.: The parallelism with the
lines 33 t ' u n g l ii t u l i a n g h e n g and 34. s i u w u 1 i w u y ii shows
the 1st word in each clause should be a verb, and the rest should be the objects
11 r, .-J<..Y<.. folw g; .Ii.. ;fi r.1P,-r- 1.d#
if f. ,.{{.fA: h 11 j)tJt\!!1.& f 1:1< $ FJ t:1 f!3 ;t.iL 19. Ia !7 a
fi e u "H.tft.{ilti J'J f. t3. {!Jc. .17#: 19.13 fil J: a 221&:-
r-J if;{ .1afh't!;;E. @ at z 1:L a Z 11. lt . .JE. ff. 1".1 'l'..ft J't. Ji. f:f{JZ:

of the verb. We thus obtain: >Be put into accord s hi the seasons, y ii e the months
and. c j i the (correct =) proper days. In other words, he determined the exact
begmmng of the seasons, the number of months (with or without j u n intercalary
months) and the proper number of days (30: 29) within each month.
1261. T ' u n g l ii t u I i an g h en g 88.
A. Ma Jung: l ii 85 = 86, thus taking Iii t u as equal to :37 'laws'. He must then
taken the preceding t ' u n g as a verb: >>He made uniform the Iii t u laws and
1.1 an g hen g measures of capacity and weight>>. Later comm. have all rejected this
smce t u 88 must, obviously. be to the following l i an g and
hen g. - .B. Wang Su (PK ung): He made un1form the Iii pitch-pipes, t u the measures
of length, li a n g the measures of capacity and h e n g the weights" - c. Kiang Sheng
and .sun t ' u n g l ii 39 is a binome = 'the pitch-pipes' (6 being t' u n g
6 bemg I u), as m Chouli: Ta si yiie and Chouli: Tien t'ung: 40 >>The 6 1 ii
and t 'u n g pitch-pipes>>. (It would seem that Cheng Hiian already held this view,
his .gloss been down in several badly divergent versions.) If so, there
Is no verb m the lme and 1t has to be construed in connection with the preceding (hi e
s h 1 Y ii e, chen g. j 1. >>He put into accord the seasons and months and proper days),
and t u n g l the t I i.a g h n g measures of length, capacity
and Weight>>. - W.hile ? COU]d plaUSible 1l1 Itself, It is forbidden by the parallelism.
three lines the first word is a verb: hie ,s hi y ii e chen g j 'i :
t u n g I ,u t u hen g : s i w u li w u y ii (:34) which clearly shows, with
that t u n g IS a verb 'to m.ake umf?rm'; and this is also rhythmically best: t' u n g
IS by fo_nr words (I u t u liang hen g) as objects, just as hie (very
ana!ogous m mearnng to our t 'u n g 4.1 here) is followed by four words and s i u 42
agam by four.
1262. S i u w u I i w u y ii :34.
>>He attended to the five (kinds of) rites and the five (kinds of) jades>>.
A. Ma Ju?g: .'>five were. those of 43 auspicious kinds (relating to sacrifices
etc.), of .mauspwwus kmds (relatmg to death and mourning), of 45 military affairs,
of 46 receivmg state guests and of 47 marriages. Here he bases himself on Chouli: Ta
tsung po. does not explain the five jades, but later (see GL 1264 below) he says:
>>When the ntes the 5 jades 48 were finished, he returned them>>, which shows that he
them to be Jade objects used in rites. Ma's ideas are thus rather obscure. - B.
PK ung a?cep.ts Ma Jung's .. of. >>five rites>>, but says (with Cheng, C below)
.the five were the Jade g1ven to the feudatories. It is easily seen that ,
this Will not do, the w u I 1 and w u y ii taken in those senses have no logical
connectwn and not be combined in one clause. - C. Cheng Hii,an: the >>five rites>>
were those pertammg to the (audiences sc. the investiture of) the 5 kinds of feudal lords
u n g, h o u, p o, s i,. n an) and the l>five jades>> were the 5 kinds of jade insignia
>>five Jades>> were thus identical with the w u j u e i 49 >>five (kinds
of) mentwned a few lines earlier, which Shun had called in from the feudatories
before his great t_our of inspection. This is simple and logical, and suits the context:
Sh':n ?n an mspection tour in the east and there invested the lords and gave them
their Thus: nHe attended to the five (kinds of) (enfeoffing) rites and the five (kinds of)
(enfeoffing) jade insignian. - D. Ts'ai Ch'en, who would follow A above as to the >>five
rites>>, who realizes that the following >>five jades is then illogical, concludes that
the text IS corrupted by inversion, and he divides s i u w u I i - w u y ii into two
parts and separates them widely by a deplacement: the latter part: w u y ii >>the five
he with the following 7 characters and puts the whole of this passage
before the s I u w u li, thus: >>(He gave audience to the eastern lords), 50 the five (kinds
-------- ------- ---------------------------------------------
jades, the 3 (kinds of) silk, the 2 (kinds of) living animals, the 1 (kind of) dead animal,
, were the gifts presented (by the lords); s i u w u l i he attended to the 5 (kinds
- f} rit,es>> etc. This is an entirely unwarranted text alteration which spoils the parallelism
nd rhythm of the three well-balanced consecutive lines of the accepted text: hie s hi
!1' ii e h e n g j 'i - t ' u n g I ii t u l i a n g h e n g - s i u w u I i w u y ii. -
.. Pan Ku (Han shu: Kiao si chi) reads s i u w u l i w u y ii e 52, with 53 (*ngli5k / ngak /
'u c) inst. of 54 (*ngi:,uk I ngjwok I y ii). Thus: >>He attended to the 5 kinds of rites and
5 kinds of music>>. This would agree well with the constantly recurring combination
f 1 i y ii e >>rites and music>> in the early literature, and Sun Sing-yen believes that Fu
already had that versi?n, since the Ta has a long disq'_lisition on music. in
with Shun's tour m the east. But m fact the Ta chuan IS quoted as havmg
Vl u y ii the 5 jades>> (like A above) in Kuang yiin s. v. 55. Indeed. the reading 34 is
t.oo well established (Si-ma, Ma Jung, Cheng Hiian, PK'ung) to be reJected.
1263. S an p o e r s hen g y i s i c h 'i 56.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien indicates how he understood the line by adding a we i 57 before
the last word: s a n p o e r she n g y i s i w e i c h i, thus: nThe three (kinds of)
silk the two (kinds of) living animals, the one (kind of) dead animal were the gifts presentedu,
sc. 'by the lords to the sovereign. The comm. agree that the >>living animals>> were lamb
and goose, the dead animal>> was pheasant, which is based on Li: K'ii li (>>The king's
lllinisters used las gifts] lambs, the fu dignitaries used yen geese, the s hi ordinary
}1oblemen used chI pheasants>>). - B. We saw in Gl. 1262 that Ts'ai Ch'en would
(larry two words of the preceding clause to this line reading w u y ii s a n p o e r
s h e n g y i s i c h i, which 9 words he then placed in another context than the tradi-
tional version. Apart from this deplacement, the idea that the w u y ii five jades>>
l)elongs together with the 5 kinds of silk etc. as the gifts presented by the feudal lords
Was already sponsored by Pan Ku (Po hu t'ung: Wen chi) and Legge and Chavannes
have followed this. But we saw that considerations of rhythm and parallelism forbid
this: w u y ii >>the 5 jades>> belongs together with the preceding w u I i 5 rites and
refers, not to the gifts of the lords but to the insignia presented to them by the emperor.
1264. J u w u k ' i t s u n a i f u 58.
A. Ma J ung: the w u k ' i >>five (instruments, utensils =) articles>> are the w u y ii
>>five jades>> mentioned earlier as serving in the rites; when the rites were finished, he
returned them. Ma does not explain the word j u 59. Possibly he interpreted: >>j u as
tq the w u k ' i 5 articles t s u n a i f u when it was finished he returned them>>. This
is all very uncertain. - B. Cheng Hiian sees no connection between the two lines. J u
w u k ' i refers to the preceding, sc. the gifts presented by the lords. J u 59 means
'to hand over': >>For the handing over there were 5 utensils (objects on. which the gifts
were placed)>>. T s u n a i f u means: >>When (all the proceedings) were finished, he
returned>> (sc. from the east to his capital). How j u 59 could mean 'to hand over' has
been variously explained. Kiang Sheng thillii.s Cheng meant that 59 was loan char. for
60 n u 'bird cage' denoting the basket in which the gifts were presented, a ludicrous
idea. Sun Sing-yen says that since j u 59 sometimes means wang 6.1 'to go' it would
lll!Jan here: >>For their (going =) handing over there were 5 utensils>>. Likewise very far-
fetched. - C. PK'ung: w u k' i >>the 5 articles1> refers to the w u y ii 54 >>5 jade
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insignia>> ( = w u j u e i 49, earlier called in): >>As to the 5 (articles =) insignia, when
(the .rites) were finished, he returned them (to the feudatories). PK'ung adds: the 3
silks etc. (sc. the gifts) he kept. - D. Ts'ai Ch'en: j u 59 = 41 in the earlier phr.
t ' u n g 1 ii t u 33. Thus: >>He adjusted the 5 (kinds of) (ritual) instruments; when all
was finished he returned {home)>>. - E. Yii Yiie, rightly dissatisfied with all the forced
interpr. above, proposes that k 'i 62 'instrument' means 'weapons', as it does in Kyii:
Chou yii 63 >>He sharpened his (war) instruments>> (another ex. in Ta Tai: Yung ping),
.and j u 59 with Ts'ai Ch'en above (D) means 'to put into accord, to adjust', thus: >He
adjusted the 5 (kinds of) (war instruments =) weapons>>. - F. Another interpr. 'rhe
weakness of all the preceding theories is that they give no natural expl. of the word j u
59. The line j u w u k ' i can only be naturally explained if it is connected with the
preceding: s a n p o e r s h a n g y i s 1, c h i. K ' i 62 'vessel' very often means
'capacity' in the same figurative sense as the word 'capacity' (power of containing) has
in western languages: capability, qualifications. Cf. Li: Wang chi: 64 >>The artisans, each
according to his capacity, got their emoluments>>. Laotsi 65: >>A great capacity is late
in being perfected>>. Lun: Pa yi 66 >>Kuan Chung's capacity was small>>. Lun: Ts'i Lu
67 >n his employment of men, he (>>capacity'ed>> them =) used them according to their
capacity>>. Now in"'.Qur Shu passage it is told how the feudatories of different ranks
presented different kinds of gifts to the sovereign. S a n p o e r s h e n g y i s i: c h i:,
j u w u k ' i >The three kinds of silk, the two kinds of animals, the one kind of
dead animal, those were the gifts presented, they j u w u k' i were according to the 5
capacities (of kung, hou, po, tsi, nan princes) >. The final line: t s u n a i f u has no
connection with this. It is the concluding remark of the whole passage, and means, with
Cheng Hiian: >>When all was finished, he returned home>> (Yii Yiie: >>When all was
finished, he reported [to Yao]>>, which is certainly no improvement). This expl. referring
>>the 5 capacities>> to the 5 positions of different rank of the feudatories has the advantage
of following up the idea that goes all through this long passage. First Shun calls in the
5 insignia w u j u e i 49 (of kung, hou, po, tsi:, nan). On his great tour he >>attends to
the w u li >>5 (enfeoffing) rites and w u y ii 5 (enfeoffing) jade insignia (of kung, hou,
po, tsi:, nan), and he receives c h 1 68 as tokens of loyalty from those same feudatories,
and they are graduated (silk: lamb and goose: pheasant) according to the w u k 'i
69 >>5 capacities>> of their bearers (kung, hou, po, tsi:, nan). Hence, the graduation of these
gifts does not refer (with Li: K'ii li above) to >>ministers, dignitaries and ordinary nob-
lemen but to the 5 grades of >>capacities>>, i. e. feudal lords of different ranks. Why,
finally, should there be 3 categories of gifts (silk; living animals: dead animal) corrp-
sponding to >>5 capacities>>? Because, in regard to rank, there were 3 main groups: a. kung
and hou; b. po; c. tsi: and nan. See Li: Wang chi (Couvreur I, p. 265) and Gl. 1309.-
The whole of this passage throws a vivid light on the fact that the >>oldest>> parts of the
Shu king were written well into the Chou era: they are entirely based on institutions
and ritual ideas pertaining to the Chou dynasty.
1265. K u e i k o y ii y i t s u 70.
A. The oldest attested version (Kin-wen) of this line is that of the Shang shu ta chuan,
which quotes: k u e i k i a y ii n i t s u 71 uWhen he returned, he went to the (temple of)
his dead father and grandfather., 72 *ka and 73 *kllik were synonymous and often inter-
changeable in the early texts. Li: Wang chi, in a slightly paraphrasing quotation, has
the words inverted: k u e i k i a y ii t s u n i 74 (Si-ma Ts'ien elucidates further: 75).
The meaning of 76 *niJr I niei I n i 'tablet and sanctuary of a dead father' and 77 'that
of a dead grandfather' are well established, see for instance Li: Tseng ts'i wen: >>Confucius
said: when princes go to the Son of Heaven, they must k a o y ii t s u 78 announce
in (the temple of) their grandfather and t i en y ii n i 79 lay offerings in (the temple
(dead) father>>. 76 *tpiJr is etym. id. w. 80 *niar I niei / n i 'near, close, familiar',
the nearest ancestor, and cognate to 81 *niJr I ni In i 'near,. close' . .,...... B. _The Ku-
version read as above: 70 k u e i k o y il. 82 y i t s. u. Tlns has bee? differently
_a. Cheng Hiian, disregarding the Km-wen verswn above, says: y I t s u =the
83 >>the accomplished ancestor[s]>> earlier in our chapter, y i 84 meaning
as in Lun: Yung ye 85 >>K'iu is talented>>. Thus: >>When he returned he went
(the temple of) the 'l'alented ancestor[s]>>. - {J. Ma Jung says: y i 83 n i 76.
Ku had the same idea, for in Po hu t'ung: San kiin, where he quotes 76! he illustr.ates
the Li: Wang chi: phr. 87. Sun Sing-yen believes that Ma took y I 84 I
i) as a loan char. for 76 (*niJr I niei I n i), which possibly did, for lack
of the archaic phonology. If so, he was very wide of the mark. - y. Yu
y 84, as is well known, is but an enlarged form of the 88 (*ngiad I ngiiii I
The Ku-wen version thus originally must have had 89. Now this 88, however, forms
of the char. 90 *siat lsjiit j s i e 'familiar, near-standing' (which, besides, i.s etym.
w. the common 91 *sjat 'familiar, intimate') and in our Shu phr. 89, the 88 IS but a
short-form for 90, and we should read not y i (*ngjad) t s u 82 .but s i e (*sjat) t s u
f/2. Thus the phr. s i e t s u 92 >>the (temple of) the (ncar-standing father and
tP,e grandfather> is synonymous with the n i t s u 7J of the Kin-wen versi?n (A above).
There is of course nothing to prevent that Ma Jung already held that VIew, when he
said 84 (i. e. 88) = 76. - Under B, both a and y are admissible. But in any case! in pre-
ference to the Ku-wen version which is not attested earlier than Eastern-Han time, we
should follow J;he Kin-wen version attested in Li: Wang chi, in Shang shu ta and
in Si-ma Ts'ien (with only the insignificant variation in the word sequence: n I t s u c.?
tsu ni).
M i n g s h i y i k u n g, k ii f u y i y u n g see Gl. 1235 above.
1266. C h a o s h i y u e r c h o u 93.
A. Some early scholars took chao 94 in its common meaning of 'to initiate, to create'.
Thus Ku Yung (in Han shu: Ku Yung chuan) renders the line by w e.i s .h 1 y u e r
0 ,h o u 95 >>He made 12 provinces>>. Ma Jung says chao= 96 >>He mst1tuted ... ,
11<nd PK'ung (after Erya) chao = 97: >>He created the 12 provinces>>. - B. Fu Sheng
in Shang shu ta chuan quotes 98, and because the following line has 99 )>He made altars
to the 12 mountains>>, he takes chao 100 (for which chao 94 can serve as loan char.)
in the technical sense of chao 1 'altar enclosure' (for ex. of this see Gl. 875); that this
was Fu's idea is developed in Cheng Hiian's gloss on the Ta chuan passage. Thus: He
made altar enclosures (for the sacrifices of) the 12 provinces>>. - C. Cheng Hiian takes
chao 94 = 98 in the more general sense of 'boundary, to delimit' 2, well documented,
thus: He delimited the 12 provinces. - Cis by far the most plausible, see Gl. 875.
1267. Siang y i tie n hi n g 3. .
A. There are some quite early theories that in the golden age there were no corporal
punishments but only representations s i a n g 4 which caused the people to avoid
crime. Siin: Cheng lun says: 5 >>In the governing of antiquity there were no bodily
punishments but ther,e were (only) punishments by display>>. And Siin goes on to tell
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how instead of capital punishment there was the wearing of a red garment without hems
other >displays> in the dress inst. of the lighter corporal punishments (the Siin text
IS badly c?rrupted a:nd difficult of interpretation; Shen ts! 6 ap. comm. on Siin has
a Similar but shghtly vaned account). The same tradition is repeated in an edict of 167
B. C. (Sh! ki: Wen tiki). Fu Sheng in Shang shu ta chuan bases his comm. on this (a red,
unhemmed garment for the worst crimes; sandals of mixed colours for the middle crimes
and a black t?-rban for the lighter crimes). Thus: >He made displays (in the dress) fo;
the legal pumshments>. The impossibility of this interpr. is shown in the next line:
>Banishment was the mitigation of the w u h i n g 5 punishments>, which shows, sure
enough, that. the severe punishments were a reality and not commuted into >displays>.
For .the >pumshments of Kao Yao>, Shun's minister of justice (branding, cutting of nose,
cuttmg of feet, castration and killing) see Shu: Lii hing and a now lost Shu chapter ap.
Tso: Chao 14 (Gl. 1063). - B. Ma Jung: >When Kao Yao instituted the punishments
of the 5 classes, there were no offenders; 8 there were only the representations (images),
(real) men>> .. follows this: >Il fit des images pour les chatiments legaux>.
This IS .even more Impossible than A. - C. PK'ung: siang 4 =fa 9, explaining:
>Accordmg to law he used the legal punishments>. But s i a n g can have no such
meaning. - D. Ts'ai'\>(Jh'en: He made a (delineation, representation =) full description of the
legal. puni.shments " in Y ao mo (Yi Tsi): K a o Y a o s h 1 s i a n g h i n g
w e 1 . m I n g 10 applies the ( descnbed =) legally defined punishme11ts in an enlightened way"
1268. L i u y u w u h i n g 11.
A. Cheng Hiian takes this as an enumeration: >There are banishment, condonement
and the 5 punishments>. He adds that these together with the p i e n p ' u whip and
rod.and the (metal =)fines made the 12 mine punishments> (Cheng here speculates with
a VIew to a passage m Tso: Wen 18, where it is told of an ancient law book called 12
>The nine punishments>). This is unreasonable, since y u (ace. to Ma
Jung's interpr.: the condonement of the very young, the very old and the very stupid)
cannot be called one of the >punishments>. - B. PK'ung: Banishment is the mitigation
o: the five (principal) punishmentS (sc. branding, amputation etc.). This is amply con-
firmed by the parallelism with the following lines: p i en t s o k u a n h in g etc. in
which the construction is the same, the 2nd word being the verb of the clause.
1269. Sheng t s a i s 1 she 13.
A. Si:-ma Ts'ien renders the line: 14. Both s h eng and t sa i properly mean a
'disaster, calamity of nature', such as eclipses, floods and drought etc. T sa i in this
sense is common. For she n g cf. Tso: Chuang 25, phr. 15 >calamity of sun and moom,
i. e. eclipse; Ta Tai: Pao fu 16 >The disasters of wind, rain, thul:).der and lightning>.
Extended to mean 'calamity, misfortune' generally, e. g. Yi: Shuo kua: >K'an ... in
connection with carriages it 17 signifies many disasters (misfort\lnes)>; Yi: Kua 6, phr.
18 >There will be no disaster (calamity)>; Kyii: Chou yii 19 ))It will be a full disaster>;
Yi: Kua 25, phr. 20 ))If he is not straight, there will be calamity>; Kyii: Ch'u yii 21 >Who
has no sickness and calamity?> (Wei Chao: she n g = t sa i 22). T sa i - she n g, synonym-
binome = 'calamity' occurs e. g. in' Yi: Kua 24, phr. 23 >It is baleful, there will be calam-
ity>; Yi: Kua 62, phr. 24 >That is called a calamity>. Cheng Hiian in gloss on our Shu phr.
above consequently considers s he n g - t s a i as a binome = t s a i . s h e n g, saying
she n g t sa i means >that which causes calamity and harm to people>. Now in regard to
crime or guilt s h en g alone or the binome she n g - t sa i 'calamity, misfortune' means
'mishap', i. e. 'offence by mishap', e. g. Tso: Hi 33, phr. 25 >I will not because of one
(mis.fortune =) . offense by mishap (unintentional error) shut out of view your great
ments>; Tso: Smng 9, phr. 26 >Pardon those who have (misfortunes=) offenses by
mishap>; Chouli: Tien s! 27 >In lieu of the king he receives upon himself the (misfortunes =}

guilt of unintentional errors>. 'l'hus it is amply confirmed that s h e n g and t s a i
are really synonymous and form a binome, both in the general sense of 'disaster, calamity,
misfortune' and in the sense of 'offence by misfortune, mishap' (with Cheng Hiian). The
fact that s h e n g t s a i is really a binome, synon. w. the simple s h eng is further
confirmed by Shu: K'ang kao 28: >>If somebody has a small offense, if it is not a (mis-
fortune =) offence by mishap but a (going to the end =) persistence ... then one cannot
but kill him; if he has a great offense, if it is not a persistence but a (misfortune =)
offence by mishap ... then one cannot kill him>. Here s hen g t s a i in the 2rd line
is quite synon. w. the simple s h e n g in the lst line. Furthermore, S"i-ma Ts'ien foil.
by Cheng Hiian glosses s i 29 by k u o 30 'transgression' in the sense of 'a slip, a
blunder'; s i often means 'reckless', and with Si-ma and Cheng it would then mean 'to
be reckless and careless, to err without reflecting, to blunder'. The Shu line 13 would
thus mean: >>S h eng t s a i in case of (misfortune =) offence by mishap, s 1 the
blunder she was pardoned>. - B. Shang shu wei 31 (of Han time) says: >When
those who should be pardoned are not pardoned, the moon is eclipsed>. This shows that
some Han-time scholars took she n g t sa i 32 in its primary sense of 'eclipse-
calamity', as in the Tso passage 15 above, and interpreted: >When there is an eclipse-
calamity there is pardoning>. This solution is definitely vetoed by our K'ang kao passage
28 above, where s h e n g t s a i recurs in the sense of offense by mishap and cannot
possibly mean eclipse. - C. PK'ung would separate s h e n g = k u o 30 'to blunder'
and t s a i = h a i 32 'harm'; and he takes s 1 28 = 34 'to slacken, be indulgent, to
pardon', forming a binome with s h e. Thus: T s a i harm by s h e n g blunder is
s i. s h e pardoned>. The former is decidedly unfortunate, the binominal nature of
s h e n g t s a i being amply proved; but s 1 = 'to pardon' is well confirmed by the
Tso ex. 26: >Pardon those who have (misfortunes =) offences by mishap>, in which the
sense of s 1 is unambiguous. - D. Ts'ai Ch'en would separate she n g and t sa i in
another way, taking she n g to mean 'blunder' (offence by error) and t sa i to mean
'offence by calamity' (by force majeure). But there is really no support for such a
distinction. As we have seen, she n g means 'calamity' just as much as t sa i does. --
E. Yii Sing-wu: In Shu:.K'ang kao the line 35 is quoted 36 in Ts'ien fu lun: Kiu she,
and this should be the correct reading here in Y ao tien as well: s 1 29 being a partide =
suei 37 (common). Thus: 38 >If they examine themselves they should be pardoned>.
is .certainly no improvement, the interjection t sa i being meaningless and inappro-
pnate m such a context. - As to s h eng t sa i, Cheng Hiian (A) is well supported;
as to s1 she, PK'ung (C) is confirmed. We thus obtain: >S hen g t sa i (misfor-
tunes =) offenses J)y mishap s 1 s h e pardoned"
1270. H u c hung t s e i hi n g 39.
A. Cheng Riian: H u those who rely upon (their villainy) and c h u n g t s e i all
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------------------------------------------------- ------------- -------------
their time are malefactors, hi n g are punished>>. This has been accepted by Cha
but it is rhythmically impossible. - B. PK'ung: >>H u those who rely upon
villainy) c hun g and persist, t s e i h in g are punished by death>>. Now it is
that t s e i 40 can mean 'to kill', but then invariably in an unlawful manner: 'to murder'-.
- C. Therefore Sun Sing-yen turns the phrase differently: >>Those who are reliant and
persist t s e i h i n g undergo the punishment of murderers>>. - D. Sii Kuang
a variant reading: 41 Those who rely on the crowd>> i.e. are rebellious. In fact the word
h u 42 as a rule always is a transitive verb and has an object, and its absolute use here:
'to be reliant' is unusual. Some scholar has tried to ameliorate this by altering c h u n
4.'3 into 44 (both in order to obtain an object to the verb. But the variant is -
out by the parallel text in K'ang kao, where we have c hung 4.'3 as opposed to she n
just as here, and there c hung 44 would make no sense at all. - E. Yii Sing-wu
alter the h u 42 into k u 45 and take t s e i 40 (dz'Jk) as serving for 46 *tsJk,
emendated line being 47: >>If they stubbornly persist, they should be punished>>.
arbitrary and unnecessary text alteration. - C comes nearest to a plausible solutiion::i
but it is not necessary to force the meaning of t s e i 'murderer'. The word very
means, in a general way, 'villain, bandit, miscreant', thus: >Those who are
persist, are punished's miscreants (as opposed to the preceding line: those who
by mishap are pardoned).
1271. W e i h i n g c h 1 s ii t s a i 48.
For 49 *sjwet lsj11et 1 s ii the variant 50 ap. Li Shan comm. on Wsuan:
and meaning. -
A. This is the Ku-wen version. PK'ung explains s u 49 by y u 51, and
exceedingly common in this sense of 'anxiously to care about', e. g. Shu: To sh'i 52
was nobody who did not make his virtue brilliant and (anxiously =) carefully
the sacrifices>>. In our line here c h 1 53 is in the object case, resuming the
hi n g : >>The punishments, to them you should (anxiously =) carefully attend>>.
the construction cf. transl. of Ode 215, note (BMFEA 16, p. 249). This version
meaning is_ earliest attested in an edict of 48 B. C. (Han shu: Ring fa chi, which has:
>>Does 1;1ot the Shu say: wei hi n g chi s u t sa i 48, may you carefully
them 53a>>; the additional phr. indicates that the author took s ii in the sense 'to
careful attention to'. - B. Legge, likewise using the Ku-wen version, takes s ii 49_ .=;:
'compassion': >>Let rule in the punishments>>. Similarly Col\vreur in a
free paraphrase: >>La severite de la justice y est temperee par la compassion. This
quite inadmissible because of the balance in the whole passage, see our concluding re1nark:S
below. - C. Si-ma 'l's'ien renders the line 54, and Sii Kuang (ap .. Shi ki: Wu ti pen
says the Kin-w;en version read: wei . hi n g chi m i t sa i, this 56 (*mjet I miet I
meaning 57 'quiet, still' (Erya; for a text ex. see Gl. 758). Si-ma would then have para
phrased the Kin-wen version. Kiang Sheng insists that the Ku-wen likewise had m i
56, the s u 49 being a mere corruption, but he is wide of the mark as shown by
Han shu edict above. The discrepancy between the Ku-wen s u 49 and the Kin-wen m i
56 been explained in sev.eral ways. Si-ma Cheng believes that when Fu Sheng orally
transmitted the text, one erroneously substituted 56 *miet to 49 *sjwet >>because of sound
similarity>>, which is obviously impossible. Sun Sing-yen proposes that even the Ku-wen's
s u 49 means 'quiet, still', like the m i 56 of the Kin-wen, being a mere variant for 58
(*xiwJkf xiwJk 1 h u) 'quiet, still' (for the.phonetic discrepancy between 49 *siwet and
58 *xiw'Jk see Grammata 410 and 930) and that both versions mean the same as Si-ma's
paraphrase 54. This latter has been translated by Ch!wannes: >>C'est par les chatiments
qu'on etablit le calme>>. It is difficult to see how the line could mean this; we
then have to force it into something like: >>There is the of the punishments,
of: There is the quietude brought about by the punishments, which is very
But it is equally difficult to give it another reasonable sense: >>There is the
,=) leniency(!) of the punishments>>? Or, with chi as resuming object (as
: >>The punishments, them you should make (quiet =) lenient>> 1 - Quite
the difficulty of making a plausible sense of a version with m i 56 or h u
still', the A. version: s ii, which after all is attested in W. Han time, is
confirmed by the balance in the line, which in its entirety runs: K ' i n t s a i,
59, wei hi n g chi s ii t sa i: You shoUld be reverently attentive;
to them you should (anxiously=) carefully attend. S ii 49 balances k' in
the same idea: that of careful attention.
s ' u a n S an M i a o y u S an - wei 60.
version (that of PK'ung) is' earliest attested in Huai: Siu wu. The w. 61
and 'rat') means 'to lie hidden, to skUlk', here taken transitively: nHe made
skUlk in San-wein. Cf.- Kyii: Chou yii 62 >>He himself skulked among the
barbarians>> (common). - B. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases: 63 He transferred
to San-wei>>. The Ts'ing commentators believe that Si-ma took 61 *ts'wan
char. for 64 *ts'jan, because of sound similarity. That is very unlikely. Si-ma's
of t s 'i en for t s 'u an is probably due to the fact that in Kao Yao
65 >>What displacement (need there be) in regard to the Lord of Miao1,
need he banish the Lord of San Miao. But in any case his paraphrase shows
had in view a removal and hence very likely had a text with t s ' u a n. -
under 66 = 67 says i68. The w. 66 is read *ts'wad 1 ts'udi 1 t s ' u e i in
Chu Tsun-sheng thinks that Hu simply illustrated his key word 66 by the
and that his Shu version thus read 66 *ts'wad and not 61 *ts'wan, this 66
in the sense of '(bar =) frontier', thus: >>He placed on the frontier the San
Hii Shen would then not have had the words t u j o >>it is read like>>, for
of the Shuowen are that in a t u j o definition the illustrating phr. has another
the key word: Thus the present Shuowen quotation 68 must be a corruption
else. There has been much speculation about how Hii's Shu version really
K'iao-tsung has undoubtedly solved the riddle: in Tsi yiin t s' u an 61
69, and Hu's sentence undoubtedly ran 70: >>the w. 66 means 67 and was
the t s 'u an 69 'to skulk' of Yu shun. Thus Shuowen really agrees with A
the recognized variant 69 for 6.1 (and giving another reading for 66 than
-D. Meng: Wan Chang, shang and Ta Tai: Wu ti te both read s h a
a o y ii S an - wei 71: >>He killed the San Miao in San-wei>>. Since this
with certain ancient traditions that Shun moved the San Miao from Central
San-wei in Kansu (e. g. Si:ma Ts'ien in loco), the Ts'ing scholars have tried to
the s h a 72 'kill' of Meng' and Ta Tai: 72 does not mean 'to kill' but is
for 73 (*sat I sat Is a), in Shuowen defined as = 74 'to scatter', thus: >>He
=) threw away the San Miao to San-wei>>. Of the char. 73 there is no eat1y
but in 'I'so: Chao I, in the phr. 75, Tu Yii defines the first 76 as = 77 'to
>(He killed Kuan Shu and banished Ts'ai Shu) and Shiwen it *sdt J sat/sa.
--lt h:li\ rc Jiij ?s'tliA>J z\J1iz .-:X 11. IJz 9,.ci!F 17.-i ,f,<_r>tJ.=f- J7 _z
z J!. 1'0I..> .,. tl( ::. r ,:;.
' . ' . ' ' '
tM/tz &;,1! ..::.,% ?f: -ff w j _::_1/ z
lP :o:.. -'f ;;..;E:_, 7-t.:l.';,-_ 7] ,..tJi. z
adding that it is identical with the 73 of Shuowen. Thus the early existence of the
*sat 'to scatter' would be proved (it would indeed be identical with the modern 78
sa huang 'to scatter lies' etc.). A somewhat frail proof. (Tso ehuan's t a' a i 76
phr. 75 above should be differently explained. In the Chou inscr. the place name
76 is wr. 79, and this is sure enough the phonetic in 72;. thus Tao's 76 is equal to
probably u. f. 72; but this latter is not a short-form for 73 'to scatter' but has its coJ:nn1oiJC
reading I I aha i 'to reduce, diminish': >>He killed Kuan Shu and '"A'""'A"
punishment] of Ts'ai shU, i. e. gave him only the next-severest punishment).
it would be extremely strange if both Meng and Ta Tai had 72 as short-form for
73. To an unbiassed mind it is evident that Meng and Ta Tai really meant >>He
the [prince of] San Miao in San-wei>>. - We have thus two unreconcilable versions,
with t s 'u an 61 'to cause to skulk', that of PK'ung, Huai-nan-ts'i and probably
Ts'ien; the other with 72 'to kill', that of Meng and Ta Tai. Since the latter is rei>re:seiJlte1.t.
by the most ancient texts, it would be tempting to give it preference, but matters
more complicated than that, for there is early support from both themes. In fact,
the very Shu king we find both. In Shu: Lii hing, where Shun's punishments
described, it is said that 81 >>He stopped and (cut off =) exterminated the Miao
and there are no descendants of them>>. But on the other hand later in our chapter Yau
tien (Shun tien) it rS' said 82 He detached and sent to the North the San MiaO>>, and iii
Yu kung it is said 8.1 >>The (country of) San-wei was regulated, the (people of) San Mia9
were made grandly orderly>>, the San-wei here defined as a place in the present Kansu;
this should be combined with the statement in Ts'e: Wei I that originally the San
lived >>at the flow of the P'eng-li 84 (i.e. Po-yang lake), with the Tung-t'ing water 8/i
on their right>>, i. e. in northern Kiangsi. Again, as we have seen, in Kao Yao mo it
said >>what displacement (need there be) in regard to the lord of l\-Iiao>>. And finally
Chuang: Tsai yu, our Shu line recurs in a slightly inverted order, and there Chuang
has it: 86 f>He threw the San Miao to San-wei>>, which agrees with version A in that. it
only indicates a removal of the San Miao, not their killing. And Chuang is just as early-
as Meng or Ta Tai. The commentators, of course, have tried to reconcile the Shu: L'ii
hing with the Yao tien, Kao Yao mo and Yii kung, on the one hand by saying that the
Lii hing account refers to Chuan Hii and not to Shun, on the other hand that 81 >>stopped
and cut off>> does not meant 'o kill' but only 'to banish', but that is all scholastics. Meng
and Ta Tai have evidently taken the words to mean what they really do: 'to exterminate';
and therefore say 'he killed', and this is confirmed by the immediately following Lii hiJig
phrase: >>and there are no descendants of them>>. Both versions having thus good supp9ft:
in early texts, the choice is difficult. But since we have here to interpret the Yao tien;
and in the same Yao-tien it is said that >>He detached and sent to the North the San
Miao>>, it seems best to give preference to version A, in spite of the fact that version D
agrees better with the Lii hing.
We had better examine here more closely the phrase:
F e n p e i S a n M i a o 82.
The commentators try desperately to find a reason why the San Miao, having been
deported during Shun's regency, on Yao's order (ace. to the earlier Shu account above),
again put in an appearance at the end of the document, when Shun was real emperor,
in the last clause before the account of his death.
A. Cheng Hiian: The San Miao had been deported to the western border, and their
ruler was still a feudal lord there (though of lower rank than originally). Now (during
Shun's own rule as emperor) they again acted wickedly, therefore he again 87 separated
and deported them; he explains further 88: p e i 89 is equal to p i e 90 'to separate',.
Ace. to Cheng this fen p e i would be a binome equal to a 91. Shuowen has a graph
as = 93. 'l'here has. been much discussion whether Cheng meant that 92 is
out the old form of 90 *b'iat I b'iat I pie, and that the Shu text should really
94 fen p i e s a n M i a o; or he simply meant that 92 was synonymous with
t,he same sense (the reading *b'iat J bfat I pie was given to Hu Sherr's 92
Yu p'ien; Ts'ie yun and Kuang yiin have no such reading). This discussion
futile, for there is no single text example of Hii Sherr's 92 = 93, apart from
case here (Tuan Yu-ts'ai therefore simply says that Hu's 92 is the character
0 'to prognosticate', Hii Shen defining it as 93 'to distinguish' sc. the marks
a very reasonable view). K'ung Ying-ta advocates that 89, being short-form
turn the back on' taken causatively 'cause to turn the back on each other'
'to separate'; in such a case the Shu line should still be read f e n p e i S a n
but it would still mean: >>He divided and (put back to back =) separated the
the idea (with Cheng) still being that the good Miao were separated from
ones, the latter being thrown out. - B. Wang Su suggests that some of
San Miao in Kiangsi had been pardoned (and not deported to San-wei) and
line refers to those remaining in the South. Sun Sing-yen elaborates this
various Han-time texts to the effect that Shun had troubles with the San
were still in the South. Inter alia Huai: Ping lue says: >>Shun in the South went
(punish) the San Miao, and died in the road, in Ts'ang-wm. (All these themes
date and have no support in pre-Han texts.) The line: >>He divided and
the San Miao>> would refer to these Miao still in the South: he distinguished the
the bad. - C. All these various speculations about new troubles with the
(whether in the West or in the South) quite apart from the earlier deportation
shun's regency, are very factitious. The San Miao theme is a part of the great
of the Pour punished ones>>, all in the same line in our first Shu example above:
banished Kung Kung to Yu-chou, he banished Huan Tou .to Ch'ung-shan,
San Miao skulk in San-wei, he killed Kun on the Yu,shan. The earliest
sources vary considerably as to the chronology and personel of these grand
some attribute all to Yao (Chuang: Tsai yu), others (like the Yao-tien
above) all to Shun during his regency, others again (Ts'e: Ts'in 1, Sun: Yi ping)
the glory of this great punishing between Yao (punishment of Huan Tou), Shun
San Miao) and Yii (that of Kung Kung). As to the San Miao, more particularly,
ouou1.uu is placed in the time of Yao by Kyii: Ch'u, hia, in that of Shun hy Tso:
and whereas Siin: Yi ping says that >>Shun attacked the San Miao>>, Mo: Fei
describes how Yii, on Shun's order, attacked the San Miao, which agrees with
]mng line, that >>when San-wei was made inhabitable (sc. by Yii) the San Miao
grandly orderly>>. (For full details see Legends and Cults, BM]'EA 18.) These
between the early sources as to this important theme is such as are typical
legends, and of course does not call for any attempt to make exact history of
inventing (as the commentators have done above) two consecutive misdemean-
San Miao and two punishments. It is all the time one and the same theme
up: that of the rebellion of the wicked Miao and their punishment (their
and deportation) hy an imperial hero, the punishment forming one of the famous
four punishments>>. - This theme having once been disposed of in the middle
the Yao tien (Shun tien), why does it then crop up a second time, at the very
p;ltJ:...,75'fiMc ?'K T &:7J'.:Jt ;i'.J. :=.;t /!itt 3-$
;.,:-.;r"l &r. tt :=.. fii If( .o:. Ll/[..;7 >7 M- (i0 z. 1!:> J<; to >H tl ff AJ u Yt
end of the chapter, in our line fen p e i San Mia o? The reason is obvious: in
final just before the account of his death, Shun's sovereign way of treating
subordrnates 1s summed up: the well-behaved were encouraged, the misbehaving
punished: >>_Eve:y three years he examined the achievements (of his subordinates);
three examrnahons he degraded or promoted the (dark=) unenlightened and the
ened (respectively); the achievements were all resplendent; he (separated, set
detached and (morthed =)sent to the North the San Miao>>. In other words, the 3
great culprits: Huan Tou, Kung Kung and Kun were individual >>lords>> who
punished (but not their peoples), hence they are covered by the first lines about
>>degradation, but to the San Miao rebellion, more serious than the rest since it
a whole people and its deportation, a separate line is devoted, emphasizing that
to the Shu author) this was Shun's greatest deed as an overlord. We could, of
take p e i 89 as = 96 'to turn the back' = 'to rebel' (common) and translate: F
he (separated =) set apart the p e i S an M i a o rebellious San Miao>>, but that
rhythmically unsatisfactory: f en - p e i S a n M i a o. The ordinary stylistic
demand a division: f en - p e i - S an - M i a o, with f en and p e i as coi}rdlillltte,d;(
verbs. The explanation of the commentators: f en - p e i he separated and

was in the far North-west; the original home (Kiangsi) was in the far South-east.
removal could indeed be called p e i a >>sending to the North>>. Jl'or fen 93 =
separate' = 'to detach, set apart', cf. Tso: Hi 28, phr. 97 >>He (separated, set
detached some fields of (the states) Ts'ao and Wei, and gave them to the Sung
K i K u n y ii Y ii s h an 98 - for k i = 'to kill' and not (with some comm.)
'to banish', see BMFEA 18, p. 249, note.
1273. T i n a i t s u 1 o 99.
A. This is PK'ung's version. - B. Older quotations (Meng: Wan Chang, shang,
Ch'un Ts'iu fan lu: Hiian yu shu to) have 100 11Fang-hii died, which thus should be given.
1274. p 'i s 1 . men, min g s i m u, t a s i t s 'u n g 1. .
A . Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases 2, which simply joins the two last lines into one, explaint
ing t a 3 by t ' u n g 4 'to penetrate, to reach far' and s i 5 'four' by 6 'the
quarters'. The latter is not so scholastic as it might seem, on the contrary it is
regular; in the Odes we frequ.ently have s 1 k u o 7 'the four(-side) states' = 8
states of the four quarters. In Lao 10, phr. 9 >>When his intelligence ,reaches in the
directionS>/, and similarly in Li: Yue ki 10 >>Chou's principles have (penetrated=) reached
to the four quarters>>. But then both the Shu line and Si-ma's paraphra,se have been
interpreted in several ways. PK'ung first takes p ' i !3 i m e n to mean >>(He con,-
sulted with the Si-yue) to open the in the four quarters>> (everywhere in the
sc. those that were not open, so tha,t w1se men should not be obstructed), which is plainly
impossible: the s 1. men refers to the s i- m.e n earlier in our chapter, see Gl, 125()
above. Then PK'ung paraphrases the rest: 11 >>He made wide his seeing and
in the four quarters>>. _This would give for the Sh line: >>He m i n g made clear-sighted,,
his s 1 - m u (four-side eyes =) four-directioned eyes, . t a . he made far-reaching s i,
t s 'u n g his (four-side =) four-directioned h{laring>>. The phr. s i- m u 'four-side
eyes' and s 1 t s ' u n g 'four-side hearing', analogous to the s i t a to four-side reach>}
in the Lao and Li ex. (9, 10) above, would thus refer to Shun himself: his own observii:).g
of the realm (Chavannes therefore renders Si-ma's line 2: >>Pour percevoir par les oreilles
et les yeux tout ce qui se passait dans les quatre directions>>, a very free paraphrase).
- fl. Long before PK'ung a middle-Han scholar Mei Fu (in a memorial to the throne
M Fu chuan) has the same idea, that the perception referred to Shun himself.
1;\Widely to see and comprehe?sively hear, _in
and low-stationed ones, that IS what 1s called p 1 s 1 m en, m 1 n g s 1
ld thus seem that this author included the phr. p' i s 1 men in the
:ferring to the perception. This in itself would be quite admissible. We
rin the sense of 'gates of perception', i. e. the senses, Lao 52, phr. _13
h ir holes (eyes and ears etc.), shut their gates (of perceptwn), so that durmg
i:e they do not struggle>> (but remain The Shu line then
pen the four-directioned gates (of to make_ the
eyes and make the hearmg>> ... This 1s very
d logical and hence temptrng. But 1t w1ll not do to take s 1 m e n >>the
n quite another sense here than earlier in our chapter. - y. Legge: t a
g 14 :n:eans >>to hear. with ears ?f all, thus Shu phrase: >>To open
gates, m 1 n g to perceive s 1 m u the =) eyes of al!,
nenetrate s i t s' u n g with the (four-s1de hearmg =) hearrng of all>>. This
impossible (curiously enough Legge in a note quotes with ap:J?robation
in a. above). - b. Ts'ai Ch'en paraphrases 15 >>to make w1de the seemg
four quarters>>, thus our Shu line: >'ro open the four gates, to m in g
8 1 m u (the four-side eyes =) the eyes of those in the four quarters,
far-reaching s i t s ' u n g (the four-side hearings =) the hearing of those
quarters>>; thus, as expounded by >>pour ouvrir les
i:tOlll..Ill.eS capables), eclairer tousles yeux et fmre _toutes les (c. a. d.
et attirer tous les hommes capables de I emp1re). The s 1 m u would
four-side eyes>> in the sense of >>the eyes in the four quarters>>, and Si-ma's
2 would mean: >>To open the four gates, to make clear-sighted and far-reaching
a.nd eyes of the four quarters>>. - B. In comm. on Tso: Wen, 1&, Tu
> i s i men, t a s 1 t s 'u n g, and Shiwen says that t s u n g 16 hearmg
.there was >>originally>> the variant 17 (ts'ung / tJ?'an_g /_c h' ':an f?} 'window'.
is no whim. of Lu Te-ming's but represents an early Shu versiOn different fr?m
and PK'ung, is proved by Feng su t'ung (Eastern Han): Sh1 fan, ":h!Ch
sovereign opens the gates and opens the windows (and calls and w1dely
obtains wise men)>>. This obviously alludes to our Shu and renders t a
to] communicate' by k' a i 'to open up' (common of t a).
points out that the original Shu graph probably was s1mply 19 and that
was enlarged by some scholars into 16, by. some into 17 according as
"'"''-""''v" the line (some combining it with 20 'gate' and hence taking it to mean
, others combining it with 21 'eye' and hence taking it to mean In
way 22 serves for 23, 24 for 25, 26 for 27 etc. Thus our Shu hne> >>(He
with the Si Yue) to open the four gates (sc. towards east, south, west, north),
clear the four (eye-sights =) views, and to open up the four windows11, i. e. in order
. 5? 5. 7J: j(S 7.<1Jf 97/i Z 'fH jf ;;f_ .A... 1 ,71 L1 99 ifi !79.!1
) 1'9 @ JL'9 Jf_l .t flf \Vi'') 11f! .olf!. \'2 1J Jt rJ JJ1: .;< ;1i_ S: C1J I'..'J Ji 1-
fj -Z 9. Gf-l (> g ! /tl ;.Q. rE if_ I/ 't ,;g -IJ It .\1 ...
'fl r"l 1!)1 , ... .'] tJ /J ;t Jt ;t Jt !i ,4.1'9 Jfi&J ;s./fJt \3) :!5 z ;;z A fz 1'5
71. !'/. w l'").v_ 13 :u. v "1'8 zit J(l__ zrwf_ zc J$i .u.:{{ 1' 1'9 i'l + fi .::c.4X 13
to observe in all the four directions and invite good men from all the realm. (Yii Yiie
tries to show that t s 'u n g had a double meaning: both 'window' and 'hearing', which
is much too sophisticated). The p 'i. s i" men >>to open the four gates>> then naturally
connects with the earlier passage 28 ))He received the guests (the feudal lords) at the
four gates>>, see Gl. 1250 above). - A is the oldest version attested (Si-ma), but which-
ever interpretation we give it (a or !5, y being quite impossible and fJ unlikely), the s 1
m u >>four-directioned eyes>> or >>eyes of the four quarters>> is strained and scholastic;
version B, though only attested in Eastern Han time, is far superior by its simplicity
and plausibility.
1275. T s i s hi y u e r m u y ii e 29.
A. The PK'ung version has this reading: ))He deliberated with the 12 pastors and
said>>. - B. In various passages of a similar kind in the Yao tien, t s I 30 is an initial
interjection. Particularly important is the almost exact parallel in the end of this chapter:
31 >>The emperor said: Oh, you 22 mem>. But even the next line after our head line
above has the same structure: 32 ))Shun said: Oh, you Si Yiie>> (this phrase occurs 4
times in the Yao tien). And earlier in the chapter we had 33 >>The emperor said: Oh,
you Hi and Hm>. It seems quite evident that the PK'ung text has an inversion and that
the line should be: 34 uHe said, Oh, you 12 pastors. Thus t s i does not mean 'to
deliberate' but is the "'tnterjection 'Oh' which goes all through our chapter.
1276. S hi" t s a i w e i s hi j o u y ii an n en g e r 35.
For j o u y ii a n n e n g e r >>Be gentle with the distant ones, be kind to the near
ones>> see Gl. 917.
A. PK'ung punctuates: S h i" t s a i w e i s h i, j o u y ii a n n e n g e r >>Oh, the
food, it should be (seasonable:) in accordance with the seasons; be gentle with the distant
ones>>, etc. This makes sheer nonsense. - B. Sun Sing-yen therefore believes that s hi
is an interjection, and punctuates: s h i t s a i, w e i s hi j o u y ii an n e n g e r>>.
He adduces that Fang yen (W. Han colloquial) says s hi 36 = 37 'an exhortation',
(38 = 39 as usual); thus: >>Mind you! now you shall be gentle with the distant ones>> etc.
But in fact Fang-yen says that in >>southern Ch'u 40, when oneself does not like something
but other people like it, or when oneself does not get angry over something but
other people get angry over it, one says s hi yen 41 (wait a moment! mind you!),
a restraining interjection 37. To use this colloquial Han-time binominal idiom for
explaining the s hi of the Shu line is of course inadmissible. - C. Hii Tsung-yen: Our
present passage is quite analogous to one in the end of the chapter. In the present passage
we have: you 12 pastors, s hi" t s a i 42, we i s hi j o u y ii an n e n g e r>>.
There we find: >>Oh, you 22 men, 43 k ' i n t s a i, w e i s h i I i a n g t ' i e n k u n g.
It is obvious that s hi 36 is merely a scribe's error for the graphically similar k 'in
44. Our line thus should run: 46: nBe reverent! Now be gentle with the distant ones and kind
to the near ones. - Hu's emendation is obviously right.
1277. T u n t e y ii n y ii an 46.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien, skipping the last two words, paraphrases the first two: 47 'to practise
an ample virtue' (48 = 49 after Erya). Moreover he adds before it a line, not in the
Shu, >>to take as a norm the virtue of the Emperor>> (sc. Yao). - B. PK'ung follows
Si-ma in his interpr. of the first words and adds that y ii n 50 means 61 (common) and
y ii an 62 = 53 'superior in goodness' (this latter after Yi: Wen yen under Kua 1).
One would then expect PK'ung to take tun t e - y ii n y ii an as parallel phrases:
>>make ample the virtue and. sincere the goodness>>, but he does not, for he explains them:
>>to practise an ample virtue, and to trust the prominently good (men)>>. The reason for
the latter is obviously the following line: >>to balk the insinuating ones>>, which demands
the antithesis of the >>good mem here. - C. Ts'ai Ch'en has realized this and carried
.-- .... d a in the whole line: >>treat (amply =) generously the men, and
l y) the good men. So far Ts'ai is obviously right:. as b!. the
trust (,1m emp o . . .. an n en e r. tun t e y u n yuan-yuan,
ing way be 'th_e ei_Tiperor). Bhut
.e r, e, Y . . .. 62 a meaning of 'good' which 1t has now ere e se.
is really no reason for givmg y u n . . 1 t' nd in the Yi Wen yen phrase
It is ac hang (principal)
54 >>Y u a n .. P h O lin thus means: nTreat (amply generously the
which glosses y u a n, not s a n. ur e
. tuous men, and trust the great menn.
vu . . 55
1278 E r n an J en J en , . . d . f n
Ts'ien paraphrases it by 56 away the N ; n
and properly means 'to cause diffiCulties, obstacles to , L e. o. a -
57 = 58 'specious talk, artful'; in Ya? J_TIO the ;;J>;a whom
J A Sun Yen (early glossist of Erya) explams this J en = g th ; . tf 1 in his
t th 57 - '(apparently) trustwor y , 1. e. ar u '
it seems possible to trus >>, us J en . --- 1 . "t b tl f ct that both 67 and 69
58 f fetched B Ho YI-hang exp ams I y te a
words ; thus. great>>, one who makes himself better than h)e is,
can mean ' . d C Chu Tsiin-sheng: j en 57 or 69 (even tone are
lwnee >>artful>>. - d ll known from both Shi and Lun, e. g. Lun:
a;p:::an::e is strong but is soft>>.
were homophonous (*t!:i:tn:, even. tone). Thus or Shu phr .. >>And balk t e so
sinuating ones. _ C is obviously right.
1279 M a n y i s h u a i f u 63. . . h . bl ) _
, h 64 (Han shu var 66 the two graphs bemg mterc angea e -
A PKung: s uai ' th )t b "t> B Wang
66 t.hus >>The Man and Yi barbarians will lead on (one ano er o. su mi '. -67. h" h
' H d 271': 64 shu a I -- y u n g , w Ic
Yin-chi, following a gloss by Mao eng m o .'l h o. . here means-y u n g . Man y i
has no safe text bGI._ 1089), say; =) thereby will Wang
y u n g f u >>The an I ar y in which s h u a i would = y u n g; but


s h u a i, and his speculatiOn IS not - C. Sdu s h : [i 64 is well attested in
and Yi barbarians will follow and subnut . Smce the 1 t t I t 'The Man and Yi
' II' ( GI 642) "t ould seem most simp e o rans a e ''
all a7ter all C has

and f u will be very analogous and form a goo mome. -
Po shou shuai wu 69. B Sun Sing-yen: nAil
A. PK'ung: >>All the animals lead on one another to dance>>. -
the animals follow (it) and dance n.
7 97
1280. Yu neng fen yung 70.
For y u n g 71 = 72 'achievements, merits' see GI. 1235.
A. Ma Jung: fen 73 = 74. Since fen 'to be energetic' has no such meaning as.
m n g 'bright, to bright:, Sun Sing-yen believes that Ma by his gloss meant
m 1 n g 74 = 75 for *m1an), which is very unlikely. - B. PK'ung: fen 73 =
76 'to raise, to start, set in motion', thus: Is there anybody who can start achievements".
Hi t i c h i t s a i see Gl. 1229. S hi t s e p o k ' u e i see Gl. 1248.
1281. Liang t s' a i hue i c h' o u 77.
L i an g t s ' a i 79:
The same phr. recurs in Kao Yao mo: I ian g t s 'a i y u pang 78.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien in the first example renders I ian g t s' a i 79 by 80 'to assist in
the affairs' (this after Erya). The fundamental sense of I ian g being 'bright' (see Gl.
786), this is an extension of meaning: 'to enlighten' = 'to guide, to assist'. - B. Ma
in 78 defines I ian g as = 81 (likewise after Erya), and PK'ung has adopted this
m both cases (77, 78): l>to be faithful (reliable) in the affairs>>. Liang would then be
loan char. for 82 'true, sincere'. Cf. Meng: Kao tsi, hia: 83 >>If the noble man is not
(Chao K'i: I ian g = 81). - C. Ts'ai Ch'en in both cases takes liang in
fundamental sense""f>f 74 'bright': }>brightly (manage) the affairs>>. (Legge follows A
m the lst example, C in the second, a curious inconsistency). - No reason to abandon
the earliest interpr. (A).
H u e i c h ' o u 84:
A. PK:un,g (after Erya): 85 = 86 in the of 'to be compliant with, to
accord With. Then he takes c h o u 87 = 88, as earlier in the chapter, paraphrasing
89: >>(the one who) accords with (the affairs) is who?>> An impossible construction.-
B. Ts'ai Ch'en: hue i 85 = 86 (as in .A), and c h' o u 87 = 90, thus: l>to assist in the
affairs. and ac?ord with the i. e. ace. to Legge >>to manage each department
accordmg to 1ts nature}>. Hue I fundamentally and usually means 'kind, complacent'.
but the extension of meaning 'to be compliant with, accord with' is also attested, e. g.
Shu: To fang 91 l>Why do you not obey the king, and make resplendent the mandate of
C h' o u 'category'_ is found for instance in Hung-fan: >>(Heaven) gave to
!u the Great Plan m 9 (categories, classes =) sections 92l>. None the less, interpr. B.
1s very far-fetched. - c. Couvreur therefore take hue i 85 in its more ordinary sense
of 'to be kind to', still taking c h ' o u = 'category': hue i c h' o u = benefacere
generibus, which in his Shu transl. he paraphrases: >>faire prosperer chaque chose comme
Ia: demandent son espece et sa nature}>; in his diet. he paraphrases: >>faire du bien aux
du peuple>>.,- D. Another interpr. Hue i 85, with Couvreur, has
Its But c h o u 8? me_ans 'of the same category' = 'equal, colleague'.
Cf. Kyu: Ts1 yu 93 matches With (1s the equal of) man, family with familyl> (Wei
c h' o u = 94). Han fei: Shi kuo 95 >>Two thousand well-matched (of equal
h?rses>> ( comm: c h ' o u = 96). That this meaning of 'an equal, a colleague'
Is the one mtended here follows from the context. This is the famous passage in which
Shun nominates his ministers: first Yu who becomes s i - k ' u n g, then K'i who
becomes h o u - t s i, then Sie who becomes s i - t ' u etc. But the section is introduced
by our phrase here, in which Yu as primus inter pares at the same time is made to 97
>>occupy the. (hundred disposals =) general managementl>, supervising his colleagues (those
who follow m the rest of the paragraph): >>Is there anybody who can start achievements
and make resplendent the emperor's undertakings? I will let him occupy the general
management, liang t s ' a i hue i c h 'o u assist in the affairs and be kind to his (equals)
colleagueSII (the other ministers)- as general manager helping them out with their
1282. W e i s h i m o u t s a i 98.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien (after Erya: Shi: hun m o u m o u = 99) renders m o u 100 by 99,
thus: nin this be energetic!n. Erya: Shi ku has an entry 1 = 99 and in comm. on this Kuo
P'o quotes Shu as having 2 (1 loan char. for 100). C'f. Shu: P'an Keng 3 >>Energetically
establish our great heavenly mandate>>, on which Cheng Huan: m o u = m i e n 99. -
.B. Ma Jung: m o u 100 = 4, thus: >>May this be beautiful>>. Ma Jung takes 100 as loan
for 1 'luxuriant', fine'. - No reason to abandon A.
1283. L i m i n t s u k i 5.
A. Han shu: Shi: huo chi reads 6, and this was evidently Si-ma Ts'ien's version, for he
paraphrases: 7; this 8 (*tso I tsuo I t s u) = 9 'to begin, beginning' is based on Erya: Shi
ku. Chavannes translates in the past tense: >>lorsque, au commencement, le peuple
etait affame (j u H o u T s i vous, Prince Millet, vous avez seme>> etc.). But that is not
acceptable, for the words j u H o u T s i expresses the nomination: you shall be Hou
Tsi (l>Governor of the Millet>>), and we have to interpret in the present: >>The multitudinous
people begin to starve>>, (you shall be Hou tsi, etc.). Now t s u 8 ('ancestor') is common
as a noun, meaning 'the beginning, the origin' (e. g. Kuan: Ch'i mi 10: >>One honours the
ancestors, in order to show respect for the beginning, the origin>> etc.), but t s u 8 rarely
serves as a verb = 'to begin'. There is only one text ex. that has been frequently adduced.
Li: Chung ni yen ku 11 >>Then there are no means of t s u taking the initiative and
securing harmony among the people>> (a very doubtful case). For an alleged Shi par.
(with 12 as loan chr. for 8), which, however, is not admissible, see Gl. 382. - B. The
Kuwcn version read as above 13 (*t?jo I t.?iwo I tsu), defined by Cheng Huan as = 14
'straits, difficulties', by Wang Su [PK'ung] as= 15 'difficulties, embarrassment'. PK'ung
paraphrases: >>The people's embarrassment is hungerl>, but that is rhythmically bad:
l i rn i n t s u - k i, and it should better be turned thus: I i m i n - t s u k i, with
1 i - m i .n as subject: l>The multitudinous people (has for embarrassment the hunger =)
is embarrassed by hunger>>. T s u 13 in the sense of 'obstruction, difficulties, embarrass-
ment' is common. - C. Yu Yue: The original graph was probably simply 16. Now
16 is defined in Shuowen as = t s i en 17 . .And since 17 can meim 'repeatedly', the phrase
]8 means >>the multudinous people repeatedly starves}>. This is a comical play on a double
sense in the char. t .s i en 17. Shuowen means that 16 was the original char. for 19
'sacrificial table', and hence it by 17 'to present in sacrifice'. But then further
this char. 17 can serve as loan char. for a totally different word t s i en 'repeatedly'.
16 or 19 of course can have no such meaning. .A school example of bad philology. -
D. Yu Sing-wu: The original graph (with Yii Yue) was certainly simply 16, enlarged
into 8 by the Kin-wen school and into 13 by the Ku-wen school, according as they
understood the line. For a similar erroneous filling-out of 16 into 13 cf. Yi li: 'I' a she li,
where the orthodox version reads (correctly) 20 but the Ku-wen v-ersion (as recorded in
.Cheng Huan's gloss) read erroneously 21. In our Shu line, 16 should be read t s' i e,
as frequently, and this t s 'i e is a mark of future tense, the line being equal to 22: The
multitudionous people will presently starven. C'f. Ode 96, phr. 23 >>The assembly will pre-
sently return homel>. - D is simple and plausible.
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1284. p 0 s h i p 0 k u 24.
A. Cheng Hiian takes s h 'i 26 as short-form for 25 'to transplant': Sow and trans.
plant the hundred cereals,>. But on the one hand the idea of ,>to transplant comes in very
strange, since it is only the rice that has to be transplanted, and the majority of the
,>hundred cereals are never so treated. On the other hand the word 25 (Kuang yiin
*a jag Iii Ish 'i) never occurs earlier than i.J;l Eastern Han texts. It would be better then.
to take 26 (*ai_iJg 1 zi 1 s hi) as loan char. for 27 (*d'i.iJg 1 a'i 1 chi) which means 'to
plant' generally: ,>Sow and plant the 100 cereals. - B. PK'ung: 26 = 28, as usual:
aSow those hundred cereals. - C. Chang Shou-tsie: ,>Sow the seasonal 100 cereals. -
A means a quite unnecessary loan speculation. B and C are both possible, B being
simplest and in accord with the commonest use of 26 in the Shu.
1285. W u p ' in p u sun, j u t so s 'i t 'u, king f u w u k i a o 29.
For sun 30 (Shuowen var. 31) 'docile, compliant', Si-ma Ts'ien has 32 in the sense
of 33, same meaning.
As pointed out by Ma Jung, there is parallelism between w u p 'in 'the five classes
and w u k i a o 'the five instructions', the latter being the instructions pertaining to
the ,>five classes.
A. The oldest intel}ll. is given in Tso: Wen 18, where it is told how Shun appointed
wise men to 34 spread out the 5 instructions in the four quarters, these having in view
35 the father being just, the mother loving, the elder brother friendly, the younger
brother respectful, the son filial. Thus our Shu line: ,>(36 The hundred families are not
affectionate), the 5 classes (so. fathers, mothers, elder brothers, younger brothers, sons) ar&
not compliant; you shall be Master of the Multitude and respectfully propagate the 5
tions (so. that they should be just, loving, friendly, respectfUl and filial) Cheng Hiian has
followed this. - B. Another interpr. is given by Meng: T'eng Wen Kung, shang;
He made Sie Master of the Multitude to give instructions about 37 the human relation:
between father and son there should be 38 love, between sovereign and minister
(subject) 39 righteousness; between husband and wife 40 distinction (of functions);
between elder and younger 41 proper order; between friend and friend 42 fidelity. Thus
the Shu line: ,>The five categories (of social relations) are not compliantly (observed);
you shall be Master of the Multitude and respectfully propagate the 5 instructions (about
the principles of those 5 social relations),>. - It is easily realized that A is the most
logical sequence to: ,>The hundred families (the people) are not affectionate, since ,>father,
mother, elder brother, younger brother, son enumerates precisely the ,>categories 43
inside a family. Moreover, in the B interpretation s u n 'to be compliant' as verb to
w u p ' i n as subject in the sense of the five human relations,> is very strained.
1286. W u hi n g y u f u w u f u a n t s i u 44. ,
A. The oldest text which clearly a!Judes to this Shu passage is a lecture by Tsang
Wen-ohung in Kyii: Lu yii, criticizing the unlawful killing by poison of an enemy: The
punishments are 5 only, and there are no secret ones ... ; 45 in the greatest punishment
(so. against a rebel) one uses weapons (so. war); 46 in the next-following one uses axes
(the culprit is beheaded); 47 in the punishments of the middle category one uses knife
and saw (amputation); 48 in the next following one uses bore and chisel (smaller
mutilations); 49 in the smallest punishments one uses whips and flogging; 50 hence, the
greatest (punishments) are exhibited in the plains and wilds (so. the war against rebels);
51 the smaller ones are effectuated in the market place or the court; 52 there are 5
punishments and 3 (successive stages =) grades; 53 that means that there are no secret
(punishments),>. Evidently the Kyii author took the Shu phr. 44 in the sense of 52, thus:
,>The 5 punishments have their applications, in the 5 applications there are 3 (successive
stages =) grade&>. By the w u h i n g ,>5 punishments,> he understood crushing by
decapitation, amputation, smaller mutilations, flogging, and. by the stages,>
_ an t s ' i) the 5l ,>greatest 55 ,>the rmddle
. shl u -ails t punishments This is all very reasonable. But it is not reconcilable
t e sm es k f' f th 57 f unish
din passage in our chapter where it is spo en ll'St o e )) 1ve P . -

l clearly defined,>, then of the banishment as mitigation of the 5
and after that of the flogging, which thus evidently, to the author, did not
of the ,>5 punishments;_ nor, evidently, did ,>warfare oonst1tute one of the 5
of the Shu. In fact we know definitely by several texts (see 1267) that
!UIJ"""'UU"5 punishments,> were death, castration,. cutting outtmg of. nose,
(on forehead). Thus the Kyii interpretation 1s not - B. We\ ?hao
on Kyii above has misunderstood the phr. 52, not realizmg that t s
stages' has the same sense as earlier in the passage 60 ,>the
t s i 59 ,>stage means 61 0 h ' u 'place' where the punishment was out,
refers it to the a) plains and wilds, b) market place and o) court of the_ Kyu
Chao adds that executed dignitaries (from ta-fu and upwards,>) were. m
th Ourt
and nobles (,>from s h 'i and downwards,>) were exposed m s h 1 the
a o e c ' ., 1 t' t kin th t s i u 62
1 Kiang Sheng has seized upon We1 s speou a 10ns, a g e .
PShace. hr to mean t s 'i 59 in the sense of c h, u 61 'place' (which Wei
t e u P ' h 'd t' t' '
gave it in the Kyii text): t s i u 62 means to go to , es ma 1on ,
)nel oustyt which one went for applying the punishment. The Shu line 44 w?uld thus
P o 5 punishments (for which Kiang follows Kyii's inadmissible senes) have
. a,> li:ations, the 5 applications have their 3 (destinations =) places
. ca:fed out,> sc. (the plains and wilds, the market place and the It IS eas1ly
. how fallacious all this is: we know from texts executed off1cers were exposed
. the market or in the court; but there is not the support - from. the
sermon _for the other punishments (aoc. to Kyu above: amputatiOns,
lta.'Vin been carried out in such determined ,>places,>. - C. Ma, Jung and Huan
.. . g liz d that ,>the 5 punishments,> of the Shu were not those of the Kyu text,
series: death, castration, ..cutting of amputatiol_l of nose,
the nonetheless draw upon the Kyu for explammg s an t s 1 u 63 as
kllke t:e same mistake as Wei Chao: they do not Kyii's. s an t s 1 64
!neans ,>the 3 successive stages,> in the sense of. ,>great cr1mes, n;1ddle, onmes
b t take t s ' i 59 (and hence also t s 1 u 62) as = 61 place . But un e e1
. 't u hi c h ' a o 'market and court' into one 'place' and add a new one:
shi shi 65 says that the members of the so;ereign's clan were not :purnshed
publicly but secludedly by the officer t i en s hi, they 44: ,>The 5
(death castration etc.) have their applications, the 5 applicatiOns have thell' 3 (destma-
'tions places where they are carried out (the and th.e market court,
the office of the tie n s hi). As already stated, there 1s no text mdwat10n that pumshments
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like amputations or branding were done in tho tmarket or court. - D. PK'ung varies
the ideas in his own way: 66
the great criminals' (rebels) were punished in the
plains and wilds, dignitaries t a f u in the court and ordinary nobles s h i in the market
place. This is in part based on Wei Chao above, but docs not refer merely to tho (well.
attested) exposing of the corpses in the market and the court, but refers all the punish-
ments (amputo.tion, branding etc.) to those 62 'places'. Just as unfounded as the pre.
ceding. - E. Ts'ai Ch'en has realized the inadequacy of all the preceding. It is all very
well, he says, that the executed culprits were exposed in the market, but as to castration
it was done in the 67 (silkworm house, hot-houset) and the smaller mutilations certainly
in some secluded place where the culprits would not catch cold and die (sic!). Thus even
Ts'ai cannot make himself free from the obBeBBion that a a n t s i u 63 meant the 3
places where the punishments were carried out. - 11. Sun Sing-yen brushes aside all
the speculations above and takes f u 68 not as = 'tho application' of the punishment
but as = 'clothes', reverting to the scholastic idea (sec Gl. 1267) that Shun had
corporal punishments but only 69 represented punishmentlll), indicated by the garments
of the culprits. Thus: tThe 5 punishments have their garments, the 5 kinds of garments
have their three 62 = 70 elaborations" (crime-indicating clothes of 3 kinds). Hopelessly
scholastic. - G. Another interpr. The line has a quite different purport from those
proposed above. F u which docs not mean 'to undergo' (as in tho common phr. 71;
Chavannes translation: Pour les cinq chAtiments, il y a ceux qui lea subissontt is
certainly wrong) but is transitive = 'to cause to undergo', i.e. 'to apply', has to be
understood in the light of the other great treatise on punishments, the Lii bing. There
we find: 72 In regard to o. higher punishment, when (the crime) tends towards the
lighter side, it should be downwards applied; in regard to a lower punishment, when (the
crime) tends towards the heavier side, it should be upwards appliedo. And we ho.vcsecn
earlier in our Yao tien chapter, in a previous discuBBion of punishments, that involuntary
crimes should be condoned. These three considerations of the influencing circumstances,
give us the key to the phr. s an t s i u 63. T s i u inter alia means 'to approach' in
the sense of 'to accommodate oneseH to, to adapt oneself to', as in Shu: Ts'in shi 73
they did not accommodate themselves to mot; Tso: Ai 11 (he is too young11; answer:
74 he (being young) accommodatingly obeys ordcrso. Even in modem Mandarin
t a i u 62 bas this sense (t s i an g t s i u 75 'to accommodate oneself'). San t s i u
hence means ethree accommodations, adaptations to circumstances, Anpaasungent. Our
Shu line 44 thus means: The 5 punilhmantl y u f u have their appllcatiom; iD the &
applicatioua there are 3 (heightening, lowering or condoning the puuishment)
Parallel to this we have in the next line: 76 The 5 banishments have their placings;
in the 5 plncings, there arc 3 (kinds of) dwellings (among the barbarians, in the
outer dependencies and inside the Chinese realm proper). - It should be added
that in the latter clause Cheng Hiia.n has a wild speculation that t s c 77 'to place' (for
which Si-ma Ts'ien as usual, has 78) is a short-form for 79, which would mean 'hand-
fetters and foot-fetters'. Such a word is entirely unknown. Moreover t s e 77 corres-
ponds to k ii 'dwelling', which proves that it has its ordinary meaning.
C h ' o u t a i j o y ii k u n g sec GJ. 1233. J u t so chen y il, see Chavannes
I, p. 85.
1287. J u hie 80.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien has abbrcvio.ted this line, but in the next paragraph, where we have
exactly tho same formulation, he paraphrases so as to show that he understood: Do
you (aot iD harmony with ... ) cooperate with them. Sun Sing-yen even believes that 81
stands for 82 'together', but that is not necessary. 81 g'ET I yt'Ji 1 hie and 82 kEr 1 klii f
k i e are two aspects of the same word stem (s. a. 83 kEr 'all together'). - B. PK'ung
takes hi c as a transitive verb, referring to Ch'uci's subordinates: Do you bring them
into harmony. Chavannes translates more generally: tFaitea rcgncr l'ho.rmonieo. - Tho
context favours A.
1988. K i a o c h o u t s i 84.
A. The Kin-wen version ap. Shuowen (under 85) and Yang Hiung: Tsung cheng chen
read: k i a o y ii t a i 86. teach the (sons in rearing young sons). Si-ma para
bra.scs 87 teach tho young (tender) which may show tho.t he had the same
fun- wen version. P'ei Yin, however, believes that rendered the 88 of the Ku-wcn
text by 89 because they were similar in soundo: 88 d'i0t7 I a'iiu I c h o u would then
be a loan char. for 89 d' i:Jr I cl'i I chi, which is phonetically impossible. Tuan Yii-ts'ai, on
the other hand, believes that tho 88 of the Ku.wcn thad tho sound and meaning*
85 of the Kin-wen and that Sima's 89 translated either of them, but that is very
wrong (88 d'i{Jg : 85 *diok I juk I y ii}. But it is not excluded that Si-ma really had a
text with 88 and thought that 88 *d'iag was a word cognate to 85 *diak (or a Joan char.
for the latter) and hence translated it by 89 'young, tender'. Tho phr. y ii t s i 90
(diok) 'son in rearing' = 'young son' is a well-known expression recurring written 91
((*diok) in Odo 155 (sec GJ. 379). - B. The Ku-wen version ap. Mo. Jung (gloss here),
Cheng Hiian (comm. on Li: Wang chi), Wang Su and PK' ung read as above S.J. But
this has been int.crpreted in 3 ways. - a. Han shu: Li yiie chi, quoting our Shu line, says the
pupils of the Music Master were the k u o t s i 92 the states., and
them as tho 9J sons (both elder ami younger) of k 1 n g mmJBters and t a f u dJgru-
taries. Cheng Hiio.n likewise says our phr. 9.J means 92, and in comm. on Chouli: Ta
si yiic he defiQCS these k u o t s i as = the 93 sons (both elder and younger} of kung
feudal lords; k ' i n g ministers and t a f u dignitaries. This is based on Chouli: Tn. si
yUc: He arranges and establishes the system of studies in the state, and 95 brings
together there (in the school} the sons (elder and younger) of the states. In fact the
word chou 88 (*d'iaul is well attested in the sense of 'descendants' generally, c. g.
Tso: Siang 14 tThey arc the 96 descendants of Si Kyii: Lu yii 97 to classify the
nearness or remoteness of the descendants*. Thus our Shu line: To teach the descendant
IODI. - fl. Shuowcn under 88 (as quoted in K'ung's comm. on Ode 259; the current
Shuowen text is abbreviated) says: h o u means descendants; in the rituals the 98
first-rank sons (sons of first-rank wives) were called c h o u t s i 9.Jil. This is based on
Li: Wang chi, which sa.ys: The Yfie.chcng Music Master taught the polite arts to 99
tthe heir-apparent of the king, tho (other) sons of tho king and the first-rank sons (sons of
the consorts) of ministers, dignitaries and higher noblemen - since t his discusses the
Music Masten, it evidently refers to the c h o u t s i 94 of our Shu line. Thus the
latter: To teach the first-rank eons&. Wang chi is considered to be one of the latest
chapters in the Li, possibly written in Han time. - y. In all the preceding interprcta.
tiona y U or c h o u were taken as attributes to t s i. But Ma Jung says c h o u 88 =
100 c han g3 as a verb, paraphrasing 1 and evidently explaining 8-J thus: i a o to
teach and chou bring up the sons. Evidently he took 88 *d'iUu as loan char. for (or a
word cognate to) 85 di6k. A much inferior intcrpr. - Both A and Bu arc quito
ll ;..ftX_. J.. &r<iJ t.-pr:\ '.JIJJl.&? wJllll- ?.z'J
j. ):. AA._7l S1io::f;t}f)-4 -;rt-f ,;f.e 1i. 1i :f: 1i. :f: ..=. IE ?7 ':(. at 111

'J :J- 'If .:J.. 9J" Qil ..t._ :;. ?.:" 17 }- .t.. :J- 9? ..:t. ;:. "f. J. .. F .t__
admissible; but since we do not know whether Si-ma had the A or the B reading th
B version (Ku-wen) is the oldest one safely attested (Han shu), and we should
abide by that; the a interpr. of version B is best corroborated. Cf. also Gl. 1471 below
1289. K ' u a. n c r 1 i 2. '
A. Ma Jung paraphrases 3: Wide and great and yet rm1pootfully apprehensive.
PK'ung likewise says k' u an: 4 'grca.t'. When Cheng Hiian defines it further s:
'the c a p a. c i t y being wide and great', this is not very fortunate, for always,
k' u an denotes a mental quality, it means 'magnanimous, largc.minded' - so 1Ja&im
in Shu, Shi, Li etc. (Legge, Couvreur and Chavannes therefore render it here by 'gentle'
or 'indulgent'}. L i 6 (s. a. 7) 'trembling, full of fear' is common (Meng: Wan Chang 8
full of veneration and etc.). Thus: Large-mblded and yet apprehenaive (careful). _
B. PK'ung defines 1 i by 9, certainly (as K'ung Ying-ta expounds) meaning the same
as :Ma Jung in A above, but Legge has taken this c huang - 1 i as = 'dignified': That
the gentle may yet he dignified$; similarly Couvrcur in Kao Yao mo: et ln. gra.
vitco. C h u an g 10 certainly can mean 'dignified', but 1 i 6 alone never has that
sense. - C. Couvreur in Yao tien has another intcrpr: ct scvcritc; here
he takes I i as = ' to fear' but as a causative: 'scaring' (in the Dictionnaire he translates:
&Indulgent ct ncaiHlloins inspirant le respect ct Ia craintc*) - D. Sun Sing-yen: I i 6
is defined as = 11 'solid, firm' in comm. on Li: P'ing yi, and hence our line means:
Large-minded and yet When Chavannm:1 translates: &Indulgcnts mais avec
I suppose he follows Sun in taking 1 i = 11 (solid = energetic?). But all this
is false, for i n Li: P'ing yi 1 i means 11 in another sense: 'compact, dense', said of jade
(sec Gl. 873). - E. Cheng Hiian hns no gloss on 1 i 6 here, but he gives his intcrpr.
of it in Li: Piao ld, in comm. on the line 12: He is large-minded hut discriminatinw.
Then Cheng says: pie n 13 is = 14, and is equal to the 1 i 6 of our Shu phr. Now
in Ode 156 the same Cheng explains I i sin 15 as = firewood (erroneously, see
Gl. 387), taking 6 *liel to be a loan char. for 16 *ljat 'to cleave'. Thus our Shu line: Of
great capn.eity and yet (cleaving - ) discriminating. A very arbitrary loan speculation.
- F. Yii Yiic believes that 6 *liet is loan char. for 17 (*tl'iell rl'iet I chi) 'orderly' because
of some variants 6 = 17 in Shi and Kung-yang, sec Gl. 1132, a hopeless speculation. -
No reason to abandon the curliest interpr. (A, l\la Jung), which is quite convincing.
1290. K i c n e r w u a o 18.
In Kno Yno mo we have correspondingly k i c n c r 1 i c n 19.
A. Cheng Hiian defines k i c n 20 =- 21. It is not very clear whn.t he means by that;
Sun Sing-yen believes he means: The capacity being (condensed = ) achieved and greau.
Be this as it may, k i en 20 = 22 'great' is n. wcll.attCllted meaning, sec GJ. 109, and
PK'ung in Kuo Yao mo defines k i c n as = 22 'great'. Thus 18: Great and yet not
arroganh. 1!1: Great and yet punctilious. - B. K'ung Ying. ta and Ts'ai Ch'cn: k i en
20 = 23 'to abhre\iate, to simplify, summary', likewise a common meaning of the word.
Thus: >Taking it (tlUmmarily = ) easy and yet not arrogant. (Chavunnes: Indifferent&
aux details muia suns arrogance; when Legge tmnslatcs: &that the impetuous may
be arrogant., I fail to sec how ho can arri\e at such a meaning as 'impetuous' for k i en).
- Both intcrpr. arc admissible, but A suits the context much better: k i c n balances
chi 2.J and k an g 25 firm; is then better than >easygoing..
Po s h o u shu a i w u sec GJ. 1279.
1291. K o y u n g y c n 26.
Simu Ts'icn renders y u n g 27 by 28 'to make long'. Han shu: Yi wen chi quotes
29 (sic). This 30, homophonous with 27 (*giwiin!]), is ctym. tho same word: 'to draw out
long', i. c. 'to chant', and the 27 of the orthodox text has this meaning: The soug is 1.
(drawing-oat ) chanting ol the wordu.
B. K
i c h 'an s hu o t' i c n hi n g 31.
char. 32 is rendered 33 ' to fear and hate' and, .as ,...
, by Shuowcn and Shiwcn after Su reads 1t tak ( dz 1ak / t s 1.
to, h ver is not convincmg. The char. 35 hn.d ongmally a. rcadmg *l8!et (sec Gram-
'l'hiao o;;6) as such is phonetic in several words having fina.l -t. It has later also been

to a synonymous word *18jak / 18fi k f t B i. But tho compound 32 'masonry'
app . ad 18iet J t s i. When this graph is used as a loan char., it should in all
not be read *dz'iJk but *dz'iel f dz'jet I t B i, being a loan char. for 34 *dz'iet
probate' _ Si ma writes: 36 and Chang Shou-tsie takes wei 37 in its ordinary sense
'to ' d I . t . t' .
of 'false to cheat' (Chavanncs therefore: &)O rc oute ..... es we 1 rompencs 1 en
trlcest)' but w c i renders the hi n g 38 of the Shu which cannot mean 'fa.lsc'
::U/un yen is certainly right that 37 is here simply a variant for wei 39 'to act'
(the two are cognate words).
A. Ms. J ung explains t 'i en hi n g by 40, thus interpreting 31 as: oi hate (those who)
and who destroy the (good) This has been accepted by PK'ung
d Ts'ai Ch'en (Legge: I abominate slanderous speakers and destroyers of [right] wayst).
: t this is to read into the line a. crueial word ('good') that is not there. - B. Cheng
paraphrases (by a quotation from Lun) so as to show that he understood: I h&te
tbale who
peak tlanderously and (destructively 4eatmctively. This alone full
jOBtice to (be parallelism: c h ' n. n correspomls to t 1 on, and shu o balances h 1 n g.
_ c. Erya: Shi ku has nn entry h n g 40 = 41 'talk' and Shao Tsin-ha.n eomm.
on Erya thinks this refers to our Shu hne: I hate slanderous words and destructive talk.
It is of course quite imaginable that h i n g could mean 'what is current', i. c. 'rumour',
t i en hi n g thus = nocuous but in the absence of corroborating text par.
t his interpr. is not acceptable (Chang Ping-lin accepts it, adding that t' i c n 42 should
oe a loan char. for 43, which Erya says 4.J, thus 45 - 46; very improbable).
1193. W c i s hi liang t 'i c n kung 47.
For 1 ia n g = 'to (l.ssist' sec Gl. 1281. Si-ma. Ts'ien renders the line by 48.
A. :PK'ung: t ' i c n k u n g 49 = 50: now you shall assist me in the meritorious
work of all the - an ellipsis which is not plausible. - B. Chang Shou. tsic:
tAocording to the seasons you shn.llllSBist me in the works (assigned by) Hco.vcm (Cha
vannes freely: *Conformcz vous nux temps; observcz quels devoirs lc it
is not clear here how he understood I i a n g). - C. A comparison with an earlier line
(GL 1276) shows that s hi 51, as usual, is merely = .52, thus: lfow you shall assist me
ill Ule workl (usirned by) Heaven.
8 h u t s i hi c n hi sec Gl. 1229. Fen p c i Y u Mia o sc:c gl. 1272.
S h u n s h e n g s a n s h i etc. For a. full discussion and interpretation sec BMFEA
18, p. 290.
1194. C h i f a n g n a i s i 53.
A. In Si-ma's free paraphrase of the long passage about Shun's dates he says: Making

rlf.. i. "(t .:E : ;{ 7. 11!. .r It :K If .t7 itt " 'It 1'1 1'i :Ji/'f-,31-Jt 14 ;l 1' J:t K R.
n.ftt 11 ffll f.O 4;i. [:l"J /! l'o.itll v .u A v r.iJ fb .u- iii -"*-.or... i 17 ik.u.
.ft tt !f :l<l i+:..:u. !;:: 1'1 :1 1J /!r x -1J- 11 'AJ +o.
.!J- 4r.i'i 'fl f.t W 11 1t ,._? .it.:r..1 tttlt trl1Jj J
an inspection tour the South, he died in the wilds of which suggests that
he fa n g 54 m the sense of (one of the) s i fa n g 'the four quarters, the fo
reg10ns , thus: tHe went up to (one of tho four) regions and diedt . This interpr bur
been for inst. by Kiang Sheng. - B. PK'ung curiously says fang S4

expoundmg: 56 ascending to the road, he made an inspection tour in the Southt etc h
order to eonfi.rm this K'ung says f o. n g 54 is = 55 c. g. in Lun: Yung ;e
a (way = ) track of tho a hopeless defense for a weak explanation. - o. H
Yii:. chi 58 'to ascend' means 'to die' and fang. n a i are particles: C h r _fa nan
n 111 s i llHo ascended and (then) died. - D. Ts'ui Ch'cn, criticizing interpr A, rightlg
says that to go to the South would eertamly not have been called 'to ascend to o. regionf.
he accepts C as to c h i, but takes c h i fan g together: ascended to his place.'
i. c. died .. Legge finds a difficulty in tho mentioning of the before the dying.'
but that to the words too stronJtly: ascended to his pl.ace and dicdt is equai
to Ascending to hil place {1c. in Heaven) he died . In the authentic Chu shu ki nien we
find 59: That year Yin Kin. (ll.!!cended died. This confirms C as to c h i; since
our text has chi combined with s i 'died' and since the Chu shu shows it to be a tenn
for the death of a sovereign, there can be no doubt on this point. But D is rhythmically
preferable to C. -
1295. Y i n t i k ii o t ii 60.
A. This is tho orthodox version: U (the ruler) ainoerely pursues the ol hll
virtuu. - B. Si-ma Ts'ien (Ria pen ki) renders the line 61, which indicates another
word sequence: 62 he is sincere in his following tho making y ii n tho principal
verb. - Wo dare not simply on the indirect tclltimony of Si-ma's the t radit.
iono.l text. For o. full discussion of tho line sco further Legge's gloss.
Xao Yao mo (with Yi Tsi).
1296. S h c n k ii e e he n s i u s i y u n g 63.
A. The oldest interpretation is revealed by an edict of the year 39 B. C. (Han shu:
Yiian ti ki) which has 64, clearly alluding to our Shu line. It shows that tho writer
punctuated: s h o n k ii o s h o n, s i u a i y u n g. Sun Sing-yen points out that a J
65 in the 2nd line corresponds to k ii o 66 in tho lst and should be a grammatical word,
That is evidently correct, since the edict \vritcr skipped them both. On the analogy of
s h o n k ii e s h o n He should be careful about his persont it would bo tempting to
s i u as 6 verb (corresponding to tho 1 at s h on) and y u n g as an object (corrcsp. to
s h e n): &and cultivo.te the eternal (principles). But that will hardly do. S i, common
as initial or final particle (Shi pa.'l8im, cf. Gl. 700), is rare inside a sentence, and there are
no cases in which it separates o. verb from its object. The construction is quite different.
In ode 215, phr. 67 tThe good wine is mellow, s i hll.!! the position of o. copula (equal to
68), and so it has here: Be ahoald be caretal about hil penon, the cnltivation (of It) ahou!4
be pel')letuah, s i u s i y u n g (quito analogous to the Ode line) being equal to 69. The
strict grammo.tical parallelism between the two lines is then lost, but in return we obtain
o. very logical sequence of idell.!!. - B. PK'ung paraphrases 70, which shows t hat he
punctuated: s h c n k ii o s h o n s i u, si y u n g : He should be careful about the
-cultivation of his person, and think of (enacting) tho eternal (principles). Ts'ai Ch'en
punctuates in the same way but turns it slightly differently: s i y u n g &and think
far-reachinglyt. - B is decidedly inferior, both rhytmico.lly (s h e n k ii e s h on
s i u - 11 i y u n g, as against: .A: s h e n k ii o s h c n - s i u s i y u n g) and
1297. Tun sii kiu tau 71.
A. Cheng Hiio.n and PK'ung (after Erya}: t u n = 72: U you amply regulate yoar
bmil1 branches-. - B. Legge, Couvreur and Cha.vanncs all take t u n and s ii
aiPI two coordinated causative verbs. (Legge: the will effect a. generous kindness and
'!ce observance of distinctions among the nine cl88BCS of his kindredt; Chavannes: il
:r., observer Ia sinceritC et lea range aux neuf degree do parentCt; Couvreur: Gencrosas
't ordinatas faciet novem gcnerationes consanguineorumt). No reason whatever to
e bandon the ancient intcrpr.
UsB. S hu m in g l i y i 73.
Shu ming:
A. Cheng Hiian: Shu m i ng = 74 all the enlightened one - B. Sun Sing-yen:
min g has hero the same sense as earlier in our chapter: 75 Promote one (already)
ruQ&trious, or raise one humble and meant, thus: All the illustrious onest. - o. PK'ung
would take s h u m i n g as a finite clause: t.Ail will be enlightened (and energetically
help). This is clearly inferior to A and B. - D. Yii Yiie: m i n g 76 is a short-form
for 77 in the sense of 78 'people' , 79 thus meaning 80 all the people. An unnecessary
loan speculation. A and B arc both plausible, but A seems logically preferable: .All tho
wise men of the realm give their aid.
The whole line:
A. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases: 81. Thus: All the enlightened ones will loftily assist
him (Chavannes translates: .. Tous lea sages scront sea niles sur lesqucls il s'clovera.,
properly: tAll tho enlightened ones will be his high-(lifting) wings, which is certainly
too strained). If Sima really rendered 1 i by k o. o 82 'high', it shows that his version
had 83, not 84 (cf. B. below); cf. Ch'u: Yuan yu 85 ..I rise high,, But Si-ma's reading
iJ not safely attested; certain Shi ki versions read 86 (87 and 82 being graphically similar,
one of t hem is an erroneous graph for tho other): All the enlightened ones will assist
him (I i o. n g y i being then o. binome of synonyms). L i, however, has no such mean
iug as 'to assist', so if 1 ian g y i was really Si-ma's reading, he has skipped 1 i and
mldered the y i 88 of the Shu by a binomo. - B. Cheng Hiian, reading 83, defines
this {after Erya) o.s = 89, paraphrasing 90, thus: All the enlightened ones will act as
hie {wings =- ) coadjutom. But Erya's gloss 1 i 83 = 89 docs not mean t s o in tho
eeose of 'to act as, to be' but of 'to be active, energetic', cf. C below, and Cheng's
interpr. is not admissible. - C. Ts'n.i Ch'cn: I i - 91 ' to stimulo.te, to be stimulated,
to exert oneself', thus: All the enlirhteDed ones will energetically (be winll to = ) uailt
Jllm. L i 83 is common with this meaning and 84 of the PK'ung version is merely o.n
enlarged variant of 83 in this sense. Of. Li: P'ing yi 92 When the princes stimulate
each other to exertions by tho laws of good conduct; Kuan: K'uei to 93 oSuch servants
who can plan to exert themselves for the country and establish their fame. - D. Sun
S!ng-yen: I i 83 = 93a 'to attach', thua: tAll the enlightened ones will be attached (to
him) and assist him&. This meaning of l i is poorly substantiated, sec Gl. 582. - C is
certainly best supported.
Jl) -l ,.,., h Ill fZ ){. .s:r 7i I'J '* SJ J'1';1! sr.ll iW u -F n n f'P"
&IJ X. jt..l! ie l'.t " j fM 1f ...j.._ "v tlf. f1 J<..
n. ;.v; l. 4 :s ft!i 1Jl. :t: C!1 ii. ;')<., it .q .1!' k. .:<....ell. ?/ t 1:1-tiL:f.!t iff If..
i'J#. M *-'tf ,, 1111 n'J tt'J 77 ?t IVt. ?)' w r.r: 11 a11 ,"!j ;e; n

----- ---------
1299. E r k ' o y ii a n t s a i t s i 94.
A. Cheng PK'ung:. what is near can be (made dlJta.nt ) e&llled to
reach far lies m tlli11, 1. c. that Ius mfluence on his nearest can reach to more dista. t
people. - B. Chu.vanncs, following a comm. Ch'cn Ta.yu, punctuates after k

qui est pres Rera dignc d'approbation; ce qui est Join sera sous }a m
a. CUriOUS Idea. IUJU,
1300. Y ii p a i c h ' a n g y e n 95.
A. Si-mo. 1's'ien renders c h ' an g 96 (*l'iang) by 97 'beautiful fine' the fundame tal
senso.of ch ' ang 'bright, ?Plcndid,' (Shi etc.). Thus:
sYii cUd reverence tontbe
aplendid - B. PK ung explams c h a by 98 (*tch1g, falling tone) 'suitable,
appropr1ate . It would sccm that ho takes t tang as loan char. for tang. Yii did
reverence to the appropriate - C. Another school ap. Chao K'i's comm
Meng: Kung-sun read 99. This same word occurs without rad. 149 in Yi Chon
kung kie 100 o.nd in Siin: Fci siang. Both I and 2 were tang in rising to
1 IS, as "'"'. 3 'good' .and 97 'fine' in comm. on Yi Chou shu and 2 likewise
fm_c m the d1et. Tsi hn; but 1 is defined as = 4 'straight-forward words' by Ya
m on Siin, and 2 is likewise so defined in Ts'io yiin. The former dcfiniti::
'fmc, good' ts due aut hors' knowi_ng. that it corresponds to the c h ' an g 96 in t he
orthodox. Shu vcrs1on = 97), but 1t 1s \\Tong; the true meaning 'Rtraight-forward
IS proved uno.mb1guously by the context in Siin: Fci simg, where we have t h
bmomc 5 'straight.forWILrd nnd straight'. Thus: &Yii did reverence to the straigh:
forward A and C aPe both admissible, but A is earliest attested (through Si-ma's n.nd should therefore be given preference.
K 'u n g j c n sec Gl. 1278.
1301. Y i l1 i n g y u k i u to 6.
A . PK'unf! entirely. skips y i 7. in paraphrase, thus taking it as the ordinary
part1cle, often mtroduces a hnc Without any pregnant meaning of its own (very
common m the Odes: Odes 14, 26, 35, 156 etc.). Thus: In the actions there are g
- _JJ. Ku Yo-wang in Yii p'icn interprets y i 7 here n.s meaning 8 (the char.
7 IS the pr1mary graph for 8 or 9 'armpit', sec Grammnto. p. 334) and it would here
mean armpit' ' to under the arms' = 10: In supporting the actions there 9. B?th K1.ang Sheng and Sun Sing-yen have adopted this intcrpr. But
smcc 1t JS' m the next line which continues: 11, it is obviously inadmissible.
- C. Ts at Chen: Y 1 7 means 12: Altogether, in the notions there arc 9 virtue!lf.
No text par. - No reason to abandon A.
T s n. i t s ' a i t s ' a i sec GI. 1233. K ' u an e r 1 i sec Gl. 1289. K i e n c r 1 i e n
sec Gl. 1290.
1302. J i s ti a n san t c, s u y c s ii n min g y u k i a 13.
A. Si-mo. Ts'icn renders s ii n m i n g U by 15. In order to reconcile this with t he
Shu text, Kiang Sheng and Sun Sing. yen both take 16 y i (*gjak) to be a variant for
the homophonous 17, one meaning of which is 18 'respectful, careful' (sec Gl. 433) and,
yen and define s ii n 19 n.s = 18. But then they interpret the line (The one who) daily displays three (of the said nine)
Vtrtucs, and them in his family,. (referring to
such 118 pos1t10ns). Sun Smg-ycn: min g 20 is loan char. for m e ng
_1a dcfmed m = 22; y u k i a ))those who have (hereditary) housest,
J . c. Thus:. Dally d1spln.y three (of tho said nine) virtues, and morning and
evenmg respectfully st1mulatc (the possessors of houses - ) the dignitaries*. (This theory
of 20 =: 22, by Yin-chi, has no unambiguous text support.) Cho.vanncs,
accoptmg the dcfm1t1on of y 1 (..., s ii n) - 18, turned the line differently, more in
rdance with the later comm. below: ,,celui qui, journellement, manifesto trois do
a.cco ertus celui-la, matin ct soir, !!!it attcntif ct intelligent, ct il sera mis a Ia. tete d'une
cell_ v nt. All this is very well, but there arc no early texts at all confirming a sense
ctful careful' of the word s ii n 19. Thus, if that was really Si-ma'a opinion, he
in pre-Han literature. Other Ts'ing scholars have therefore. a quite
rent opinion. Erya: Shi ku has an entry s ii n 23 ""' 24 'early, early mornmg' , and
K e p
expounds this n.s = 20 ' to become bright'. Since Si-ma's y i 16, id. w. 25, is
d :ed as - 20 'bright ' in Erya: Shi yen, Ho Yi-hang and others believe that (19 being
a w. 23) s ii n min g J.J as well as y i min g 15 simply arc synonym-compounds,

he morning and evening is (bright ,.,.. ) enlightened. But again, there arc
text par. whatever for s ii n 19 or 23 meaning 'bright'. - B. l\[a Jung says s ii n
(*.ti iLan) means 26 'great', evidently taking it to be a loan char. for 27 or 28 *18iw:m f
lljuln. t s ii n 'great' . For the rest he docs not explain the line. - C. PK'ung says
il n
19 - s ii 2!1, po.raphrn.sing 30. What PK' ung meant by this is obscure, and
Ying-ta. explains his s ii 29 = 31 and takes min g as ..,. 32, thus: The one
who can daily display and practise those virtues, morning and evening thinking of them,
the next morning practising them, will be n. dignitarY* This, of course, cannot be
reconciled with the brief Shu text, and more probably PK'ung meant: The one who
daily displays three virtues, morning and evening s ii ought to m i n g manifest them,
a.nd y u k i a he will (have a house = ) be a dignitary'' (Chu 'fsiin-shcng finds PK'ung's
gloBB 8 ii n = s ii so unintelligible, thnt he believes s ii 29 is n. corruption of 33 'great',
in accordance with n above). In any case, there is not the slightest text support for a
meaning s ii n 1!1 ,_ 29. - D. Ts'ai Ch'en: s ii n J!J =- 3.J 'to regulate'; (The one
who) can daily display three \'irtues, and morning and evening be regulating and
enlightened, will (ha\'C a. - ) be dignitary. But again, is. no text
whatever for s ii n mcamng 3.J 'to regulate'. - E. Couvrcur, whom Ius Shu translation
follows D above, in his Dictionnairo hn.s another interpr. : s ii n 19 = 'wise'; s ii n 19
fmquently means 'deep, to make deep' (Shi, Mcng etc.) and this I!J *Biw:m (falling tone)
ii then merely a variant of the common 35 (*Bfw;m falling tone) 'deep'. This word is
well attested in tho sense of 'deep-thinking, wise', c. g. Ode 304, phr. 36 Deep and wise
was Shang. When we here in our Shu phr. its variant s ii n 19 together with
m i n g 20 ' bright, enlightened' and referring to the great virtues of the prominent men,
it is obvious that the sense is 'deep, profound, wise': I(The one who) daily clilpJan three
(o! the Aid nine) rirtu811, and morning and evening is (deep ) wise &lld eullghtened, wiD (have a
Mule - ) be a dignitary
Lia ng t s ' a i y u p a n g sec Gl. 1281.
1108. Hi s h o u f u s hi 37.
A. Ma Jung: s hi 38 ('to apply') = 39 ' to usc' (sc. in go,emmcnt), thus: By briDging
illether and receiving (aoch men) and wide))' appl,U.g them (in the government). It would
seem that Pan Ku held the same opinion for, having quoted our preceding k i u t e
..:.:;;all, lrt fl t'f n PH ,:, 1 J: (i. li. ?r *' Jf ""' ,, ,-, :1r .,., ,1:, If i ,.,/f.
" .:.1 .. . , .. .1- ..I- ( "' ,;.
-r 'l\'!lw:r- ;i ,1': '-Ill 5 111
t :l A 'fl '{ It / j 1:1 'f!.. ::.. ffl. "L i1t 1T 1t t.rilhVll& ,lQ.J '' J
r ...,. 1f: u Ill)
! 1 S, tJ :i!1:J ilt2 .tl' :1l, d J.-..:1 {fl.. J1

13 H $(i . ..{ (f' ;/,_ n:<

4f k :11 11 'lt eJ) jj ,., lr.:ti 3( ;'{f t1 1st)!! v ik ,, If) 'tt ip . It
bien shi, tsiin ni tso.i kua.n h (H I
men arc distributed over the offices: _: s m: K? chuo.n): .JO the wise
(such men) (and letting them) widely apply (tl g. By brmgmg together and receiving
B, which supposes that s hi hns an unde t diC and the instructions). -
which is not expressed is far inferior . o Jlect &tdhclgo.vcmmcnt and instructions
.. . c stmp e an ogtcal A.
T s u n y t (at) t sa. i k u a. n 41
A. Ma. Jung and Cheng Hiian th h
is called t s u n ; tho one who t:cnt virtue 1000 men
out that the former is ba.eed on Huai: T'a.i tau th lied y t. :-"' B. Kumg points
texts. Sun Sing-yen soberly comments that t' .. e ho.vmg. no foundatton m early
eminent', and 42 is often a variant for 43 a. i .u:. tn the sense of 'great,
ind Han shu: Ku Yung chuan, our line is


aa aged (f. es. ezperieuced) ooea are in the ofti It . - us. e emment
'aged ones' arc wise men, suitable to dire t h IS a common that tho a i-
eThc music roosters and rand scribes an a.c others, c. g. Kyu: Chou yii, shang:
That Siintsi already und!ratood our . .J.J the aged ones elaborate it.
under Gl. 1305 below. IS sense IS revealed by a pnssagc quoted
1305 a. P o I i a. 0 s M.i s h i 45
b K'' ' W t n g s hi s hi s hi f c i t u 46 (Shu: Wei tsi)
c. 0 y u s h i s h i s i t u 8 -
A. Ma Jung on 46 sa.ys: s hi s hi _:_
m a. Tsi . ts'ai).
each other in doing irregular things* Thle dlgmtarJCs rcctprocally imitate
saying: s h i s h i = 49. Thus: All the offi . I .so. under 45 hns followed this,
PK'ung explains: I have s hi ma.sters 1 Cia. Imitate one another&. Under 47
different grammatical construction i t (follow) .. Thus he h11.8 a totally
unacceptable. Moreover it is to h (reCiprocal) a!ld m 47, which is quite
s hi could be construed ;;:e ow p o . o. o . s i 8 h i, the s h i
(K'ung Ying-ta. explains that s hi s h- . offJclll:ls .tmltatc one another'.
B. Siin-tsi seems already to have -k I 11S ?quo. u each Imitates his tcachcn). -
""' en s I I o.s a verb mcanin 'to tak 1
tmJtate, to follow' for (in Siin Ch" sh')
1 11
d g o a.s tcac 1er, to
aged and reliable 'can be as I I IC a. u to au; Shu line: 51 (those who are)
took our line 45 in connection allusl?.n, however, reveals that Siin
eminent and aged ones arc in . IC prcc mg: t s u n a i t s a i k u a n : The
imitate them a.s teachcrst. But all the (ma.gistros imita.nt = )
demand a different construction. - gems-. 18 18 ap,phcable to 46, which would
the following 52 into
0 53
. s
100 1
8.8 contracted the line 45 and
Sun Sing-yen tries to arc respectful and attentive. When
resort to desperate speculations s h correspond to tho Shu lines, he has to
and Si-ma must have believed .that 54 ( and sl u 55 (*sjok) were similar in soundl>,
mean 'good' and is rendered b k. s a. oan char. for s u 55; s hI 56 can
impossible, but it is difficult io nh s-careful, .attentive'. This, of course, is
careful'; did he take s hi 54 in the sense at his s u 55 'respectful,
In any, this meaning will not do in 'army-like, a.rrai,gned')l
a. great number', and Kuangya (Shi hiln) sa s
54 means a host,
probably having our Shu in view I I s t 58 :::.. 59 a crowd, numerous''
c. g. in Shi: t s i t s i to s .hi reml!lds .that such is
m all three examples: 45: II(The hlllldred mamtams that this IS the meaning
all the functiouaries are obsenaat of the "") all the olficlalll (are there) iD a hott.
hori are doiDc aulawfal thiDpa
. ::u:nll,

.JB: :The dignitaries aad oWcers iD a great

Muter ol the lllaltitude th ' . ave, s I s h t (hOIWke ) iD a great array, the
' e llaaler ol the Borsu etc. (various others). It would seem
that in 45 this suits the context badly, but tho idea. seems to be that when a.ll the
virtuous men nrc in the offices, the whole government is well equipped and rich in good
officials. - D alone is o.t the same time grammatically satisfactory and applicable to
all the three Shu cases.
1806. W u chi a. o y i y ii y u pang king king yo y c 61.
A. Si-ma. Ts'ien renders only the first 4 words (skipping the rest) and paraphrases
them 62: tDo not teach depraved and extravagant Sun Sing.ycn proposes that
Si-ma's text bad 63 'plan, counsel' instead of 64, a corruption due to the similarity of
tho characters - a plausible conjecture; that 63 is a corruption of 64 and not vice versa
follows from the context: 65 'relaxed (licentious, lazy) counsels' makes poor sense,
whereas y i y ii 66 is a natural combination. - B. Another school (a.p. Han shu:
Wang Kia. chuo.n) had tho text: 67, thus having a o 68 inst. of the k i a o 69 of the
orthodox text; the two char. arc very similar and easily confused. Yen Shi-ku carries
y u k u o ( = y u p o. n g of the orthodox text) to the first clause, interpreting: 69 b
tThose who possess state& (sc. the feudatories) should not be arrogant or lazy and full
of desire. But that y u k u o should be the subject of the clause placed at the end
having arrogance or laziness and desires (should be) the possessors of states*) is
grammatically very &trained. In the B text version, y u k u o ( = y u p a. n g) must
rather be an adverbial phrase: tThcy (the feudatories) should have no arrogance nor
laziness and desires in their statca. That there is no preposition before y u k u o is
no obstacle to this. - C. PK'ung, reading 61, likewise carries y u pang to the first
line and explains: 70 aNot to teach lazy enjoyments and covetous desires, is [the norm
of] tho8o who possess states. (sc. feudatories); grammatically entirely impoBBiblc. -
D. Ts'ai Ch'en punctuates in the same wa.y but takes the emperor& 11.8 understood
subject: You (the emperor) ahoald not (teach ... ) set an uample ol laziDIII or to the
ol states (ac. feudatories); thus y u pang is taken a.s object to the verb
k i a. o (Couvrcur: ne docca.s scgniticm ac libidincm qui tencnt rcgna. [regulos]t). - E.
Sun Sing. yen carries y u p o. n g to the second line (y u pang king king y e
y c): tThe feudatories should be awed, without giving his own opinion of the meaning
of tho first line; Yii Yiie, dividing in tho samo way, says k i a o 69 is equal to hi a. o
71 'to imitate, learn': They should not learn laziness and desires, but his reasons for this
arc quito insufficient. - P. Another ancient school (o.p. Hou Han shu: Ch'en Fan chuan)
reads y i y u 72 tlazincss and amusements inst. of y i y ii 66. - Firat there is the
question of the y u p a. n g ; it should certainly be carried to the first line. The
expression king king y c yo as a complete phrase is common (see Gl.ll99) and
is spoiled by tho addition of o. y u p a n g a.s a preceding subject; furthermore the whole
passage consists of a.ltcmating 6 and 4 syllables: w u k i a o y i y U y u p an g (6)
- k in g king y e y c (4) - y u j i c r j i wan k i (6) - w u k u a n g shu
k u a. n (4) - t' i c n kung jon k ' i to. i chi (6). In the second place, ycrsion
:B (a o 68) is tempting: but tho k i a o 69 is attested in so different sources a.s Sims.
-ttfl fi. i!: X. X. *- :A f' z f.di k .J: 111.. q .. T .tl iJ
r M JU fi.P :-!: 1!. j( iti .fl ! :t "-;;' <z -or .k .sz a .r.. 11111f a Je. A
Sl.IY f..'fi.snft Jl' o! :t.."" Jt </.
-1r ;)..q. ,:1 "'ilt.iJ",a t..#<:{A .&x n c 6l
fJtoi.. .:r. 'b, cit. l\ ..!,.,.f\. .t... fi 1:.1 r. -l " .... 9.r..i7il 'H -u ;. !3 ;t, /!,. 7v ;1.ijt
'l's'icn, tho PK'ung \"ersion, and that of Hou Han shu, which deviates on another point
from the PK'ung version, and it would thus be too bold to reject it. Thirdly Si-ma's
63 is in itself, but indirectly it testifies to the early existence of the reading
6.J, which recurs both in the Hun shu quotation and. in the PK'ung version; y ii 64 ia
therefore preferable to the y u 72 attested much later. The passage should thus read
61. Finnlly there is the question whether the Jines refer to the feudatories and officials
mentioned in the preceding paragraphs: They should. not (teach = ) give an example
of laziness and desires to the states they or, with D, they refer to the emperor:
You should not . .. >) etc. The latter seems preferable, for the whole possagc must
reasonabJy refer to the sovereign, since we find. two lines Jater: w u k ' u an g a h u
k u n n, which clcurly is an exhortation to the emperor.
K i n g k i n g y e y c sec Gl. ll 09.
1307. Y i j i e r j i wan k i 73.
A. In Han shu: Wnng Kin. chuan the reading is wan k i 74, k i meaning 'spring,
mainspring, mechanism', thus: In one day, in two days there are ten thousand (main.
springs, causes setting things in motion oc) causes of happenings. The iS of thl! orthodox
\'Crsion nee. to Kiang Sheng iH only o. short-form for this 76. - B. PK'ung, after
Shuowen, says k i 77 'small, minutiae', i. c. the first symptoms, the beginning: In
one day in two days there are ten thousand (minutiae ) first signs of happenings (i. e.
one must be on the alert for what is beginning to happen). 'l'his is based on Yi: Hi
t s ' i 78 'K i , that means a triJc of movement (the smallest symptom of movement),
the first visible signs of luck or misfortune&. Thu idea that a sage ruler should attend
to the first symptoms of cYents and so at nn early stugc direct them recurs pa.88im in
the early literature. Ts'ai Ch'en therefore rightly quotes Lao tsi: 79 You should plan
against difficultie8 whiJc they arc (still) easy, you should (do .o) handle the great while
it is (still) smulle. K'ung Ying-tn, on the other hand, misunderstood PK'ung's w c i and
failed to realize that it referred to this current idea of ancient thought; he believed that
w a n k i tun thmu!llnd minotiac (small things)>) referred to all tltc various small matters
which the ruler could not find time to handle himself, but must leave to his subordinates.
- C. Chang Ping-lin a dduces a gloss by Mao Heng in Ode 209 defining k i 75 ns = 80,
nnd he believes wan k i here means 81 n. myriad times (occasions). But that Mao
definition was refuted in Gl. 668. - B is superior to A since it falls in with the same
theme in other early phiJosophicul texts. Perhaps, however, the opposition between A
and B is more imaginary than real, in that k i 76 'spring' etymologically may mean
'the minute thing' which sets a greater complex in motion. Cf. in this connection an
ancient text Tao king 82, quoted by Siin (Kie pi) - Ju.tcr incorporated in the spurious
Shu chapter Ta YU mo - 83: tThe precariousness of man's heart, the (minuteness:)
subtlety of Tao's heart, the (smal1 beginning, minute primary .force, spring c; ) cause of
the precariousness and tho subtlety respectively, only an enlightened sage can under
stand it (observe the variant 75: 76). Cf. also Gl. 1320 below.
1308. T ' i e n s ii y u tJ c n, c h ' i w o w u t i c n w u t u n t s a i 8.J.
Ma. J ung inst. of y u t i c n reads w u t i e n, ns later in the line, but the parallels
in the following lines (sec below) show thut y u is the better reading. For the w u
tie n the five rules (of the family relations: father, mother, elder and younger brother,
son) see Gl . 1247.
A. The commentators find it difficult to construe the 85 tun (Erya o:= 86). PK'ung
paraphrases: Heaven arranges the existing rules (of family relations: father, mother, elder
and younger brother, son); 87 we should carefully regulate the teaching of our five norms
and cause its agreeing with the five to be ample, and amply apply (it) to the worldt(l)
PK'ung's line is somewhat obscure and certainly cannot be made to tally with the Shu
. to. therefore tries to ameliorate it: aHea\en arrangC3 t he rules
wxt;. K'ung
ruler) should carefully regulate the teachings of our hve rules
(of fami1Y ample>); word for word: (The ruler) sl.lOuld
and cause the
tl five (become) ample. As a construction tb1s 1s madmtsstblc.
ollt five rules, (so :a the orulcr as understood subject, but simplifies: We should
Ta'ai Ch'en docs no rc .cr 1 ( th t) the five (become) which is little better.
I our hvc ru cs, so a .

carefu y I ordinavit hubitas leges, conponamus nostras qumque cges,
(Couvreur. oCoc urn I ara hrosc which deviates badly from the Shu text). Ktang
.m..ebunt sane; Legge lnB a p tp t" B In order to discern tho const ruction wo
., tar clumsy cons rue 100. - d 88
Sbeng has a s!Jlll f r consecutive lines here (in the second, the orthodox text rca
to compare ou b th II !"1sm)
ave had 89, the la.tter correct, as shown Y e para e .
but M& .. y
t ,en c h i w 0 w u tic n, w u tun tan. 1 84;
T ' 1 c n 8
' 90
a. , . h -
1 i t 8 i w 0 w u I i, w u y u n g t s a 1 ,
b T 1 en c , . . 91
, i
n m i n g y u t c, w u f u w u c h n n g t s a 1 ,
c. T ' t sue i w u hi n g w u y u n g t s a I 9 .
d. T 'i n t 9:? ns :_ 9.J ' constant norm' by PK' ung, K'ung and
In 90, c a.r. . IS t xt ex in Mcng 6) but as - 95 ' to usc' by Klang Sheng
Ts'ai Ch'en (this after Elrya.: be. til m .. eanings but the latter is improbable, since it would
. tho char can Ia\ e
' 93 H H
(common . nt: f line 92 (for which there is the vtmnnt m ou an
d w1th the Y u n g ""
1 k 1 d t ym
comcl e T' I ) Tun 85 (*tttJn) means 'solid, t lie , amp e an IS c .
shu: of its functions'. We have it in Li: Nei tse 97 tHe .amply
piety and fraternity. Line b. tradit ionally has y u y u n g t s a 1, here
P ted nto w u y n n g t s a i, after thl' parnllc\R. .. . d _
correFrc r 'es e ami d it is easily seen tllat the phrases w u x arc coordn:'n.ted, an \\o
om m I c so in lines a and b ll!! well. We t hus obtam:
must conclude that t ;:y tin rules (of familJ relatious) we carefullY regulate our live rules and
a. aBeaTeD e)emth odes ol amPlJ them (five modes: one for tho
(their live amplifications - e Te m
b-Jbavior to the father, ;:th:: our !ive rites and their live coDJtant norms
b. Beaven regulates the .,.....,ng n
(one norm for of thcmto).th h have virtue (there are) liTe (degrees ot} garmeuts and their
c. Beaven gaves charges ote w o
who have guilt, (there are) live pUDilbments and their tive (usea ==) appli-
{one usc for each of the five) .
1809. T a i w o y u l i, w u y u n g t s a i 90. . .
'!.' th t 1 Gl 1308 There arc ,arious theories about the tflvc r1tea>t.
e rans. sec . . k" , (t t s i) 2. t he feudal
A. Cheng H
iian- tllCy nrc those pertammg to: 1. the mg 'c nf 4, tl ff"
. (k ' - r t a U) IC 0 ICCrS
lords (c h u h o u) 3. the ministers and dgmturlcs n g! .. I" ' I. . . I
' 1 ( 1 min) This is based on L1: K'u 1, w 1erc m se'icrn.

rituai terms for their whcs) these classes of society
nrc enumerated. Tho king's wife was styled f c i 98, tho feudal lord's f u j en 99,
the dignitary's (t a f u) j u j c n 100, tho officer's f u j c n 1, the commoner's t s ' i 2.
- B. PK'ung: they nrc the rites pertaining. to tho well-known 5 c!IUIScs of feudal lords:
kung, h o u, p o, ts i, nan (sec c. g. Li: Wang chi). - C. Wang Su: they arc those
pertaining to the 5 cl0811cs of nobility (with exclusion of the s h u m i n commoners):
the king, the three k u n g highest lords, the k ' i n g ministers, the t a f u dignitaries,
slt i the officers. This is based on Li: Wang chi (tThe son of Heaven has san kung
three lords (ministers) of tho highest rank, nine k' in g, twenty seven t a f u, eighty
one s hi). - D. Kiang Sheng objects to A above that Li: K'ii li says that rites
do not go down to the common peoplco, and hence s h u m i n cannot be intended
under one of the 5 rites; the commoners followed the ceremonies of the s h i and did not
form a ritual category of their own. On the other band the 5 kinds of feudo.llords formed,
from a ritual point of view, 3 clo.sscs o.a expounded in Chou li: Tien ming: k u n g who
had 9 emblems, h o u and p o who had 7 emblems, t s i and nan who had 5 emblems
(cf. Gl. 1205). Our five ritcso thus pertained to: 1. kung; 2 h o u and p o; 3 t s i and
nan; 4. k 'in g and t a f u; 5 s hi. - E. Yi.i Yiie points ont that there is another
division of the 5 classes of feudal lords into 2 ritual categories. Tao: Hi 29 says: 1 i
according to the rites, a k ' i n g (minister) docs not hold a meeting with a k u n g or a
h o u, he may hold a inccting with a p o, n. t s i or a n ant. This division in two ritual
rank classes is indeed the earliest text we have on this subject. Hence nee. to Yu Yiie tho
!i rites were those pertaining to: I. the king; 2. the k u n g and l1 o u princes; 3. the p o,
t s i and n a n princes; 4. k ' i n g miniatcm and t n. f u dignitaries; 6 s h i officers
and a h u min commoners. - It must be conceded that Yii Yuc (E) ho.a penetrated
the problem most thoroughly.
1310. T ' i en t a ' u n g m i n g, t s i w o m i n t s ' u n g m i n g, t ' i c n m in g
w e i t s 1 w o m i n m i n g w c i 4.
l<'or w c i 5, l\ta Jung's and Cheng Hi.ian's version had 6 - the two words arc
ctym. identical (both *iu:.Jr).
A. Cheng Hiian (ap. the 1"nng comm. [Cheng yi] in Ode 260) says: 7 &(the question)
whom Heaven considers intelligent and virtuous, (follows depends on) the peoJJlc. This
means that both t s ' u n g m i n g and m i n g wei above arc taken as transitive
verbs: tWhen Heaven considers (someone) intelligent (properly: ,.hearing and seeing),
it follows our people's considering (him) intelligent, when Heaven brightly overawes
(somebody), it follows our people's brightly overawing (him)l (i. c. revolting against him).
This wo.a followed by Kiang Sheng. - B. PK'ung: llleaven's bearing and seeing (proceeds
lrom = } works through our people's hearing and seeing; Heaven' (enlightenment } discernment
and (leanomenesa ==) severity workl through our people' diacerment and severitJ (ec. agalnat
bad rulers}. The first line is conclusively corroborated by Mcng: Wan Chang, shang,
quoting the now lost Shu chapter T'ai shi: 8 When Heaven sees, through our people
it sees, when Heaven hears, through our people it hearst. The second line is con
firmed by a. par. in Shu: Lu hing, IK.'e below. - C. 1's'ni Ch'cn, while accepting B for
the first line, explains the second differently, finding an antithesis, not a. coordination
between min g nnd w c i: min g means 9 'to make bright' in tho sense of 'to make
illustrious, to honour', wei being the opposite: 'to overawe, to terrify', thus: Heaven 's
honouring (sc. the good) or overawing (sc. the wicked). Sun Sing-yen supports this,
saying that min g and wei refer to 10 rewarding and 11 punishing respectively,
and quoting, for m i n g = h i e n, Kyi.i: Chou yu 12 'to esteem the prominent nnd
(make bright - ) honour the wisct. }i'or the antithesis of min g and w c i (o.s against
A and B above) he refers to our Lii hing ex. below, in which he follows intcrpr. A there.
- It is obvious, that just o.a in the first line t s 'u n g min g arc two very analogous
.. u t d tile cncond line m i 11 g W c i should bo llntllogous and
. coor mn c , so In . "'" 1 W .
d "tl . t. llr B which is well supported by Shu parnllc s. - c
rdmntc ' WI I m cr . ' . . . . 13
Lii bing: 'fc wei wei wet mng .
L.. Piao ki and 1\lo: Shnng luen quote a. . d
For ,
( L.
ao ki) his ,irtue he o\crawcd (the Wicke
Cl ng Huan ap. comm. on . . d ( I ood
A te b d ' y II.IB v'lrtuc he (mnde bright honourc t le g
d they ccnme overawe , u d d
ones an b I d 'Tit"ls is the same ideo. of s h a n g f a rcwar s an
d they ccame wnoure >.
f t
an . C above but it is very far. fetched to take m .in .S m t .IC sense o o
punlsments ns m ' I ' B 'fs'ui Ch'en takes m i n g m Its ordmury sense of
. r "sh to honour Jere. - b . d
diS mr-u; t 'n enlightened' nBy his virtue he overawed (them) and they m
'to en lg I. c l r l d (them) and they became enlightened. Tlus IS ccrtnm y
by his nrtue IC en ht be' further simplified: T c w c i is a finite
mbuchl but means '(hi!!) =,J
Y d f rms a contrast. to a. corrcspondmg phmse m un e1tr 1er me ..
smcc It lo , t - the Miuo prince exercising a n ii c w c i otyrnnmcuJ
.. w c 1 &tyranmcll se\ers y . \"
bt . His
n u e Sl . d .. t c wei virtuous scvertty. ,yc t IUS o am. '
ity whereas mn prac .. Jsc ..
SC\Cr ' .... Ad lbem .. ,_ virtuou enlightenment enlightened them.
virtuous aeven ., overa : ""'
11 'f y ii s h o. n g h 1 o. Ja. 1 1 )
1 . . 'a ,. It sc the distinguishing of good and bad by Heaven through tIC pcop c
A.l (those in high positions) and those below (the c?mmoncrs)t. -1
rene ICS o I f t t' .I e n Heo.\en h i u refers to m I n the pcop e:
'f Ch'cn s 1 an g re crs o B h
B. s n.l . . ation - ) correspondence between the upper and the lower (world) . ot
T.bere si.lg-yen have accepted this, lmd it forms a logical up
Klnllg JCng. . I . further confirmed by a similar usc of 8 h n. n g hI a m the
of prcccfdltlllg hynes. tletlli.B 16 He reached to (Heaven) tlbovc and (Eitrth) below, sco
bcgmmng o 10 ao
Gl. 1:!09. . Gl 1""'"
N a i y e n c h i k o t s 1 sec . -<>- . .
y u w e i u c h i 8 i y u c t s a n t s a n s 1 a n g t s a 1 17.
1312. 'I' ,. Yk. , 1 c 18 evidently taking it as a particle, nnd paraphrases: 19;
A Si. mn. s sen t1 1ps Y 1 d 1 t

"0 I th brtcfer wu.y o \\'rltlng u. o -
t a o - IS mere Y c , . , .
, f ' to uidc ( ns a ceremony mal!tcr
22 is very common meaning to ct. IIC ut;CJIYBl Ncishi [assisted == ] guided
t d s a guest etc c . yn. 10 -
nssls s I. c. c . ., 9'1 - ''0) Since Si mtt lms tukcn t a a n t t! u. n
himn, on wluch 1 W Cl tChno: tt s n ,-to- und guide' he evidently considered
. n g as cqua to sa n no - ' . f .
: n g U as practically synonymous with t so. n, such t:
'.!J is not attested uy text pnrnllcls. - B. c.hcn Hldlllll .carncs - 1}7 'to raise'
an 1J1) - ''G 'to nmke br1ght , an s n g
hnc, and f 18 .., ;- ) ha\' c no knowledge or thought, I (make
(he s1tys no ung o . r t ( 1 Jty)* Sun
bright = ) glorify (the emperor's virtue) and (raise mu.m cs my t o.r; ('to. mnkc
Sing.yen believes thn.t Cheng by his m in g 26, glossmg t s u. n, mean -
lll z, :r l
,lj,\ o 1t Lt !VI A r !& t!:.. 1 A..<... fil li/1 1V} thh t\. t. ' cl .f'.< Et M.(J -1!;
110: \"!tr :l "':
j;t <t' "" fL"t t. H1 .:t- j1l. I1JI 1{i. j.;.)iX. -'S .:!. -f j. .C -f J:
1 ,.K /0 14 II. 'rl i 1:!, -.,. Llfl }:l Jo 1
1- /1 i' *-. ff ;:a \!7 'trJ 11. \!1 I'J; -iT 5(a, tt-..le .to Jl. Zl tt- .:J Jt Z
----------- -----------------------------
o.n effort' = 'to nssist'), but that is wrong. It is bo.scd on Yi: Shuo kuo. 29 tHe (mya.
teriously = ) with deep wisdom brought light on the divino on which Han
K'ang-po (Eastern Tsin time, probably bnsing himl!Clf on some now lost gloss o Cheng
Hiian's) sn.ys t san 22 = 26; yet this interpretation of tho Yi text is contested and
uncertain. As to sin. n g, it is well attested in the sense o 'to rise', and could hence
be construed to mean 'to rnisc, to manifest'. But the whole of the B interpr. is ex.
cccdingly forced n.nd llcholnstic. - C. PK'ung and Wang Su divide the lines in the same
way as B, but take t san t s n n as - t san t sou 30 'to report' (evidently taking
t san as ""' min g 26 in the sense of 'to make clear, to explain') and siang ' to
raise' in the sense of 'to quote': I have no knowledge or thought; I report (about ancient
deeds) and (raise = ) quote thcrm. K'ung Ying-ta insists that the y \i c 18 should have
its sense of 31 'to spenk': Y ii c what 1 have snid t san t san reports nnd siang
quotcS>I. All this is even worse than B. - D. Ts'ai Ch'cn carries s I to the second line
ami alters y ii c 18 into the similar j i 32; he takes sian g 2-1 in the well-attested
sense of 'to achieve' (Tso: 'fing 15, phr. 33 o'l'hey could not achie\e the affair>>, on which
'l'u Yii: sin. n g U = J:J). Thus: I have no lmowledge. I (think = ) wilh daily to IIIIJt
in achieving (the government) Ma Jung hnd already defined siang 2.J as """ l!f . This
is rather obscure, but possibly by y i n he meant 'to continue, to follow up, bring to a.
successful end', whichiS essentially the same ideo. ns this J.J 'to achieve'. - Dis certainly
most naturnl and rcnsonublc. Sun Sing-yen, however, does not accept Ts'ai's emendation
of y ii c 18 into j i 32; he &LJS that y ii 0 being a common pnrticle (see Gl. 791) 81
y ii e Jli ill wrong for y ii c s i 37. Ts'ni's emendation, however, is con-
clusively confirmed by the very next Jinc, where we find: 38 >>I (think = ) wish daily to
be energetic. (When Sun says that s i 25 here is a particle - o.s it often is, sec Gl.
700 - he i11 certainly witle of the mark).
In the orthodox version the chapter Yi 'l'si starts here, but in reality it is only the
IICComl part of the original Kn.o Yno mo.
1313. H i n. m i n h u n t i c n 3.9.
A. Si-mtt 'J's'icn J>n.rn.]Jhrnscs 40; Chavanncs translates this f u y ii s h u o i by
'acc1lblc par I'cau' (properly: subdued, vanquished by the water), but, ns Sun Sing-yen
pointa out, f u .J1 is probnhly only a loan char. for the homophonous :12 (both *b'iul:).
Thus: >>The lower people all fell down into the wa.tcre (f u 42 meaning 'to fall down
prostmte', und t i c n .J3 meaning 'to throw down, zn stiirzen', text ex. in Chuang: Wai
wu). It seems probable that version hns never hnd h u n .J.J but the graphically
similar k i c .J5 'nil' . - B. Cheng Hunn: hun .J.J """ 46 'to sink (sc. in water)', t hus
prncticnlly synon. with tho following tie n. In order to confirm this Kiang Sheng says:
47 11\Vhen the sun goes down, it is called hun 44, hence hun can have a meaning
'to go down (be submerged)'. But of course the word.stem hun (*xmw.m) has no
such sense, it mcnns fundumcntnlly 'dark'. - 0. PK'ung therefore takes hun in a.
sense derived from the fundamental 'dark', saying hun = 48 ' blinded, troubled
eyesight, deluded': The )ower yx.-oplc were (darkened, blinded = ) confused and thrown
down (in tho. water). This extended meaning 'obscured, deluded, confused' of h un
'dark' is quite common, but it suits the context here badly. - D. Sun Sing-yen: h un
44 (xmw.m) is a variant for .J9 'to ruin, destroy' (ex. in Shi): tThe )ower people
were destroyed and thrown dowm. - E. It seems better, with Chu Tsiin-sheng, to take
h u n .J.J in the sense it has in tl1e expression y n o h u n 50 'to die a. premature death'
.(Tso. Chao 19), in which sense it also occurs the enlarged char. 51 (one reading
xmw;m, )ike .J.J) 'to die', c. g. Lii: Lun wei 52 the place o dcllth (eomm.: 51 = 53
'breath cut off'). Thus: aThe lower people an killed and (thrown down =-) submergech. -
. tempting to evade the difficult hun by accepting Si-ma's k i e 45 (A), but
ia hardly allowable, since Si ma after all often makes very free with the text in
paraphrases. D therefore seems preferable.
biau. suo i shan k 'an m u 54.
ll Si-ma Ts'ien in Hia pen ki has the variant 55 for k ' a n (both *k'an, even tone),
takes it to mean 'to cut' in the sense of 'to cut notches' (marks) in the tree
an DIS, is revealed by his paraphrase 56 'to mark trees' -:- thus
. di te the road. Hii in Shuowen has followed tlus, and m recent tames Kaang
to tn ca K' y ta d T ' . Ch' k '
(cf. Chavannes MH I, p. 100). - B. ung mg- an sat en: an m u
'!:,oWl! the tteea. Cf. 1'so: Siang 25, phr. 57 ))They filled in the wells and cut down
the treeSt. - The Tao ex. shows that k ' a n m u was the term for felling trees, which
Oonfirtns B.
1115. a. K i Y i t s o u s h u s i e n s h i 58;
b. K i 1' s i p o t sou shu k i en s h i sic n s hi m o u t s 'i c n y u
wu 59. k" 61 ' . ' ( h f d
A. Si-ma 1's'icn paraphrases a. thus: 60, thus ta ang t sou = to g1vc t c un a-
tal sense being ' to bring forward') nnd shu ns -= 'the multitudes', and adding a
62 'rice' that i8 the Shu text., Since Ma Jung s i en, 63 7.. 6.J 'rnw' and
en is very common m .the sense of fresh meat or f1sh (c. g. 1 so: Sunn 12, there
unambiguous), P'ci Yin believes that Si-ma meant: Together with Yi I gmc to
he multitudes rice and the Shu line n.. woul? m_enn the
minus Si-ma's addition tao 'r1ce'. But 1t as very awkward that m !me h. St-ma,
punctuating after k ie n-s hi, renders the same s_i n s hi hy 'rurity offood':
with Tsi I sowed and gave to the multitudes (d1ff1cult food - ) food thnt was d1fftcult
to get.); when there was (rare food - ) scarcity of food I exchanged what had for
what t hey had nob ( cf. Siang 2 i c n s h i took ( food = ] h_ttlc foode ).
Bun Sing-yen tries desperately to vmdiCatc that S1-ma m both hncs took s 1 c n us =
'rare' (not _ 'fresh'). 'l' a o 'rice' being 'mrc' in Northern ('hinn, Si-ma would hn\'e
meant by his first line: >Together with Yi I gave to the multitudes rice, the mrc food>,
and in the second: When there was (rllre food ,... ) scarcity of food This is ingenious
but very spcculntivc. - B. Cheng in a. tnkes c hung 66 as an nttrihutc to
i en s hi: Together with Yi I gLLvc (the people) shu all the s i e n s h i frcsh-
(-meat) foodtn (sc. of the waters: fishes and turtles). In line b. he (like Si-ma
above) after k i c n s hi and parnphra.'les very freely: Together wath l s1 I taught tho
people to cultivate in the swamps vegetables (that were) I< i c n s hi the foods (used)
in straits. (sc. inferior to grain, but passable in years of fnminc). The Shu line b. would
thon be: Together with Tl!i I sowed and (brought forward = ) ga,c (to the people)
a h u all the k i c n s h i foods (used in) His interpunctntion here, howcYcr,
entails that he hns to s i c n s hi in a. as = 'frcsh(-ment) foodsi, but in b. a.'l -
'scarcity of food'. - C. ?tlu Jung in line b. inst. of k i en s hi 67 has k c n s hi 68,
explaining this o.s = 'stalk foods', i. c. grain, which shows tlmt he took the following
11 i en s h i us belonging to the first line and balancing k e n s h i Together with Tsi
i: .zr t f 1111 u tt tM tf ;/.'>fi' tV} :P :1::. :JI t 'll a " r- ... I .:: ii e 3 !X. z:
1!1 :II' .!f. 1; o 11 1 a 1-\. J-1 r- K f4 1- K Jilt w fr
tf eA."' 0.!Lhf<J.?f:::...s:rJ(J: k..* J7
f1.>J;. J1 {!, it'f It tf$,.<; ((}
I and _gave to multitudes (stalk foods = ) grain and fresh(meat) foods. (Yii
Yue tr1es to mprove th1s by supposing that k i en 69, in ita old variant 70, stood for
71 = 72 as opposed to s i e n a h i, an arbitrary speculation). This is quite tempting
but, Sim'_l- the text (long before Mo. Jung) had really k i c n 69. - n:
PK un?: m hne k 1 e a h i refers to tho places thn.t were difficult to cultivate, and
shu IS an nttr .. butc B above), thus: a. with Yi I gave (the people)
s h u nil the s 1 e s h 1 fresh(.meat) foods.; b. with Tsi I sowed and gave
(the people) all k 1 en s hi tho food grown in difficult places, and the s i
frcsh(-mcat) foods .. - E. Ts'ai Ch'en follows Si-ma as to shu, but in line b. ho
punctuates after s 1 en s hi: a. Together with Yi I gave to the multitudes the fresh(-meat)
b. with 'hi I sowed and rave to the the hard-gotten foods (so.
culhvated _IITILlll) and the lresh(-meat) - F. Sheng takes t sou 61 (defined
as = 73 m _the as ....., _tto brmg forward with the following 8 h u construed
not 118 a dat1ve but as a d1rect obJect, thus a: with Yi I brought the multitudes
forward frcsh(-mcat) foods>, i. c. (in Legge's formulation): Along with Yi I showed
multitudes how to get. flesh to cab. This is certainly no improvmcnt on the earliest
mterpr. (ts o u = ' to brmg forward' oc. 'to give' ). - It is quito obvious that sic n
s h i _must be translatQd in the same way in both lines; and since it cannot mean
of food' in line a., this interpr. will not (with A) do in line b. either. Thua
81 en s i must mean 'fresh(-mcat) food' in both places, and this entails that (with
C:-E) st n 8 hi in b. must be carried to the first line. It might seem strange that
B I e n 8 h 1 should be thus repeated, nnd it is tempting to believe that in line b. it is
an erroneous addition (the words carried over thcro from line o..) and should be eliminated
hut we dare not make this text alteration since all the ancient text versions have it
both As to k i en s !1 i tho E explanation: -the hard-gotten foods& (the cultiv-
gram) as opposed to 81 on s hi 'the fresh(-meat) foods' (immediately obtained
m the and lakes). seems most simple and convincing. The ideo. thus seems to bo
thnt Yu, o.ss1stcd by Y1, cut down woods in tho hills - and there got meat for the
and he, nssisted. by Tsi, irrigated the lowlands - and there got both
(cultivated) grnm nnd meat (m the swamps) and fishes (in the waters) for the people.
1316. l\[ o u t s' i en y u w u h u a k ii 74.
A. Si-mn. Ts'ien paraphrases: 15. Chavanncs takes Si-ma's last two words s i k u
corresponding to tho 7fJ h u a k ii of the text, to mean: ol removed their domiciles;
(h u a 'to here then - 'to exchange' - moving people from poor
to But, as Kmng Sheng and Sun Sing-yen point out, this was hardly Si-rna's
1dea. T, I a_o 77 _normally means 'to adjust, to dispose', here then 'to barter, to
cxchRng?. L1 Shan m comm. on Wsiian quotes our Shu lino 78, having 79 (*mluu f m;?U 1
rn o u) mat. of the 80 (*1m1g / m o u), of the orthodox text (from certain Sung
and quotations it seem that Shang shu ta chuan already had that reading),
and S1-rna s t 1 a o 77 clearly reveals that his Shu text had 79 and not 80.
On .. hand, k 81 is well attested in a sense of ('to station' - ) 'to hoard', e. g.
8, phr. hoards And h u s. 83 regularly occurs on Chou
coms w1th tho legend 84, which is equal to 85 Legal (valuables = ) currency of
T8 (that h u n 83 here is merely a short-form for h u o 86 is proved by Inter coins'
the h u o t s 'ii an 87). Thus h u a (h u o) k ii is a binomc meaning
. hoard , 1 .. c. hoard of goods. That Si-mo. really understood h u a k ii = h u
k ii
sense m1ght be suggested by a parallel in his chapter Lii Pu-wci chuan: 88 This
fmc ware worth being hoarded* Now Kiang and Sun believe that Si-ma by his
t 1ao 77 rendered the m o u of the Shu text and by his s i 89 the t s 'i en 90 of
the Shu, thus arraigning the two verbs side by side and letting the objects follow after,

the line rn o u t s 'i en y u w u h u a (h u o) k ii being equal to m o u y u w u,
i 0 n h u a ( h u o) k ii .I exchanged - and transferred - the existing and the
non-existing - the hoarded goods>>, the 3rd phr. referring to the 1st verb and the 4th
to the 2nd verb. If this Wl18 really Si-rna's meaning, he violated the Shu text strongly.
_ B. PK'ung takes m o u 80 in its common and well-attested sense of 91 'energetic,
to mnkc an effort, to stimulate', and h u a 83 'to transform' in the sense of 92 'to
change, to exchange', thus: I stimulated (the people) to t s ' i c n transfer y u. !he
existing to the w u non-existing, and to h u a exchange k i.i the hoards, expl!Lmmg
that fish and salt were brought to the mountainous regions, and wood to the regions
of rivers and swamps. Ts'ai Ch'en followed this (Couvrcur: Impuli ut transferrcnt habitn.
et non habcntes, commutnrent reposita). The Han shu (Shi huo chi) had the short-form
93 and (Sii chuan) the loan char. 9.J (just as 9.J is loan for 80 'to stimulate' in Tao:
Chao 8 etc.). - It must bo conceded that version A, with the two very analogous words
m o u 79 'to barter, to exchange' and t s ' i e n 90 ' to transfer' is far more plausible
than text B. M: o u t s ' i c n is practically a binomc (the 80 of the B text is then a
Joan char: mug for *mlug). But the expln.nation of y u w u is grammatically faulty
in all the intcrpr. above. We must take y u w u 118 attributes to the following h u o
k ii : l ( bartered cs ) ezchallged and transferred those who had and those who had not any
hoards of (wares ) stores, (bringing those wealthy in stores to poor regions nnd those
1100r in stores to rich regions).
C h c n g min n a i li sec Gl. 1087.
1317. Wan pang t so y i 95.
A. Si-rno. Ts'ien pnraphrases: 96 All the states hnvc become (regulated = ) well-
{to\crncd>. T so 97 (rendered by w c i 98) should not too much. The
states (have made govemiDg = ) have become weU-ordered, IB qu1tc anRiop;ous to Ode 23u,
phr. !J9 the states will (make confidence = ) have confidence, sec Gl. 769. - B.
('hcng Hiian rends 99a ( - 100) o. i ...... 1 ' to nourish' (after Erya), interpreting: -The
myriad states t s o a. i (make nourishing =-) perform (the rites of mutual)
This is very strained, and the sense of 'to nourish' for a i is not attested by safe text
ex:. , sec Gl. 12!5. - C. PK'ung, in the main following A, tries to give some particular
force to t s o, interpreting: All the states made (this) (the bl18is of) government&, which
is not reconcilable with the Shu text. - D. Ts'ai Ch'cn takes t so 97 in its well-attested
meaning of 'to rise' '""" ' to stnrt', and takes y i 99a as a tro.nsithc verb: tAll the states
rise and y i (regulate """ ) order their workst. - E. Wang Yin-chi takes L 8 o 97 as =
c h a 2, which he defines as = 3 Tho myriad states now first became wcll-orderedw.
But this meaning of c h a is modern; in early texts it means 'suddenly'. - No reason
to abandon A.
1318. S h i j u c h ' a. n g y c n 4.
A. Ts'icn curiously renders this by 5 This is your beautiful (6 = 7).
Tuan Yii ts'ai believes that s hi 8 stands for 9, and Kiang Sheng thinks 8 is an erroneous
char. introduced because of sound similarity, which is impossible (8 9 Bieg). Prob-
ably Si-rna has simply skipped s hi (he often simplifies by an abbreviation) and renders
t"/ ./: .4;} I'Jrj (f a-\f1-?.._ "- 01 i._ .r:1..M;_iJI ?-_ 7J J! -,;,. 'J.'::f 'Ji
{ (..,% ?t !@ IT r.. ':?._1U w 1t:..Ai n tiJ1 11 <fill <. l'f). l't Iff l!f tJ t;

1 t1{f. ,. ! if 1t- 1- ft_.;(. x 1 -t. ..c :s ri;fi ;* e 1 .J: M X: 1!:
j u c h ' an g yen by his .5. - B. PK'ung: s hi 8 "" 10 (common): We ahall (\aq
as master ) take as norm your aplendid wordu.
1319. A n j u c h i 11.
A. Cheng Hiinn: Be quiet iD (your atoppiDg-place ) the p01ition which :rou occup:r (sc. on
the throne), and he further explains: do not recklessly move (act), if you move,
you disturb the J>eopleo. - B. PK'ung takes c hi to refer to moral things: your
rest in (that in which you stop = ) your (moral) platform. This meaning of chi ia
well attested, c. g. Li: Ta htie: 13 1'o rest in the highest goodness; ibid. U Being a ruler,
he rested in - C. Chu.vannes translates: Vou!l obticndrcz le calme en l!tant
parvenu au but, which is wide of the mark. - A refers to the constantly recurring
theme of the w u wei on the throne of the good ruler, and it balances
the w c i tung p 'e i yin g a few lines later: df you (move) act (sc. through yout
1198istants) there will be a grand That chi 12 your stopping-place$ means your
(high) position> Kc. the throne is further confirmed by the context; it follows up the
preceding s h c n n a i t s a i w c i ,nc careful about your being in the high poaitiotu.
1320. W c i k i w c i k' an g 15.
A. PK'ung paraphrases: 16 tThink of the minutiae (first symptoms of coming hap.
pcnings) and so prcwerve the peace. Thus the Shu line: >Think of the minutiae, (then)
there will be pence. This really means that PK'ung took the first w c i 17 as the verb
'to think' , but the second w c i as a particle, which is pnacccpto.ble. Moreover the
w c i as introducing a line recurs immediately. below: w c i t u n g p ' e i y i n g 18,
and there it. cannot possibly mean 'to think'. - B. Kiang Sheng and Sun Sing-yen in
the same way take the first w c i 17 = 19 'to think of', but since Eryn says k i 20 =
21 'danger' and Shuowen says k i "'"' 22 'there is danger of', they interpret: Think of
the dangcr(s) (so as to l>avc) pcacet. Cf. Tao: Siian 12, phr. 23 I made my gain from
the perils or others. - C. 'l's'ai Ch'cn realizes that the two wei 17 must mean t he
sumc. Ho takes them both as verbs, and k i (with PK'ung) as 'small, minutiae' :
Think of the small beginnings (of happenings), think of the pence (Legge: t o-
the springs of things, study stabilityt). For k i 'first symptoms', of important hap.
pcnings (hence ul11o 'spring', the small motive force of a greater cGmplex), as we had it
in 24, sec Gl. 1:107 above. - D. Tho construction of the line has to be judged in t he
light of the parallelism with the following; there are four lines, which correspond two and
A n j u c h i - w c i k i w e i k ' a. n g,
K ' i p i t e - w c i t u n g p ' c i y i n g.
Since the last obviously must mean: If you (move = ) act, there will be a grand rcsponset,
our line wei k i wei k 'an g should be construed in an analogous way. In fact, the
first two lines describe the ruler in moo-action (w u we i); himself only direct s the
course of events by attending to k i >the minutiae, the first symptoms, without notice-
able active interference; the following two lines describe how the ruler works through
ministers: through them he really tung (moves - ) acts, and all tho realm readily
responds. We thus obtain: Be quiet in tbe position you occupy - il JOil (are minute )
attend to the amalleat beginnings. you will have peace; Jour llllistantl ahould be virtuoUI - if
you (move ) act (tbrouab them), there will be a grand respo111u. It should be added that
the PK'ung text rend k ' i p i chi 25 1188istants should be straight (upright),
but Si-ma. renders it 26, which reveals that the oldest text version probably had 27( - 28),
of which 29 is merely a short-form. - We should study here:
Shu: Kno Y ao mo (further below): W c i 8 h i w e i k i 30 (following upon: tin
rightly disposing the mandate of Heavem), sec Gl. 1348.
A. Si-ma 'l's'ien (Yiic shu) renders this: 31, which - whatever it may mean (tTh0811
..-. signs of happenings will be tranquilt1 or, with Sun Sing.yen: Those perils will be
ui)Iizcdtl} - certainly cannot be brought into accord with the Shu text. Evidently,
:-nqver Si-ma took s hi 32 to be the demonstrative ""' 33 (common). - B. PK'
;;;. the (proper) tbnea. there are the (minutiae - > lint I)"Dlptoma of happeDiDgu {to
adeG4 to). - c. T8'ai Ch'cn: tit is s hi 32 constantly and k i in all first symptoms
that one must be careful)$. - D. Chang Ping-lin says k i 20 ..., 34 'time', which waa
in Gl. 1307. above. - :B leaves less o.nd to be supplied than C.
liJO&. H i c h i y 1 c h a o s h o u S h a n g t 1 35. , , .
.&. Si-ma Ts'icn paraphrases: 36. Some scholars take Stma s first two words: t a 1 n g

belonging to the preceding line wei tung p' c i yin g 18, e. g. Chavannes:
fl !'empire rcpondra univcrsellcment B. votrc pensce pure&. But it is quite evident
{" "ih Sun Sing.yen) that carried h i c hi 37 to the following line, for he renders
;; 38 by t a i 39 'to wait for' (text ex. in Shu: T' shi), and he transfers to. i from
the opening phrase and lets it replace the s h o u 'to receive' of the Shu text: With a
pure mind they will brightly wait for the orders of God on Hight. By this splitting up
of hi e hi and adding a notion t s ' i n g 'pure' that is not in the Shu text, Si-ma
deviates too badly from the latter. And if we restore the order and translate h i c h i
an adverbial phrase to the following s h o u: With a (waiting = ) expectant mind
they will brightly receive (tho will of) God on Higho, this will be rather nonsensical in
the context. - B. PK'ung places It i c h i 37 in a logical connection with the preceding
line: (if you act, there will. be o. grand they will wait fo_: your will, and .you
will brightly receive (the gtfts of) God on H1gh. - C. Whereas S1-ma (A above) fdled
out 8 h o u S h an g t i into 'S h u. n g t i m i n g' the orders of God on and
PK'ung into gifts (recompense) of God on Higho (40), 'l's'ai Ch'cn rightly rejects this
and considers s h o u Shang t i as cqua.J to s h o u y ti Shang t i 41, which
certainly docs better justice to the Shu text. Thus: (There will be a grand response),
tbef will wait for your will, and so it will be manileat that you have received {your maudate)
Goci on mgh. - Cis most logical and in agreement with the traditional philosophy;
th11 lines here nrc in fact a condensed programmatic declaration of the fundamental theory
o{ kingship: the king himself is inactive (an j u c h i) but for his attention to incipient
aymptoms, by directing which he can remain at peace (wei k i w o i k 'an g); be
intercedes actively only through his good ministers (k , i p i t e), and then the whole
people responds (we i tun g p 'e i y in g), they wait for his will (h i chi); and the
people's willing acceptance of his rule is the proof that he has the mandate of God (y i
o b a o s h o u Shang t i).
1821. J i y u e 15 i n g c h ' c n 8 h a n 1 u n g h u a c h ' u n g t s o h u c i t s u n g
y i t sa.o huo fen mi fu fuh ch'i 8iu yi wu t8'ai chang shi yii
w u s a t s o f u 42.
This long p1188age, following upon: tl want to sec the siang 43 symbols (emblems)
of the a.ncient mem, has given rise to all kinds of speculations.
;;ii 1. >-t 1 Jllba;E. 11. !/i ;(( .JI:. It .U:.. I J AM .rt....& .JL.
n IIi:. J:J.!."' a!. 411:t tt.;f. .tJj.J A. z.J( a - 1:1 ;. a !f. it
tt j{i C;>;.ci! u/1! StJ id. 11-}hl.f.{ f/ f,t#. ,t_f.t j; .lt ll:f 1J 3v.IQI -t. Sf:
{ J: X ;f. :! I:{ ll!J{<f J:. $ :17 .J;. -/o A .Z. flti.rt . .,.; Q: 1" J:. :f; IJ il
-%"i{ !j ;!k. ><.. :r :.. e rt. .,..,. <-r. ff
A. The oldest text which undoubtedly alludes to it is K'no kung ki (Chouli): Hun huei.
The task of the h u a h u e i 44 'painter' is to combine the 5 colours; east is 45. blue
(green), south is 46 west ia 47 white, north is 48 black, Heaven is 49 dark, Earth is
50 yellow (these arc mdced 6 colours, but only 5 of them come into play in tho following
sc.heme; the of .Heaven being left out, is is therefore said '5 colours'); (a.
comlu?atwn of) blue .and red IS w c n 51, of red and white is called c h a n g 52,
of wlute and black 1s called f u 53, of black and blue is called f u h 54 when all
5 colours .arc compl.ete, it is called s i u ti5; 56 is (represented) by ;ellow, its
symbol s 1 an g 43 1s square; Heaven changes (sc. in its representation) with the seasons
fire 57 .is (represented) by a circle 58, mountain 59 by a e h an g 52 (meaning of
much d1scussed}, water 60 by a dragon 61; (and there arc) birds, bcn.sts and snakes 62 . .
In this passage we recognize various of the siang 'symbols' in our Shu line, namely
s h n. n l.u n g 'dragon' , h.u.o 'fire' and possibly h u a c h u n g 'the
flowery ammn.l , If thlll corresponds to b1rds, beasts and snakes' further f u 'white
and black' f u h 'bluc.k and blue (pattern)'; (for practicn.l purposes I distinguish
the two words by d1ffcrent spelhng f u and f u h); and s i u '(pattern in) five colours'.
On the other hand, the Chouli passage docs not exhaust the list of the Shu and nowhere
in it is there suggest that it is a question of emblems on - it
mn.y equally well be such on banners (sun, moon and stars on banners, c. g. Tso: Huan
2; dragon .banners and falcon e. g. Shi; banners with. 9 e h a n g 52 emblems,
wh1ch sun, .drngon,. t1gcr, bird, snake, c. g. Kuan: Ping fa) . The important
pomt m our Chouli text 1s that m the eame paragraph where s i an g .J3 'symbols' are
enumerated, among them 'mountain, dragon, fire, we find f u 53 f u h 5.J and s i u
55 'white nnd pattern'. and 'black and blue patte;n' and '5.colour pat-
tern rcspcctl.vcly. To. the K ao kung k1 author f u, f u b and s i 11 must rellBono.bly
have had tlus sense m the Shu paragraph. - B. Fu Sheng in Shang shu ta ehuan
(a extract its tex.t in Suei shu: Li yi chi deviates on some points from the
extensive extracts m the L1 shu of Ch'cn Siang-tao, Sung-time) is the first to ar.ply the
major part of the Shu enumeration of symbols to garments and to refer it ali to the
s o f u 63 make garmentSJI at the end. And Fu Sheng has t so h u e i 64 (*g'wJd)
mst. of. the t so h u e i .of the orthodox text; but we cannot accept this llB
earlier and better readmg, for 1t IS probably a correction made by Fu Sheng under
of the kung ki in A above, since he has a colour-scheme speculation
nlludmg to that K no kung k1 text; he says: s h an 1 u n g mountain and dragon are
(green) 45; h u a c h 'u n g (>the flowery animnh) is yellow 50; tao hue i 64
18 48; tau n g y i ancestral-temple vase is white 47; t sao h u o water-plant
and . f1ro arc red 46. He thus takes t so h u c i n.s an emblem analogous to h u a
c h' u n g etc. And though he really has 7 emblems, he combines some of them so as
to obtain 5 emblems for t110 5 rclasscs of) garments 669. He manages this in the following
Tho Son ?f on his g?'rmcnts had 5 kinds of emblems: I. h u a c h u n g ;
- t so h u e 1 ! 3. t s u n g y 1 ; 4. t s a. o h u o (water-plant and fire); 5 s h a n
1 u n g (mountam und dragon); the higher feudal lords had only n:is 2- 5 of those; tho
fcudo.l lords (t s i, nan) had only n:is 3- 5; the dignitaries (t a u) had only
n:Js 4 and 5; and tho nobles (shi) had only n:o 5 (shan I u n g). In fact, Fu Sheng in
this docs not recognize llB symbols (emblems) the sun, moon and stars, nor tho
f on m 1, the f u, tho f u h the c h ' I s i u of the Shu text. What he meant by t so
h u c i 6.J is very obscure, The Ts'lng scholar P'i Si-juci believes that t so 67 here
means 68 'raised, sticking out, elevated' (the raised ornament, whatever that may be).
!hough }'u Sheng commentary in no way sa.tisfics the Shu text, it has had a great
mflucnce m so far that tho scholars of all later ages have interpreted nil tho symbols.
emblems on garments. (Si-ma Ts'icn has contracted tho long Shu passage into a few
words in this vein; to the idea of emblems on garments may have contributed o. p11.511age
in Li: Ming t' wei to the effect that on tho knee covers the Hia dynn.sty had s h o. n
mountains, the Yin h u o fire and the Chou I u n g dragons as emblems). - C. Cheng
Hiian takes the cue about garment emblems from Fu Sheng, but elaborates a totally
different scheme. He docs not take t so hue i llB o.n emblem, but as a verb, which
balances the c h ' i s i u Inter in the line. H u e i 69 ace. to him is a short-form for
70 (Shuowcn quotes our Shu line 71} and this again is equal to 72, and so t so hue i
64 means to make painted (ornaments), as opposed to s i u 55 which means embroid-
ered (ornaments). Tho o h 'i 73 of the orthodox text he regards n.s an erroneous
enlargmcnt of 74, and this n.gain as a corruption of c h i 75, and so he obtains a binome
chi s i u 76 ' embroidered'. And he gives a nicely balanced scheme: there were 12
symbols, six of them painted on the y i 77 upper garment (jacket), six of them
embroidered on the s h an g 78 lower g!lrmcnt (skirt). Tho former were sun, moon,
stars, mountain, dragon and b u a c h ' u n g, the latter were t sung y i, water-
plant, fire, white rice (f en - m i), f u 53, and f u h 54. In order to determine the value
of h u a o h ' u n g 'the flowery animal', Cheng draws upon the Chouli: Si.fu, which
enumerates 6 kinds of sacrificial garments of the king: othe grcn.t furt 79, k u n 80 tho
dragon robe, p i 81 the phcn.sant robe, t s ' u c i 82 tho felt robe, h i 74 (Cheng = )
the embroidered robe, h ii a n 83 the dark undecorated robe. Since k u n here, Cheng
points out, is equal to the I u n g dragon of our Shu text, p i 91 'pheasant' must
correspond to the h u a c h ' u n g 'flowery animal:, this latter emblem thus being tho
figure of a phcn.sant. And then he takes one bold step further. T s u n g y i 84
'ancestral. temple vases' were not depicted on the clothes, but t sun g y i here stands
for and monkey, which formed the decor on the ancestral vases. And tho emblems
tiger and monkey probably were applied to the t s ' u e i 82 felt robe of the Chouli (sic)!
How hn.s Cheng arrived at this eccentric idea? In Chouli: Si tsun there is the enumeration
of y i 85 vases: k i y i 86 chicken VllBc; n in. o y i 87 bird vase; k i a y i 88 ki a-
vase; h u a n g y i 89 yellow; h u y i 90 tiger vase; w e i y i 90b monkey vase.
And since Li: Ming t'ang wei says that the Hia dynasty had tcbicken y i, the
Yin k i a - y i vn.scs, the Chou h u a n g - m u 90c vn.scs> the only thing left for prc-Hio.
times evidently were h u y i 'tiger vases' and w c i y i 'monkey vases'. Ergo the
emblem t sung. y i ('ancestral temple vase') in our Shu line means the emblems 'tiger'
and 'monkey'(!). And in this case Cheng seems to have borrowed that brilliant idea from
his teacher Ida Jung, who says: t sung y i 'ancestral. temple vase' , that means h u
90 'tiger'. As to f u 53 and f u h 54, Cheng docs not define them. Thus our Shu line
according to Cheng: tSun, moon, stars, mountain, dragon, (flowery animal """) pheasant
arc the painted (emblems, sc. of the jacket); tiger and monkey, waterplant, fire, white
rice, the f u emblem, the f u h emblem arc the 5-eolour-cmbroidercd (emblems, sc. on
the skirt). All this seems very ingenious and systematical, and it has been received
with the greatest reverence by the commentators of later ages (even great scholars like
Kiang Sheng and Sun Yi-jang). But first the t s u n g . y i - 'tiger and monkey' is an
appalling speculation, and secondly Cheng's theory of the 1st series of 6 emblems that
were h u c i 'painted', being on the jacket, n.s opposed to the 2nd series of 6 emblems
47. ;1 y, t. S7 ;( a .1f. .. n. ;t !T 111 $. ili 'l<- .:%il'r Tk
!l:tt a (ti e Ji. J)/1.. .Ti 'ii C"i!' {If 1: 7.1 1Js r.t ?Jt,P ?'J-:'

that were c hi s i 1e embroidered, being on the skirt, breaks down entirely if tested
by texts. O_dc laO Hays: f u h y i Hi u shan g !lljackct with f u h emblems
an_d embrOidered sk1tts1 - f u h is on the jacket , not (with Cheng) on the
On the other hun?, S_m: At kung wen says: ,[ u y i f u h shan g !12 11jacket
w1th f11 emblems and sktrt With I 11 h emblems> - herc the f u is on the jutket (against
Cheng) nnd the f u h on the skirt (with Cheng, ugninst the Ode). In short, these emblems
u 11;nd f II h had no fixed pludng on jaekct. or skirt respectively, and so Cheng's
mgenwus structure - D. PK'ung, while still accepting the early idea of
all the symbols bemg npphcd to gnrrnents, has a different schemt>. He leaves out
t sung- y i _as o. and tnkes h u a and e h' u n g scp1uatcly and likewise
fen und , m t Shen in took f c n as scpnrnte from m i);
fen, ung ts = 1cc-crysta! of grmn, probably he meant the white grain
after peelmg; f u <JJ he dcfmcs us the f1gure of a f u !J.J 'u.xe' and f u h 5.J as a figure
95_ o_f }.16 back to A !I to t so h u c i he follows Shuowen (h u e i =
.) colours). 1 hus: moon, stars, mountain, dragon, h u a flower
c h ? n g_ (antmal = ) phcasa?t form the (emblems) in 5 colours; (some of them
a_ro hkewtsc on) y 1. ancestral temple vases; watcrplant, fire, peeled grain,
nee, axe, ! u h - ftgurc s u on. c h i fine dolichos PK'ung
thus has _u Ill! 12. Hts construction of t sung y i as a
parenthesis Without verb Is, of course, unpossiblc. In regard to the f u and f u h
symbols, PK'ung followed Sun Yen (3rd c. A. D., comrn. on Erya) und Tu Yti (3rd c.,
comm. on Tao: Huan 2) who hoth, however, t ombino it with the Chouli definition in
A above: the f u axe was made in whi te u.nd black, the f u h sym hoi in blue and black.
As to f u = axe, there is U1e substantiation that Yi li: Kin li !17 1111 screen with axes
corresponds to Chouli: Si ki yen .?8, same meaning, and tluLt in Shu: Ku
mmg the aume object is called 99. 'l'his is fairly conclusive. As to f u h, on the other
hand, Sun Yen's idea thut it was two lc i 96 hack to back was modified by Yen Shi-ku
(T'ang time, comm. on Han ahu K. 7:1) that it was the symbol 95, which was an
of f u. lOOl) (which is not at all confirmed by the bronze inscriptions), and
Yuan Yuan bo bows back to back (identifying it with tho Y a hi n g
2 of the bronze mscnpttons wluch, ace. to Yiian, would mean J 'to assist'). But for all
these speculations tlacro is not the slightest pre-Han text aupl10rt. Wo simply cannot
,what tho u h symb,o! like and what. it depicted. When PK'ung rejects Cheng
s emcndatton of c h 1 73 mto 75, and gtvcs the ordinary meaning to c h 'i 'fino
dohchos c_hotl!' h? follows Huni. nan-bi, (Huai: Chu shu) says: 4, evidently with
o_ur Shu_ lmo m mmd, u.nd probably Si-mo. Tsten was of the sumc opinion, for (in Wu
tl pen kt) he says .. Yno gave Shun 5 a garment of fine dolichos clothl). - E. There various other attempts at interpretations in later times, with different calculations,
which cannot 1111 be related here. As an example may bo quot;cd Sii Hao (Shuo wen kio
tsi elm tsien, Ts' ing time): f u and f u h were not among the siang symbols: f u
53 simply means 'skirt' and f u h 5.J means 'knee cover' (well attested in this sense in
early texts); the symbols were those: sun, moon, stars, mountain drugon h u a flower
t I I >
c u n g pheasant - 7 symbols were painted (on the jacket); t sung y i (nncestral-
tcmple vase), watcrplo.nt, fire, fen grain, m i r ice - 5 symbols, on f u 53 skirt and
f_u h 54 knee-covers, were ? hi s i u embroidered. - F. Whichever line of interpreta-
tiOn we adopt of the prccedmg (B-E), we arc always brought up ngninst the difficulty
of t s u n_g- y i 'nnccstral-tcmJlle vase'; it cannot mean 'tiger and monkey' (C), nor be
a loosely mscrtcd paranthcsis (D), and to conclude that tho &templc-vnseo wn.a one of tho
symbols &painted on the jacket is very little plausible, to say the least. In fact, the
fundamental error in all those speculations is the idea that all the s i o. n g symbols were


n the gurmcnts. If we make free from this fixed idea of the schoh1sts, we
llt once that we need not alter h u c i 69 into iO or 72, nor chi 73 into 7J,
nd that these lines naturally didde into two sections which balance each other, each
:mling by a t s o 67 ' to make' : t s o h u c i t s u n g y i (] they arc made and
combined on the n.nccstral-tcmpel vases, t s o f u 7 they arc made on the _garments.
Shun wants to sec the of the mcm such. they nrc Itt the
solemn sacrifices. The ritual paraphernalia in lhose sacnftccs nrc of two kmds: the
temple vases and the ritual garments of the officiants. 'l'ho first section refers to tho
former, the second to the latter: DSUD, moon, stan, mountain, dragon, Dowery B.Dimal
(pheasant or phoenil:P), those are made and combined on the vases;
fire, peeled grain, rice, white-and-black figure (u:e), black and blue figure, five-colour-embroidery
on fine dolichos cloth, with five pigments applied into five colours, those are made on tbe
garmentsD. '!'he hLtter series certainly refer to. textile and embroi?cry (the
wntcr-pl1tnt putterll>l, >lthe fire patternl etc.) wluch we cannot _now 1dcnttfy, smcc c_11rly
Chou textill.'!l have not been prcscncd. But the former sertes tnltde and combmcd
the anccstml-tcmple vttscs should be identifiable. Sun, moon un? stars prob11bly
refers to ccrt1Lin archaic symbols, well-known on early bronzes, wluch I have
whorl-circle 8 (c. g. BMI?EA D, pl. 5) ltnd the doscly relu.tcd symbol 9 (c. g. B!IU EA
8 pl. 28) possibly nlso to the symbol called S<illlLre with crescent J() (c. g.
o: pl. !18): Though the latter was probably origirmlly It styliza.tion of a drag_on figure
(cf. BMl?EA !1, Pl. 32, vessel the wr iter of our Shu chapter m early Chou hmc could
know nothing of the o.rt evolution in Yin time, und it was reasonable that he took these
various symbols to rcfur to heiLVenly bodies. Shan 'mountain' probably refers to
the design which I have called rising blades (c. g. 9, Pl. 13, 25) which
identical with the earliest form of the char. 12 'mountain . The I u n g dragon IS
ubiquitous on the bronzes and the animal& - whether phoenix or pheasant
_ is n. very npt description of the conspicious bird figure on many curly Chou bronzes.
1322. T s a i c h Y h u y i c h 'u n n w u y c n 13.
The line follows upon 1 want to hear J.J tho li pitch-pipes, 15 the 5 notes, 16 the
(8 sounds =-- ) sounds of tho 8 kinds of instruments&. . .
A. Tho above is the reading of the PK'ung version, and he cxplums: t sa 1 17 = 18
(well attested, sec Gl. 751), und h u 19 20 (I! u in this sense in Chuang:
'l"icn ti), so chi: h u form an antithcs1s: I Wll_l good or
neg loot (of my officers} in order to bring and. (brmg _m ,_. ) the
- the latter being the discourses on the f1vc VIrtues (J c n, y 1, It, c h t, s 1 n). I Ius
has been accepted by Ts'ai Ch'cn, yet with modification that w yen
docs not mean the 5 discourses but the 5 kmds of odes (corrcspondmg to the v
s h c n g notes), c h 'u brought out from the c?urt the people n a presented
to the court from the people. The logical conncct1on wtth the preccdmJ? would be that
a correct music corresponds to and reveals a correct government. Tins theme ?f the
correspondence between music and government has been fully treated cmbrotdcred
in Li: Yiie ki. But it is evident tho.t with fundamentally the same meanmg of the
a better sense of the whole could be attained, the line simply referring to the mus1c: (I
want to hcn.r the 6 pitch. pipcs, the 5 notes, the sounds of the 8 kinds of instruments)
.w1:1L a tt. ;f-tr5aKC.. n)f{K I
1 j 'IS$ 4 -<. :tJtJ.ltHI$(Jt s-f.;f; i"-. 1!>- 7. l'I:Jm. s. ' @..., '#.
II Mi ;t, Lil /:J. G. ;,:; )1. :1! A t /.f. A {J! IS: .t: ) ' j'j 17 it If it: N ::;. .:. ,j. Ji. :::
and to examine whether they arc c h i well.regulatcd or h u neglected, in order to
(bring out and bring back - ) sing antiphonally the 5 (kinds of) words (to the music).
What is meant by (kinds of) words we can of course merely guess at. If we examine
the early odes preserved (Shi king), there arc, for instance, love songs, lamenta.tiona, songa
of the daily life of tho gentry, fell8t hymns, and songs about heroes and their sacrificea,
But tho co.tcgorics intended by this co.rly Shu author may have been something quite
different. - B. Wang Yin-chi would improve PK'ung's intcrpr. on one point: h u 19
docs not mean 'to be careless, neglect' but stands for k u 22 ""' 23 'to trouble, disturb
disorder' (wellattcstcd word). Thus the antithesis is not good government or
but: good government or disordcN. Wang evidently thought 19 (*xmwat) wa.a phonetic
Joan char. for 22 (*kwat). But Sun Sing-yen points out that tho char. 2.J (*kwat J kuat I
k u), which in a loo.n cho.r. sense means 'to disturb, disorder' (then id. w. 22) in its
primary sense means 'to flow' and in this sense ha.a a Shuowen variant 25; and he thinka
the A version h u 19 is merely a graphical error for this 25 = 2.J o::= 22 'to disorder'.
For all these speculations there is really only one feeble support. Ts'ien renders
the line by l a i s hi k u 26, whicl1 admittedly makes no sense nnd must ben corrupted
text; but the last word 22 would be this 'to disorder' demanded by the context ns contrast
to c hi in the version, which is there written 19. - C. Cheng Hiinn inst. of
h u 19 has the ,ersion 27 wlaich he takes a.a equal to h u 28 'writing tablet', and he
carries this word to tho second line, explaining: I want to the (} pitch-pipes etc,)
and to t s a i c h i examine the government, h u y i c h ' u n a w u y c n by means
of writing-tablets giving out and rccehing back the 5 statements, these 5 statements.
meaning the orders given to and rcportg handed in by the 5 classes of officers. An
obviously impossible speculation, particularly since it hns no logical connection with the
preceding lines on music. Sun Sing.yen believes that the 27 of Cheng's text again is
a corruption of the 25 of Shuowcn, sec B above, which is very unlikely. Yii Yiio believes
27 is simply ta particlct, for which there is no text support whatever. - D. In Han
shu: Lii li chi the Shu text is quoted t s 'i s hi y u n g y i c h 'u n a. w u
yen 29. Tho Suci shu: Lii H chi quotes h ii n 30 inst. of y u n g 31, and Tuan
Yii-ts'ai ndvocatcs this version, but it is easily seen that in this connection (musical
terms and pcrformnnccs) y u n g 'to sing' mahs much better sense than h ti n 32
(which 'l'uan explains u.s = 33 'to accord' and thinks is phonetically similar 32
*xiwan] to the 19 xm.w:Jt of the A version, which is very wrong). Pan Ku takes
this t s ' i 11 hi ttho seven beginnings to refer to 3.J tthe affairs of Heaven, earth,
tho four seasons o.nd mam, interpreting: (I want to hear the 6 pitch-pipes, the 5 notes,
tho 8 kind11 of instruments) and t s ' i s h i (according to) tho 7 (beginnings = ) primary
things bring out and receive the 5 discourses (the discourses on tho 5 c h ' a. n g
constant norms, j c n, y i, l i, c h i, s i n, sec A above). But long before this
scholastic speculation a more rcnsono.blo and concrete interpretation wa.a given by Fu
Sheng in Shang shu ta chuan, when he coordinates t s ' i s h i with the preceding
numerical categories, thus clearly indicating that he took it to refer to music; ho sa.ya
35: He fixes them by the 0 pitch pipes, the 5 notes, the 8 sounds (8 kinds of instrument&)
and the 7 primary (tones). Indeed, a. set of 7 in the musical categories is weiJ known
from pre. Han texts, though nowhere else called t s ' i s h i. It is called t s ' i Iii 36
in Kyii: Chou yii, hia, and t 11' i y i n 37 in Tao: Chao 20 u.nd Chao 25. That tho Han
scholars considered these three terms as synonomous is shown by the fact that the same
enumeration (the tones huang c hung, t 'a i t s u, k u s i en, 1 in c hung,
n a. n l ii, yin g c hung, j u c i pin) is given by Cheng Hiian in explaining the
t s i s h i of the Ta chuan, by Kia. K'uei in defining the t s ' i 1 ii of Kyii and by
Tu Yii in defining the t s i y i n of Tao. Tho Tso passages arc particularly valuable,
B. ,.
- confirm that we have to do with a category of tones Chao
\lee$UBC they clearly tl 6 pitch-pipes the 7 tones, the 8 airs (f c n g bcmg
. 38 .Tho 5 notes, IC t ' n a'r n tunc' sec Gl. 757, and 'wind' the 8 ans
t the same 1me u l t t
a pun, a I c 8 winds), the 9 songllll. With this concrete and natur,a. m erpre
correspondmg to t I lations about heaven, earth, four sensons and mant. fh.c
ation we need d to the second line, means: (I want the 6 ll.ltch(Hpcs,
Y of the 8 kinds of instrument) and t s'
the no . ' ' u n a w u y e n ung in order to (send out an nng ac ' .
y u n g y I c h . ds of) words (to the muaic) This version, the oldest attested ( t s l
llltipbolllllY the 5 (kin) b . ' obviously the best in the context, must be .to the
I b I in 'fa. chunn . cmg h th t s a i chi 39 of A and C have orlgmated.
A. and C It IS. t s i .Jl was .J2 - nearly identical; nothing
In Chou swpt t s a 1 17 . f ct t s ' i The second word was probably (m
. t misread t s n. 1 or a corre . ' 4.J .
easier o . . 43 su lied with the (correct) radical woman m one
Gbou fashon) smply k.) 'byP[tte (wrong) radical 'water' (.J.i) in another
llan school (Ta chunn, ll I ' H fmc variant of t s i 41 'seven
l{ilan, PK'ung). into 1 o. i .J7 in Si-ma Ts'icn's
wr. 46, and tl.liB has - ccn ;;sun us that the Kin-wen version rend the line .JS; here
version 26. f 46 ( .JJ) and c h C n g 50 paraphrases its syno
t s' a i ltntl the Kin-wc,n.
nym c h l i.) . s . l a. i B hi 5 I corruption of t s 1 s h I iJ- ..... i.JJ,
roducts, half D, half A ( 1-mo.A. . K' n w' en t s ' a I. .J9 corruption of t s , i .J6
''9 d g 19 vcrs1on ' N
version; k. u .w- rcn erm , jl\1 .JS the c hi h u of the. A o
_. 41, D uitc unintelligible, und that the Km.wen hnc IS even more
wonder that Slma s . me I q' . l h u . wnnt to gather the good government
. d tl n the A hnc (t s u. t c l c n g . I . 'bl )
strame m I I t to distinguish between them, is ncltr y tmposst c. -
or the neglecte, y . its <.'Oncrctc sense is the only plausible one.
The oldest at teste vcrst?n m I . t s a i s h i h o u y i m i n g c h i 54.
1823. S b u w a n c h o. n s t u o J o p u
B h ,u wan e h '.a way: All the stupid ones and
PK unf takes t:us 't y freely 55 I>Ail the caluminating and fawmng mmsters, TalCO parap trnscs I vcr. ' . shu b c h u. c hung 'tho many,
akipping tho

w a

closely to the Shu

a.ll'. Some sc IO wou render shu wan 56. Sun Sing-ron refers to Kyu:
o h u c hung many . . the nrc not ncar relatives, they aro (tho
Cheng yii 57' which, t; ther/shows that it means: If thcr ar c
many:) the great crow 1). u t id ones (i c barbarians, outsdc Chma
nea.r relatives (o house), they -lin that Si-ma. took s h u
proper). Thus tdlufs "IC? mean crowd,' which is very unlikely. No
w a. n 56 to stan or iJ , w uc . .
reason to abandon the simple and natural anc1cnt mtcrpr.
The whole line:
to 59 'f the k ii n prince's
A. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases very freely: All ca umma rs,
" '' q , \J ,!: ./.:.. :1} ..,-hJ ,.,M_ :i:tA-JJi ....
)\\ tJ ;-to."J '?'J47 , ...
1;..J61!9 s.
.1>. ;t 1'< 1'-{f. tf x. -c 11. e Y t
t +1-t. ft.t n f: .fi.{ti; ,..,a <-t p.:"i.J!:n ..
n.-t:Jt', .. 1.:.: Wl .lrlWi t.M If. nit n lL 17.
become t s i n g pure. This means that he skips
t J o .P u t sa 1. s h 1, and takes h o u 60 in the scncc of 'prince' (common
llll n g .61 m that to make bright, to enlighten', thus: h
u y i m; n c h
by the pnnce one enhghtcns them. - :a. PK' un.,.
63 6' b t tl g
f 1 t' ( .,. = u m 1e scnso
,rig I . .as opp. to ":rong): h o u 60 ""' ' target' (common), min g 61 ' to make clear'
- to d1stmgmsh, to d1sccrn , thuA: the stupid ones and culumnio.ting talkers if tl
do not (dwell in = ) abide in what is right, by the target (i. c. archery tests} one' (m
clear '""' ) thc.m$. iden. of archery as the test of moral qualities is ancient
developed m L1: Sh1 y1. -:-.C. 'fs'ai Ch'cn: s hi 63 = 64, referring to the preccdin
hnc. -n I err, you .shall a_gsJstmgly correct me; you shall not to my face accord witf
me, but, when have (other) words afterward!!*. Thus: AU the stupid
ones and calullllllating talkel'!l, if they do not abide in those (principles just mentioned) b
the (&rch9J'7 tesb) reveals them a. - D. Kiang Sheng: t
!7 - . 18. J. o P u t 8 a 1 s h = if they do not (investigate - ) show discernment
m th1s. It 1s true that t s a 1 can mean c h ' a 18 as in Yao t'
en 65 H d
t1 .. t . c cxammc
to, s n . s one apparatus.. As stated m Gl . 751, however, ts a i in this sense of
h a. 1s an extension of meaning: to dwell upon, keep tho mind
..,. to stud
1t Is ..I!? improvement to take t s a i in this secondary sense
t e pr1mary sense In mtcrpr. C. - E. Sun Sing-yen reverts to Si-ma's idea th t
h o u 60 means 'prince', and, Jikc Kiang, he takes t a a i 17 =- c h
18 All the st
ones and calumniating talkers, if one (cannot) (investigate _ ) discern tilOsc b .upl
?ne the .idea being that the king haa his feudal princes as
tcctmg wluch arc good or bad. The paraJielism with the following lines

Y 1c scourge one mprints it on their memory, by t he documents one records it

thlat the target., of interpr. B- D is far better, o. concrete instrument in the hand of
t c ruler.
1323a. T 'a y i k i chi 66.
A. PK' ung: By the scourge one (causes them to remember - ) imprints it on thei
- B. Sun k i 67 is a loan char. for k i 68: By tbc scourge
causes t tcm to abatam """ ) deters them. - B is, of course quite possible but A
balances the following By the documents one records it. '
1324. Y u p 1 n g s h c n g t s a i 69.
A. wishes that they shall liYc along with (the rest), thus taking s h en
70 as mtransttlvc verb. - B. Sun Sing-yen: 70 - 71: Ones wishes to keep them aliv!
aloug wtth (the rest)t. - C. Kiang Sheng: s h c n g 70 - 72: One wishes to make
them. advance (towards goodness) along with (the rcst)e. But she n g has no such
mcnmng. - A and B arc both possible, but B, which takes s hen as a transitive
verb parallel to all the preceding (m i n g, k i, 8 h i) is most
f K u n g. y i n .a y c n, s h i c r yang chi, k o t s c c h c n g c hi y u n g
C I, 0 II t S c W c 1 chi 73. '
A. .PK' ung, who believes that kung 74 means ' the music masters' (a comm
meanmg of the w?rd c. g. in Li: Yile ki, Yili: Yen li, Tso: Siang 4}, takes the first
to refer to the kmg, and n a y c n 'to introduce words' = 'to remonstrate' (b odes
sung as remonstrances}; and the second part to refer to t i
n h i a c h i j
people of the realmo;. thus: oK u n g the music-masters y i n a yen by
:=) songs m remonstrance s hi correct (the king) and yang (lift -=) lead
onb If nrr1vc (at goodness), one receives and employs them if not one overawes
. em ( Y - B. T?'ai Ch'en refers the whole to the wicked mentioned
m the prccedmg lines: mus1c masters take their (sc. the miscreants') (introduc d
words = ) presented songs and constantly (lift c: ) recite them; if they k
become r:.
- ------ -------
formed, one receives and employs them, if not, one overawes them. For k o 7a = 'to
become reformed' Ts' ai refers to Lun: Wei cheng 76 Guide them by virtue, normalize
them by the rites, and then they will feel shame and become corrected (reformed). This
is Ho Hiu's intcrpr. (k o 75 ,... 77 ' to correct' ); but in Li: Tsi yi this Lun yu clause is
paraphrased so as to show that the Li author took k o 75 in its sense of 'to come': then
they will feel shame and come (to you); and the Te'i s chool of Lun yii (np. a Han-time
inscription) had another version: 78 they will feel shame ond respectful> (so para
phrased in Hun shu: Huo chi chunn). Thus the. Lun text rar. gtvcs no safe support at
all for Ts'o.i's intcrpr. A better and safer par. IS Mcng: L1 Lou, shang: 79 >lis IS only
tho great man who can correct the faults of the ruler's (heart = ) mind (Chao K'i: 75 ""'
77). In fact k o is in the sense of ' law, norm, rule' , c. g. Li: Tsi yi 80 tTho
conduct has its norms, and by extension of meaning 'to put a norm for, to regulate' =
'to correct', as in the l\Icng ex. But even though k o can thus have this sense, it is
infinit ely more common in the sense of 'to come' . And the whole idea that the
tion of the wicked men is revealed by the songs they present at court sung by tho musto
masters, is, of course, ridiculous. Kiang Sheng, in the main, follows Ts'ai but says that
n a yen 81 ' to introduce words' refers to tho rite of h o y ii .82 'conversations at
general reunions' , described Li: shi tsi. - c. .Smg. ycn. takes kung
74 in its general sense of 'off1ccr, official, as we already had 1t m Yno tJcn 83 If you
earnestly conl rol all the funct ionaries, etc. (very common); y a n g 8.J is equal to 85
'to lift', as already stated in A-B above, but not in the senses there proposed but in tho
sense of 'to recommend, to promote', as in Li: Wen wang shi tsi: 86 &Some arc promoted
because of their deeds, some arc (raised, lifted = ) promoted because of their speeches.
Cf. Yo.o ticn above: 87 Raise one humble and menno. So far Sun is undoubtedly right.
But then he goes on saying that c h' c n g 88 is equal to c h c n g 89 ' to promote',
an unnecessary text alteration; and that f o u 90 should not be read f o u 'not' but
p e i 'to obstruct', as in Yi: Kua 12, the last words meaning if (the officials) obstruct
them (do not let them como forwards) they arc overawed (by punishmcnt)o- an intcrpr.
which entirely misses the antithesis expressed by f o u. The lines, which refer to the
wicked men whose reformation was described in the preceding paragraph, therefore mean:
Through the oHicials reporb are brought iD (about them) ; it they are s h i (correct ) KOOd,
one ya n g promotes them; if they come, one receives them and employa them, if not, oue overawes
them (into obedience) - C alone is simple and logical in the context.
1326. T s' an g sh e n g 91.
T s 'an g 92 means both 'green', c. g. Ode 129, phr. 93 Tho reeds and rushes arc \'cry
green, and 'azure', c. g. Ode 65, phr. 94 t s ' an g t ' i e n 11the azure Heaven.
A. PK'ung carries the phr. to the preceding: 95 t Evcn to the green vegetation of t he
corners of tho scast. This is very unlikely - why should the extreme borders by tho ecas
be described as having a ll'gtecn vcgctationt1 - B. Li Shan in comm. on Wsiian asserts
that t s ' a n g s h c n g is equal to tho pbr. k ' i o n s h o u 96 'black heads' ... 'the
t m l'a ,.;: .; uri I'{ WI.:!:.. ('3 ;'l._ r.r1:i.Ai .tl!.. cd(. erE; . ...
!X i R ?:! Jt. ;t.J.:r. at ,-:n Jl1;"kz4z '!- 111 z ., .:t. k> ;t:
.;ti ):< 1i .1ft. Jl# ?I (.f.Jft:..Jl ;o;:Ji .kA. ih :t..Jil 1t2 4'1
It 4 }-IJ ,t1f B ..!.. 1t. Jl{!i sd'!j '); !' ;.;'( j :lj 6'1 /lf Sf. r"f....if 1J f / .
;!ft. ft , J f r. ,.r !i. -1 p:e,jf 1:.. 91. !f{ 1 1ft -t
people' known from Li: Tsi yi and from various texts of the 3rd c. B. C. T s 'an g
would then extended to mean 'dark, black' generally: >>Even to the (dark living
thmgs =) black(-.harred) of the corners of the seas>>. There is no pre-Han support
for this s?ecul.atwn. -;- C. Another interpr. T s' an g she n g should be
earned to the followmg lme: t s a n g s h e n g w a n p a n g : The (greenly-growing =)
flourishing myriad states.
1327. Li hien 97.
.For l i =: 'numerous,. all', not 'black-haired', see Gl. 430. The general meaning of
h I e n 98 IS well established. Erya says = 99 'sage', and Yi Chou shu: Shi: fa (posthum-
ous names) says the one who is intelligent and wise is called hie m. But the true
etymology has been variously explained. Cheng Hiian (comm. on Lun: Pa yi) says 98
(*xf:an I xf:vn I hie n) = 100 (*g'ien I yien I hie n); but *xian cannot very well be a
.for '!u,a? and Wang Yin-chi that 98 *xi:an is loan char.
for 1 ngta I ngJU}, I y 1 nghteous because Shu: Ta kao 2 is rendered 3 by Fu Sheng in
Ta and because in Chouli: SI tsun yi the comm. Cheng Chung quite arbitrarily
says hIe n 98 is read like 4 *xia I xjif< I hi or like 1 *ngia (which is phonetically
excluded). In fact, several Han-time inscriptions have the binome l i y i 5 in the same
sense as the l i hie n or" our Shu passage, and it is possible that the Kin-wen version
really had l i y i 5 inst. of the I i hie n of the Ku-wen version. But in any case the
(*xf:an) cannot be a loan char. for the former (*ngia), the phonetic discrepancy
bel!lg great. Now hie n, fundamental meaning 'to present, bring forward', is well
the of 'to exhibit, to display, to show', e. g. Ode 220, phr. 6 Display
your shootmg>>, and: passively, hie n thus can mean 'displayed, exhibited,
conspiCuous . Om phr. l1 h 1 e n thus: The numerous (conspicuous =) eminent ones .
1328. l!' u n a y i y e n, m i n g shu y i k u n g 7.
In Yao tien above we had correspondingly: 8 >>Extensively they made reports by their
words; they were clearly tested by their achievements>>. In Tso: Hi 27 a >>Book of the
Hia>> is having 9. T s o u 10 and n a 11 being practically synonymous: to make
report>>, the discrepancy concerns f u and s hI en shu.
As to f u 14, an imperial edict of 19 B. C. quotes 12, where 13 (*piwo) is simply a loan
for (*p'f:wo).,_iust as in Ode 304, phr. 15 Extensively he applied his vaJour is
written 16 m the Ts 1 school (Ta Tai li), with the same loan char. But the f u 17 in
Tso is more complicated, since Tu Yii says 17 means 18 'to take', and f u n a y i yen
would then mean: They are taken and introduced according to their speech>>. But in
fact. 17 (*piwo) likewise can serve as loan char. for 14 (*p'f:wo) 'to spread out, extensively',
for m Ode 260 we find 19 >>He causes the bright decrees to be promulgated>> (Mao comm.
f u 17 = 20 'to spread out'). Thus, the f u n a, whether written 7 or 12 or 9 means
(the first being to correct reading): Extensively they make reports. As to shu '21 inst.
of s hI 22 it is a poor expedient to say that s h u is erroneous>> for s h I (Kiang
Sh;ng), bein? similarity in sound nor in the graphs. PK'ung and Ts'ai
Chen tned to mamtam the ordinary sense of shu 'many, a crowd', but then they
had to make emperor> the subject of the second clause: >>Extensively they make
by therr words, (the emperor) will m in g distinguish s h u (the crowd =) all
the offiCers by their merits>>, which entirely misses the parallelism of the lines. S h u 21
should have an analogous sense to that of s h 1 22, and it seems very probable,
With Chang Ping-lin, that 21 simply stands for the graphically very similar 23 to
'to measure', thus: They are clearly (measured =) tested by their achievements, which conci-
liates the two versions in a very natural way.
1329. T i p u s hi f u t ' u n g j I t s o u wan g k u n g 24.
A. SI-ma Ts'ien paraphrases: 25. >>If the emperor does not (act) like this, and if he
(extensively =) everywhere coequals (the good and the bad); then there will be no
achievements>> .. This shows that he punctuated and interpreted the Shu line thus: T i
p u s h 1, f u t ' u n g ... w an g k u n g, and simply skipped the two difficult words
j 1 t sou. Kiang Sheng, who follows SI-ma, supplies the missing phrase: >>T i p u s hi
if the emperor does not (act) like this, f u t 'u n g he (extensively=) everywhere
coequals (the good and the bad), and j 1 t sou (even if) they daily make reports (about
their work), wang kung there will be no achievements>>. - B. PK'ung explains
t sou 10 by t sin 26 (after Shuowen), and interprets: >>T i p u s hI if the emperor
does not (act) like this, then he (eJo.."tensively =) everywhere coequals (the distant and
the near ones), j i t sou wang kung and he daily advances in having no achieve-
ments> (27). He thus takes t s o u as an intransitive verb; but t s o u is really equal
to 26 as a transitive verb: >>to bring forward>>, and K'ung Ying-ta therefore modifies the
last line: j I t sou wang kung >>he daily (advances =) promotes those who have
no merits. - C. Ts'ai Ch'en: >>If the emperor does not (act) like this, f u (extensively =)
everywhere t' u n g and all together j 1 t sou wang kung they (the bad servants)
will daily advance in having no achievements>>. - D. Sun Sing-yen: f u 14 here means
fen 28 'to cleave, to separate, distinguish': t i p u s h 1 f u >>If the emperor does not
distinguish those (wicked men from the good ones), t 'u n g j i t sou they will in the
same day (as the good ones) be (advanced =) promoted, and wang kung there will
be no achievements>>. As support for his astonishing definition of f u, Sun adduces
Shu: Yii kung 29 >>Yii (spread out, laid out, distributed =) disposed the lands>, where
Ma Jung says f u 14 = 28 'to distribute'. But Ma's fen here has a totally different
sense from the 'to separate, to distinguish' proposed by Sun in our present phr.; f u 14
has no such meaning, and his intepr. is inadmissible. - E. Another interpretation. It
is quite evident that the line refers to the phrase a few lines earlier: f u n a y i yen 7,
which was formulated slightly differently in Yao tien: f u t sou y i yen 8 >>extensively
t sou make reports by their words>>. We have exactly the same f u 'extensively' here,
combined with the same t s o u 10 'to report'. This can hardly be a coincidence and
it forces us to reject all the various interpr. above. Just as a few lines earlier inTi
k u an g t 'i en chI hi a 30, the first word, t i, is a vocative: Oh emperor, extensively
(31 = 32) all under Heaven ... >>, so it is here. The lines refer to all the servants (mi-
nisters, officials) of the emperor, of whom it was said above: f u t sou y i yen >>they
extensively make reports by their words>>; here the same idea is further embroidered:
nOh emperor, p u s h 1 if they do not thus f u t ' u n g j i t s o u extensively and all together
daily make reports, there will be no achievements a.
1329 a. W u j o Tan C h u a o. Both the Kin-wen and Ku-wen version had an
introducing T i y ii e >>the Emperor said>>, see Sun Sing-yen. PK'ung has tampered
with this, cutting out t i y ii e and making the following section be a continuation of
Yii's speech. K'ung Kuang-sen has the ingenious idea that since the Yao tien says
Siang a o 33 Siang was arrogant, our line here means Do not be like Tan Chu and
Ao ('the arrogant one')>>;. which however is refuted by the next line, where a o reverts
as an ordinary adjective - it is little likely that it would function first as a nickname
and then immediately as an ordinary word in the same passage.
s o: M ifii"K J/J 7. 1:< flll ft 1.:< .:rJJ s );!( .g lVl f.Krx .JiJ t.
l*)fl !!<. llA /0. -J II. AA AY'J 111-f Jt iJI 17. lVl f
1t-M. M '$' u fo iA .v A:_ .tlf. ;i'f :r-: {5( rJ B :f:. J;IJ LJ. ;f5 Of :r:. JO] H ;r/J .fA!..
.t'l. B li .t.?. :tic. Jo. 7t?<..z 1- :J! ft.., rtl
1330. W a n g c h o u y e n g o n g o 34.
Cheng . Huan carries this to the following w an g s h u e i hi n g c h o u 35
no (difference between) day and night he n go - n go- wise without water went
m bo_at (sc. _made men push the boat forward on land). This should be rejected, for in
the line of five words ending by n _g o (both rhythm and rime determine the line thus:
w g chou Y: n_ go n go) _this n go can certainly not be an adverbial phrase
defmmg verb hI n g followmg in the next line. Cheng, besides, does not define
the m go-ng o -wise. - B. PK'ung connects the line with the preceding
a o n u e s h I t o 36 and _oppression, those he practised>>, and that is
co:rect, for the hnes are t1ed mto a pair by the rime. He paraphrases: 37 >>Without
between) day and night he constantly n go n go and was licentious and
bad (havmg no rest =) continuously. It is not at all clear what PK'ung thought n g 0
meant; probably took !t I ngnk l.n go) to be a loan char. for 39 (*dk 1
akIn go) and expo?nds It by his sI-ng o 40 'licentious and bad': >>Without (difference
between), day and .mght he was bad>>. - C. K'ung Ying-ta, foil. by Ts'ai Ch'en, thinks
tha_t PK ung by his last words w u h i u s i expounded the enigmatic n g o n go and
he follows PK'ung in interpreting: >>Without (difference between) day and
mght, contmuously>>. :&lJt it is evident that PK'ung by his w u hi u s i simply
up and expounded more fully the initial >>without (difference between) day and
mght>> and that his w u hi u s i thus glossed wang chou y.e and not n g 0 n go.
In any case, there are no text par. whatever .in of the meaning 'continuously'
for. n o -,.n go. - D. The char. n go 38, m later times wr. 41, means 'forehead'
tsm P Ien, Fang yen, Shuowen, still so in modern Mandarin). It is evident that 38
IS loan_ for some other char. of the series 42 (in other words: in the Han-time
of the .ancient te:ct, the rad. 43 was wrongly applied). The only other word
of occurrmg wh.ich can come into question, is the homophonous
44 ( nglak I nf.nk go), mter al1a means 'to dispute, to oppose by strong words'
e. g .. Ts m shi:. (A prmce must have criticizing ministers), 45 a ruler must hav;
oppositiOnal The fundamental sense is really 'to be obstreperous, to
oppose b! nmsy and sharp words'. That 38 serves for this 44 was already proposed by
Wang (comm. ?n Shu_owen). In Ts'ien fu lun: Tuan sung our Shu line is quoted
46, and this 47 (*ngak I ngak In go) was a phonetically similar word with an analogous
properly written (*ngdk) 'to speak sharply and frankly' (text. ex. in Lie, in
Shi ki etc.). _We ha_ve this same 47 for 48 e. g. in Ta Tai: Tseng tsi li shl: 49 >>The sage
p_ronounces sharp words>>. Our Shu line thus means: >>(Arrogance and oppres-
siOn, those he practised), without (difference between) day and night he was obstreperouS.
1331. P 'eng yin y ii k i a 50.
Si-ma Ts'ien reads in the same way.
A. Cheng foiL by Sheng paraphrases: 51 >>There was licentiousness (inside
the gates m the house (family), thus referring p ' e n g to the people belonging to the
house (family! - when translates >>il se livra a une debauche incestueuse dans
sa and believes this to be Kiang Sheng's opinion, he is wide of the mark. -
B. PK ung With greater precision says that p ' en g 52 = 53 'the crowd the herd
refers to the wife and concubines, thus: >>The crowd (of women) were licentious in the
For p 'eng in this sense cf. Kyii: Wu yii 54 in order to stimulate the forces
his. crowd (sc_. officers and soldiers). - C. Ts'ai Ch'en takes p 'eng 52 as a verb
- 55. He =) formed a gang of cronies and was licentious in the housew. For a
Shu par., With P e n g a verb like this see the Lo kao ex. below. - D. Couvreur
P _en g _as the ordinary noun 'friend, associate', but with an understood preposi-
twn: (With) fnends he was licentious in the house>>. This is grammatically weak, and
we should then rather have to take p ' eng as the subject: >>His associates (friends,
cronies) were licentious in the house. - E. Shuowen quotes the line p eng yin y ii
k i a 56. It has generally been admitted that the 57 (*p;mg) of Hii's version was simply
a loan char. for p 'eng 52 (*b'ang), but that is not so sure; 57 or 58 was *p;mg I pang I
pen g (falling tone) and means sink (the coffin! in, the_ ground' (ex: in Tso), and it
fundamentally means simply 'to sink, to cause to Sink , bemg a causatiVe form of the
same verb stem as 59 *pang I pang I pen g) (even tone) 'to fall down, to collapse' (in-
transitive). Thus: He was sunk in license in the house>>. - F. Another school in an
edict (ap. Hou Han shu: Lo ch'eng Tsing wang chuan) of emperor An (107-125 A. D.)
read: fen g yin y ii k i a 60. Fen g means 'to run wild wlien on heat', said of
horses and cattle (Tso: Hi 4,28). Thus: >>He was riotously licentious in his house>>. This
version is quite independent of the A version, for 61 *pfum cannot be loan char. for 52
*b'ang, nor vice versa. - F. is very tempting, since fen g yin would be an excellent
binome, and Sun Sing-yen favours this. But after all version A is attested 200 years
earlier (SI-ma) and we should abide by it; for the same reason E has to be declined.
C, which makes the criticized Tan Chu himself the subject of the clause, is certainly best,
p 'eng yin being a natural coordination of two verbs. - We compare:
Shu: Lo kao: J u t s i' k' i p ' e n g, j u t s i k ' i p ' eng k ' i w an g, w u j o
h u 0 62.
A. PK'ung paraphrases: 63 >>My young son should be careful about his associates,
and take care about his (from now onwards =) future>>. This introduces a verb s h en
64 'to be careful about' which is not in the Shu text; j u t s i k ' i p ' en g of course
can never be construed to mean >>my young son should be careful about his associates>>,
still less can k ' i w an g be construed to mean >>he should be careful about the future>>.
- B. Kiang Sheng follows A in the first part, but carries k ' i w a n g to the following
line: The young son should be careful about his associates, k ' i w an g ( = t s 'i k in
e r wan g) from now onwards, he should not be like the fire ... >>. This is even worse
than A, since it construes k ' i p ' e n g and k ' i w a n g (which are obviously parallel
and analogous) in two different ways. - C. Hou Han shu: Yuan Yen chuan explains
k ' i p ' en g in the same way, but takes k ' i wan g = 66 >>he should be careful about
to whom he goes>> as likewise referring to his choice of associates. Again, there is in-
troduced here this notion of s h e n 'to be careful about' which is not reconcilable with
the formulation in the Shu. - D. Ts'ai Ch'en takes p 'eng as a verb = 'to associate'
in the sense of 'to be partial to, to favour', and takes the first k ' i 67 as an interrogative,
the second as a modal particle: My young son, can he be partial? (If) my young son
is partial, (from now and onwards =) in future (will it not be like fire =) it will be like
fire ... . This grammatical inconsistency is unacceptable. - E. Yu Yiie: Kuangya
says p ' eng 68 = 69 'not', and our p ' eng 52 is a short form for this 68. Thus:
>>My young son, k 'i p 'eng may he not (do like that)>>; k 'i wang then means
may he go so. to the new city. For the Kuangya meaning of 68 there exists no text
support whatever. Yu's attempt at interpr. is absurd. - F. Chang Ping-lin: the for-
J?'.'!f. f.r &
-+s;t:!!:i0'i -r: k'. .w,t + % .M'!l!l ;:ir.:@:.. J7.0i.!;j a.
M S:J j .Jfl. IX f :It fiJl f;1 .i5 Yt s;: ;JAAEl. r * f7 .!M st ;Jc}liJ sr. JW a flL ;,t., 'f ,'$<_ ?!. Pi... + .;It M
;J- J: ;J;Lll" 1 .:Z .:1-' }'-+ IJiJt M .... AX j; 1i1 4- ;.1 #. cr N\ c-s-)( 1:. .:-.:: Jt 1i. "7 :tt:
mulation is >>stuttering>>, and k ' i p ' e n g k ' i w an g is equal to a simple j u t s
k 'i p' eng wang 70 >>My young son, may he with the crowd gm>, i. e. follow the
officers to the new capital. - G. Yii Sing-wu: p' eng 52 stands for fen g 71, which
means 72 'great': >>My young son, may he grow great, may he grow greah. Yiidoesnot
explain the following k' i wan g. - H. Another interpr. It is quite obvious that
k ' i is the exhortative modal particle, on the analogy of the preceding j u k' i
t s 1 k i a o k u n g 7 3 >>you should in everything yourself instruct them to achievements*
(see Gl. 1759), and the following j u k' i king 74 >>You should be reverent
p ' e n g and w an g are thus coordinated verbs, governed by the modal k ' i and
turned into exhortative phrases. It would be tempting to take them as contrasting:
>>J u t s 'i k ' i p ' e n g, k ' i w a n g >>the young son should associate (sc. with the
good), or he should (go away from =) keep aloof (sc. from the bad)>>. But that is not
admissible, for wang 'to go' regularly means 'to go to', not 'to go away, to leave'.
Hence p' eng and wang are almost synonymous: nThe young son should (associate=)
find associates, the young son should find associates, he should (go to them =) frequent them; but
he should not be like a fire (i. e. too fervent in his friendships): it first flames up, and where it
blazes, by and by it cannot be extinguished. The theme in this clause: that the ruler should
rely on associates, il'l' but a further elaboration of the content in the preceding liues.
1332. Y ii c h 'u an g j o s h 1 75.
A. S'i-ma Ts'ien makes this the last clause in Shun's speach and renders it by 76
>>I cannot accord with this>>; Sun Sing-yen expounds: c h' u an g 77 means 78 'to wound',
and the line properly means >>I (am wounded =) feel hurt by according with this, i. e.
I do not accord with it. Very strained. - B. PK'ung (who takes Yii as the speaker
all 'way through): c h ' u an g 77 'to wound' means 79 'to chastise': >>I have been
chastised (had a painful warning) by its j o s hi being like this>>, or, more literally, with
Kiang Sheng: >>I (am wounded =) suffer from its being like this. There are numerous
ancient words meaning 'to suffer from = be sorry, grieve over', but I know of no par.
text where c h ' u an g is used with this extension of meaning. - C. Whereas Si-ma
Ts'ien starts the next line by >>Yii said>> 80, Wang Ch'ung (Lun heng: Wen K'ung) places
this before our present line, contracting the two lines of the PK'ung version 81 into one:
Y ii y ii e, y ii t s ' ii j o s h 1 82. This very happily gives us the clue to the meaning
of our embarrassing c h' u an g 77. Our line is not the last in Shun's speech, but the
first in Yii's, and the words Y ii y ii e have to be moved, in accordance with Wang
Ch'ung, in front of the line: Y ii y ii e : y ii c h ' u an g j o s h 'i, t s ' ii y ii T 'u
shan >>Yii said: When I started work like that (as described earlier in the chapter),
I married in T'u-shan. C h 'u an g 77 = 'to start, to initiate, to start work' is a well-
attested meaning: Kyii: Chou yii 83 >>to institute the rules of the empire>>; Lun: Hien
wen 84 >>Pi Shen roughly (initiated =) drafted them (the orders)>>; Meng: Liang Huei
wang, hia 85 >>The lord (initiates, begins, founds=) lays the foundation of the inheritance;
etc. (common).
1333. T s ' ii y ii T ' u s h a n s i n j e n k u e i k i a, K ' i k u k u e r k ' i y ii
f u t s 'i 86.
A. Cheng Hiian and PK'ung interpret: I married in T'u-shan (sc. the lady of the
T'u-shan house), on the days sin, jen, kuei, kia (sc. I stayed with her for 4 days only);
when (my son) K'i wailed and wept, I did not treat him as a sonn (I had no leisure to go into
the house and attend to him). - B. Hii Shen in Shuowen (under the variant 87) has a
slightly different interpr., saying that >>the people took wives on the days sin, jen, kuei,
kia>>, and the phr. would then mean that Yii had followed the custom of the land, marrying
the lady on those days (a 4-days feast?). The comm. on Shuei king tries to reconcile
these views, quoting Lii shi ch'un ts'iu to the effect that since Yii stayed with his wife
4 days, it became the custom of the people in that region to marry on those days!
ch'un ts'iu has no such passage - this is one of those spurious quotations so com-
in medieval commentaries). - C. Si-ma Ts'ien has inverted the word-sequence
reading: 88 >>On the days sin and jen I married (the lady of) T'u-shan, on the
and kia I begat K'i, I did not treat him as a som, which is obviously a corrup-
the latter half being inane. It is, besides, quite clear that the 4 words sin jen kuei
hould be read together, since they form a sequence in the decimal cycle. - D. Liu
(Lie nii chuan: Mu yi) narrates: (Yii of Hia took the lady of T'u-shan for wife),
she had born K'i, on the days sin, jen, kuei, kia K'i wailed and wept, but Yii
ay and regulated the waters>>. This means that Liu in the Shu line carried sin
kia to the following phrase: I married in T'u-shan (sc. the lady of the T'u-shan
(for 4 days =) on the days sin, jen, kuei, kia, K'i wailed and wept, but I did not
as a son. - D. is quite plausible in itself, but A is certai!My superior, showing
e busy Yii first had to neglect his wife and then his son.
i huang to t' u kung 90. For huang 91 = 'extensively' (with Erya and
not 'brought into order, cultivated' 92 (PK'ung) see Gl. 287 and 1077: > exten-
planned the land works.
pi c h ' en g w u f u, c hi y ii w u t s ' i e n 93.
Ts'ien (after Erya) renders pi 94 by f u 95 'to aid', the regular meaning of
Shuowen has the variant 96, same meaning.
Cheng Hiian expounds pi by 97, thus: >>I (aided=) supplemented and achieved
5 dependencies, as far as to 5000 (li)>>, adding some elaborate computations of the
areas and distances, which do not deserve to be recapitulated here., cf Gl. 1384. -
Ch'en: nl assisted in establishing the 5 dependencies, as far as 5000 (li) n. I. e. Yu
the sovereign in the disposition of the realm that was properly the emperor's
to decide. - We have pi 94 in this very sense of 'to assist' (the sovereign)
begi{llling of the same Shu chapter (Kao Yao mo) and passim in the Shu, which
in favour of B.
C h o u s h 1 y u e r s hi 98.
The oldest interpr. is that of Shang shu ta chuan: 8 families are a I in 99,
li n =) 24 families are a p ' e n g 100, ( 3 p ' e n g =) 7 2 families are a I i 1, ( 5 I i =)
families are a y i 2, (10 y i =) 3600 families are a t u 3, (lO t u =) 36000 families
a s hi 4, and chou s hI y u e r s hi (referring to our Shu passage above) 98
a chou province there are 12 s h 1 districts (of 36000 families) n i. e. 430,000 families.
comes as a very natural sequel to the preceding. i>I assisted in establishing
5 dependencies, as far as to 5000 li>>, here describing the size of the various
expressed in the figures of their population. - B. Cheng Hiian: s h 1
5: The provinces have 12 leaders (masters, tutors)>>, i. e. princes who were
over the other feudal lords within the provinces. There has been much specula-
about these >>12 s h 'i leaders>>. Wu Ch'eng (Yuan dynasty) adduces Yao tien
?t' ;f1 0 S/ f' g-.J e:f:!;: t-1:_ Uj t.z . 1"'1 f' SJ 1ft! k i'i'
+-,jJ !. ".: 'i t11 if.:: X 'f -'A 1'iQ.,;:J2: 'f AJ + Pt1 sd .4: 1: t.L
1:..#-tJ-J- tf. '1 f.} :f .f-;( tp l"oJ\. "-1.\ t' 0i 7it/t.:r}J f/. "7:t r.J 'fa'] A
nili_ J" Ii. f. f-1 iJ{ti :'u rtf 71 $fl 7S ;!I/ + Jt ::... tiji >iffi.F Mtfi!l 1 1.. ; t 3. ctfr + .>.
tiem), where it is said on the one hand that Shun 6 established 12 provinces
the other hand that Shun says: 7 you 12 Pastors)> i. e. governors of the 12 provm'c on
and_ he insists that our c h o u s h i y u e r s h i 98 )>In the provinces there were
shu, refers to them, thus one s hi to each (so also Legge), a s hi being but
another for the. m u Pastor. But that 1s not tenable, for Yii instituted not 12
9 provmces, and m our chapter Kao Yao mo (Yi Tsi) above, it is Yii hlmself wh
gtves an account of his works and in this account he speaks of the 12 s hi. It is
t? speculate. whether Shun first 12 provinces and Yii then altered this into 9 pro-
or The two f1gures 12 and 9 are not reconcilable, they represent two
different traditiOns about the early political geography of the realm. In any case y-
would not in referring to his own institutions speak of 12 s hi in the sense of 12 Pasto u
. . h
over provmces, smce e had made 9 provinces, not 12. Cheng Hiian has realized this
and concl"?-des in each province, under the m u 'Pastors' were 12 prominent feudal
lords as h1s coadJutors. But then we are out in the field of pure guesses, for this theory
lacks every text support. There are several texts referring to )>leaders: Li: K'ii li says
when the ))C h a n g .leaders of the 9 provinces ( 8) came to the royal court, they were
called m u 9 Lt: Wang chi says that outside the Royal domain proper (forming
I chou provmce) t:lwre were 8 chou provinces: 5 feudal states 10 formed a shu
11 led by a chang 5; 10 states (k u o) together formed a I i en 12, led by a shu a i
13; 30 states together formed a t s u 14, led by a chen g. 15; 210 states together
formed a chou 16 province, led by a p o 17; there were thus 8 (in 9 provinces minus 1
the Royal domain) fang p o 18 >>regional leaders. These texts in the Rituals refer'
to times but the. Cho.u era (and, moreover, are late theorizing
whtch httle to With historiCal facts). A more ancient text, referring to early
Chou time, IS Tso: H1 4, where Shao Kung of Ts'i is made to say: 19 The 5 (kinds of)
feudal lo.rds, a.nd the 9 leaders, you shall truly punish them>>. Here there are 9 p
leaders (mcludmg the leader of the princes in the Royal domain thus leaders of the
princes in 9 provinces). But the important fact is that nowhere is 'there a term s hi 4
in the sense of a >>leaden> over other princes. Thus Cheng's interpretation of the )>12
s hi hangs entirely in the air. - C. PK'ung says: in each province he (Yii) used
30000 men's work (sc. in regulating the waters and establishing the provinces). This
sho':s that took s h 4 the sense of 'army, regiment', i. e. conscription
soldiers who did the work, basmg himself on Chouli: Hia kuan, introduction: 2500 men
made s hi regiment (12 s.h i thus making 30000 men, PK'ung's figure). Thus our
Shu line: 98 >>In (each) provmce there were 12 regiments (to my aid). - The oldest
interpr. (A) certainly suits the context best. - We compare:
Shu: P'an Keng: Pang p o s hi chang p o chi s hi chi j en 20.
A. We have no gloss of Cheng Hiian's on this passage, but since he above defined
s hi 4 as = chang 5 it seems reasonable to conclude that he took our phr. s hi
c.hang 21 here as= 'leaders (of provinces)'. -B. PK'ung takes shi chang
simply as = 22: Yon rulers of states, you leaders of the multitude, yon hundred (kinds of) manag81'1
?f affairu. For s hi in this sense see Gl. 1305 above. - C. K'ung Ying-ta modifies B
mto 23 The of all (the officer:>), a very unlikely construction. - D. Kiang
Sheng and Sun Smg-yen refer to the LI: Wang chi passage quoted above, and believe
that our chang 5 refers to the chang leaders of a shu 11 group of 5 states and
that our s h i 4 corresponds to the s h u a i 13 leaders of a l i en group of 10 states.
Thus: >>You pang p o rulers of states, you s h 1 leaders of 10-state groups, you
c h an g leaders. of poups and p o .chi s hi c h i j e n you hundred (kinds of)
of This Is extremely unlikely. Qnite apart from the fact that Wang
chi IS a late Ll chapter and very scholastic, being a theorizing speculation about Chou-
tiroe institutions, it is quite arbitrary to identify s hi 4 with shu a i 13, and moreover
the rhythm indicates that s h i - c h a n g is one thing, not two: p a n g - p o - s h i.
chan g. Thus B remains the most simple and plausible interpr.
1336. W a i p o s i h a i, h i e n k i e n w u c h a n g 24.
p 0 25 means 'to press upon, to come close to', as often (Tso etc.).
A. Cheng Hiian foil. by PK'ung: Outside (the provinces of China proper) I carne
all to the four seas, and h i e n in all those regions I established five-state leaders*.
Thus, in the border regions, those of the barbarians, for every 5 states he nominated a
prince as their leader. Cheng is here evidently influenced by the Li: Wang chi passage
quoted in Gl. 1335.above: 5 feudal states 10 .a shu a 5.
There it refers to Chma proper, but Cheng here applies It to the barbanan regwns, taking
the w u chang 26 of the Shu text as = leader of 5 (states). Cheng is also
influenced by his own interpretation of s hi 4 = 'leader' in the preceding line, taking
the c h en g here as a term balancing the s hi there. But, as we have seen, his interpr.
of s hi cannot be sustained. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en: >>Outside (the provinces of China proper)
I came all to the four seas, and hie n (everywhere=) in each of those regions I
established five leaders>>; thus in the east selecting 5 princes as leaders for the rest, and
likewise in the south, west and north. (Legge, skipping the hie n 27, simplifies:
establishing, in the regions beyond, extending to the four seas, five Presidents>>; thus only
5 inst. of Ts'ai's 5 x 4 = 20). Even more far-fetched than A. - C. Wu Ch'eng (Yuan
dynasty): w u chang the five (classes of) chiefs refers to the ordinary 5 classes of
feudal lords (kung, h o u, p o, t s i, nan), and the last clause hie n k i en w u
c h a n g does not refer particularly to the preceding w a i p o s I h a i but to the
whole passage: >>I assisted in establishing the 5 dependencies; [in each province there
were 12 s hi districts of 36000 families, see Gl. 1335 above]; outside (the provinces of
China proper) I came all to the four seas; hie n everywhere (sc. in the whole realm) I eltablilhed
the 5 of) chiefs (feudallordl). Chavannes has accepted this, and it is obviously right.
1337. a. Ko ti yu kung 28;
b. T i chen te 29.
Si-rna Ts'ien in both cases renders t i 30 by tao 31, which is just as ambiguous.
In fact t i 30 can mean (intransitive) 'to advance', e. g. Ode 257, phr. 32 He does not
seek (office) he does not advance (i.e. push himself forward)>>, see Gl. 979. Or it can mean
(transitive) 'to tread on, to walk in, to pursue the course of', e. g. Shu: Wu yi 33 These
four men (walked in wisdom =) pursued the course of wisdom>>; the same with understood
object: Shu: P'an keng 34 >>If there are inauspicious ones and such who do not (walk
it =) pursue the (proper) course>>. Or it can be transitive and causative: 'to cause to
walk' = 'to lead', e. g. Shu: P'an Keng 35: They lead on the high sovereign, grandly
to ... >> etc. (see Gl. 1459). In our Shu lines above:
A. PK'ung paraphrases: a. 36 Each one (walks in that which has merit=) pursues a
course that is meritoriousa, thus taking y u k u n g as object of t i, according to type
33 above; b. 37 Pursuing the course of my virtue. Si-rna may very well have meant
this by his 38, for tao 31 can have such a sense, e. g. Lie: Huang ti 39 >>Just now I saw

1B ;r }] {a 19- .zz: JL 1'& -1< it 4 z mfil 18 gifi k s :1R. $ z A..r/ t.r -fZ u. .v z
tf e1 t>tl u ::s. :Jif :rJJ J/ .i!! -u 11J :J<.
']J n 'i9 ),._;@_ tr :Jlf 1'J if :f. og :r.:. 3.i.At j11j j; .:f. )'j- - 'J?: Ja 1lf :t;l) n 'JtAT
yo_u :valking it>>. When Erya has a:n entry: t i 30 = 40 'to make, to enact (to practise)',
t!J!s IS a freer of exp:essmg the same (to walk in = to practise). _ B. K'un
Ymg-ta ill a. takes t 1 as havillg an understood object (as in phr. 34 above) and m kg
Y u. kung an independent finite clause: >>Each one pursues the (proper) course and ah es
turns this in yet another way: >>chacun de ceux qui se conduisaie:
Ien Vl son mente reconnw>). In b., on the contrary, K'ung Ying-ta has to con t
t , b. t f t . . s rue
w_ u e as o J_e? o, 1 : the course of my virtue>>. - c. Kiang Sheng takes
t 1 as the transitive to lead (as m the phr. 35); Si-ma's 41 would then be meant as= 42
T?us: Each one leads on (his subordinate princes) to have merit>>. But then b. t i c
t e =. make n? sens?. - A, which consistently takes t i as = 'to walk in, to
practise a ?bJect u k u n g and c hen t e respectively) is certainly
best, and tallies With a similar phr. m the beginning of Kao Yao mo: 44 If he since 1
pursues the course of his virtue. re Y
1338. M i a o wan f u t s i k u n g 45.
A. Ts'ien reads 46, thus: But (the prince of) Miao is foolish and has not attained
to - B. PK'ung read as 45. above, kung 47 as = 48 'officer,
official_ (commonJ, thus: >>But (the prmce of) M1ao IS foolish and has not attained to
(becommg an) C. Ts'ai Ch'en, reading like B: >>and has not gone to his worb
(has not done h1s duty). - A is obviously right since the kung 49 here balances the
49 of the preceding line.
K a o Y a o fa n g c h I k ii e s ii see Gl. 1234. Fa n g s hI s i an g h in g see
Gl. 1266.
1339. K 'u e i y ii e k i a k i etc. 50.
A._ SI-ma Ts'ien does _not render this as a speech of K'uei, but says: K'uei then made
... , and Sun S!ng:yen therefore takes y ii e 52 as equal to y ii an 53, the
(common): >>K ue1 then struck .. - B. Cheng Hiian: nK'uei said ... etc.
B IS right,, a few lines later we again have: K ' u e i y u e >>K'uei
(For second K u e! y ii _e se.e Gl. 1347 below.) It would be strange indeed if in two
consecutive passages K u e 1 y u e would have two totally different meanings.
1340_. K a k i m! n g ' i u p o f k ' i n s e y i y u n g 54.
K _1 a k 1 55 was kt:t-klek. Yang Hmng (ap. Han Shu: Yancr Hiung chuan) quotes
t_he !me k i k 56 *kfet-klek. (Li Shan in comm. on Wsiian say:' 57 should here be read
?8, but th1s does not tally with the phonetic of the graph). The same binome occurs
ill LI (see below) wr. 59 *kc:t-kiek.
A. Cheng Hiian takes k i a k i 55 as a verb (this after Ma Jung: 58 = 60) 'to strike'
but p o - f u 61 as the name of a musical instrument; Fu Sheng in Shang shu ta
defined the p o-f u as a small leathern drum, and Cheng adds that it was
filled With chaff. Thus: >>When one strikes the singing k ' i u -stone the small leathern
drum, the guitar and the lute and with them sings>>. For k i a 58, in the sense of 'to
strike' are no early text par. - B. PK'ung takes k i a k i 55 to be nouns: names
of mu_siCal illstruments, the k i a 58 with the c h u 62 the music-starting
soundmg-box and the k 1 63 With the y ii 64 music-stopping sounding-box (ace. to
Han scholars: _Cheng Hii Shen, Cheng Hiian and others, the former was a square
wooden With an upnght, the latter tiger-shaped, with a row of dents on the back _
not confrrmed by any pre-Han texts). Thus: The sounding-boxes, the singing k 'i u _
stone, the small Ieathem drum, the guitar and the lute, when with them one sings. For this
PK'ung. bases on Li: wei: 65 >>The f u. p o small leathern drum,
the of Jade, the k 1 a k 1 sounding-boxes, the great quitar, the great lute,
the mi_ddle gmtar and the small lute, those were the musical instruments of the four
dynastws>>. There can be no doubt that in this text the f u _ p o 66 is the same as the
_ f u 61 in our Shu line and is, sure enough, a musical instrument (it recurs wr. 66
in Ta Tai: Li san pen, there again clearly an instrument); and that the y ii k' in g
musical stone of jade corresponds to our m in g k ' i u, and that the k i a k i 59
corresponds to our k i a k i 55 (and to Yang Hiung's 56) and is the name of instruments
_the enumeration being essentially the same. In his comm. on this Li passage the same
Cheng Hiian, who in A above took k i a k i 55 to be a verb 'to strike', here in Li
correctly realizes that k i a k i were musical instruments (which is conclusively shown
by the context) and he identifies them with the c h u 62 and y ii 64. PK'ung thus
has simply followed Cheng Hiian's Li ki gloss, against his Shu king gloss. - C. Ts'ai
Ch'en not only takes k i a k i 55 as = 'to strike' (with A; unsupported by texts, as far
as k i a is concerned), but even p o f u 61 he takes as verbs. P o he defines as = 67
'to reach to', and f u 68 as= 'to go along, to stroke'. The former is based on Shuowen
(p o 69 = 'to grasp, seize', 70 >ne meaning being chi 'to reach to'). Thus:_ If one
strikes the singing k ' i u -stone, if one (reaches =) touches and strokes the gmtar and
the lute and with them sings>>. Legge and Couvreur curiously have construed a distinc-
tion that the first word k i a means to tap lightly and the second k i to strike
strongly; but that on the contrary the first verb p o means 'to strike strongly' and the
second f u 'to strike lightly'. For all this there is no foundation. - Since p o-f u
is well attested to be the name of an instrument in several texts and in unambiguous
contexts, C (p o f u = verbs) should be rejected. In the choice between A and B, the
Li: Ming t'ang wei parallel clearly decides in favour of B.
1341. Y ii p i n t s a i w e i 71.
A. Fu Sheng (Shang shu ta chuan): >>(Yii 72 =) Shun is guest in the high position,
i. e. Shun is ceding the regency to Yii 73 and hence at the sacrifice described takes the
place of an honoured guest, whereas Yii 73 is 74 host. - B. From a passage in Ch'un
ts'iu fan lu: Wang tao it would seem that Tung Chung-shu understood: >>The guests of
Yii 72 (Shun) are in the fine positions>>, in the sense that the feudal lords assist at the
sacrifice. - C. Pan Ku (Po hu t'ung: Wang che pu ch'en), followed by Cheng Hiian,
PK'ung and most later comm.: >>Shun's guest (i. e. Tan Chu) is in the high position>>.
Yao's son Tan Chu (Chu of Tan), who did not receive the .empire, is treated by Shun not
as a subject but as a >>guest>>. - D. Another interpr. In the oracle-bone inscriptions
we constantly meet with the formula 75 to inquiry from the king's guest So-and-so
(a dead and it has long been recognized (Lo Chen-yii, Wang Kuo-wei and others)
that w an g p i n the king's guest was a technical term for the spirits of the royal
ancestors used in sacrifice and divination. Our Shu passage precisely describes such a
sacrifice, ant the context here is: t s u k ' a o 1 a i k o 76 >>The dead ancestors arrive,
Y ii pin t sa i wei Shun's guests (sc. the spirits) are in their high positions (sc. at the
sacrifice). Y ii pin >>Shun's guests>>, the spirits of the ancestors, is a phrase quite
analogous to the w a n g p in the king's guest>> of the oracle bones. - We compare:
Shu: Lo kao: W an g pin s h a yin hie n k o 77.
:rJJ Jt f-J .+ .z. ro. w 41. 1!!. . .;st'F 10{ !IJ tr .:r:. h fr
.:rJJ lt1 :r... t 0 ;:!J SCJ. r3 !{ f7. "* g .n ;!z_ ff :f:t );<
ts-MJ S7.15 .53' It 5Y t' :-.:1 CJ q_ :fJ t'
ilf g1\z i;'ft :lf-ril- a!i.. .-si1t - EJ Ji.. w &.;;r41ii ? .. 4._ :-1. .'Iii w .i. -'.;t..r.
11: ;j(;f:G- 7;r .f. .1i' u. ;f:G n.%.. rL!k fl. i. J.t ;f-1} nitA. J'l: #i.. -Fs.Jl. .r;:
A. PK'ung punctuates thus: wang pin, s h a yin, hie n k o and interprets
The_ king (him, sc. the Chou Kung just mentioned) as a guest (sc. not as a subject):
he killed (VIctrms) and made a pure sacrifice; to all (sc. to both Wen's and Wu's temples)
he - B. Ts'ai king's. guests because of his killing (victims) and
all king s to such feudal lords who were representa-
tives of earlier d!flasties. 1 representing the Hia, the prince of Sung
79 repr. Shang-Yill). This 18 ill keepillg With illterpr. C in our Kao Yao roo line above. _
C .. Chuang Shu-tsu has an eccentric idea that s h a 80 is a graphical corruption of
P 1 n g 81 and that. k o 82 _for 83 again stands for 84: The king's guests
of ?ynasties) pIng y 1 n holding sceptres (?) all are blessed. - n.
Sun Y1-3ang: P 1 n . 85 IS a short-form 86: king pin brought forward as guests
(Chou Kung hlS and (then) killed (VIctrms) and sacrificed (Sun does not tell
how the remammg hIe n k o will then make sense). - E. Lo Chen-yii: w a
g pin
must here the same term so well known from the oracle inscriptions (75) and refer to
the dead d'he Iring's (i. e. the royal Spirits) at the killing and J&Crifice all
came .. - Sillce we have here ill Wang pin .... hie n k o the same verb k
'to arnve, to come',. in Kao Yao roo is said of the ancestral Spirits to
of the sacrifwe:_t s u k ' a o l a i k o 76, it is quite obvious that E here is
nght and the w a pin guests who k o were the Royal Spirits.
E?"t then, Sillce such called pin 'guests' in the Shu language as well as in the
Y ill oracle language, this confrrms that the Y u pin Shun's of the Kao y ao
refer to the 'ancestors' immediately before. Lo Chen-yii's explanation
beillg correct for the Lo kao, It must be applied likewise to the Kao Yao mo.
1342. K ' u n h o u t e j a u g 87.
A. Si-ma renders this: 88 the princes (mutually yield =)are modest towards
each. othen. sho":s that he. took t e simply as an averbial attribute to j an g,
th?s. All. the pnnces Yie.ld =) are virtuously modesta. - B. PK'ung: All the
prillces reference VIrtue Jield =) modestly yield to the most very
scholastic. - C. Sun Smg-yen: Shuowen defines t e 89 as = 90 'to rise to ascend
raise'. This supported by no single safe text ex., but Sun adduces' that t e 89
( tak) was phonetically close to chi 9 ("'tf:ak) and to ten g 92 (*t;mg), which both have
meanmg, and 89 .*tak would then be a variation of the same stem. Thus: All the
prmces ascend and (Yield =) are modestly polite. This speculation of Sun's is much
too weakly founded.
1343. H o c h r c h u y u 93.
The oldest interpr .. is by Erya: Shi yiie, which says: that with which one
strikes the h u Is called chi This can only mean that chi is a
noun, deno.tillg some kind of hammer, and the line should then be taken together with
precedmg: _(Below, there are the flutes and hand-drums and drums), h
(With them) c h 1 there are the hammer, and the c h u and y ii Bounding-boxes a. There is no
?ther ex. of c h .i in this sense, but since c h i fundamentally means 'foot', there
IS nothmg m a .hammer for striking a sounding-box being called 'a stamper';
It possible that the shape of the hammer in question was such that
It to. Its beillg called ('a foot' =) 'a stamper'. There is no reason whatever for
doubtmg Erya entry the instrument for the sounding- box being
a chI. - B .. Cheng Huan, PK ung and following commentators take h o and
? h
as governmg_ y ii e music: h o y u e 'to bring together (the
mstruments ill) the musw = to start the music', and chi y ii e 'to stop the music'.
The h o, refer to the c h.u' the latter to y u. Thus: The (collecting=)
startmg and the stoppmg c h u sounding-box and y ii -sounding-box (respectively) =
the starting c h u -sounding-box and the stopping y .. (Fo: their
pretended shapes: a and a tiger-sh::"ped .box th.ere are. likeWise
Han-time points d'apput, cf. gl. 1340). It IS easily realized how stramed
that h o chi c h u y u would be equal to h o c h u chi y u. It IS entrrely built
:p on the word chi 94, which commonly means 'to stop'. If we be sure that
the c h u really started the music and the y u stopped it, we could be
to accept this violent metathesis. But there are no of
the sort; the theory of the c h u and the y u I earliest
by a row of Hau time commentators. It is quite that thlS theory, m Its turn,
is based precisely on our Shu phrase above, such as 1t was. by many Han
scholars and thus we move in a circle. - Interpr. A, which IS the oldest, does best
justice to the parallelism between the lines. In preceding we have h i a - k u an,
t 'a 0 , k u (first an adverb *below, and than 3 mstruments:. flutes, hand-dru_m.s and
drums); in our present line we have: h o - chi, c h u, y ii adverb
and then 3 instruments: hammer, c h u -box and y ii -box). This IS srmple and logical
and saves us from the unnatural metathesis of interpr. B.
1344. N i a o s h o u t s ' i an g t s ' ian g 95.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien interprets: Birds and beutl dance. Cheng Hiian, while writing
96 still defines this as = 'to dance'. For ex. of t s ' i an g 97 'to move rhythmically'
Gl. 266. - B. Shuowen quotes n i a o s h o u t s ' i an g t s ' i an g 98, like Cheng
above but explains this t s ' ian g as = sound of the animals coming to
Thus:' The animals (make an eating sound) t s ' i an g - t s ' i an This making no
sense in the context, Sun Sing-yen is possibly right in supposing that Hu only a
metaphor: (the music sounds like) animals' (crunching sounds) t s' ian g t s' Ian
For t s ' i a n g t s ' i a n g as onomatope for sounds cf. C. next .. But for the sound
made by eating animals there is no text par. - C. Ma Jung: birds and beasts,
means s ii n k ii 99 the crossbeams and vertical posts of the frames for the musiCal
instruments. We know from various texts that these were either shaped as or decorated
with animals' figures (Chouli: K'ao kung ki, Tsi jen; Li: Ming t'ang wei) and Ma e:ridently
meant that t s 'i a n g t s 'i a n g depicts the resounding of the frames: _The birds B:nd
beasts (of the frames) resound t s' ian g t s' ian g*. In Shuo yiian: Pien wu our line
is quoted 100 (t s' ian g), and this t s' ian g reso.und' e. g. in 302,
phr. 1 eight bells (resound =) - C 18 very and but
after all the line must be understood in relation to the followmg: K'uei said: when I
strike the stone, when I knock on the stone, all the animals follow (it) and dance
(a repetition of a line which already occurred in the Yao. tien), which A:. The
theme of the music-master playing so as to make the arumals dance reverts m Lu: Ku
yiie (there the music-master is Chi 1.a under Yao --:- p?ssibl.y but another name .for
K'uei ?). And in Chouli: Ta si yiie this IS mto general magwal
and ritual system: By one change (sectwn) of the mus1c one brmgs forward the
feathered animals and comes in contact with the Spirits of rivers and marshes; by a second
change one brings forward the naked animals and comes into contact with the Spirits
of the hills aud etc.
1345. S i a o s h a o k i u c h ' eng 3.
That s i a o s h a o (so also wr. by Si-ma Ts'ien) was the name of Shun's music is
111A fl. PJ t.t.'i:. ?.J -@' K. ntlit 1'1. n 'lt."'
;W ;H. I;, Mt.1;lh\ 3. it#.:; t:1 0: .,-: 7.
generally admitted. In this reading it has been explained (Sung Yiin, Eastern Han time}
as equal to 3 >>The respectful continuation>> (sc. of Yao's work), a typical scholastic
speculation. PK'ung takes s i a o in its ordinary sense of Pan-flute: The s h a 0
of the Pan-flutes. However, Shuowen has the variant 4, and Tso: Siang 29 the inverted
form 5, arid it is uncertain whether this 6 should be read *si8g I sieu J s i a o like r
'Pan-flute', then being a mere variant for that word, or *siik I ?r'lk Ish u o which
Shuowen defines as a word meaning 'to strike a man with a pole'; If so, 4 might mean
the s h a o music with spears>> (sc. in the hands of the dancers). Finally this music
in 9 sections (k i u c h ' eng as above) is called, besides 8 *af:og I iiau I s h a o (Chouli
var. 9, same reading), also f{j (*tjog j tsjau I chao): 10 (Lii: Ku yiie; Shl ki: Wu ti
pen ki), which makes it very doubtful whether the name has anything to do with 11
(*djog) 'to continue'. Ts'ai Ch'en therefore says that s i a o-sha o has to be taken
as a whole simply as the name of Shun's music. But the context favours PK'ung's idea,
that s i a o really meant the Pan-flute, s h a o being the name, and that 6 is merely a
variant graph for the former.
1346. F e n g h u an g I a i y i 12.
A. S1-ma Ts'ien (in Wu ti pen ki) renders this by I a i siang 13 >>The male and
female phoenixes coms...flying>>. So also Shuo yuan: Siu wen. But y i 14 has no such
sense. - B. PK'ung takes y i 14 in its normal sense of 15 'proper deportment, fine
demeanour, fine attitude', thus: >>The male and female phoenixes come and (are fine-
demeanoured =) strike fine attitudes>>. This being very hair-drawn, Ts'ai Ch'en has
felt compelled to improve it: >>they come and dance and have a fine bearing. But yi
has no sense 'to dance'. - C. Just as Ma Jung in the preceding line thought that the
birds and beasts>> referred to the decor of the bell-frames, so here Ying Shao (Feng su
t'ung yi: Yin sheng) believes that the phoenixes are only a metaphor for the Pan-
flutes: >>In the Pan-flute s h a o music of 9 sections) the phoenixes come and
would mean that the Pan-flutes, with their 10 pipes of different lengths, look like the
wings of a phoenix. This might seem tempting, but we have very early testimony that
real phoenixes are intended. Stin: Kie pi quotes a now lost ode 16: >>The male and female
phoenixes ... (meaning of t s 'i u uncertain), their wings are like shields, their voices
are like Pan-flutes, there is one male and one female, they rejoice the emperor's heart.
This ode nicely explains why our Shu line says that the phoenixes come after >>the Pan-
flute s h a o -music in 9 sections>> - their voices resemble the Pan-flute, the Pan-flute
music draws them. - D. Cheng Hiian: y i 14 = 16a 'a mate', as in Ode 45, phr. 17
He is my mate>>; Kyii: Chou yii >>Tan Chu ... y i c h 1 18 mated with her (copulated
with her). Thus: >>The male and female phoenixes come and mate>>- that the phoenixes
build their nest and mate in the court is a happy omen. That the f e n g huang
are auspicious birds is told in Li: Li yiin (the four divine animals being unicorn, phoenix,
turtle and dragon). - E. Fu Sheng (Shang shu ta chuan as quoted in Lun heng: Kiang
juei) paraphrases the line 19: >>The male and female phoenixes are on their several treest,
which shows that he took y i in the sense of 'well-mannered, orderly', thus: The male
and female phoenixes come and (are orderly =) arrange themselves in their proper
places. - F. Another interpr. In all the preceding (A-E), the interpr. of yi 14 is
more or less strained. In Fang yen, k. 2, we find 20 >>y i and k o mean 1 a i to come>>.
y i being the word used in the districts of Ch'en and Ying. Thus we have proof that in
middle Han time y i 14 (*ngia) was colloquially current in the sense of 'to come'.
Possibly the word in archaic times was more general, and survived only as a dialect word
in Ch'en. We could not, however, dare to assume that *ngia = 'to come' existed in Shu
times, merely on the strength of the much later Fang-yen, since there are no good
pre-Han text examples. But the fact that it is here combined with 1 a i into a binome
B. ______ ______ _
. . . 21 'to come and arrive' is then quite analogous
akes the supposition plausible: l a y ,I hi h we had a few lines earlier our chapter
: the l a i k o 22 'to a_?d ;hu:: nThe male and female phoem:xes come and
nd which occurs m Shi an I. .
put in an appearance a o s h o u shu a i w u 23. .
(am K , u e i y ii e, w u, Y. u k I s h 1 ,I kook on the stone, all the
1Sj_tuei said: Oh, when I. the of a line at the end of Yao SI-ma
('t) and dance>>. This IS a verbal r p h f K'uei's but as a narrative (see Gl.
took all the preceding not as a to the first 8 characters (K'uei said:
Tsmn, h line correspon mg
h 1 1.
9 above) here agam as no t e) and takes the p o s o u s l u a
133 trike the stone, when I knock on the s on ' h n 1 a i y i (the male and
when Is sa narrative following directly ufpolln f den gd That this was general
wu a ll th nimals o owe an . . ., .
I hoenbl::es came, a e a . . di t in Siian ti's and Ming-ti s reigns.
ln-wen school follows from the whole passage, so it was not
1Il the other hand, the sc oo cer, am. Chen Hiian (ap. comm. on Chouli: Ta
introduced as old as Sh! ki, sc. Lie:
si yiie) quotes: K'uCI agSa; . K'uei to rule the music, k i s h 1 f u I, p
-we find: Yao (not un. or .. siao chao kin ch'eng. ere, 1
tlh o u shu a i w u, fen g huang l a l y I, K' ei iie) but all the lines in our Shu
true this is given (without l u s ythat together with s i a o s h a o
are rendered (though 1 o u shu a i w u, there go
c h, eng fen g huang l a I y l ... f h .. f u s h 1 in accordance with the
l u to the which Lie-ts1 had) a phr .. I sf It hich q' uite definitely decides in
aec. h Ki n And there IS a ac w . f h
Ku-wen, as against t e .n-we . f the cha ter Kao Yao mo consists o .speac es,
. of the Ku-wen verswn: the whole o h f p I that the version which starts
avour . t' t all It is t ere ore c ear d .
there are really no narra Jves a . . .. K'uei said>> are more consistent an m agree-
'th K ' u e 1 y u e >>
both these passages WI
'th the rest of the chapter.
men W1 . h - . 24 f H .
1348 C h' 1 t' I en c I mIn g . . A d' to the mandate o eaven
. A . SI-ma Ts'ien (Hia ki) rende:s also knew of the.
and possibly this was the B PK'ung paraphrases: 27 >>recetvmg
version with c h, 1 26, cf. B e ow. f H . One of the well-established meanmg.s
( lating =) disposing the mandate o to order' (ex. in Ode 209 and Yt:
:trs: h , 1 26 is 28 'to to, there is no corresponding phr.
Kua 21, see GI. 670). PK n gb . Rightly disposing the mandate of
in the Shu line, whlCh will y e. l an extension of meaning is c h : I 26 =
Apparently a different sense, fact mere y ns 'carefully to dispose, metwulously
31 (Shuowen) 'to be careful', for Jt proper,Y hr. (beginning of Kao Yao mo)
to arrange, regulate, carefully attend toAna:xact a:. to our phr. 24 here is To
21 We car.efully regulate five rules. date of -lw>; here PK'ung says c h 1 = 33
sill 32 have rightly the mandate of Yin), but that is only a free
'to depose eliminate' (>>We have e Jmmade T , . Ch'en c h, i here again simply means
, 'th K' ng Ying ta an s ai
paraphrase, for WI u -
fll_!il ;JZ .fiJ ;r: /.> ,l,'fU:xA;<..Jt f Jf Af
!J 1 ft.; /C. )l t;; I/ ff(} >. ;:J. A # k
. -"' AI. _A'li- Jl{JiL 4 ..v 1i}3R. .t:. .v u .?!'-...
"" Ja
'iff z.. ;.;<.e tt'fl>_w.' /1.
..!i!.< _ #- .f h-G#J?i 8 'lk$4Ef "F .!YF"'JA "f2C" ,
.#n "'- E1 A<-. .;,_A f'lj 11

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t.'l 'r JO. ;;;.>:. Jl )!.i.....J'x :a. J?<..
28 'to regulate, to dispose properly' In Shi ki y- h f .
to our Shu passage says: k ti n c h, e n s i a ue s , ( rrst lines), Si-ma Ts'ien referrin
the subject (sc. Kao y ao) (correct -) adm . hg c h I 34 >>The sovereign (sc. Shun)
our Shu line, it still sho;s th_ough this not directly
With the char. c h ' i 26 _ Kia Sh e ore his eyes a verswn (Ku-wen)
as the proper one and thatgth ertnghvdery advocates Si-ma's reading (A)
' e o o ox verswn c h ' - t h
oes not make sense, and that its B ara h . . . . I . 1 en c i m in g 24
To shi, this same Kiang Sheng rase. 35 h IS But in Shu
with the Breading and ou/ yIn mIn g _32 by 36 (in full
SI-ma very often replaced the difficult words of the phr. aboveJ. Smce we know that
own, we dare not accept his chi 32 't d' . Shu text With other words of his
26, all the more as Si-ma evidently h o ascen m to the transmitted c h, I-
t , . _ . as seen a text with this c h - 26 An
I e n_ c h I m 1 n g here is strongly su orted b t . I . d our c h ' i
W e 1 s h i w e i k i see Gl. 1320 p opt hy . he To_ shi par. c h , i y i n m i n g
1349 y .. . u n g 1 t s a I see Gl. 1229. .
a n g Yen y u e 38.
Si-ma Ts'ien writes 39 The t f
A. PK'ung Raising th.e . who orms of y a n g are interchangeable.
. voice e liPOke and said Cf Od 2
shout, they do not raise..t.heir voice. - B. Erya (Sh" k. ) he 99, phr. 40 *They do not
! a n g mean 'to continue'' and since a few lines I I u as an 41 k e n g and
m that sense, the gloss evidently has our Shu ater _we this very k e n g 42
spoke and said. There are no safe text ar H p;s:ge m Thus: Continuing he
43 to extol the brilliant deeds of W p . o I- ang believes that in Shu: Li cheng
the brilliant etc. But that is quite . u an g should really mean >>to continue
f , ma ID1SSI e y a n g 'to lift' b
o to extol' in similar phr., e. g. Ode 262 hr emg common in the
kmg s grace>>. ' P 44 In response he extolled the
1350. s, h u a i t s o h in g s h i s h en n a i h i en 45
A. PK ung: Lead on (your officials) to d d .. .
be careful about your laws B C o an. (raise) rmtiate the works; you should
with first a s h u a i with unde;st dissatisfied with a construction
an object s hi, divides the line th oh Jec . an then verbs t so hi n g with
e "t us. s u a I t so hI n g s h. n ..
XCI as. opera (freely paraphrased: etes char e de diri l m.gts inceptia,
mouvorr les ceuvres). _ c. Another inte S hg . . ger les entrepr1ses, de pro-
'all' (see Gl. 642): Shu a i t s o In all u a I. IS well attested in the sense of
attend to your Iawu. ac ons and hI n g s hi works initiated, carefully
1351. -N a i en g t sa i k o y i.i e 46.
SI-ma Ts ien renders this: 47 And then (continuin - . .
saymga, thus taking t sa i 48 =
't , g -) m his turn he made a song,
and this wei 50 ('to concoct') is et o Erya has an t sa i 48 =50,
documentation on this point see H same stem as w e 1 49 to make' (for full
.. h ' o 1- ang comm on Erva) Th f d
s a1 IS ere really 51 'to start' (cf Gl
) b -: e un amentalsense of
initiate, to create' (common see Gl. i233) , of meaning secondarily 'to
That the sense t s a i 48 't t , '. . . e created a song = *he made a
to 'to k . o crea e JS sometrmes faded t b .
rna e' Is exemplified by Chouli T t so as o e equal simply
he vicariously the libatiom (53), great reunio? of guests
- B. Cheng Huan says: t sa i 48 = 51 't t rt' g Huan says t sal 48 = 49.
has been differently expounded E"th _o Hsa (common, see Gl. 311). Cheng's idea
( t rt
. . . I er. e k eng cont d t .
s_ a mg =) first song (sc. that of the em er . . mue sal k o the
(first sung =) sung his first song>> (th p ;rf earlier); or: He continued and
48 = 54 'to achieve' >>He continued e o owmg later). - C. PK'ung: t sa i
(of the emperor). This is based on huac, up) the
t ung. S1 shi, whiCh gtves an etymology of
a. i 48 in the sense of 'a year': t sa i that means c h ' eng 54 the achievement
(the result). But this speculation of Pan Ku's is hardly corroborated by pre-Han texts.
There are 3 cases in Kyti on which Kao Yu says t sa i 48 = 54 'to achieve', but his
interpr. is not convincing: Kyii: Chou yti 55 For (ample=) many generations they
have (Kao Yu: achieved, completed their virtue, but rather:) (loaded up =) accumulated
yjrtue>>. Kyii: Tsin yi.i 4, phr. 56 >>The prince of Tsin daily (Kao Yu: completes his
hatred, but rather:) (loads up=) accumulates his hatred; Kyti: Tsin yti 2, phr. 57
If you, my lord, want to establish the prince of Tsin and (Kao Yu: achieve him, make
him complete, but rather:) start him (cf. Gl. 311). Thus there are no safe text par. -
D. Sun Sing-yen mentions a theory that t sa i 48 (*18ag) is loan char. for 58 (*18Jg):
He continued and in the second place (sc. after the emperor as the first) sung. - A,
the earliest interpr., is strongly supported by the par. a couple of lines earlier: 59; to the
o 60 'to make' there corresponds the t s a i 48 'to create, to make' here.
Yii kung.
Sue i shan k 'an m u see Gl. 1314.
1352. K i chou k i t sa i H u k' o u chi Liang k i K 'i 61.
A. The oldest interpreters punctuate K i c h o u k i t s a i, H u k ' o u c h i L i a n g
k i K' i; and then there are several possibilities.- a. Si-ma Ts'ien has 62: When Yii
made his tour, he started from Ki-chou ... It seems that he first paraphrases the first
four words, taking t s a i 63 in its common meaning of 'to start', and then repeats the
Shu line verbally, taking it to mean: >>Ki-chou was begum.- {3. Ma Jung: t sa i 63 =
'to record' (common): Ki-chou was recorded (in the books)>>.- y. Cheng Hiian: t sa i
63 = 64 'action, work', cf. Gl. 767 (with text ex.); in this sense t sa i is really an exten-
sion of meaning from 'to start': 'initiative, undertaking, action'. Thus: Ki-chou was
(undertaken =) brought under work. In all these cases (A a-'}') the remainder of the
line: H u k' o u chi L i an g k i K' i will be awkward, since Hu-k'ou seems to
hang in the air; it should have to be taken as an adverbial phr.: .... (at) Hu-k'ou, he
regulated Liang and K'i. The reason for this cutting of the line: K i c h o u k i t s a i,
is the parallelism with several later passages in the Yti kung: 65, 66, 67 etc. But with
this cutting of the line, the rhythm in the sequel is entirely spoiled (H u k' o u chi
L ian g k i K' i). - B. Ts'ai Ch'en punctuates: K i- chou, k i t sa i H u- k' o u,
chi L i an g k i K ' i. This corresponds, in construction, to the following sections,
e. g. 68: >>(Between) Tsi and Ho is Yen-chou; the nine rivers were conducted ... >>, with
the sole exception that: >>Ki-chom> is briefer than the corresponding >>T s i H o w e i
Yen- choU>>, having no confines defined. And the rhythm is excellent (4-word groups).
Moreover it is confirmed by the very next line K i s i u T' a i y ti an 69, which forms
an exact par. to K i t sa i H u- k' o u. There can thus be no doubt about the
correctness of Ts'ai's interpunctation (accepted by Chavaunes, even for Si-ma's text).
Ts'ai expounds t sa i 63 by 70 'to lay out and regulate', which, I suppose, is a free
13 .g YtJ. -1- 'ft !'1-n 1v( !1 :f%ffil:. .:E. Z KJ'! ;t1-K "
11 *"!} 6 r:z n j( 1;, *-.a fl r1.A .w:iA. sui{; it A X( f& $... n
iS" 1t. !3 $ t ;K il .z f'! ;f! a- {fo * .a>{i; r:;
1: /7 #t r:.t. @ J fil ffii.Yfl t.i\-- ?J. {t_ tit. :f C.J }Uf M.J!..
M"* t?.!J ;li. t f:M .. , t!t. /1.. e;!L..-fM.{tt.i;.hf.. :;!1 71 nl( ;tJ{,f,.zft. ;;(j
elaboration of s hi 'a?.tion, to work'. of A y above, thus: >>He (worked on =)
regulated Hu-k ou. -,->>. Yu Yue prefers the illterpr. t sa i 63 = 71 (see Gl. 1351 C):
He comJ?leted J:Iu-k ow>, but interpr. _is weakly substantiated (see the said gloss).
The IS certaillly to take t sa 1 63 With 1ts common meaning of 71 'to start, to begin':
In Ki-chou, he started work on Hu-k'ou, he regulated Liang and K'iH. Cf. Ode 21, phr.
73 >>We start work on the southern acres>>.
rr: a o Y i p ' i f u 7 4; for another and more correct version of the name: N i a 0 y i
75 ill Ta Tar: Wu ti te and Shi ki, cf. Chavannes, MH I, pp. 90 and 120.
1353. K ii e t' u he i fen 76.
. A. Ma . fen 77 = 78, thus: sits soil in black and fah. 77 (*b'f:wan 1 b'jum 1 fen)
IS then vanatJOn ?f the same word stem as 79 (*b'jwar 1 f f e i) 'fat, rich'; a stem
-n en -r IS very common, e. g. 80 both *sian I sien Is i en and *siar Jsiei 1 s i
81 *g'_lt:n 'famine': 82 *kjt:r 'famine', scores of ex., see Karlgren, BMFEA 5. Except
ex. below) there are no pre-Han text par., but the word would be id. w. 83
JUICY , (earliest text ex. in Kia Yi's Sin shu: Hiung nu, 2nd c. B. C., but recorded in
the char., 83 is read alt. *b'jw;m J b'fu;m j fen and *b'jwar 1
bJ If e ill Ts Je ymL - B. PK ung (foil. by Ts'ai Ch'en): fen 77 = 84 'to rise'
here n:eamng 'to _bulge', tQ. rise in small monnds, thus: >>Its soil is black and bulging:
F en IS common m the sense 'mound', and here 'to form mounds, to bulge' is a quite
well-attested sense, cf. Tso: HI 4 >>(He dropped the poison on the. earth), 85 the earth
rose (swelled up, - Before deciding, we have to examine:
_?houli: jen: f n j an g 86. Jan g means 'mellow earth, mold', and Cheng
Huan_ considers fen J an g as a, = 87 'moist and loose (earth)', thus taking
fen the A ( mmst, rich'). But Cheng Chung has the B interpr.
fen = (formmg small rarsed mounds), but with yet another etymolo-
77 (_*b 1WJn) ;vould 88 'mole', and fen jan g thus would
mean mole(-_hi_ll) mold. - It _Is qmte eVIdent that in the Chouli ex. interpr. A is
prefera_ble, g1vmg a natural bmome. Though the B meaning is better" attested in
unambiguous texts, the early existence in accord with the A interpr. of a var. *b'iwJn
of common word-stem 79 *b'jwJr 'fat, rich' may be taken as fairly well establis-hed
and mterpr. A adopted (with Legge), which certainly gives a more plausible sense. '
1354: K ii e f u chen g t so s hi" san t sa i n a i t' u n g 89.
This follows upon 90 >>Its fields are of the lower 2nd class>>.
A. Cheng Hii_an reads_ c g t so together. He says chen g 91 = 92: revenues,
(afte:J (correctmg 1mprovmg ':ork of 13 years, agreed with (those of the 8 other
91 (*t1eng) was certamly closely cognate to 92 (*tjeng) and had a similar
meanillg. Cheng adds that the category of revenues must have been 93 >>the lower 3rd
?lass>> so quoted in Shl ki: Hia pen ki, gloss, Po na edition), i. .e. the 9th class,
JUSt as this Yen chou _was the 9th of the provinces: it was the last to be made ready
13 _hence 1t was the Cheng means that Yii himself worked for 13 years,
m this a shn Book of the Hia (some now lost Shu chapter)
quoted by S1-ma m Sh1 ki: Ho k i.i shu, which says that Yii >>lived outside (away from
home) for 13 (1\Ia Jung had another computation: Yi.i's father Kun worked on
the floods for 9 years, Yi.i followed it up for 3 years, after these 12 years 8 provinces were
ready, Yen-chou followed only in the next, i. e. 13th year). Let us add that Yi.i
-w:ould emendate Cheng's gloss in a totally arbitrary way which does not deserve to be
discussed .. -,B. PK'ung punctuates after k i.i e f u chen g: chen g = 94 'correctly
: >>Its revenues were exactly corresponding (i. e. of the 9th class, just as
the provmce was the 9th); after work of 13 years, (only then) they were (exacted) in
the same way (as in other provinces). - C. Ts'ai Ch'en: chen g 91 = 92 means

'correct', in the sense of 'barely what could be exacted': >>Its revenues were barely what
could be exacted; (after) work of 13 years (only then) they were (exacted) in the same
way (as in other provinces)>>. This interpr. of chen g is very curious. - D. Another
interpr.: t' u n g 95 'to agree' means simply 'to tally', with reference to the preceding;
and for the rest, the oldest interpr. (A) is best: (Its fields are of the lower 2nd class),
its revenues, after (correcting =) improving work of 13 years, tallied with that (sc. the quality of the
1355. Y ii y i k i l ii e 96.
A. Ma Jnng and PK'ung: Iii e 97 = 'summarily' (common: Meng, Kung-yang etc.):
>>Yu-yi was summarily treated>>. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en: I i.i e 97 = 'to trace out, draw the
bonndaries for' (common: Tso etc.): Yii-yi was defined. - C. Yii l ii e 97 (*gljak I
liak 1 I i.i e) is a loan char. for 98 h o (*glak I yvk o) 'water drying land'
>>Yii-yi was drained>> (no pre-Han text ex.). An arbitrary loan speculatiOn. - Smce
it is a question of laying out and regulating provinces, B is certainly most natural.
1356. L a i y i t s o m u 99.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien renders t so by 100: nThe Lai-yi barbarians are herdsmen. - B. Wu
Ch'eng coordinates t so and m u as verbs: >>The Lai-yi barbarians till and pasture>>.
- B is unlikely, since the sequel says their tribute was silk from the wild mountain mul-
berry. - says Lai-yi was a place-name, but essentially it must, of course, refer
to a tribe.
1357. T a y e k i c h u 1.
A. All from l\ia Jung, the comm. take 2 as a short-form for 3 (*tf:.o I tjwo I c h u)
'stagnant water, pool', e. g. Chouli: Tao jen 4 >>By a pool (pond, reservoir) he
water>>, thus: uThe Ta-ye (marsh) ,was (pooled =) drained into a laken (Legge renders th1s
very freely: >>The (lake of) Ta ye was confined within its proper limits>>, and likewise
Chavannes: >>Le lac Ta ye fut enferme dans des limites fixes>>; Couvreur quite wrongly:
>>A Ta ye il y eut un lac>>). Cf. Li: T'an Kung 5 >>They swamped his palace and made
a stagnant pool there>>, with the same short-form:, 2 for 3. - B. SI-ma Ts'ien renders
the line 6, and this t u 7 (*to I tu<J It u) Cheng Hi.ian (in gloss on Li: T'an Kung) says
means the same: >>pooh, the 2 *tf:o being a, >>southern pronounciation corresponding to
the *to 7 of the north. Of course Cheng's linguistic speculations (a milleimium later than
the Shu text) have no value. But it would seem that t u 7 really could have a sense
of 'accumulation', here then >>an accumulation of water>>, a concentration of the marsh
waters into a pool; Ku liang: Hi 16 says 8 >>Where the people assemble is called t u
(capital)>>; Kuan: Shuei ti 9 >>The low place ..... the water uses that for its assembling
and dwelling>> (thus both *to 7 and *tio 3 are variations of the same stem as in 10 *d'f:.o
'to accumulate'). Further on in our Shu chapter there is the marsh called Meng-chu 11
(Han shu: Ti li chi 12) which is rendered Ming-tu 13 in Sh"iki: Hia pen ki and Meng-chu
J.1 in Tso: Wen 10. in Erya: Shi k'iu there is an entry: 15 >>When in a marsh there is
a hill, (it is called) a t u k' i u. In these examples it would seem that t u en c h u serve
more in the sense of 'marsh' (diffused water) than of 'pool' (accumulated, concentrated
water) but of course the >>marslu> in question may have had the name the >>Meng-pooh>
' '
flr:Z._tt fJ jj Jt!l!Z wkZ.:t:.%-A 714 n ?I'Jle'. f<' fo'!.ti s; At II' ;l:Srr ft!:;tt
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after some central pool, and a in a might be called a for a simi!
reason. ar
1358. K u e t ' u c h ' i s hi f en 16.
For the last word: f en = 'fat, rich' see Gl. 1353 above.
. A. Si-ma has this reading 17, adopted also by PK'ung, who here follows the
as a15amst the Ku-wen: 17 (*rljak 1 if:ak 1 s hi) as meaning
stwk;v:, clayey (the same does Lm Ht m Shi mmg). In the sense of '(potter's) clay' the
word ts common (L_ao, Chuang, Sun, Chouli). Thus: Ita soil il red, clayey and fah. _
B. T.he Ku-we_n verston ap. Cheng Hiian 18 inst. of 17, and Cheng and Wang Su
thts. as . a short-form for 19 *t' 1 ts'i 1 c h 'i 'blazing, fiery red', thus:
>>Its smlts red, ftery m colour and fat*. The version with 18 is indirectly attested as earl
as the_ Han shu; this has now 17, but that is probably a correction after Shi ki, for wJ
m. a sound gloss on Han shu says 18 should be read *sf:Jg 1 .i 1 s hi. Cheng's
ts, of course, the context, the word following upon 20 'red'. But in Chouli:
Ku_ng Jen 21 the varwus kinds of there an ancient versiom (ace. to Cheng Chung)
whwh read 22, the 23 thus mearung glue, stwky matter', and it is evident that the 18
of. the Shu: version is a for 23, which makes the meaning id.
that the Kin-VJn (A): Its soli ts red, (stwky =) clayey and rich. _ c. Yu
Yue, the B text version, says s hi 18 means 24 'parti-coloured': >>Its soil is
red ?r partt-colour_ed .and fat. For this he has a very slender support. In Yi: Kua 16,
we fmd 25. In thts hne, the last word t san is defined by Wang Pi as = 26 'quickly'
*You will have lf'eat attainments; do not doubt, and the friends will h o assemble round
you t s a n raptdly. B_ut for the last word there is a whole series of early variants: 27.
The last ?ne, of Yu Fan (Eastern Han), is certainly best, since it makes rime: 28
*t'Jk: *rl1ak, and Yu Yiie believes that it forms a binome with h o: h
_ s hi=
>>t,he f_rtends will assemble (hence s h i in our Shu line will mean 'assembled colours'
1. e. van-coloured'). But, as Tsiao Sun (Yi chang ku) points out, it probably means
'to glue, to be adhesive, to stick to' (just as in B above), thus: The friends will assemble
and fasten .on to you, stick to you, just as the line in Wang Pi's version 30
The will assemble and (pin themselves on to =) stick to yom. Thus the
YI example, If It has any value at all (which the rime seems to corroborate) will rather
support B than C. '
T s ' a o m u t s i e n p a o see Gl. 365.
1359. Y ii k ii a n h i a t i 31.
. A. Ch:ng Hiian in comm. on Chouli: Jan jen defines hi a 32 as = 'five-coloured',
I. e. as gloss on the phr. 33 In the autumn he dyes in 5 colours>>. But he
adds that h I has got this sense from the word h i a t i of our Shu phrase, this being
of a of pheasant, so that the Chouli phr. would: be an abbreviation of t s ' i u
an h 1 a.- t I and fundamentally mean: *In the autumn he dyes in pheasant( -colour-
mg). Thts has caused K'ung Ying-ta to insist that the hi a in our Shu line should
not be separately but hi a - t i as a whole denoting the pheasant: >>Pheasants
of the Yu valley follows this). But it is easily seen that Cheng's etymological
expl. of the line 33 Is very forced. - B. Chu Tsiin-sheng therefore attributes the
sense of to the word hi a itself, thus: Variegated pheuanta of the Yii valley,
and he says It IS >>loan char .. for 34 'flowery', which frequently means 'variegated' (e. g.
35, see Gl. 1321 above). It IS better to say that 32 *g'r'l is a variation of the same stem
as 34 *g'wd. An alternation inside a stem of forms with and without medial w is very
e. g. 36 *.g'ang 37 *g'wang 'crosswise'; 38 *k'dn 'to see': 39 *kwdn
to see , etc. - B IS obviOusly nght.
1360. H u a i y i p 'in (p 'i en) c h u 40.
Huai yi:
A. Ma Jung (foiL by PK'ung): Huai and Yi were two rivers. - B. Cheng Huan:
Huai yi is the tribe name: The Huai yi barbarians>>. In this sense Huai yi is attested
in scores of ex. in the Odes and other Chou texts, and also in early bronze inscriptions .
B is evidently right.
P'in chu:
41 was *b'ien I b'ien I p' in and *b'ien I b'ien / p 'i en. Variant 42 (earliest ap.
Wei Chao's comm. on Han shu); this is read like the preceding in Ts'ie ylin (*b'jen
and *b'ien), but Wei Chao read I b'iei I p' i. - A. Wei Chao: it means 43
'oyster', thus: wThe oyster pearls of the Huai yi barbarians. Cf. Chuang: Chi lo 44 'frogs
and oysters'. - B. Shuowen: it means 45 'pearl'. P ' in - c h u would then be a
binome of synonyms. Thus: The pearls of the Huai yi barbarians>. PK'ung followed
this. (When Cheng Hiian says p ' in c h u is the name of a c h u pearl, it is
not clear whether he meant A or B.) - The Chuang par. decides in favour of A.
1361. K ii e f e i h ii a n s i e n k a o 46.
A. Cheng Hiian and PK'ung define s i en 47 as = 48 'small, fine-textured', and
PK'ung adds that h ii an means 'black silk', k a o 'white silk'. But then PK'ung,
troubled by the incongruence of the second word with the first and third: >>black silk-
fine-textured- white silk, concludes that since s i en >>stands in the middle>> it refers to
both stuffs: ))black silk (that is) fine-textured and fine-textured white silk, a gram-
matically impossible construction. By his gloss s i en = 'fine-textured' Cheng Hiian
may have meant this word to be analogous with the rest, thus: >>In its baskets are black
silk, fine-textured silk, white silk (so Chavannes). S i en is well attested in the sense
of 'small, fine, slender' (Chouli: Lun jen; Ts'e: Ts'i ts'e; Kuan: Ch'en Sheng rna). But
since Si-ma Piao, in gloss on Tsi hii fu, says k a o 49 = 50 'fine-textured silk', Kiang Sheng
believes that in the Shu line s i e n ( = s i) is an attribute to k a o, thus: In its baskets
there are black silk and fine-textured white silk, which nicely disposes of the incongruence
in a tripartite series h ii an - s i en - k a o. In middle-Han colloquial (Fang yen)
fine-textured white silk>> was still called s i en 47. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en wants the three
words to be coordinated and analogous (all three referring to colours) and he therefore
seizes upon a gloss of Cheng Huan's on Li: K.ien chuan: s i e n 47 = 'silk with black
warp and white woof', thus: >>In its baskets there are white silk, black-warped and white-
woofed silk, and white silk>>. But this definition of Cheng's in the Li is quite arbitrary
and lacks every support; s i en in the Kien chuan may very well have its ordinary
well-attested sense of 'small, fine' and mean 'fine-textured silk'.
1362. Yang niao yu ku 51.
A. Cheng Hiian: yang n i a o >>the sunlight-birds>> means wild geese who followed
the sun (the seasons) as migratory birds. Thus: >>Where the sunlight-birds settle>>. There
is no text par. to confirm this bold guess that the migratory birds were called y a n g
n i a o the sunlight. birds>>; it is much more natural to take yang as = 'south' (as
opp. to yin 'north') here functioning as a verb: Where the (>southing birds =) birds
going south (sc. for the winter) dwell>. - B. Lin Chi-k'i argues that parallelism with
If ;{)R 17.::t$.
e.__i5..k 1f1lj.o/J .1<1 1t
Ill;( l. ?J. 11.l. n J!;.l( *- f. :w.1f. .1> :J' :1.r;.#: fi i> :4. -;:;,.4 '** n !1:-f w.
{l;:ffi. 17.!$: 4>%.fllW. ff J ;t)? JJ. .t)5
-------------- --------
descriptions o! the other provinces demands that Yang niao was a place name. Yii
Yue elab?rates this further. N i a o 52 is equal to tao 53 'island' (just as earlier under
prov. .orthodox _Shu te.xt has Tao y i 54 whereas Shi ki (basing itself
on Ta Ta1: Wu t1. te) N I a o y I 55. He suggests that this Yang t a
56 may
be the as Lu:. Sl11 kun Yang tao 57, a people of the Y i 58 barbarians. No
Yang n 1 a o has k ii 'to dwell' for verb, which means that the place name
have be taken as name of its people, as often (cf. Ode 263, phr. 59 >>The [people of]
the Su country came to cou_rt>>), thus; >>Where (the people of) Yang-niao (or: Yang-tao)
dwell>>. - B ma;Y seem tem_rtmg, but once it is a people and not a place that is
the_ desired parallelism w1th the other paragraphs is again lost. Moreover our
line IS not Legge and Chavannes) an independent clause but closely connected with
the precedmg (60 = 61 'there where, quo'), and describes the marsh lands: The P'eng-li
marsh was (pooled =) drained into a lake, (that is) where the (southing birds =) birds that go south
(for the winter) dwelh.
1363. K ii e t s' a o wei y a o 62.
Mao Heng in comm. _on Ode 6 had defined y a o 63 as = 64 'young and vigorous',
and Ma Jung here says It means 65 'long, tall'; PK'ung tries to reconcile these definitions
and says 66 'young and ieng' (!). The word really means 'delicate', hence also 'slender';
thus: ults grass is delicately slenderu, see. Gl. 23.
1364. K ii e k u n g w e i k i n s a n p ' i n 67.
A. Cheng Hiian: kin san p' in means 68 llbronze of three (colours=) qualities. _
B. Wang and PK'ung: three_ colours>> means gold, silver and copper>> (Legge
follows - Whereas Kung J_'"mg-ta m gloss on our Shu line accepts B (referring to
WhiCh calls gold h nang kIn >>yellow metal>> and silver p o kin >>white metal)
m on Ode 299 same K'ung Ying-ta advocates Cheng's view (A): since furthe;
on m Yu kung gold and silver as articles of tribute have their special terms (69 and 70)
it is evident that k i n here does not mean any of them but 'bronze' its most
meaning in the classics. Cheng is here obviously right. '
1365. K ii e f e i c h I p e i 71.
_A. Hiian: chi p e i is the name of a kind of fabric, the same that is called p e i
k I 72 m Ode 200: 'shell brocade', the pattern reminding of the veins in cowries. Thus:
In _Its are) (woven =) w?ven in cowrie pattern.- B. PK'ung:
chI means t3 and p e I has Its ordinary meaning, thus: >>In its
are) fme hemp-fabncs and cowries. - There is no reason whatever why
c h 1, which Simply means >>woven stuff>>, should be precisely hemp; and parallelism with
other paragraphs shows that the baskets>> only contained fabrics so c h 1 p e i is sure to be
a binome, with A. '
1366. K ii e p a o k ii y u s i k u n g 7 4.
A. Hiia!l Y. u : >>In th: bundles there are oranges and pum-
meloes, there Is) tm, It IS sent m tnbute>>. This strange interpr. of the two words s i
k _u n g IS due to the fact that in each section the text first describes the kung 75
tnbute, and then _the content of 76 the baskets. Here, after these two regular entries,
the lme and Cheng thinks that it refers to a not regular but occa-
SIOnal tribute, dependmg upon whether the province could supply it or not. This has
been accepted both by Kia?g Sheng and Sun Sing-yen. - B. PK'ung: S i kung
77 when there was given order, then they were (tributed =) sent as tribute,
thus. >>In the bUI_ldles_ there are o:anges and pummeloes, which s i (on order) given
k u n g are sent m tnbute>>. The 1dea that s i 'to give' alone is equal to s i m i n g
give order' of quite ridiculous. And yet, when further on, under the prov.
Yu chou, we fmd s 1 kung k 'in g t s' o 78, even Kiang sheng and Sun Sing-yen,
realizing that the A interpr. is inapplicable here, quite inconsistently turn round and
follow PK'ung (B): The kung tribute (sent in) s i (on order) given, is musical stones
and whetstones>>. Ts'ai Ch'en, Legge, Chavannes, Couvreur all accept this impossible
construction in both cases. - C. Chang Ping-lin: s i 79 should be 80 = 'to transmit',
see Gl. 1244. This theory is too weakly substantiated. - D. Another interpr. S i 79
is common meaning 'to give, to present'. After the regular and obligatory kung,
and after the contributions in baskets>>, there come, in these instances, tribute that was
given, presented of free will, not as an obligation. Thus 74: In the bundles (there are)
oranges and pummeloes, (which are) presented (i. e. voluntary) tribute. In the same way 78:
aThe presented (i. e. voluntary) tribute is musical stones and whetstones. Similarly under
King-chou 81: The (region of) the Nine Kiang brings in the voluntarily presented great tortoises.
C h ' a o t s u n g y ii h a i see Gl. 483.
1367. K i u Kiang k' u n g yin 82.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien renders this by 83. Yin 84 = 85 is based on Erya, and c h u n g
here has the sense of 'to hit the centre, hit the mark', hence 'to define, determine' as
in Yao tien 86 >>Thereby he determined midspring>>. Thus: The Nine Kiang (rivers) were
greatly (determined =) regulated . PK'ung turns it differently: c h u n g 'to hit the
mark' here means 87: The Nine Rivers greatly suited themselves to the physical
features of the earth>>. Kiang Sheng, on the other hand, takes c hung 'middle' in its
fundamental sense: >>The Nine Rivers greatly (hit the centre=) kept to the centre (of
the land)>>. For this he has no lesser authority than Meng: T'eng Wen kung, hia, which
in describing Yii's works says: 88 >>The waters passed through the middle of the lands>>
(not spreading out over the whole surface), and it is quite possible that Mencius in writing
this had our Shu line in mind. But our phr. is parallel to earlier phrases like 89 The
Nine Streams were directed (conducted)>>; 90 >>Yii yi was defined>>, etc. (like these, our
phr. stands at the very begim1ing of the description of the province); and it is followed
immediately by: 91. It should therefore refer to the regulating works of Yii, which
decides in favour of the first interpr. above. - B. Cheng Hiian takes k ' u n g 92 in
its primary sense of 'hole' and yin 84 = 'ample, many' (common), thus: Of the Nine
Rivers the (holes=) gully mouths (from which they came) were numerous>> (i.e. they
were difficult to regulate). A hopeless speculation.
C h ' u n k a n k u a i p o - 4 kinds of trees, with Cheng Hiian and PK'ung, not
3 (kan = 'bow stem', Ts'ai Ch'en), see notes by Legge and Chavannes.
1368. K ii e m i n g p a o k u e i t s i n g m a o 93.
K ii e m i n g : A. Ma J ung and PK'ung carry these two words to the preceding:
k ii n l u h u s an p an g c h 1 kung 94: The k ii n and l u bamboos and the h u
trees, three countries furnish them as tribute; k ii e min g their fame (is good)>>. Since
the last phrase is interpreted in a grammatically unsatisfactory way, Ts'ai Ch'en has
improved it: The k ii n and I u bamboos and the h u trees, three countries furnish as
tribute k ii e min g the most famous of them>>, which at least is grammatically
JZ:P3J !J 5t Sf 1Ji:. J5 ffi .t(=-1- hi.{ ?:!*._ >f. ?s:-fz. .z;-J_:l,* o.)'i{_
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7:[ -lL !'JMZ ;;<:; !)\ t X 1'4. 1!1 J! j . !' M. fC l 17. A .1 n. w i2
impeccable. - B. Cheng Hi.ian carries k ii e min g to the following phr., as above;
since t s i n g m a o were objects used for the ancestral temple, they were highly esteem.
ed, which is expressed by k i.i e m in g )>The most renowned (thing) is the p a o
k u e i t s in g m a o)>. This seems quite convincing, and is followed by Kiang Sheng.
(Yi.i Yiie has the bizarre idea that k ii e min g means )>inscribed.)
P a o k u e i t s i n g m a o : A. PK'ung takes p a o separately, referring to the phr.
95 )>In the bundles (there are) oranges and pummeloes)> in an earlier line; he distinguishes
between t sing 96 'rape turnip', as in Chouli: Hai jen 97 salted turnips)>; and mao
= the mao grass used for straining wine as described in Tso: Hi 4, phr. 98: Your
tribute of wrapped mao- grass is not delivered, the king's sacrifices are not supplied,
there is nothing wherewith to strain the wine)>. Finally he defines k u e i 99 as = 100
'box'. But such a sense of the char. is only attested from T'ang-time and onwards and
is a secondary phenomenon, probably directly based on this very PK'ung gloss. Thus:
p a o the bundled things (sc. oranges and pummeloes), k u e i t sing mao the
(boxed =) box-packed rape turnips and mao . grass)>. This is rhythmically bad, and
moreover the par. in Tso: Hi 4 clearly shows that p a o should connect with m a o. -
B. Cheng Hiian had already correctly seen that t sin g - m a o is a binome, being the
name of a kind of in Kuan: K'ing chung: 2 *Between the Kiang and the
Huai, there is a m a o - grass with three (spines =) ridges, it is called t s in g m a o.
This text support is conclusive. As to p a o k u e i 3 (quoted 4 in certain glosses;
the two p a o are etym. the same word), Cheng proposes that 99 (*kiwag I kjwi I k u e i)
means 'to tie' (which probably means that he took it to be a loan char. for 5 *kif>g I I
k i u 'to twist, to plait'), thus: The wrapped and tied-up t sing-mao grass)>. - C.
It is not really necessary to accept this rather improbable loan speculation. Shuowen
says 99 (*kfwJg I kjwi I k u e i) was a variant for 6 I kjwi I k u e i), and though
the bronze inscriptions do not confirm this, we have in Yi: Kua 41, phr. 7 )>two Kuei
vessels)> written 8 in several early versions of the Yi text; similarly in Yili: Kung shi
ta fu li 9 was wr. 10 in the Ku-wen version; 11 is merely an elucidating enlargement
(radical) of the char. (what SI-ma Ts'ien in T'ai shi kung ts1 si.i writes 6, he writes 99
in Li Si chuan). Now the k u e i, as a specialized ritual vase, was a low and broad bowl
with lid, for containing grain at the sacrifices. But of course the various names of vessels
were not necessarily limited to the ritual vessels; thus h u 12 was at the same time a
ritual vessel and a very common lay word = 'flask'. In the same way k u e i certainly
merely means '(low) bowl, tureen', and there is no reason why the word in our line
should not have its simple and ordinary sense. Thus: The most renowned (tribute) is the
three-ridged mao-grass that is wrapped and ( bowled presented in bowls
1369. K ii e f e i h ii an h ii n k i t s u 13.
A. Ma Jung has (ap. Shiwen) the short and enigmatic gloss 14, which probably refers
to the words k i t s u (Sun Sing-yen even believes that Ma's gloss is corrupted and should
be k i t s u wen y e) and means: k i is the (ornament =)pattern of the silk-strings.
Thus: )>In its baskets (there are) dark and purple stuffs and pearl-patterned silk-strings)>,
- B. PK'ung and Ts'ai-Ch'en: In its baskets (there are) dark and purple stuffs, pearls
and silk-strings. This is very unlikely, as shown by the parallels of basket contents,
which were always textiles. - C. Wang Yin-chi: 15 (*kjJr I kjf.(i I k i) is a loan char.
for 16 (*g'jed I g'ji I k i) 'and', thus: .... dark and purple stuffs and silk strings.
Phonetically quite excluded. - D. Kiang Sheng: In its baskets (there are) dark and
purple stuHs and (pearl-strings =) silk-strings (for threading) pearlB. D is certainly most simple
and plausible.
K i u K i a n g n a s i t a k u e i see Gl. 1366.
1370. K ii e t ' u we i j an g, hi a t ' n f e n I u 17.
For f e n 'fat, rich', not 'bulging, forming mounds' see Gl. 1353 above. .
A. Ma Jung: the soil had 3 classes (j an g, fen, 1 u) ; the (I_u _18). mearung
19 'bluish', i. e. 'black'. Thus: Its soil is mouldy; (but) the low-lymg soil IS (either)
or black. Shuowen defines 18 (*lo lluo I I u, even tone) as = 20 )>black and hard smb.
For a sense 'hard' there is no support. On the other hand the sense 'black' is well
confirmed. Shu: Wen hou chi ruing 21 ))a black bow)> (22 *lo lluo 11 u, even tone). The
w. was often wr. 23 in Han time (e. g. in Yang Hiung: Fa yen). It is cognate to 24
(*glo 1 luo 1 I u) 'black', e. g. Tso: Hi 28, _?hr. 25 'a bow'. - B. Cheng Hiian:
1 u = 26 'poor', (cf. Han shu: Kou hi.i chi: 27 soil _and bad)>). '!he more
precise idea of Cheng's s u 26 is hard to determme, smce It IS a char. With
meanings; either 'sparse' = 'thin' (not deep and rich); or 'loose' (not dense). - C. Ts'm
Ch'en tries to evade the difficulty by combining A and B: l u means 28 'dark and poor',
a comical trick. - The sense of 'black' for I u is the only one that really can be
corroborated (with A). The line is best translated: Its soil is mouldy; the low-lying soil
is fat and black .
S i k u n g k ' in g t s ' o see Gl. 1366.
1371. T s' a i Men g l i.i p' in g 29.
Whereas Cheng Hiian takes Ts'ai-meng as one mountain, PK'ung takes Ts'ai and
Meng as two. .
A. PK'ung: l ii 30 means a sacrifice to a mountain (common, e. g. Lun: Pa YI 31
The chief of the Ki family made I i.i sacrifice to the T'ai-sham>); thus: >(At) Ts'ai and
Meng he made 1 ii sacrifice (to =) on the occasion of their regulatiom (Chavaunes: A
Ts'ai et Mong il celebra par des sacrifices le retablissement de l'ordre>>; Couvreur turns
it differently: )>Ts'ai et Meng ad sacrificandum compositi sunt>, i. e. )>were put in o_rder
for sacrificing)>). But it has been rightly objected that the Yii kung. does _not
sacrifices, and that many mountains more famous than these two pass m
notice of any cult. - B. Kiang Sheng: Wei Chao (ap. Shiwen) that 30 ( gl1o I l1wo /
1 ii) here should be read like 22 (*lo), but he must mean that It should be as 32
(*ljo 1 li,wo 11 ii) 'to display, set out' (as in Kyi.i: Tsin yi.i 33 ))set forth _words [1. e. spread
rumours] in the market place)>). Be this as it may, Iii 30 is common m the sense of 'to
set out, arrange, display', e. g. Ode 220, phr. 34 )>The viands and kernel(-fruits) are
displayed)>; Tso: Chuang 22, phr. 35 The is full of th_e (set out =)
hundreds (of gifts))>. Kiang takes Iii as a transitive verb governmg the followmg p In g
36 as object: )>(At) Ts'ai-meng he displayed his regulating (work))>. But Su Yii (37) much
better takes 1 ii - p ' in g as a binome of analogous words: Ts'ai-meng was (laid out =)
arranged and regulated. - C. Wang Nien-sun: Erya: Shi kung has an entry 1 ii 30 = 38
'road' and this is the meaning here: )>The Ts'ai-meng was (roaded =) purveyed with
roads' and regulated. But this sense is poorly documented by texts; there is one single
instance: Li: Kiao t'e sheng 39, where Cheng Hiian defines 1 ii as = 40: )>Towered gate-
way and (road screen=) screen towards the road)>. But Cheng's expl. _(of course
based on Erya) is very uncertain; 1 ii may very well have Its common meamng (see B
above) of 41: ))a screen (duly) set-out, disposed. - Bin its formulation by Su Yii gives

.::. tt i. A Jk /c. 7\ f/l;; C l.t 11 i t.. Pf. ff& ::<.h.. ;J: 4{ P /iJ( .:t.. tit 4 T- .:t..
1.5 .:4 Jf .M .. v Ji 0 .u.;! v BfK nlR iJ .teil7ol n :ts. i:. rm ;;f., .t !/;.
.11./fi( 11. f-R, ffit.M-$: u> -g_;iY,> $ .1+: 1iJ ff.;z :x:: f'
a natural binome and has good text corrroboration. This meaning recurs in two more
Yii kung passages: K in g K ' i k i l u 42 The King and K'i mountains were (laid
out=) arranged; 43 The nine mountains had their trees cut and were (laid out=) arranged.
1372. K u e t ' u t s ' i n g I i 44.
A. S1-ma Ts'ien inst. of 45 (*li<Jr I liei I l i) has 46 (*lieg I liei / 1 i) - both words well
attested in the sense of 'black'. Thus: nits soil is bluish black. - B. Ma Jung, evidently
because in parallel paragraphs the text has first a colour and then a quality of the soil,
would have I i 45 to mean some quality, saying: 1 i = 47, whatever that may mean,
cf. Gl. 1370 (s u 'sparse'? or 'loose'?); Tuan Yii-ts'ai does not elucidate the obscure gloss
by asserting that 45 (*liifr) is equal to 48 (*lia). Legge renders it by light>. No text
support. - C. PK'ung: I i 45 = 49 'moist and mellow'. No text support. - A alone
is corroborated by par. texts.
1373. K ii e f u hi a c h u n g san t s 'o 50.
Its revenues are of the middle 3rd class with 3 admixtures>>. - A. PK'ung believes
that this means 3 classes, the regular one inclusive, thus: >>with some instance of the
upper and lower 3rd>>. Cheng Huan, on the other hand, means that the 3
were outside the regular class, thus: with some instances of the upper and lower 3rd, and
lower 2nd classes. Cf. Yang-chou: K u e f u hi a shan g, shan g t s' o 50a
>>Its revenue is of the upper 3rd class, with admixture upwards (some instances of the
next higher class)>>. This principle applied to our case here will mean that >>mixing>> with
the classes next above (upper 3rd) and next below (lower 3rd) (i. e. shan g t s' o and
h i a t s ' o) will make only two mixings>>; hence the >>three mixings>> of the text must
mean one class more, i. e. the lower 2nd. That is logically inevitable.
K ii e kung k i u (l i u) t ' i e - for this see Chavannes' note, vol. I, p. 129.
1374. Hi u n g p 'i h u l i c h 'i p 'i s i k 'in g 51.
A. Cheng Hiian punctuates after 1 i: Its tribute is black bears, brown-and-white
bears, foxes and wild-cats>>. After this he starts a new paragraph, saying 52. This does
not mean, as Wang Ming-sheng has imagined, that Cheng took Chi p'i as the name of
a >>Western Jtmg country, for later on, under Yung-chou, in the phr. ChI p 'i .K' u n
I u n S i c hi K ' ii s o u, s i J u n g t s i s ii 53, he says: 54 >>The peoples who wear
skins live here>>, thus defining ChI p 'i not as a place name but as >the cm-p'i(-wearing)
K'un-lun, Si-chi, K'ii-sou, (these) western Jung ... >>. His gloss 52 on our line above thus
means: >>C h 1- p 'i, that refers to the countries of the Western Jung>>, i. e. those who are
>>chi-p'i(-wearing)>>. Chi p 'i, ace. to PK'ung (see 13 below), means 55 'felt' (stuff made
of woven hair), and Cheng evidently had the same idea; thus: Chi p 'i s i k 'in g
The felt(-wearing) peoples of Si-k'ing. (the Western Slopes, name of a mountain range),
just as in the later passage 53 he interprets: The felt(-wearing) (peoples of) K'un-lun,
Si-chi, K'ii sou, (these) western Jung ... . - B. PK'ung carries c h 1 p' i to the pre-
ceding, saying: 56 (so quoted in Shi ki tsi kie; in the Shi san king chu su his gloss is
corrupted) >>chi p 'i (>woven skins>>, i.e. >>woven hairs>>) is the present k i felt>>. :But
then some later comm. have insisted that p 'i 57 'skin' belonged to both phrases:
hi u n g p ' i h u I i (p 'i), and chi (p 'i), and Ts'ai Ch'en explains that >>of the
skins as such one could make furs, of their finest down one could weave felt>, which has
caused Legge to translate the skins of bears ..... and articles woven with their hair
(likewise Couvreur and Chavaunes). But this is very unreasonable. The k i 55 we know
was made of sheep's hair and sometimes camel's hair, but certainly not from (selected
tiny) hairs of bears, foxes and wildcats(!). Thus the line in the 13 interpr. should be: >>(Its
tribute was ... ) black bears, brown-and-white bears, foxes, wildcats and felt>>. - A and
13 both have strong advocates. B might seem to be supported by a passage in Yi Chou
shu: Wang Huei, where Yi Yin on T'ang's order determines the tributes to be sent in:
In K'un-lun 58 etc. (9 countries) in 59 the straight west, they are ordered to tribute .. :
60 felt .... Very likely the Yi Chou shu author has understood. passage m
B fashion, and this has decided Sun Sing-yen in favour of B. But IS ea;s1Iy seen that
t A is inevitable in the Yung-chou passage 53. The felt(-weanng) Kun-lun .....
Ill erpr t d t" f t d If
etc. Chavannes has realized this (>Les Koen loen qm on es s e
we accept 13 in our present Liang-chou passage, the phr. c h 1 p 1
tribute in the first, the dress of the peoples in the second whiCh_ IS qmte
inconsistent. (Legge realizing this has translated the >>Hatr-clo_th skins [were
brought from] Kwan-lun .... , which is quite impossible; the m that para-
graph was disposed of in an we are brought back to mterpr. A as the
only one applicable in both lines,_ wtth Kiang .
1375. ChI p ' i S i k ' in g y 1 n u an s _h 1 l a: 61; .
A. Ma Jung, who evidently like PK ung caiTtes c h p 1 to a
Gl. 1374) and starts the paragr. with s i k 'in g, explams: >>In (regW.atmg) the S1 k mg
(mountain), following the Huan (river) thus he -_B. Huan takes H u an-
hi 62 as the name of a mountain: The felt(-wearmg) S1-k mg come the
Huan-sh'i (mountain). He further explains that s h 1 (_*d1eiJ I .Zlf.i Ish 1) was ::
ular word for 64 'a slope, a rising height', hence entermg mto the nal_lle. Huan-sh1.
says the char. 65 (*aieg 1 iit.; 1 s h 1) originally meant a mountam m Pa Shu
(i.e. SI-ch'uan), and the Ts'ing scholars believe that Cheng took _63 as a loan
h h 65 (bo
th *aieg) But that is not correct, for 65 m the sense of he1ght 1s
omop onous _ , . 63 *a-
but a short-form for 66 which was *d'jeg 1 J'it.; 1 c h' I, so Cheng s Idea comes to 1eg
loan char for 66 *d'ieg. - c. K'ung Ying-ta: Since Huan was a well-knoWll
emg a - . . ki t
r-name in Han time (Han shu: Ti li chl), .Ma (A) IS nght m ta ng 1 as a name
not a hill name (B). The line refers to the peoples of K'ing. Thus the
words c h 1 p' i to this line, in ace. w. Gloss 13741, we obtam: felt(-wearmg) (peoples
of) Si-k'ing (sthe Western Slopesn), following the Huan (nver) (thus=) this.
L u an y ii h
: for l u an see Gl. 906. King shu We 1 J u e 1 see Gl. 910.
K i n g K ' i k i I ii see GL 1371.
1376. s an w e i k i t s e 67' ) A
- T ,. wr
"tes 68 We have a sure c.ase in whiCh 69 *d ak serves as loan char.
1-ma s 1en . . . 1
for 70 d'iik: Ode 244, where (Mao version) 71 >>He took his residence m the Hao capita>>
is rendered 72 in Li: Fang ki (Ts'i version); cf Gl. 794. _ ,
A: PK'ung and Ts'ai Ch'en take 70 as the proper graph (and S1-ma s
69 is a loan for it, as in Ode 244), and interpret: The (country of) San-wei was
habitable>. :But all the phrases with k i 73 in the Yii kung refer to_the_works achwved
(k i) by Yii, e. g. (under Ki-chou) 74 >>Ta-lu was brought cultn:atwn:>, and so
A interpr. has to be modified into: >>The (country of) San-wei _was made mhabJted>>
>>was made habitable>> is not quite to the point). - B. Kiang_ Sheng the Sh1 k1
ad" g 69 as the proper one (70 consequently being loan char.: JUSt as 70 d ak can serve
: for *d'iik in Ode 244, so the opposite is quite admissib_Ie here); thus: The (country of)
San-wei was (measured out=) regulated (Chavannes follows this). - B forms a better par.
to the next line: 75.
:Jr. 1nJ k-.$:f i'o 1'1 ;l{J tJ.J:..ftVJi<.. 1!3 1L Lll f'j ffi;, #f/i... 3::. A 1k </7/J,;HiL
4-t J:..J:..iilff J1 \!&A z@ Tt
;t;f u :t<1Lt!9 A tz It z!%'. Ai Jt5Jfl3 q. }fJ e 57 It Sf ll {iii-_, _ _;: iBi ""'itt.$.1
ccj\Zc;r ;:_?c_f;;L:t_ 't.
1377. T u n g h u e i t s e we i P ' en g l i 76.
A. 77 (*g'wJr I /hue i) is = 78 (same sound) 'to turn round',
and PK =; 79 . . Thus:_ the east (sc. the Han river) whirls (forming)
a t s e that Is P eng-li. This IS grammatically faulty: hue i t s e cannot be
construed like that. We should therefore have to modify the interpr. into: In the
it __(sc., river) :Whirled in ,the marsh and formed (the lake) P'eng-li>>. - B. Tuan
Yu-ts ai, while retauung Cheng s expl. 77 = 78, construes without the Han river as
and with 78 meaning (= 80): >n the east, rounding up (andre-
ceivmg) (all the) marshes, there IS the P eng-li (lake)>>; a very forced expl. - c. Si-ma
Cheng (T'ang Tinie; comm. on Shi ki: Wu ti pen ki): hue i 77 is the name of a marsh:
In the east, the Hnei marsh forms the (lake) P'eng-lis. This is confirmed a few lines later:
p e i h u e i y ii H u e i 81 In the north it joined with the Hueh> to construe here a
hue i 77 = 'to whirl': In the north it joins with the whirling (sc'. is much too
unnatural. phr. is par. to several others with a place name corresp. to our Huei,
e. g. (some lines below) 82 To the North-east it joins with the Wen>> etc.
1378. T u n g y i 83.
A. Ma Jung defines y i as = 84, which is quite obscure. - B. PK'ung: y i = 85
:to no C. Shuo-wen: y i = 'to go slantingly, to deflect' (text par.
m Chouli: Kung Jen), cf. also Gl. 49.
1379. Y i wei J u n g 86.
:Sot? Kin-wen_version (ap. Si-ma Ts'ien) and the Ku-wen (ap. comm. on
Chouli: Chi fang sh1) read 87 It rushes out and forms the Jung (marsh) The form 85
it flowed out>>) is probably a correction made by Wei Pao 88 (9th c.).
K 1 u c h o u y u t ' u n g The nine provinces were made uniform - for y u as a
mere mark of the passive see GL 679.
1380. s i y u k i t s e 89.
Si-ma Ts'iei?-, Shang shu ta chuan and Pan Ku (Han shu: Ti li chi) write 90. PK'ung
(as above) writes 89, and that this is not a later correction in his text (Tuan Yii-ts'ai
believes that Wei Pao introduced it) but original is proved by Kyii: Chou yii 91 (probably
wrong for 89, as shown by Yii Yiie), clearly alluding to our Shu text, which testifies to
earl.y existence of a version with 92. Ts'ie Yiin and Yii p'ien read 93. The words of
this senes_ have to a larl?e extent double readings: *og 1 au 1 a o and -jok 1 i:u 1 y ii,
and there IS much uncertarnty among the glossists whether in a certain sense of the word
the reading is *8g or *iok or both. The characters frequently serve as loan char. for
one another.
A. Cheng Hiian (in comm. on Ta chuan) says 94 means 95 'the interior inside' and
Wei Chao (comm. on Chou yii) says 92 means 95. Thus: The (four inside =/areas
inside the four quarters were made inhabited. In fact, the fundamental sense of the whole
(written one or other of the char. above) was really 'inside, interior',
be It lllBide of a house, I. e. the most protected southwestern comer, or 'inside of a river
be,nd', i. a cove, 'hidden, secret', etc. Cf. particularly Tso: Chao 13, phr 96, which
K ung Y rng-ta explarns: 97 The country ha.s an (interior lord =) leader inside (the
--= PK'ung expounds 98_ as 99 the the ,four quarters, taking
92 - 94 - _s. comer, the rntenor of a house = house ; thus properly: >>The
four [quarters ] . (rntenors =) were made inhabited. - C. Shu owen ha.s an entry
100 1 a place Within the four _quarters (a word unknown from other texts),
and srnce Yu p Ien quotes our Shu line With 93, Ku Ye-wang evidently attributed this
sense to the later _expressly followed by Yen Shi-ku ( comm. on Han shu). Thus:
>>The four (quarters) hab1table places were made inhabited>>. - D. Shuowen says 92
means 2 >>the bank of a river cove>> (the >>interior of the bend), and though there are no
text ex. of this, the simple 94 has this sense in Ode 55. Ts'ai Ch'en seizes upon this 98:
3 >>the cove banks of the four (seas)>>, thus: The banks along the four (seas') coves were
made inhabited>>, which is so strained that Legge has had to paraphrase it: The grounds
along the waters(!) were everywhere made (Couvreur: Quattuor [marium]
littora fuerunt habitabilia). - E. Chavannes translates: Dans les quatre directions, les
terrains bas furent inhabites. How y ii could have the sense of low-land>> he does not
tell. - F. Yii Yiie proposes that 98 refers to the four extreme points to which Yao
sent his astronomers (Yii-yi in the East, Nan-kiao in the south etc.), but does not explain
how it can have that sense. - C would certainly be best, if such a word really existed;
but it is evidently fabricated ad hoc to suit this very Shu pa.ssage (the char. specifyingly
enlarged by rad. 'earth'), and its meaning is deduced from the context. This being so,
the oldest interpr. (A) is certainly the only acceptable.
K i u shan k ' an Iii see GL 1371.
1381. S i h a i hue i t ' u n g 4.
A. PK'ung explains: 5. Legge in a curious way has misunderstood this gloss, trans-
lating: Access to the capital was secured for all within the four seas>>. Legge understood
PK'ung thus: (all within) the four sea.s made hue i t' u n g meets at the capital,
and he believes that this refers to Lun: Sien Tsin: 6, which he translates: At the services
of the ancestral temple, and at the audiences of the princes with the emperor>>. This is,
indeed, Ho Yen's interpr., who says that occasional visits to court were called hue i 7
and regular unions in grand style were called t ' u n g 8. This Lun passage would thus
seem to support the idea that our Shu line referred to such h u e i t 'u n g meets. But
unfortunately, a.s Liu Pao-nan has proved, Ho Yen is at fault: hue i t' u n g is a
general term for meetings between feudal lords (not with the king in the capital), is
clearly stated in Tso: Ting 4 (the princes met 7 for a covenant, and an orator smd: 9
>>meetings are a difficult affair). This robs Legge's interpr. of its foundation. And in
fact PK'ung's idea was quite different, for he adds 10, his whole gloss thus meaning:
(all within) the four seas were made uniform with the capital, the 9 provinces had the
same customs, the myriad states had the same usages. :Briefly, the Shu line 4 would
mean: (All within) the four seas were made uniform, i. e. the culture, customs and
standards of the royal court were spread everywhere in the great realm. In fact, PK'ung
simply builds on Kyii: Chou yii hia which, describing Yii's work, paraphrases the whole
of our Shu pa.ssage here and renders our line by 11 he made uniform (all within) the
four seas (on which Wei Chao: 12 he caused them to have the same gauge, a common
expression for uniformity of customs). - B. Ts'ai Ch'en: The four seas (were joined=)
got their afflnentu, i. e. all rivers were conducted to the seas. He himself on a phr.
iri the Ki-chou paragraph: 13 Lei-hia was formed into a marsh, and (the rivers) Yung
and Tsii joined it, where we have precisely the binome h u e i t ' u n g in the technical
sense of a river flowing out into a greater water. This par. is a very strong confirmation.
- c. Kiang Sheng: >>(All within) the four sea.s were brought into communication with
each other>>, sc. after Yii's great regulating works had made contacts possible (Chavannes
7!. :t 7.! It .i.:#]% 13 f!t rs: 3.1 .it. n:: 1. :4-, tf 1i 171Ji 76'@ ?f
j@ i/1.111 if. -t :f {;j J:tA ;jt_ t f');:: iJ iS;;:,_ jp, "3._ 88 {tf(J H.
1Z 91 ;f. 1'9 7f ts,:t.J r.: ff . n. %i lJJ Vi .Z .i:.. 11.
ft;y. 1!9 1i Z.:t IM ,..g ;1 Z .:t.. ;;J 5. d .Z.. r:9 r-J 1!9
translates: >>dans l'interieur des quatre mers tout fut uni et harmonieux, believing this
to be Kiang Sheng's idea, which is not correct). - The oldest interpr. (A, that of Kyii)
would be most appealing, if we had not already had a few lines earlier: 14 >>The nine
provinces were harmonized (made uniform)>>; a tautological: >>(All within) the four
seas were made uniform>> would be meaningless. The Yii kung par. for h u e i t ' u n g
is decisive in favour of B, all the more since the context favours it: the mountains had
their trees thinned and regulated, the rivers had their springs cleaned, the marshes were
banked, the seas got their affluents.
1382. C h u n g pang 15.
A. Cheng Hiian reads this together with the following: 16 In the central kingdom he
conferred lands and clan-names. - B. K'ung-Ying-ta and Yen Sh!-ku (both T'ang time)
and Ts'ai Ch'en read it together with the preceding: 17 One established the revenues
for the central kingdom>>. - No reason to abandon the earliest interpr.
1383. Chi y i t e s i en p u k ii chen hi n g 18.
A. Cheng Hiian believes that 19 is a short-form for 20 and paraphrases: 21 >>Their
respecting and rejoicing in the Iring's virtue was (primary =) the chief matter and
further they did not go counter to the king's course of government>>. Thus the Shu line:
>>(Their) respecting and in the virtue was (primary =) the chief matter, they
did not go counter to our (king's) course>>. That chen hi n g should mean >>our (king's)
course>> is, of course, excluded. - B. PK'ung: since chen 22 is the pronoun, y i 19
should likewise be the common pronoun 1, we>>. He gives this paraphrase: 23 >>When
the ruler always himself considers the respecting of my virtue as the chief matter, then
in the world there will be none who go counter to my course>>. This curious mixing of
oratio recta and obliqua of course will not do; we should either have to interpret the Shu
line thus: >>When his respectful attendance to (my virtue =) his own virtue is the chief
matter, they will not go counter to (my course=) his course, which is to force the text
too badly; or take it as a direct quotation: >>(the king said:) When my respectful attendance
to my virtue is the chief matter, they will not go counter to my course. But the whole
Yii kung is a dry and matter-of-fact narrative, and such a sudden insertion of a speech
of the king's is highly improbable. - C. Yen Shi-ku: y i 19 = 24 (this after Fang yen,
Western Han colloquial), paraphrasing 25; thus the Shu line: >>C h 1 y i (among) the
respectfully (nourished =) cultivated things, t e s i en the virtue is the first, (therefore
one will not go counter to my (our?) course>>; which is rather nonsensical. - D. Ts'ai
Ch'en again takes the line as an oratio recta: >>(The king said:) respectfully attending to
my virtue I go before (i. c. lead on the people), and (then) they will not go counter to
my course>>. - E. Liu Feng-lu: chen 22 should be 25 b, which Shuowen says is a
variant for 26; thus 27 means the (instructed=) assigned course>>. Very little convincing.
- F. Chang Ping-lin: 19 *diag IiI y i is loan char. for 28 *dzjJg I zi j s I, thus: >>(He
conferred land and clan names [on the feudal lords]) respectfully to succeed to the virtuous
ancestors .. . >> - G. Yii Sing-wu: in several late Chou bronze inscriptions the char. 19
stands for y i 29, and 30 is simply equal to 31. ChI is common in the sense of >>only>>.
So far Yii is undoubtedly right. But when he paraphrases 32: >>I only make the virtuous
influence the first matter>>, he is less convincing. The line should be understood in direct
* Z lA :f fr.:. tr ( Jltltfi Z f k 7. 8 9. %f.] trf lo/L ;
% .ii!! 0! /,t {it i:.. f'J ${_ 13 :I /J; lltfH't.t.RJ IS: f Jp ,.f; f' h jib. ;tJ:i. 17 M
1' fr ;s. M 1t.ft .r- $e:-*'1"-T n ;; .to. v_JI;.1Ri:it.;;;.. + +
t' 'th the preceding He conferred lands and clan-names (on the feudal lords),
their virtue they.(advanced =)were promoted, (such who) did not go counter to our
course. . . t o Ii na chi .... wu
1384. W u p o I i tIe n f u, p o It f u n a sung, e r p f 33 .
o I i h o u f u . . . w u p o l i s u e i f u .... y a o f u .. . h u g. u , . i e n t s I
p - Ts'ien introduces this passage w1th 7 words of his l1 n g t
SI-ma . . I i etc) 34 they have given occasiOn for much specula-
ch!kuoyiWai(wupo ' I il'tbl't r
h' h nly be briefly mentioned here (Chavannes' trans atwn: >> e a I pou
tiOn, w IC dcanf'los du ciel et pour ceux qui lui sont exterieurs>> differs from all the com-
le royaume u I .
and tie n f u means: >>500 li (in every direction
A P ung mam ams f th pital to
1 the t i en _ f u = royal domain proper>>, 1. e. rom e ca
the south 500 li, together 1000 li. That t i e.n f u mfeahns
e nor ' . d 'th L' Wang chi 35 >>The tlen domam o t e
>>the royal domai_n>> is m of) li>> (i. e. what in Ode 303 is called 36),
Son of Heaven 1s a square WI . . f t 'd
d when Kyii: Chou yii, shang says 37 >>Inside of the (royal) state IS tIe n
an . f U> etc it is uite evident that the orator means the same. IS s

possesseld tt emountains and rivers and the Spirits>>.
to supp y h believe that Si-ma meant the same, interpret his mtroductor.r:

[m elver[ left half drawn here). The side of the square represen.tmg
of tIe ype m lg. tl 5000 r - B Kia K'uei and Ma JunO' believe that the tIe n
the total realm was ms l. "'
Huang 1
2.500 li
(R. D.)
2.500 li
Fig. 1.
f u our Shu means the first zone outside the royal domain. This is because
they L?terpret SI-mas illtroductory line thus: >>He ordered that outside the k u
(domaill pro.J?er) .of the Son of I:eaven, 500 li were the tie n f U>> etc. Thus they obtain
the s.cheme ill fig. 2 a. The distance from the capital in each direction being 3000 li
the side of the total square is 6000 li. For this interpr. there is (besides Sima's line if
understood) argument. Chouli: Ta si rna and and Chi fang shi have adother
sch:me,. descnbillg the Chou realm, with 9 zones outside the royal domain: 39, arranged
as m Fig. 2 b. The total square will then have a side of 10000 li. This scheme can in
at least, boast a high age, for in Shu: K'ang kao we find: >>officers from the h u,
t.1 en and nan states, and (the zones of) t s 'a i and wei>>, which confirms the inner
of the outside the royal domain. Kia and Ma conclude that since t i en f u
IS here outside the wan g k 'i 40 'royal domain proper', it should be so also in our Yii
kung passage; cannot avoid (su:h as the wording of Yii kung is) to make a
sequel; m "_Yu kung: royal tie n - h o u etc: in K'ang kao (and
Chouli). :?yal dom.aill - h.o u - t I en etc. Thus the (theoretical) scheme made up
about yu s realm ill the Yu kung cannot be made to agree entirely with the (equally
scheme of the early Chou realm in the K'ang kao. Yet another scheme
taking an is in Kyii: Chou yii, which says: 41 >>Inside
state IS .the tIe n f u; outside the (royal) state is the h
u f u; h
u and
we I are the p In f u (sc. zone - lords coming as guests to court); y i
and m n a: r e the Y a o. f u; J u n g and t 1 are the h u a n g f u. This gives the
scheme m Fig. 2 c. In this scheme there are no figures. If we take Kyii's four outer
I Fan
I Chen
IN an
5.000 li
I Man
3.000 li
R. D.
R. D.
(R. D.)
Fig. 2.
zones (y i - man - j u n g - t i) to correspond to Chouli's four outer zones
!man - y i -chen- f n), it still does not correspond to our Yii kung, for later
ill our whereas the y I are sure enough placed in the y a o f u, the m a n are
placed ill the u an g f u. corresponding to K'ang-kao's and Chouli's five
h o u- e t s a I- wei we here have only two h
u _wei, together
=pIn f u (It will not do to say, with Wei Chao, that h o u wei means >>from
h o u to we i [inclusive]>> = >>h o u - t i en- n an - t s ' a i - wei, for in the Kyii
scheme tie n is not in this group but is = the royal dorr ain). On the other hand, the Kyii
text continues by enumerating 5 kinds of offerings corresponding to t i en, h o u, p in,
y a o and h u an g respectively, which seems to indicate a 5-zone division similar to
that of Yii kung. We would then have, not (as in fig. 2 c) four principal zones (tie n,
p in, y a o, h u an g) but 5: t i en, h o u, p in, y a o, h u the 3rd (p in)
subdivided in 3 a h o u and 3 b wei. This, however, would entail that there were
two consecutive zones (2 and 3 a) both called h o u (the same but strictly
distinguished, which is absurd, unless the second h o u is a mistake for something else,
for which we have no support. Thus the Kyii passage is, after all, very enigmatical. -
Several other schemes crop up in the early literature, Shu: Tsiu kao: Outside (the royal
domain), the princes of the states of the h o u, tie n, nan, wei>> - here four zones
instead of K'ang-kao's five (likewise in K'ang wang chi kao). Tso: Siang 15: The king
and the princes, and the dignitaries of the t i e n, t s ' a i, w e i>> - only 3 out of the
5 of K'ang kao. Again, Yi Chou shu: Wang huei: Inside a (with a _of)
1000 li is pi f u 42; inside one of 2000 li (i. e. from 1000--2000 li) IS y a o f u; illSJde
one of 3000 li (i. e. from 2000-3000) is h u a n g - f m.
In the choice between A and B there seems to be a strong support for B in the fact
that the texts speak of w u f u 43 >>the 5 dependencies (e. g. in Kao Yao mo above},
just as Chouli speaks of k i u f u the 9 dependencies>>; in Chouli the 9 are all outside
the royal domain (not including the latter in the figure), and on this analogy w u f u
>>the 5 dependencies should be 5 outside the royal domain, with B. On the other hand,
when Kao Yao mo says: >>I assisted in establishing the 5 dependencies, all to 5000 (li)>>,
this agrees well with the A scheme (5000 li from the extreme north to the extreme south)
but can only be reconciled with the B scheme in counting first 2500 li from the extreme
north down to the northern line of the royal domain, then skipping the 1000 li of the
latter and again counting 2500 to the south of it, which is certainly very far-fetched. In
fact, it is impossible to reconcile all the various schemes above, each text must be taken
by itself and not forced to agree with the speculations of other theorizing sc.hools. Viewed
by itself, the Yii kung passage is certainly best suited to the A scheme. Smce there were
feudal lords also inside the royal domain of 1000 li square, and since the whole passage
refers to the creation of feudal lords and their duties in regard to tribute, it is incon-
ceivable that the royal domain should be left out of the description, this latter starting
only with the first zone outside the royal domain. Thus we should translate: a500 li (in
each direction from the capital city) is the tie n f q royal domain (with Legge and Chavannes).
1385. (Wu po li tien fu) p o l i f u n a t sung, e r p o l i n a chi 33.
T sung 44 fundamentally means 'to tie together, to bundle', here 'bundled grain',
i. e. grain with the straw, in sheaves. . .
A. PK'ung: (500 li [in every direction from the capital] were the t 1 en f u royal
domain), (the first) 100 li (from the capital) bring as revenue bundled grain with the straw,
fir if .tt.A\(.!5 . .:.15 $ tit I!< 1!!1 !g J.Jl.;:fr..1r .M .u:rt * l:.:f& {!l . .ib
ts. ilf.1.t9. };.(. .:Jo. ti 1l!. Jl. :12)@_ Jt. Ji.. ?3
1.. B $. '1.. if':JM_ ---Ji. s Jlfl ... JL. i3 'L t:$')j[{_ - .;" AR.. JC:AA...:J+ i' .it+
Z@ J:<.?'t :1r .+ .Z {B) Jr t..!.. $t 4-.1 :17 #r rtJ fil) JIIV'f3 Jr. 'iluA/t.J:r
-11. .1: 44r rtJ R/Vp YJ Jlfl/Xj;< if.A)l .t. ttJJR. +1
11 161
he 2nd 100 li bring the earu, etc. PK'ung thus considers these 5 distances: from 1-100
li, from 100-200 li, from 200-300 li, from 300-400 li, from 400-500 li as subdivisions
of the t i e n f u. - B. Cheng Huan has a curious speculation. In Yao's time, the
w u f u five dependencies were still only of 500 li (i. e. from the capital to the outer
limit of t i en f u 500 li, from this limit to the outer limit of h o u f u 500 li etc.)
in accordance with scheme A, Fig. 1. But Yu enlarged these by additional districts:
to the 500 li (from the capital) of the tie n f u were laid 100 li which presented bundled
grain, outside those again 100 li which presented the ears etc., up to 500, so that the
enlarged tie n f u had 1000 li from the capital to the northern (eastern, southern and
western) confines, thus corresponding to the wang k' i + h o u f u of the Chouli
scheme, Fig. 2 b. The original h o u f u, of 500 li from its inner to its outer confines
likewise was enlarged so as to attain 1000 li from its inner to its outer confines,
corresponding to Chouli's t i e n and n an f u; similarly the original s u e i f u by
doubling came to correspond to Chouli's t s 'a i and wei f u; the original y a 0 f u
to correspond to Chouli's m an f u and y i f u; and the original h u an g f u to
correspond to Chouli's c h en f u and f a n f u. This comical speculation is due ex-
clusively to Cheng's desire to bring the Yii kung scheme into accordance with the Chouli
scheme; but a slight support for it might be adduced: Yu kung says that h o u f u
contains the 45 n an states and the c h u h o u - the n an 45 is a Chouli zone which
ace. to Cheng's computation would come into the enlarged h o lJ f u; and it says that
s u e i f u contains a district which is energetic in war w u and defence w e i 46 -
w e i 47 is a Chouli zone which ace. to Cheng's computation would come into the enlarged
s u e i f u; but, again, it says that the h u a n g f u contains a district with man 48,
and here Cheng's theory breaks down, for Chouli's man f u falls into Cheng's enlarged
y a o f u category, not his enlarged huang f u. - B, of course, is typical scholastics.
1386. S a n p o 1 i n a k i a f u 49.
For 50 *kat I kat I k i a there are the variants 51 (Ma Jung and Cheng in gloss on Li,
same sound), 52 (Shiwen, same sound), 53 (Han shu: Ti li chi, same sound) -four ways
of writing the same word.
A. PK'ung says simply that 50 is = 54 'stalk of grain, straw', and so does Yen Shi-ku
on the 53 of Han shu. Shuowen defines 52 as = 55 'peeled stalks of grain' (used for
weaving certain mats). PK'ung defines f u 56 as = 57 ;)the service of (presenting) the
straw>) (f u = 'service-work' is common) (for another but erroneous interpr. of PK'un:g's
gloss see Gl. 871). Ts'ai Ch'en believes that all the 3 first districts (from 0-300 li) had to
f u 56 do transport service. But there is nothing to define the f u as = service of
transport; rather the 3 nearest districts (0-300 from the capital) had to do f u labour
service for public works, when required - those further away could not be called in.
Thus: The 3rd 100 li bring the straw; (these three zones) do labour dutya. For the meaning
of k i a two passages in Li: Kiao t'e sheng and Li: Li k'i, in both of which we have
the binome 58 'straw' used for making mats, are quite decisive: it means 'straw', and
quite possibly, with Shuowen, 'peeled straw'. - B. Cheng Hiian is curiously inconsistent.
In his Shu comm., having defined the preceding c h 1 59 as = 60 'one cuts off and
removes the straw', i. e. 'the ears, freed from the straw', he here says: 61 k i a on the
other hand (means that) one removes the ears', i.e. the 'straw freed from the ears'. But
in Li: Li k'i he says (quoting our Yu kung) 62 the ear of grain, with the (fruit =) kernels
removed is called k i a>, thus: 'emptied ears'. Since these could not very well serve for
making mats, he must, in this latter case, have meant 'straw with emptied ear still on'
(Tuan Yii-ts'ai has made an elaborate attempt to explain Cheng's views differently: by
yin g 63 he did not mean 'ear of grain' but the upper part of the stalk; but
even with this strained expl. he cannotsuccessfully reconcile Cheng's different glosses).
c. Ch'en Huan: f u 56 belongs to?ether with. k! a i a =:" 64 'the i.
kernels, the graim, f u = 'the covermg, the pellicle (56 .*b 1uk bemg sun1lar>>
to 65 *p'jug 'pellicle'). There is no text support for this.- A alone tallies WJth the text
parallels in Li.
1387. W u p o l i h o u f u, p o l i t s' a i, e r p o 1 i nan pang, san p o 1 i
ch u h o u 66.
A. Since the 500 li (next outside the tie n f u) are called the h o u f u zone, and
the 2nd subdivision inside this is called n an p an g, whereas the 3rd subdivision is
called c h u h o u >)the feudal princeS>), SI-ma Ts'ien concludes that n an 45 cannot
here be equal to the fifth category of c h u h o u (kung, h o u, p o, t s i, nan), and
he paraphrases n a n p an g, by j e n k u o 67 >)the states entrusted with some
charge>), taking 45 *ngm t? stand for 68 *riigm (in .etymological sp.eculation he bases
himself on Ta Tai: Pen mmg). PK'ung follows up thiS 1dea by concludmg that the h o u
in h
u f u can just as little mean 'prince', and for the same reason (the 3rd subdivision
only of the h o u f u belonging to the c h u h o u), and so he speculates that h o u
69 (*g'u, even tone) in h o u f u stands for 70 (*g'u., falling tone), and means 'to scout,
to keep lookout', sc. for the enemies from without, protecting the inner zones (an idea
already propounded in Po hu t'ung: Tsue p'ien). On the analogy of this, the t s' a i
11 of the first subdivision means 72 'business, work, task' (common), thus: >)those who
have tasks>> (expl. made by Ma Jung). These are typical scholastic speculations. When
Cheng Hiian (in comm. on Li: Wang chi:) proposes that t s' a i 71 means 'to cull, to
select' and refers to the valuable objects 'selected' to be sent as tribute from this sub-zone
(instead of grain), he is wide of the mark: t_he '_hole of this paragraph has no
to tribute. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en soberly mamtams that h o u and nan have theiT
ordinary meanings, ant that t s 'a i 71 means 'cullable land' = 'appanage' for ministers
and dignitaries'. Cf. Li: Li yiin 7 3 >>The c h u h o u feudal princes have k u o states
for placing their sons and grandsons, t a f u dignitaries have t s' a i appanages for
placing their sons and grandsons>). The scheme thus becomes quite clear: in the nearest
sub-zone (100 li) there were only dignitaries with appanages t s' a i; in the 2nd sub-
zone (the 2nd 100 li) were only feudal princes of the lowest grade, nan; in the 3rd
sub-zone (from 200-500 li) were c h u h o u 'feudal princes' of all categories (kung
h o u, p o, t s i, nan); the big zone as a whole was called, with a summary name, h o u
f u >>the princes' zone>). Thus: (The next) 500 li are the h o u f u 'princes' zone'; (within that),
(the 1st) 100 li are the t s ' a i appanages, (the 2nd) 100 li are the states of the n a n princes,
the (remaining) 300 li are the (lands of) c h u h o u the feudal princes (generally) n. (So also
1388. W u p o I i y a o f u 7 4.
A. PK'ung: y a o 7 5 means 76 'to force, to restrain' (common), referring to the cult-
ural influence mentioned in the preceding zone (77), thus: >>The zone of coercion. -
B. Wei (Jhao (comm. on Kyii: Chou yii): y a o 75 means 78 'to make a compact'
(common, ex. see Couvreur's Diet.), thus: The zone of compactSB. Cf. Lun: Hien wen 79
tAn old agreement not being forgotten; Tso: Ai 14, phr. 80 i>Send Ki Lu to make a
!;;: +-t;;:. t3 !7 S!' f if .t; .:It fl.__,.
AA._57 f1t_ 58. J71f..l't1 litf.j; :i e:_. /. ,f.:f,;Z. 19 -f.k D. );fs[ &f a 4:' Ji.
{:i .:. .i..:::. 8 $ 1J jjl ;:. fi qf.{ 111. {!.{ ;t;% ?i $ 11 5ff :fi
111 v< A :t. :+ *- >t Jt ;R ;J;;t 1- *' .,.,. 1i i3 $- ?.r. :f 1r. Jf 77. tJc.z * n iH+
with me>>. - B is more plausible. Mter the h o u f u of the
prmceS>>, regular part of t_he empire proper, follows the sue i f u 81 >>tranquillized
z?ne>>, the peoples of whiCh brought to peaceful submission without having
d1rect!y lords, a;fter that agam the y a o f u >>zone of compacts>>, the chieftains
of whwh stmply were twd to the king by treaties, and finally h u a n g f u 82 the wild
1389. S a n p o I i y i 83.
These 300 li the first inside the y a o f u, see the preceding.
_A. Though Y 1 84 here corresponds to M an 85 in the next line and though these
Yt and Man are the well-known terms for the barbarian tribes, the early commentators
would_ re,ad some deeper significance into the terms here. A. Ma Jung: Y i 84 = 86.
Ya? tten s phrase 87,'>The people are at is ren?ered by 86 in Shi ki (see Gl. 1224),
which Ma_s gloss. Thus: (first) 300 li are (at ease=) quiet and peaceful.
Sten-k 1en believes that Ma by hts 86 meant >>changeable>>, i.e. possible to reform
m regard to customs, which is little likely). - B. PK'ung: Y i 84 = 88 'even' in the
sense of 89 :ordinary'. >>The first 300 li are (i. e. receive the ordinary directions
from the king). - C. Ts'ai Ch'en: Y i 84 is the ordinary tribe name: first 300 li
are the Yi barbarians. - obviously right.
1390. E r p o I i t s ' a i 90.
A. Ma ts'ai_ 9f (*ts'ddjta'dijts'ai) = 92, expounding: 93 >>They only
had to subnnt to the king s penal laws>>. Thus: >>(The next) 200 li are (the people under)
penal T s 'a i 91 has no such sense, and the gloss shows that Ma took 91 *ts'ad
char. for (fiat ( s h a 'to ki?, t? In fact, in the bronze inscrip-
tiOns the state Ts at 91 ts wntten 95, which IS certamly the phonetic in 94. Thus the
Shu text probably originally had this 95, and it could have been a short-form for 94.
- B. Huan: 91 = 94 (cf. A above) in the reading *sad 1 filii j s h a i 'diminished,
reduced (common), thus: (The next) 200 li are (those with) reduced - c.
Ts'ai t s 'a i 91 means 96 'to banish'. Thus: >>(The next) 200 li are (those of)
banlBhed .. In support of this he adduces Tso: Chao l, phr. 97, which Tu Yu
as: >>He killed Shu and banished (91 = 96) Ts'ai Shm. But, as expounded
m Gl. 1272 above, the 91 m that Tso passage has a quite different meaning and thus
Ts'ai Ch'en has no safe corroboration for his interpr. Moreover it is quite unreasonable
that a whole principal zone in the world-conception of the early Chinese should have its
after the few culprits condemned to live there as a punishment. - D. Another
mterpr. The char. 91 is defined in Shuowen as = 98 'grass'. This meaning is earliest
the Kiu Huai by Wang Pao (dead 61 B. C.), but the word (*ts'rid j ts'ai 1
t s IS probably closely cognate to 99 (*ts'jwad I ts'jwiii Its 'u e i) 'down, fine hair'
- It IS qmte common that the grass covering the soil is called mao 100 'hair' (e. g.
Tso: Chao 17, phr. I who eat the herbs of the soil). An alternation of forms
with and without the medial vowels i, w inside a word stem is quite common (see BMFEA
5, p. 107-109); cf. also 2 *ts'wdd I ts'udi Its ' u e i, Shuowen = 98 'grass' (of which,
however, there are no early text ex.). Thus: a(The next) 200 li are the (grass-land=)
steppe (people) This balances the I i u 3 in the next line.
1391. S a n p o l i M a n 4.
A. Just as in the case of Yi 84 above (Gl. 1389), the early comm. would give Man a
more pregnant meaning than simply the name of the barbariallS. Ma Jung: man 85
(*mlwan) = 5 (*man) the careless ones*, i. e. those with imperfect rites. Cheng Hiian:
man 85 = 6 (*mjm) 'a cord': *Those who are (led by a string, a halter =) conducted>>.
Yen Shi-ku: man meallS to 7 cover them by civilization (evidently taking man as
= 8 *mwdn). (From PK'ung's formulation it is not clear whether he followed Cheng or
he already had Yen's idea). All such speculations are pure scholastics. - B. Ts'ai Cb'en:
a(The tirat) 300 li are the Man barbarians.
1392. E r p o I i 1 i u 9.
A. Ma Jung: I i u 3 'flowing' means *ambulating>>, without fixed residences. Thus:
a(The next) 200 li are the nomadu. - B. PK'ung: I i u 3 flowing* means 'of UllBtable,
changeable customs'. - C. Ts'ai Ch'en: I i u 3 means 'to banish' (common), thus:
(The next) 200 li are (the zone of) the banished ones. This is just as unlikely as a name
for a principal zone in the world scheme of the archaic Chinese, as the t s ' a i =
'banished' proposed in Gl. 1390 B. With Chavannes, A should be followed.
1393. Tung t s i en y ii h a i, s i p e i y ii L i u s h a 10.
The commentators do not indicate what they think is the subject. PK'ung simply
says t s i en 11 = 12 'to enter', and p e i 13 = 14 'to reach to'.
A. Legge thinks that the subject is the she n g k i a o 15 which follows afterwards:
>>On the east reaching to the sea, on the west extending to the moving sands ...... (his
fame and influence ..... )>>. Such a construction is entirely un-Chinese. - B. Chavannes
takes Yu as understood subject: A l'est (Yu) s'avanca jusqu'a Ia mer, a !'ouest il alia
jusqu'aux sables mouvantes. This is not acceptable. T s i e n means fundamentally
'to drip, to soak'. It is true that it is sometimes defined as = 16 'to advance', but it
has then always the sense of 'dropwise, little by little, gradually, advancing step by step'
(common). We should then have to interpret: >>In the east he (Yii) (dropwise =) gradu-
ally advanced to the sea, which is far-fetched. - C. Couvreur understands the realm>>
as the subject, and he construes y ii h a i and y ii I i u s h a as agents: In the east
it (the realm) is soaked by the sea, in the west it is (covered =) limited by the
floating sands>> (Couvreur in his Diet. Classique interprets quite. differently: >>il se
deverse dans la mer>>). That the realm is the understood subject is correct, as con-
firmed by the context; the preceding lines have precisely described the zones of
the great realm, and here its farthest confines are described. But Couvreur's passive
construction is much too modem to suit an early Shu passage. - D. Forke (Lun Heng
II, p. 255) takes tung and s i as subjects, and accepts Couvreur's passive construc-
tion: The east is washed by the ocean, and the west covered with flying sand>>. This is
very unlikely, for all through the Yii kung, the phrases tun g, s i, t u n g p e i etc.
are invariably adverbial phrases: in the east, in the west, in the north-east>> etc. - E.
Ts'ai Ch'en defines t s i en by its fundamental sense 17 'to soak', and evidently under-
stands 'the realm' as subject (followed on this point by Couvreur, C above). We should
accept this and construe the phrases with y ii 18 as meaning >>in ..... >>: In the east it
(the realm) (soaks in =) diJIS down into the sea, in the west it extends to the floating sands.
This is probably also PK'ung's opinion, when he briefly says that t s i en 11 = 12 'to
enter': it (the land) (soaks in =) enters the sea.
1394. Shu o nan k i she n g k i a o k i y ii s i h a i 19.
Han shu: Ti li chi reads 20 inst. of 21 (both *g'jed I g'fi I k i) ; these char. are inter-
J<....f- ::f, ra 1)( t iA} Sf. 41<. r/ /1$ 1HZ .rt, n. 3... a %.. i5 ,ff sr 1if it;. Jj? ffi $S
t f'- ;t; !'a ==- -8 .f.* ;r,; ;4; U:. fi7 e. 1.r.{ n ;R\l: &:..
K;Y.l/-<f' H. ft -i. 1 A_.:t:.. :i:. .f. s ;,j[. .f. .3- i3 .f. its: if_ c. i@- ;c::f s rt '1 i3 $.
/d. .ill *1 -f &-M._ -f !.;&- II. tfir )2 A /J. fit.A A:.. IF. Af !*:. /. 17. ,-8. -'f' /'f. ,tj it.
-f r9 :;/d 1f ! 'jf 1.3 it 'if:Jo :tl; fii. R..u 1::. ;r, 29 . ..1:. ;-)< -1-
changeable. 20 means 'to be together with, together with, along with, and' (common
in bronze inscriptions: wr. 22), and 21 is frequently loan char for this (Yao tien 23 etc.,
very common). Inst. of 24 Han shu: Kia Kiian-chi chuan reads 25.
A. The Han scholars punctuated after k i a o : Shu o nan k i s h eng k i a o.
Oldest ex. in Han shu (loc. cit.), a memorial by Kia Kiian-chi (middle of 1st c. B. C.) who
interprets k i she n g k i a o as equal to 26. Thus The North and the South (were
together with, associated with =) participated in the famous (sc. of the
king); 20 would then be the fundamental word and 21 a loan char. for it, as often. PK'ung
has followed this. But since be together with the famous instructions is certainly
strained, Yen Shi-ku prefers to take 20 as a loan char. for 21 in the sense of 27 'to
reach to, to attain to'; thus: North and the South attained to the famous instruc-
(of the king). Cf. Li: Sang ta ki 28 The plastering did not reach to the
(Cheng Hiian: k i 21 = 27); Kyli: Chou yii 29 the superiors demand them,
they do not (Wei chao: k i 21 = 30); Chuang: Lie Yii-k'ou 31 He reached him
at the door>>. (S h e n g k i a o has mostly been interpreted as two coordinated words:
The fame and the I think it better to take it as a whole). The same
interpunctation: shu o nan k i she n g k i a o is upheld by Siin Yiie in Han ki
(2nd c. A. D.) and by Tll""'Tu 32 (ap. Hou Han shu: Tu Tu chuan) (early lst c. A. D.).
It was evidently generally accepted in Han time. - B. Kiang Sheng: Shuowen defines
the char. 21 as = 33 'the sun only partially visible', and this is the .meaning here: Shu o
n an in the north and south, k i (where there is any sun at all =) whereever the sun
shines, she n g k i a o (there are) the famous instructions (of the king)>>. There is,
however, no text ex. whatever of Shuowen's definition, and Kiang's speculation is quite
hopeless (Chavannes has understood Kiang's interpr. differently and moreover attributed
it to Cheng Hiian). - C. Ts'ai Ch'en punctuates after k i saying k i 21 = 27 (cf A
above): Shu o nan k i, she n g k i a o k i y ii s i h a i : In the north and south
it reached (to the utmost points), the famous instructions reached to the four seas. Ki
21 'to reach' would then stand by itself and mean 'to reach the utmost point'. This is
not impossible, cf. Tso: Hi 15, phr. 34 dare I (reach=) go to the extreme1,
where c h 1 30 'to reach, to come to', synonymous with our k i 21, is used in the same
absolute way (ace. to the Sung comm. Lin Yao-sou). - D. It is not necessary, nor
even desirable, to abandon the oldest way (Han time) of dividing the line. There should
be a rhythmical correspondence between the lines concerning the east, the west and the
north and south: t u n g t s i e n y ii h a i - s i p e i y ii I i u s h a - s h u o n an
k i s h eng k i a o. But just as in the preceding lines t u n g and s i are adverbial
phrases in the east>>, the so s h u o nan should here (with C) mean the
north and in the K i 21 (for which 20 is a loan char.) 'to reach, to come' is
here a transitive (causative) verb: 'to cause to reach, cause to come, fa ire parvenir': In
the east it (the realm) dips down into the sea; in the west it extends to the floating sands; in
the north and the south it (causes to come =) brings the famous (royal) instructions (i. e. the
Chinese civilization); it reaches all to the four seas. The difference between east and west
on the one hand, and north and south on the other was that whereas the definite
limits in the former directions (the sea and the desert respectively) were known to the
Chinese, no such limits were known in north and south, where never-ending zones of foreign
peoples lived, and to them the Chinese realm extended its civilization. For k i 24 'to
reach, to come' taken as a transitive verb 'to cause to come, to bring' cf. the synonymous
chi 30: Tso: Chao 20: Yang ordered the people of Ch'eng-fu 35 to seize himself
and (cause him to come =) bring him (to the
1395. K i y ii s i h a i 36.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien writes 37 *kjat / kjat I k i. PK'ung defines this as = 38, expounding:
Yii's work was 39 (exhaustively=) everywhere applied to the (land between) the four
seas. - B. Sun Sing-yen (after Shuowen): k i 37 = 40, without further comment.
- C. Kiang Sheng: k i 37 (*kiat) is loan char. for 41 (*ngjat), which Shuowen says
means 42, thus: straight to the four But of this dictionary word there are
no text ex. - D. In the memorial of Kia Ktian-chi (see Gl. 1394 A above), less than
a century later than SI-ma's quotation, Kia reads 43 it reached all to the four seau. 44
*xiat I xiat I hi 'to reach, to come to' is common. This gives obviously the best meaning.
Probably the Shu text originally had only 45 without radical (Chou fashion), and the
Han scholars have supplied rad. 46 or 47, according as they interpreted the line. -
Erya says that s i h a i 48 [land between] the four seas) means the Yi, Ti, Jung
and Man barbarians, i.e. the peoples outside China proper, and Sun Yen expounds that
h a i 49 (*xmag 1 xrJi 1 h a i) here does not mean 'sea' but stands for 50 (*xmwag 1 xut!i 1
h u e i) 'darkened' i. e. unenlightened in regard to rites and justice, thus S i - h a i the
four unenlightened ones (the barbarians). Scholastics that are quite amusing.
1396. Y ii s i h ii an k u e i k a o k ii e c h ' e n g k u n g 51.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien (foil. by PK'ung) understands thus: Yii was given (sc. by the emperor)
a black k n e i sceptre, announcing that he bad achieved his work. As pointed out by Yii
Sing-wu, this formula X s i was presented with ... occurs in Chou bronze inscrip-
tions. -B. Another Han-time school understood: Yii was given (by Heaven, as a good
omen) a black k u e i sceptre>>. On the steles at the tomb of pseudo-Wu Liang (1st c. A.
D.), among the miraculously appearing objects of good auspice there is the h ii an k u e i
>>black k u e i, and the inscription says: the rivers and springs follow their course,
and the four seas get their affluents, then the h ii an k u e i appears>> (Chavannes:
Mission archeol. fig. 93). - C. Ts'ai Ch'en: Yii presented a black k u e i sceptre>> (to
the emperor). - No reason for abandoning the oldest interpr. (A).
Kan shi.
For the question whether this chapter refers to Yii or to his son K'i see BMFEA
18, p. 304.
1397. Wang y ii e t s ii e I i u s hi chi j en 52.
A. Cheng Hiian: when it was said before l i u k ' i n g 53 Six
(of the armies) and here it is said l i u s hI 54, this change of expression indicates that
s h i 'business( -holders)' refers to all those who s hI 55 do service, officers and simple
soldiers, in the armies; thus: Oh, all you men of service (in the army). - B. PK'ung:
l i u shi six functionaries = six ministers refers precisely to the l i u k ' in g above.
Thus: Oh, you six (functionaries =) ministers This is evidently right; cf. Ode 193,
phr. 56 selected three (functionaries=) Ode 263, phr. 57 three
(functionaries=) ministers, go to your work (see Gl. 1047). S hi or y u s hI is thus
a technical term for the highest office-holders, the ministers, who here, at the same time,
are generals of the army.
1398. We i w u w u hi n g 58.
A. We i w u is explained as meaning 59 'to violate and go counter to' by Cheng Hiian,
as = 60 'to maltreat (violate) and despise' by PK'ung, which comes to the same. Thus:
nHe violates and despises the 5 elements. - B. Wang Yin-chi: wei 61 is a corruption
Ji/ JL 11 1tt- r-J 12 k t 1J f.l fiYI- Jt Jo/. 'j_ 1tK }5\ .i.. 3) ill c.. J;/. . ;r; %'t 1' e lif J7 :JS J9 :$

!. :t % AA:rfl )X 3'.. g <ii " z A. 371 -A (i!f 5>' 7'\ 1i JT 't .z t'f _::.. tr f J7. ::... '$ 1f.K./fl f1 ;A
of 62, which again stands for 63, the latter meaning 64 'to despise'. Thus: >>He despises
the 5 62 both in Ts'ie yiin and King tien shi wen is read *xmf:wat f xiwat 1
h ii e (only the Tsi lin reads it *mjat, confounding it with 65), we should then rather have
to say that 61 is wrong for 62 as a short-form for 65 *mjat; and then either this has its
proper meaning (He destroys and despises the 5 elements) or, with Wang Yin-chi it
is loan char. for 63 (*miat). (This 63 can, with Wang, mean 'to despise', but it
not: it can also mean 'to destroy', cognate to and synonymous with 65). The only real
reason for all this speculation is that in Yi Chou shu: K'o Yin we find 66: He despises
and destroys the Spirits>>, and that this in Shi ki: Chou pen ki is rendered 67. - The
text tradition of the Yi Chou shu is little known and often unreliable (to witness, the
variant for its m i e appearing in the Shi ki); on the other hand the reading w e i w u
68 occurs not only in the orthodox PK'ung version but already in Si-ma Ts'ien and in
Mo: Ming kuei. The latter is particularly important, since its text transmission is very
independent of that of the Shu. An *error of wei 61 for (62 short for:) 65 in all these
three versions is exceedingly unlikely. No reason to abandon A.
1399. T a i k 'i san chen g 69.
This follows upon: The lord of Hu violates and despises the 5 elements, see the pre-
ceding gloss. -
A. Fu Sheng (Shang shu ta chuan): s an c h eng 70 means the three different
months which successively served as new-year months. Ma Jung adopts this (>>the t s i,
c h' o u and yin months>>). Thus: *He neglects and discards the 3 year-regulating
(months)>>, i. e. he opposes the calendaric decrees which the king alone bas the prerogative
of promulgating (=he is a rebel). This would mean that the rotation in respect to the new-
year months (a new dynasty choosing another new-year month than the preceding) had
already obtained before the Hia house and that the king here referred to these successive
changes - an impossibly forced idea. In Han time the term s an c h e n g 70 sure
enough had this sense of >>the three (successively used) new-year months>> (see Pan ku:
Po hu t'ung, which has a whole chapter on the subject), but evidently cannot apply to
our Shu passage, composed in early Chou time. - B. In a quite analogous text in the
T'ai Shi (the authentic T'ai shi, the passage in question only known through a quotation
in Shi ki: Chou pen ki and gloss by Ma) which runs 71, the same Ma Jung has this quite
different interpr.: san chen g the three governing forces are those of 72 Heaven,
Earth and Mam, thus: Now the king of Yin, Chou, ..... has cut himself oH from Heaven
and ruined and corrupted the 3 governing forces (of Heaven, Earth and Man) a. In our passage
above, Cheng Hiian has adopted this: (The lord of Hu violates and despises the 5
elements), he neglects and di!cards the 3 governing forces (of Heaven, Earth and Man) a. This
interpr. seems in fact to be based on another passage in Fu Sheng's Shang shu ta
chuan, which says that t s' i chen g 73 (see Gl. 1255 above) >>the 7 directors, the 7
governing forces were the 4 seasons, the configurations of Heaven, the formations on
Earth, and the j en tao principles of Mam (an interpr. that, as we saw there, is not
plausible); since, ace. to Cheng, the w u hi n g 7 4 5 elements>> in our line above are
equal to the 4 seasons (in accordance with the expose in Li: Yiie ling), there remain,
out of the t s' i chen g 73, after substraction of 4, precisely 3, i.e. those referring
to Heaven, Earth and Man (75 = our 70)! This is all very speculative and scholastic;
but in fact the theme of the triad Heaven, Earth and Man as goveming forces is quite
early and general in the early literature. Cf. Yi: Shuo kua: Anciently when the sages
made the Yi (king) ... they exhibited 76 the norm of Heaven, this being yin and
yang, 77 the norm of Earth, this being the soft and the hard, 78 the norm of Man,
this being goodness and rightenousness; they combined these s an t s ' a i 79 three
capacities (forces) .... >>; Tso: Ch'eng 15, phr. 80 The good Man is the norm of Heaven
and Earth>> (the human counterpart of the forces of Heaven and Earth). The theme is
treated in several places in the Hiao king. - C. Yii Yiie: in Tso: Siang 25 it is said
81 >>The men of Ts'i bribed the six generals of Tsin>>; here chen g 82 (common in the
sense of 'govemor, leading official') means 'army general'. According to Chouli, the king
had 6 armies, and a great feudal lord had 3 armies. Our s an - c hen g thus means
the three generals>> (of the lord's of Hu). Now, since the generals had the high rank of
k ' in g 83, they were appointed by the king, not by the lord of Hu himself, and our phr.
69 means: (The lord of Hu outrages the 5 elements) and neglects and discards the 3
generals>> (appointed for him by the king, and appoints his own men); a comical idea,
which in any case is not applicable to the par. text in T'ai shi 71. - D. Yii Sing-wu
therefore modifies Yii Yiie's theory: san c h eng the 3 govemors>> means the same
as san k u n g 84, the three highest officials of the king's. In fact, it is common that
the highest functionaries were called c h e n g, e. g. Ode 258: Reduced to extremities
are the shu chen g 85 heads of departments (high officials). Thus: He neglects
and discards the 3 highest dignitaries. The par. text of the T'ai shi would then mean:
71 hue i h u a i k' i san chen g He ruins and corrupts the 3 highest dignitaries.
- D is not impossible, but it misses the parallellism with the preceding w e i w u w u
h i n g >>He violates and despises the 5 elements; it is quite evident that the second half
of the line should describe some analogous violation of cosmogonic forces, which decides
in favour of B. It is quite plausible to consider our s an c he n g as synonymous with
the sa n t s ' a i 79 of the Yi king.
1400. After the phr. T' i en y u n g t s i a o t s ii e k 'i min g >>Heaven therefore
has cut off his mandate, there is a clause which has been lost in the orthodox Shu version
but which is preserved in a quotation in Mo: Ming kuei: 86. (In this 87 is = 88, 89 =
90). Forke, after Tosaki, believes that the first words refer to a saying of the rebel lord:
And further he says: The sun culminates (i. e. I am at the height of power). This
seems much too bold, when a sufficiently good sense can be made in a more ordinary
fashion. - Early editions had s hi 91 inst. of t' u 92, an obvious graphical error.
Sun Yi-jang thinks that 89 = 90 means p a o 93 'a fort, a small walled town' (90 in this
sense common, e. g. Li: T'an kung); but only a few lines earlier in Mo's text we find 94
>>the guarding of the earth here below>> (as in Ode 259, phr. 95: protect the land of the
South>>), and evidently p a o 89 here has the same verbal function in the phr. p a o
t' u 96. We thus obtain: (The king) further said: during the day, now with the lord of
Hu I shall fight about (one day's fate =) the fate to be decided in one day; and you, ministers,
dignitaries and commoners, I do not covet your fields or your guarded lands. There exists in
the early literature a considerable number of quotations from the Shu king, some-
times with indications of chapters, giving passages which are not to be found in the
present Shu, or only inserted in the spurious chapters by the faker in the 3rd c. A. D.
In most cases it is not possible to place such passages exactly in the proper chapters,
and then I never insert them here (I hope to revert to them later on); only such cases
1 1i..f-i 5'i l::.ii. a ;I. Ji-1/f tf...:;/iJ. t;t;;& ?11{ t:t.11! Ji r;g !A rtf .<t:
*- _;:_ .if 7tt ::.. j( 71 1-.. .. 4t -.. m #.!!. .:r k t .s.. .iE. -r.t A. A. -c. iBl ,., ;;. {cr ?'5" ..::. cr:.t.
;rc. ;Zi./[ nJ:t.i}t 11 A...JL 1-r. :t..../.G n :ff; A.. il.t; g 7\...i Jt ..i f'.Jhff t'-t ..::. rs-:
#.. ;. Yl.ff g !3 f' <!' { 1i t\. <j - 8 Z. &( JL 14 A.ff A.. f Yfl )lf:{i ;1:. z :(,)\_

are incorporated - like the present one - in which the quotation is such that a part
of the present Shu text is adjoined, thus making an exact placing of the additional
passage feasible.
1401. a. Kin y ii wei k u n g h in g t ' i e n c h i fa 97;
b. J u p u k u n g m i n g 98.
Si-ma Ts'ien in both cases writes 99 and 100; Mo: Ming kuei, hia does the same; in
the same way in Tso: Ai 3 we find: 1. On the other hand Pan Ku both in Han shu: Sii
chuan and in Tung tu fu writes 2, and the same does Kao Yu in comm. on Lii: Sien ki.
The _attested with 3 is Po hu t'ung: San kiin (but this may be a later
correctwn, srnce Pan Ku rn the other places had 4). Now in the series 5, character loans
are common. 5 often serves both for 6 and for 3, and the question is for which of
them It stands here, and likewise whether 4 means the same as 6 or as 3.
A. The meaning is 6 = 7 'to furnish, deliver', thus: a. nNow I (furnish and practise=)
b. You do not (furnish=) execute my orders. This is PK'ung's
opimon, srnce he defines kung as = 8. It therefore seems likely that his text
like_ had si_mply 5, and that the now orthodox form 3, carried through
m his Is a correctiOn made by Wei Pao (as Tuan Yii-ts'ai believes). Hii Shen,
defines 4 by 7, may"8lready have had our Shu passages in mind and meant that 4
1s to 6. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en: 3 = 9: a. f>Now I respectfully practise Heaven's
pumshment>>; b. >>You do not show respect for my orders>>. This must have been the
opinion of those scholars (all from T'ang time) who wrote 10 and 11, and, since they
have known of Si-ma's and Pan Ku's readings 5 and 4 respectively, they must have
considered these graphs as loan characters for 3. When Lu Te-ming in gloss on the Tso
1 says _'>5 has the sound 4>>, he evidently held this opinion. - Both A and B
are qmte plausible. But there is a very significant par. in Tso: Siang 30, phr. 12 >>We
fear. that we _do not (furnish =) execute the orders (given us)>>. This k i m i n g 13 is
obvwusly qmte synonymous with our phr. kung min g 100 above and kung 5
consequently for 6. This decides in favour of A. There are many cases of this
same alternative. In Shu: P'an Keng we have, in the orthodox version: 14 Each one
of you respectfully (attend to) your work, but the stone classics of 175 A. D. have 15,
where again 5 is equal to 6 Each one of you, (furnish =) execute your work. - On the
other hand, it is not always, even in Shu, that 5 stands for 6, it can also serve for 3,
see Gl. 1468.
1402. Y ii f e i k 'i m a chi chen g 16 . ..
A. Mo: .. kuei and Si-ma Ts'ien both read chen g 17 inst. of 18, and so did
Cheng Huan (rn gloss on Ode 168): an the charioteers do not (govern=) correctly manage
their horses. In. order to emphasize that chen g is a verb, with the pronoun chi
as obJect resuming the preceding: >>The horses - them - govern>>, 17 was
altered mto 18, probably by Wei Pao. - B. Yii Yiie would alter chen g 17 into
kung 19, considering it to be a scribe's error, thus: the charioteers do not do their
on their horses>>, this in order to obtain a par. to the preceding t so p u kung
Y u t s o 20 etc. >>If those on the left do not do their work on the left>> etc. But this
emendation is too bold, as the form 17 is so well confirmed in all the earliest versions.
1403. Y ii t s e n u I u j u 21.
A. S!-m.a writes 22 inst. of 23; they are interchangeable. PK'ung says n u 23
Cf. Ode 164, phr. 24 >>Give joy to your wife and children. Here
this sense IS unambiguous: n u here means 'children' exclusively. But in other con-
te_xts it cen:ainly means 'wife and children', i. e. family. Cf. Kyii: Tsin yii 25 >>With his
wife and children he went to the Western mountains>>; Tso: Wen 6 Siian ts'i let Yii P'ien
26 escort his wife and children - in these (and many more ex.: Kyii: Cheng yii, Ch'u
yii, Tso: Wen 7, 13, 18, Siang 25, Chao 18 etc.) the comm. r_ightly n u as =
'wife and children' (it is obvious that it cannot always be a questwn of the children only).
Therefore, whereas PK'ung in our Shu passage interprets n u as children onir
I will with the children kill yom, Chao K'i, in comm. on the analogous phr. m Meng:
Liang Huei wang, hia 27 says n u = 'wife and children', and our phr. will thus mean
Then I will kill you with your wives and children. Yii Yiie objects to this that the word
sequence is then wrong; it should be y ii t s e I u j u n u *I then will kill j u you
and n u your wives and childrem; a n u placed before, adverb-fashion = 'with your
children' will not do. This is to misunderstand the construction: n u and I u are both
verbs. Just as t s u 28 'clan' occurs as verb: t s u chi he clanned him = >>he killed
him with his whole clan>>, so n u means 'to wife-and-children' = to kill the wife and
children of>> (somebody). Thus: I will (wife-and-children-ing kill you =) kill
you along with you wives and children. That n u is really a verb and means
'to kill the wife and children' follows from the Meng ex. 27 above: >>The culpnts were
not (wife-and-children'ed =) punished with their wives and children. - B. Han shu:
Wang Mang chuan, and Cheng Chung's comm. on Chouli: S!li quote 29 Yen Shi-ku
says tha n u 30 'slave' has its ordinary meaning (here verb): >>Then I will enslave and
kill yom>. - C. Yii Yiie while accepting the 30 of B as the original graph, points out,
that since in the preceding line 1 u 31 clearly means 'to kill' (those who do not obey
my orders, I will kill at the altar of the Soil>>), this n u 30 *no I nuo In u cannot with
B mean 'slave, to make slaves' (this would indeed be a curious anticlimax after the cate-
gorical of the preceding line) but is a short-form for 32 (*na I na In a) 'to seize':
I will seize and kill yom. This n a, registred in Ts'ang kie p'ien, is not known from
any pre-Han text, but its variant 33 (*na / na In a) occurs in Chuang: Yii fu. C
interpr. is very tempting, but the difficulty is the Meng par. adduced: t sue 1 J en
p u n u 27. Here n u 23 cannot stand for 32 'to which sense,
but must either be interpreted as A above: The culpnts were not killed With w1ves and
children>>, or, with 23, as an erroneous enlargement of 30: >>The culprits were not made
slaves>>. We would thus have two entirely different interpretations in our Shu and Meng
passages; and yet they are so obviously analogous, the n u (whether wr. 30 or 23)
referring to some punishment of culprits in both cases. Since it cannot mean 'to enslave'
in the Shu ex., it should not mean that in Meng either. And since it cannot mean 32
in Meng, it should not mean that in Shu either. There remains only A in Chao K'i's
interpr., the generally admitted one (Ts'ai Ch'en, Legge etc.), which satisfies both texts.
T'ang shi.
1404. Wo hou pu sii wo chung, she wo se shi er ko cheng Ria 34.
A. Neither Si-ma Ts'ien nor the original PK'ung version had any Hi a 35 at the
end (as pointed out by Tuan Yii-ts'ai, it has been wrongly added as a consequence of a
gloss of K'ung Ying-ta). Moreover S!-ma inst. of 36 has 37. PK'ung refers h o u to
Kie, the last Ria king: Our ruler (King Kie) has no compassionate care for our multitude,
he sets aside our husbandry works and ( cuttingly governs =) has an injurious government

f. K J.- 9 -tR ;a f:r !!. 1f:4 i'l 1- 4' JJ. -;f l't &-!f: ' 11 c- Jt A fif/1 1P. it .ffv
:Z. j ;7 )JX_;a: !'1 :rft:.._v. ;5: .or-..:ct:. .f" v f I!J !"t- Yir 11 #{: M. *- -t $ ts: >:< j1_
e9 L4 %-.t>' $' ff* f? 1" .11%_ 111? J+ :r: h"-*-
(PK'ung thus takes 36 as = the 37 of SI-ma's). - B. Ts'ai Ch'en has accepted the
falsely added Hia at the end, and refers h o u to T'ang: Our ruler (sc. T'ang) has no
compassionate care for our multitude, he sets aside our husbandry work and (goes to)
cut off and (correct =) punish the Hia>>. K'ung Kuang-sen, troubled by this disrespectful
utterance about the sage T'ang, says that the phr. >>he sets aside our husbandry work
is merely a metaphor: he postpones the important government work (metaphorically
called husbandry work) for this important expedition(!). - C. Yii Yiie, while ad-
mitting that :B is unacceptable since it adopts a faulty text version, still believes that
it is right in referring to T'ang. He takes k o 38 (*kdt) as equal to h a i 39 (*g'dd) -
indeed the two char. are sometimes confused (cf. Gl. 1234): in Shu: Ta kao we have 40
Heaven sends down harm on my house>>, and here k o 38 obviously stands for h a i
39 (Ma Jung's version indeed had h a i). (In bronze inscriptions both 38 and 39 are
used as loan char. for 41 *!did 'to beg'.) Now this 39 (*g'dd) is often used as an inter-
rogative pronoun (for 42 *g'dt) = 43, e. g. Ode 2, phr. 44 Which shall I wash, which
not?>> Ace. to Yii then 45 = 46 = 47 whom punish? (a similar thesis of Chu Pin is that
38 */edt directly is a loan char. for 42 *g'dt). Thus: >>Our ruler (T'ang) has no ... , he sets
aside our husbandry works, whom will he (correct =) punish?, Answer in the next line:
>>I have heard the words of y-our multitude: the lord of Hia has guilt, I fear God on High,
I dare not but punish him 48. The advantage of this interpr. is that chen g 36 is
taken in the same sense in both lines: >>to correct, to punish>>, which it is not in PK'ung's
interpr. This would seem to decide in favour of C, in spite of the loan char. theories
that this C necessitates, if it were not that the oldest version attested, Si-ma Ts'ien's,
had 37 in the first line, 36 in the second, and thus does not at all demand the same sense
in both. That obviates this obstacle to the A interpr., which is simple and satisfactory_
without all loan char. speculations. - D. Chang Ping-lin likewise refers the line to
T'ang, and says k o 38 means 49, the phr. k o chen g thus being a binome meaning
>>to regulate, to arrange,>, referring to the troops: '>Our ruler ... has no ... , he sets aside .. ,
and arranges (his troops)>>. He adduces Siin: Kie pi 50 '>to fashion the great principles*.
That 'to regulate, arrange' should mean to arrange the troops is very unconvincing.
1405. Kin j u k' i y ii e Hi a t sue i k' i j u y i 51.
The same phr. k ' i j u y i 52 recurs in P'an Keng, Kao tsung yung ji and Si po
k'an li, but in no other ancient text.
A. Si-ma Ts'ien paraphrases it by 53, thus: The guilt of Hia, what about it (what
can we do about it)h; the phr. would then correspond to the common 54 (Tso passim),
and j u y i 55 would be equal to j u h o 56. Wang Yin-chi and Tuan Yii-ts'ai adduce
examples in which Yang Hiung (Fa yen: Wen tao) and Pan Ku (Tien yin) use j u y i
55 in the sense of j u h o 56, thus accepting Si-ma's idea and alluding to the phrase
of the Shu. There is, however, no other example in which y i 57 has this interrogative
meaning 58 'what, how'. Sun Sing-yen desperately tries to explain it by a sound simi-
larity of 57 (*dfJJiJ I i I y i) with 59 (*g'ieg J yiei I hi), which is obviously impossible. It
might be tempting to say that h o 58, written with 60 as a short-form (without radical,
Chou fashion), has been corrupted into 57, and that j u y i 55 is merely a graphical
corruption of j u h o 56; but after all the Chou-time graphs of the two characters are
not very similar (61 and 62 respectively). Finally - and most fatal - this interpr. is
hardly applicable in the chapter P'an Keng. There the king describes how the people
suffers from poverty and continues: p u k i y ii e k 'i j u y i 63. In order to make
this tally with interpr. A, Kiang Sheng has to explain: l have taken tortoise oracle and
enquired, saying: what about it?>> (what shall we do?). This is unreasonable, for as already
realized by PK'ung and Ts'ai Ch'en, the words k 'i j u y i must be the answer of the
oracle; the following lines contain no such answer, and it would be ridiculous of the king

in his grand speech to relate his own question (what about it?) but not the answer of the
Spirits, which latter is precisely the salient point: the Spirits side with the king in his
measures. There are thus double reasons to reject interpr. A. - B. PK'ung soberly
attributes to y i 57 the same meaning 64 >>I, we as it had a few lines earlier (55 I, the
little child) and interprets: Now you will surely say that His's guilt is (in accordance with
me=) mch as I say a. In the P'an Keng phr.: I have taken tortoise oracle and enquired,
and (the Spirits) say that it is (in accordance with me =) as I sap. Kao tsung yung ji 66
aAnd thus I (aay =) tell you: it is (in accordance with me=) as I say. Si po K'an li 67
aNow may the king (accord=) agree with me. - C. Ts'ai Ch'en likewise takes y i 57 =
64 l, we, but says: k ' i j u y i is equal to k ' i ju w o h o 68 what has it to do
with us?>i This is very arbitrary and grammatically unsatisfactory. Ts'ai adds precisely
that word: the interrogative h o, missing in k ' i j u y i, which is necessary to construe
such a meaning; a phrase 69 k ' i j u y i h o could not throw off its essential word
h o without becoming meaningless. If Ts'ai in. a general way were right in his concep-
tion, we should have to lay the interrogative in the word k 'i 70. This frequently
introduces interrogative pln:ases; it is then mostly combined with an interrogative particle
at the end, e. g. Tso: Huan 2, phr. 71 Can it endure long?, but occasionally it alone marks
the question: Tso: Ai 16, phr. 72 Even if you regret it, can you undo it? Our k' i j u
y i 52 could, on this analogy, be construed to mean: Can it concern ill;!?, can it have
anything to do with us? But here again P'an Keng vetoes this interpr., for in that
chapter Ts'ai must resort to quite another interpr.: >>I have taken tortoise oracle and
enquired, and it said: can [this place] suit us? (paraphrase: 73), an obviously impossible
interpretation; the Spirits answer by an oratorical question(!). - :B alone satisfies all
the text examples.
1406. Hi a wan g shu a i n go c h u n g I i, s h u a i k o H i a y i, y u c h u n g
s h u a i t a i f u b i e 7 4.
Legge and Couvreur translate Hi a y i in the plural: >>The Ria cities>>; but Si-ma
renders it Hi a k u o 'the state of Hia' in the singular, and there is no sufficient reason
for abandoning this.
A. Ma Jung explains the last of the three shu a i 75 as = 76 'to lead on one
another', and PK'ung has applied this sense throughout: >>The Hia king leads on (his
officers) to (stop =) obstruct the efforts of the multitude, he leads on (his officers) to
injure the city of Hia, the multitude lead on (one another) to be slack and disaffected. -
B. Ts'ai Ch'en: shu a i = 77 'all' (a well-attested meaning, see Gl. 642): The Hia
king in all (ways) obstructs the efforts of the multitude, in all (ways) he injures the city of
Hia, the multitude are all slack and disaffected. - C. Wang Nien-sun and Sun Sing-yen:
s h u a i 7 5 *sljwat I I shu a i is a loan char. for the particle 78 *bjwat (?) I juet I
y ii 'then, thereupon'. It would then be better to say that it is loan for 79 *a'jwat I
di'juet 1 shu which is attested as being a particle meaning 'then, thereupon', see Gl.
1406. But even so, this loan idea is both arbitrary, unnecessary and phonetically
1" _j.J _iE l_ :JJ. _{X J J7 iJZ1! 39 4v A p;f j.J f .t\_ fl j:] 4i +rf"f H

jt /o t:J S3 j; Jt-1'1 5 Jt :?,3 .:t {q- sr-!t.o (; 57(:; .5l' -fi f7 ?t> '.f :/. Ji &.t !!I {3. r A:$ g
Jl fcc ?f. 4\ I"F f; /h ::j.. ?(. 7j 8 :Jt _.ft7 1J (',7 _:E.Jf #"' (; sf. Jt ,:\-o R {""f C'J i<a :/; {-j ";11, j{ 7-/.
jt :z. t ?.' Jt'1&c. I'J J.kjtl:. : -;(f {'f""' . f) '*' [ 1f $: i! .2_ t/0
unconvincing. Wang has the same idea of shu a i 75 = the particle 78 in several
more Shu passages (Tsi ts'ai, Kiin Shi, Li cheng), with just as weak foundation.
1407. Y ii e s h i j i h o s a n g, y ii k i j u k i e w an g 80.
A. Meng: Liang Huei wang, shang, quotes the line 81, adding: 82. This has been
explained in two ways:- a. Chao K'i says that h a i 83 means 84 'great' and that T'ang
is the speaker: >>I say: on that day he will greatly perish, I together with you will (cause
him to die =) - the people wished, together with him (T'ang) to kill (Kie),
although he (Kie) had towers, ponds, birds and beasts, how could he enjoy it
This is very unreasonable: the change of person as subject (now T'ang, now Kie) is very
strained, h a i 83 never means 'great', and that wang 85 should be transitive= 'to
kill' is forced. - {3. PK'ung foil. by SuShi and Chu Hi: the people are speaking, and
83 (*g'dd) is loan char. for the 86 (*g'at) of the traditional Shu text: They say: (that
sun =)you sun there, when will you perish? We will die together with you; the people
were willing to die together with him - although he had towers, In other words
the people likened Kie to the sun, and hated him so much that they were willing to die,
if only he died too. This is obviously the correct interpr. of Meng-tsi's passage, and
reveals the oldest interpr. of the Shu line. But at the same time it must be conceded
that it is a highly sophist!cated interpr. - B. Fu Sheng in Shang shu ta chuan has
a story (unknown in pre-Han sources): Kie was warned by Yi Yin that his destruction
was imminent, but he laughed and said: Heaven's having the s1111 is like my having
the people. Will the sun perish? When the sun perishes, I shall perish. This shows
that Fu understood the Shu line thus >>He (Kie) says: (that sun =) you sun there, when
will you perish? (Then) I together with you will perish>>. Cheng Hiian turns it slightly
differently: >>(That sun=) you sun there, when have you ever perished? (When you do)
I together with you will perish>>. It is interesting to observe that the Han scholars did
not feel bound to follow Mencius - he became authoritative only at a later epoch. It is
easy to discern that the story about Kie's boast that he is just as imperishable as the
sun, a story entirely unknown in pre-Han sources, has been composed ad hoc, precisely
to furnish an explanation of the famous Shu line in question. - C. Another interpr.
The oldest version of the line which we possess is that of Meng-tsi 81: Fu Sheng believed
that h a i 83 (*g'dd) here was a loan for h o 86 (*g'dt), just as in Ode 2, phr. 87
(>>Which shall I wash, which not?>>), and Si-ma Ts'ien, basing himself on Fu, altered the
text into h o s an g 80 and was followed in this by PK'ung. But all this was a
mistake, and h a i 83 has its ordinary meaning; the clause follows up the preceding line
very closely: (The Hia king in all ways obstructs the efforts of the multitude, in all
ways he injures the city of Hia, the multitude are all slack and disaffected;) they say:
that one (sc. Kie) daily injures and destroys, I and you shall all together perish a. For s h i
88 cf. Ode 245, phr. 89 >>(That one =) he was Hou Tsi; sang = 'to destroy' is common
(e. g. Tso pcu3sim).
P'an Keng.
1408. Min p u s hi y u k ii 90 (following upon: >>P'an Keng moved to
A. PK'ung: The people would not go and (have a dwelling=) settle there. S h 1 93 =
'to go' is common. PK'ung reads a )>did not wish to, would not>> into the text, which is
not expressed, but this is common in the early texts. Cf. Ode 22, phr. 91: would
not take us, etc. This, besides, was already the opinion of SI-ma Ts'ien, who narrates:
The people were annoyed, 92 and did not wish to move>>. - B. Sun Sing-yen: s hi 93 =
'to like, to be pleased with' (common), thus: >>The people did not like to settle there>>.
Yii Yiie turns it differently: (P'an Keng had moved to Yin, and) the people did not like
the dwellings they had, thus placing the event after the definite removal. This, however,
tallies badly with the following line: >>Our (earlier) king came and settled here>>, i.e. in
the place now to be left, as shown by the context. - In Gl. 194 I accepted interpr. B,
but after all the ancient interpr. sponsored both by Si-ma and PK'ung is based on the
commonest sense of the char. 93, so there are no sufficient reasons for abandoning it.
1409. S h u a i y ii c hung t s ' i c h ' u s h i y en 94.
A. PK'ung: y ii 95 (both Ts'ieyiin and Shiwen read it *dfug I fu I y ii, which is
astonishing, since the phonetic is 96 *djok I jak j y ii e) = 97 'harmonious, harmonize' and
s hi 98 = 99 'straight'. Thus: He led on and (harmonized =) pacified all the grieving
(men), and issued these straight words. PK'ung repeats this definition of y ii further
on in our chapter, but abandons it in the chapters Shao kao and Li cheng, see below.
Possibly, however, PK'ung imagined that 95 was a variant of 100, which is the same
as 97. The meaning 97 'to harmonize' is not applicable in those later examples. As to
s hi 98, it would then mean 'arrow-like, straight like an arrow'. But s hi yen 1
certainly, with Ts'ai Ch'en and later comm., means 'a solemn declaration', s hi 98 (*sfgr I
si 1 s hi) being synonymous with s hi 2 (*Jiad 1 iiai 1 s hi) 'oath, solemn declaration'
(they were certainly not the same word, as often stated, merely synonymous). For con-
firmation see Gl. 783. (Sun Sing-yen adds an alternative interpr. s hi = 3 'to array,
display' and s hi yen 'arrayed words' would then be equal to 'a declaration'; this
is not superior to the preceding interpr.). That c hung t s' i 4 would mean 'all the
grieving ones' is very forced; we should then rather expect t s ' i c hun g 'the grieving
crowd'. - B. Shuowen: y ii 95 = 5 'to call', quoting our line with 6 (without rad.
'heart' in the last word). Ts'ai Ch'en accepts this (taking shu a i- y ii 'to lead on and
call' as practically a binome) and interprets: He called all the grieving (men), and issued
this solemn declaration. - C. Kiang Sheng and Sun Sing-yen both follow Shuowen
(B) as to y ii (when Sun moreover says shu a i 75 is a particle = 78, this should be
rejected, see Gl. 1406 above). But since the char. 7 - the oldest version here attested
(Shuowen, see B above) - in pre-Han texts means both 'kin, kindred' and 'grief, to
grieve, anxious', they conclude that the char. 8 is a form introduced by Wei Pao in T'ang
time, because he took t s 'i 7 here to mean 8 'to grieve'. They prefer to interpret it as
= 'kin, kindred', the king speaking to the leading henchmen of his own clan, thus: He
called all his kinsmen, and issued the solemn declaration>>. This conception of the word
t s 'i is really the oldest, for Si-ma Ts'ien narrates the event thus 9: >>P'an Keng then
instructed the feudal lords and great functionaries, saying>>. But, after all, this is far
from convincing: why should he convoke and speak to his kinsmen only? - D. Tuan
Yii-ts'ai (in comm. on Shuowen) likewise accepts Shuowen's y ii 95 = h u 5, but turns
the whole passage quite differently. He believes (after Yao Nai) that the whole following
passage from w o w a n g l a i as far as s u e i s i f a n g, altogether 94 characters,
are words uttered by the discontented people, thus: >>All calling out (to one another) the
crowd grieved and brought out a declaration (to this effect): when our king came ..... >>
etc. A comical idea that >>the crowd would unisonally proffer a declaration>> of 94 words!
- E. Liu Feng-lu would punctuate after c hung, and take c h' u 10 as a short-form
for t u 11 'to scold': >>He called the crowd, and (anxiously and scoldingly =) with
anxious reproof he made a declaration>>. He adduces as a par. Shu: To fang 12 >>He was
$ :n: ;ft3 ;:- w 11 t n 4 so a e e 'ik_ f JJ<...W lli -c .r1 at El "!i -'i!Z t ;,z_ -k M c: El {}z
tJf! -t. {l% .Ji i fb t_, * fJ j; f'l ;I( 9> {::. 7lJ S7 i/f/f };- f5' eq. N 8t lit ;6
?v. 11.. ::f, .Li!J ;% 11 :f- 1\ tA 't:Z J.- rJ iffi.. 14'. ::t 9Z. 9;: r.: q7 A:" 'lf. :X. 7f

:r:ot =) solicitously to speak to the people. In fact, Liu is obviously
nght m stoppmg after c hun 'the multitude', which tallies much better with many
parallel_ passages; all the more smce the par. adduced (To fang: t s ' i y en y ii m in)
con?lusively sho;;s t s '. i belongs to the following. But the speculation about
c h _u 10_ =_11 IS qmte arbitrary, unnecessary and unconvincing. We must therefore
modify his mterpr. thus: He called the multitude, and solicitously issued this solemn de-
- F. Yii Sing-wu: 95 is a variant for 13 in the sense of 14 'sacrifice'; c hung
15 IB .a. t a 1?. 'to join,. together ,:mth'_, and t s' i 7 is a place name; thus:
SacrifiCmg and (Jommg Ts 1 =) commg to Ts 1 he Issued a solemn declaration. A very
unconvincing text alteration. - We must compare:
. Shu: Keng_ (later in the chapter): Y ii j o y ii h u a i t s i sin y i y i wei
] u k u y I p 'e I t s 'u n g k ii e c h 1 17.
A. PK'un_g: j o 18 = 19 and y ii 95 = 97 (as above), thus: (When) I compliantly
and harmoruously cherish this new city, it is for your sake, and therefore I grandly follow
my (sc. to settle here). -B. K'ung Ying-ta follows A but (after Erya) takes
h 1 20 = 21: When I .... went to this new city, it was for your sake .... But in
spite of the Erya, a sense ol' 'come to, go to' of h u a i 20 is not safely attested, see
Gl. _no a, 7!1, 1156. Here that sense is all the more improbable, since only a couple
of lines earlier we have h u a i 20 in its proper sense: 'to cherish'.- C. Ts'ai Ch'en
y ii 95 = 5 (after Shuowen, see above); and he takes j o 18 = 'if' and h u a i 20
'to (criticised under B), thus: If I call you to come to this new city, it is for your
sake, m order grandly to follow your wish. This last making sheer nonsense (since the
people bitterly opposed the removal), later expounders have had great pains to explain
It as: to foll':'w what wru: properly_ good for the people, that which they ought to desire(!).
- D. Sun agam J o. 18 = 19, h u a i 20 = 'to come' (sea above), y ii
= 5, cunously, says p e 1 22 IS a particle>> which he leaves untranslated: (When)
I compliantly call to come this new city, it is for your sake, and hence (you
my - thus PK'ung above) referring k ii e 23 to the speaker
(k u e chI = my WISh). - E. Kiang Sheng has some curious ideas about the latter
part: he pu:r:ctuates y i 24 (25, where 24 = 28; cf. Tso: Chao 13, phr. 27 That
we do not gtve cont:Ibutwns, Lu causes it); he reads p 'e i 22 as p u 28 and inter-
prets: That I compliantly call you to come to this new city, it is you who have caused
It; I do not follow your (foolish) wishes. This is certainly no improvement. - F. Yii
Yiie: j o 18 = 'you', and hence y ii j o y ii 29 = 30 >>I call you. But then j 0 is
wrongly placed, and moreover, in Shu >>yom is never j o but always j u 31 and a j u
'you' follows immediately in our line; it is unlikely that there should be j 0 and
one j u b.oth = 'you' in the line. -:- G. Yii _Sing-wu: y ii 95 = 14 (as above)
and h u a I = >>(That) I sacrifiCe and fmd peace m this new city>>. Very improbable.
- Another mterpr. J o 18 very often stands alone as an absolute expression equal
t? J o s h 1 33 'thus', in this way', e. g. in the frequent phr. wang j 0 y ii e J4 The
king spoke thuS. This is its sense here: That I thus call you to cherish this new city is
because of yourselves: because you so greatly follow your (own) wisheso.
Shu: Shao kao: Y i a i y ii t' i e n 35.
A. Here PK'ung follows Shuowen (y ii = 5): Wailing and calling to Heaven. _
B. Yii Sing-wu and sacrificing to Heaven; entirely vetoed by the context.
Shu: L! cheng: N a i y u s h i t a k i n g y ii t s ii n t s u n shan g t i 36.
A. PK ung: Then (the poasessors of homes =) the great families were very strong, and
they called prominent men to honour God on High. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en refers the line to
the just-mentioned king of Hia: When (the possessed house=) his house was very.strong
and he called prominent men to honour God on High. The following lines, however,
describe how the dignitaries recommend wise men to the king, which decides in favour
of A as against B. - C. Yii Sing-wu: 37 = 38 = 39; 40 = 41 = 42; y ii 43 = 14,
thus: *Then the great families revered and sacrificed to and estimated and honoured
God on High>>. Exceedingly forced. - To sum up: Shuowen's definition (the earliest
available) of y ii 43 = h u 44 is suitable to all the four Shu examples, and there is no
reason whatever for rejecting it.
1410. W o wan g I a i, k i y ii a n t s e y ii t s i 45.
Since y ii a n 46 as a particle means 'then, thereupon', we must take k i 47 as a
finite verb (common), thus: aOur (earlier) king came, and having done so, he settled here.
There have been different ideas about the historical facts referred to. PK'ung and
most following comm. think that >>our king>> was Tsu Yi, but Liu Feng-lu insists
that it was P'an Keng's immediate predecessor Yang Kia. Again, since the Preface to
Shu (Shu sii) says that Tsu Yi resided in Keng 48 (Si-ma Ts'ien writes 49; Si-ma Cheng
says this is a mere variant and should be read Keng as well, which seems very doubtful),
and PK'ung and later comm. have followed this and believe that our >>settled here>> refers
to this Keng. But ace. to the authentic Chu shu ki nien, Tsu Yi resided, not in Keng,
but in Pi 49, and so did several of his followers, whereas Yang Kia, P'an Keng's
immediate predecessor, resided in Yen 50. It is, of course, quite futile to try to determine
which potentate and which place are referred to in our text. As a mere curiosity may
be mentioned that Yii Yiie believes that the line is not spoken by P'an Keng himself
but on his behalf by the officials, and that therefore our king>> refers to P'an Keng
himself; further that Yii thinks y ii an 46 means 51: Our king has come, and changing
(place) settled here. In support of this he adduces that the term y ii. an t 'i en 52
in Tso: Hi 15 is defined by Tu Yii as = 53. But the sense of this y ii an is quite diff-
erent, see Gl. 207.
1411. C h u n g w o m in w u t s i n I i u 54.
A. Ts'ai Ch'en paraphrases so as to show that he took t sin 55 with its common
meaning of ('exhaustively' =) 'all': >>He attached great importance to our people, and
would not kill them all. This makes a comical sense. - B. T sin 55 is obviously a
verb, coordinated with l i u: >>He attached great importance to the people, (so that)
they should not be destroyed and killed>). Cf. Tso: Ch'eng 12: They (the lords) quarrel
about a fathom or a double-fathom (of territory) 56 and for that they (exhaust, make
an end of =) destroy their people>>.
Y ii e k 'i j u y i see Gl. 1405.
1412. S i en wang y u f u k 'o kin t' i en min g 57.
A. PK'ung and later comm.: When the former kings had some busine!IS, they reverently
(attended to=) obeyed the commands of Heaven. - B. Yu Sing-wu believes that since
a,':l: :f. it ft: t :r- [{ ;J /r 11: 'i:... /{ ;]; !7 f 6' e ,]> tri;.t ;;x );( .f 1;
15' N u -'En h\Z N )_:( .t.r ;t"1Jt:Jz-gzrX u: G.i7* .Z ::)- :tt RZ>' ..Us -'F -2r f
Ji!. !\.of ;,1;r Jl 5.t. U(._:;/<' :n.6 ){_ .f..?.;'- 1:J 35: V) J> 17 1f ' _t ;f;

]') 177
the for t 58 'Heaven' and t a 59 'great' were practically identical in
the early scnpt, and smce the Han scholars in several attested cases mistook a real t a
fo: a t ' i e .n ; and since, on the other hand, k i n 60 was probably originally written
Without radical (61) and could equally well be filled out into k' in 62 as into 60 we
ought to read k 'in, .t a m i? g 63 >xliligently for the great command
The t I en mIn g 64, however, IS very common in the early texts, and
It would be qmte unreasonable to alter it into t a m in g in all these cases. Yii's
emendation is arbitrary and unnecessary. - C. Yii Yiie thinks that f u 65 does not
law, the text parallels he adduces in support (Tso:
Siang 30, Lu: Yue ch eng) are questiOnable. No reason to abandon the common and
well-attested meaning of f u in A.
1413. J o tie n m u c h 1 y u y u n i e (n go) 66.
For 67 (*ngjat I ngjiit In i e and *ngdt / ngdt In go) there are (in Shuowen) the variants
68 and 69 (*ngdt I ngdt In go). Shuowen defines them all as = 70 'the remains of a felled
tree', i. e. the stump of a tree, but in fact it always means 'new shoots from a tree
stump' (so in Ode 304, in Meng: Kao tsi, shang, in Kyii: Lu yii).
A. re1_1ders y u 71 by y u n ?2: >>Just like a fallen tree has y u something-
by-which n I e It has new This IS very forced, and moreover the definition of
Y u = y u n g, based on a gloss of Mao Heng's in Ode 66, is not acceptable, see Gl. 200.
- B. wri_tes 73 for 71, defining it as = 'shoots from a tree:. Y u. n i e (y u.
n go) 1s then a bmome of synonyms: Just like a fallen tree has new shoots. The Ts'ing
scholars agree in Tso: Chao 8, phr. 74 >>It (the state of Ch'en) will still revive, the
yu 71 has this sense. In fact 71 and 73 are homophonous (*dj6g fift.u lyu) and the
of y u 71 being 'to come out from', the y u here, whether wr. 71
or With special form 73, means 'that which comes out' = 'the shoot', i.e. it is
the same stem as the ordinary y u 71 'to come out'.
1414. Y u n a i t sa i wei 75.
This follows upon: P'an Keng instructed the people (76).
A. PK'ung takes this to be a?' orati? _recta, y u 71 = 72, interpreting: Use
(the commands of) your men m positiOns>> (1. e. offwers). This sense of y u is not
acceJ?table, see Gl. 1413 above. Moreover, the line cannot be an oratio recta, since it is
not mtroduced by any y ii e 77, but the next line on the contrary begins with this
Y - Ch'en: >>(When P'an Keng instructed the people), y u he started
:mth t s .a 1 we 1. those in_ high positions (i. e. officers). T s' a i says nothing of the
mco_nvernent .n a 1 78: whi_ch really makes no sense in Ts'ai's interpr. Now, however,
n a I was 79 m Archaic scnpt and k ii e was 80 and they were frequently confounded
by_ the_Han scholars_ who transcribed the archaic Shu text (see B. Karlgren, The Pronoun
k u e m the Shu kmg, Goteborgs Hogskolas Arsskrift 1933). Our text here should be
emendated into y u k ii e t s a i we i 81 He started with those of them who were in high
positions, k e ! sa i wei beipg equal to 82, which is grammatically impeccable. -
C. _Wang Ym-chr: Fang yen (middle-Han colloquial) says y u 71 = 83 'to correct'.
It IS not very clear how Wang then understood the line, and no pre-Han support is avail-
able for that sense y u. -. D. Yii Sing-wu: in the bronze inscriptions there is a char.
wr. 84 (Mao Kung Tmg) or Without rad. 'mouth', and Yii transcribes this as 85. He con-
the y u n a i 86 is a wrong reading of this char., which in the
stands 11_1 the phrases 87 >>to x. my high position>> and 88 to x the king's
c_orrespondmg to our 75 here. This seems at first very ingenious. But even if
Yu. ':ere nght that x meant something like 'to support': >>to support the king's high
position>> etc., such a verb with t sa i wei as object would make no sense. And
moreover, Yii's reading of the unknown bronze graph is very hypothetical. E. y.J
Yiie: 90 is defined in Shuowen as = 91, which need not mean (transitive): 'to waken,
to cause to understand, to teach' but (intransitive) 'to awaken, to come to insight, to
realize'. Here: Keng hi a o y ii min realized about the people y u n a i t sa i
wei that they followed those in the official positions (i.e. the bad example of the
officers). But 90 is well attested to mean (transitive) 'to teach', e. g. Ta Tai: Li ch'a 92
Is that not a clear instruction and a great proof? - F. Liu Feng-lu: the phr. y u
n a i t sa i wei is analogous to a line in Shu: Wu yi: t so k 'i t s i wei 89. It
is difficult to see how y u n a i could then be construed. - G. Cheng Hiian, followed
by various comm., believes that P'an Keng at this time was not yet king, and that the
following: wang j o y ii e )>The king spoke thus>>, really means: The king says>>, P'an
Keng quoting and passing on to the crowd an utterance of king Yang Kia. There is,
however, not the slightest support in the text for this speculation.
1415. Y ii k a o j u h ii n j u y u c h ' u n a i s i n 93.
A. PK'ung punctuates after h ii n : y ii k a o j u h ii n, j u y u c h ' u n a i s in,
interpreting: I will announce to you my instructions: you should plan for expurgating
your hearts>). - B. Sun Sing-yen divides the line differently: y ii k a o j u, h ii n j u
y u, c h' u n a i sin : I will tell you and teach you (good) counsels: you should
expurgate your hearts. This is better rhythmically, the whole passage being: wan g
j o y ii e, k o j u c h u n g, y ii k a o j u, h ii n j u y u, c h ' u n a i s in, w u - a o
t s 'u n g k 'an g. - C. Yii Yiie divides thus: y ii k a o j u h ii n j u, y u c h' u
n a i sin, adding that y u 93 = 94 = 71 and that 71 is defined as= 72 by Mao in
co!lllll. on the Odes; thus: I will tell you and instruct you, and (using this =) thereby
you shall expurgate your hearts. But y u 93 = 72 is quite unsupported. - D. Chang
Ping-lin punctuates like Yii (C): Y ii k a o j u, h ii n j u, y u c h 'u n a i sin, w u
a o t s ' u n g k ' a n g ; it is easily seen that this is rhythmically far superior to A, and
also to 13. He says that y u 9S with Erya: Sh! yen means 95, and points out that later in
our chapter we have j u k ' o c h ' u n a i s i n 96 >)If you can expurgate your hearts,
thus here: You should be able to expurgate your hearts. (He adds that the following
k ' a n g 97 should mean 'emptiness' and not 'ease', which is certainly no improvement.)
But though the Erya gloss is of little value (see Gl. 277 ), Chang is certainly right in saying
that y u should be taken together with c h' u. The graphs 93 and 94 are often inter.
changeable, and y u 94, synon. with shan g 98, is frequent as expressing a wish, an
exhortation, cf. Ode llO, phr. 99 >>May you still come and not stop there!>> So we have y u
here as a mark of the optative: I will tell you and teach you, may you still expurgate your hearts .
1416. Wang p o k a o chI s i u p u n i k ii e c h 1 100.
A. PK'ung punctuates after s i u : )>When the king proclaimed and told them his
(governing) measures, they did not conceal his aims>> (sc. but explained them to the
people and carried them out). S i u 'to cultivate, elaborate', here, then, as a noun: that
which he elaborated, his governing actions, the measures taken. - B. Hii Shen in
Shuowen, who has the variant 1, quotes: w a n g p o k a o c h i, which shows that
.!lT. :k. U1 .t cJJ/J );;,_-;{ "" y(_f .-.r-f!R .;.; 11 \:11 ""1'<

jt r.; JE J'J; n .Jif 5{ r:ll 17 f7 }ft{-!Z '!!f .:L{i. n1i. Jl< f.p{Jt ?d v-lt 11!
t ..:!/1. .f 9J f '*' W PI ;,p:. 17 t::.., f:J 9.;- 4'f, rs: "f J( yf;: 77 I.:. .. 77 J.. f'i lh 9'f J,'1i .J:.
At! %-:Z_-{'f-'f- /fffii.;ffi 1 .i {l'f 3 HifJ1L_r.{lt_,; 7 ./!. s ? 1tlll
he carried s i u to the following line. Then there are several possibilities: - a. Kiang
Sheng: When the king made a proclamation or announcement to them. they s i u elaborated
it (made ft perfectly clear) and did not conceal ita (aim=) purport..- {J. Sun Sing-yen: When
the king made a proclamation or announcement to them, far away they did not
conceal its purport (i. e. they made it known all over the realm). Sun says s i u 2 = 3;
we have it meaning 'long' in Shi, and Ch'u: Li sao says >>the way is s i u y ii a n 4 long
and far(-going). - y. Yii Sing-wu: s i u stands for y u 5 (this after Sun Yi-jang},
which Yii believes means 72(!). N i 6 is a short-form for t' e 7 (as often). Thus: When
the king made a proclamation or announcement to them, then they did not (make erron-
eous, distort =) change its purport>>. This construction of a surmised y u 5 is quite
impossible. - C. Yii Yiie reverts to PK'ung's interpunctation: w a n g p o k a o chi
s i u, but he believes that s i u 2 (*sjiJg I B'lgU Is i u) is a loan char. for 8 (*d'iok 1 d'iek 1
t i) in the sense of 'road'. His reasons are, first that in Shu: To fang for t i 8 in the
orthodox version Ma Jung's version had y u 5 (*dj.Og ti!!u I y u}, and secondly that
in Shu: Lii bing there is a line P o Y i p o h i n g chi t i 9 which reminds of the
present line, if we read s i u here as t i. These reasons are quite insufficient, and the
theory is phonetically highly improbable. -If PK'ung, though he must have known of the
earlier (Shuowen) punctuation (after k a o chI), divided the line thus: wang p o k a o
chI s i u (with s i u as a'; object after Kao), it was probably because in our earlier
line he read y ii k a o j u h ii n 93 with an analogous construction. We saw, however
(Gl. 1415), that it is rhythmically better in that line to stop after "j u: y ii k a o j u,
and on this analogy we should here stop, as Shuowen does, after c h I : wan g p o
k a o c h i (B). Interpr. Ba then seems most logical and natural.
1417. Wang yung p'ei k'in, wang yu yi yen 10.
A. PK'ung: The king therefore was reverently attentive (sc. in his orders) and had no
frivolous words. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en: >>The king therefore greatly respected (them, his
officers), and there were no (let-loose words, too-far-going words =) untruthful words.
This is certainly no improvement; in the early Shu chapters k ' in 11 is regularly used
in the sense of 'to be reverently attentive', and A suits the context better. - C. Liu
Feng-lu: k ' i n 11 is a short-form for h in 12 'to set forth, display', thus: The king
therefore greatly (set forth =) promoted (those officers)>> etc. A very unnecessary loan
1418. M in y u n g p ' e i pi e n 13.
The traditional interpr. is: >>The people were greatly transformed>> (by the good influ-
ence of the king and his ministers). But it is certainly preferable to read the line in its
logical context. The present people would not listen to the king and move. In older
times, when the king made a proclamation (about a removal of capital), the ministers
loyally supported and furthered his aims, and the people therefore were greatly (change-
able =) amenable (sc. to the king's wishes).
1419. K in j u k u o k u o 14.
A. Shuowen quotes the line with 15, variant 16 (*kwdt j kuat 1 k u o) and defines it
(as quoted in Shiwen) 17 'resisting what is good, and self-opinionated'. Ma Jung defines
the 18 of the orthodox text in the same way; Cheng Hiian says it is = 19 'difficult to
tell someting to', i. e. unwilling to hear, and PK'ung 20 'who has no understanding'-
various ways of expressing the idea of 'self-opinionated'. - B. K'ung Ying-ta foil. by
Ts'ai Ch'en: k u o k u o means 'garrulous', the idea, however, being properly: 'noisy
talk, chattering noisily, clamour, vociferous'. - It is evident (against Tuan Yii-ts'ai and
followers) that there are not two words but one: *kwdt I kudt 1 k u o 18, of which 16
is merely a variant (further varied as 15). It is attested, on the one hand, in the sense of
'noisy talk', e. g. Tso: Siang 26, phr. 21 Chatting noisily he talked with him (Wei Chao:
k u o = 22 'to shout'); Chuang: T'ien hia 23 They strongly vociferated and would
not give up>>. On the other hand, in the sense of 'to deafen, to make such noise as to
deafen the ear', e. g. Han fei: Hi en hiie 24 The sound deafens the ear. The question
is which of these cognate meanings is the one obtaining in our Shu line. The A interpr.
means: >>Now you (are deafened=) turn a deaf ear (i.e. are self-opinionated, will take
no reason); the B interpr. means: >>Now you are (making a deafening noise=) clamour
ing;. The former would suit the context admirably, since the king complains that the
people will not listen to reason and move. But, after all, the latter is strongly supported
by the reduplication: k u o - k u o, which shows that the author felt the word te be a
descriptive, probably onomatopoetic word.
1420. K' i sin hie n f u 25.
All the commentators believe that hi en f u are attributes to an understood y en
26 words.
A. PK'ung does not explain the line more than defining f u 27 'skin' as = f u s h o u
28 'received by the skin' i. e. 'superficial, shallow' (f u s h o u being a phr. in Lun: Yen
Yuan). K'ung Ying-ta expounds: >>K' i in your (starts =) undertakings, you believe
wicked and superficial (words)>>. Hie n 29 'precipitous', dangerous also often means
'oblique, crooked, wicked', e. g. Tso: Ai 16, phr. 30 He who seeks fortune by wicked
means>> (Tu Yii: hie n = 31); this is really an extension of meaning: 'risky, adventurous,
unorthodox, incorrect'. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en construes differently: >>K' i sin that which
raises confidence (of the people, in you) hie n f u is wicked and superficial (words)>>.
Legge modifies this by taking h i en in its fundamental sense: >>Yon get the confidence
(of the people) by alarming and shallow speeches>>.- C. Sun Sing-yen turns it differently:
You (raise =) set going and believe wicked and superficial words>>. - D. Kiang Sheng:
sin 32 means 33 'to extend' = 'to repeat' (as often) and f u 27 (*pl.wo I pf:u If u)
means 34 *b'fiJg I b'fitu If o u 'to float': 'floating words' = 'rumours'. Thus: You (raise=)
set going and repeat wicked rumours>>. Kiang was deluded by a slight phonetic similarity
in the modern forms (f u: f o u). - E. Chang Ping-lin: hie n 29 stands for t s' i en
35 'all' and f u 27 for 36 'to expose, narrate', as in Kyii: Tsin yii 37 >>He listened to
(exposed =) narrated talk in the market. (Hie n f u =) t s' i en 1 u 38 would then
mean: >>Yon (all = in all places =) everywhere narrate>>. Utterly unlikely. - F. Another
interpr. All comm. have stared themselves blind on the axiom that yen 'words' should
be understood. Nothing is less necessary. The text is simple and easy as it stands: (Now
you are clamouring); in order to (raise =) invite confidence yon endanger your skins, (but I do
not know what you are wrangling about)>>. The line means that the rebellious leaders
are bold and take considerable risks in order to have their way. For hie n 29 'danger'
taken as a transitive verb: 'to endanger' cf. Tso: Chao 31, phr. 39 >>endangering the great
1421. Fe i y ii t s i huang t s i t e, wei j u han t e p u t' i y ii y i j en 40.
A. PK'ung: >>It is not that I myself (lay waste =) neglect this (virtue =) mentality
(sc. goodwill between ruler and subjects), it is (your held virtue=) the mentality that
you hold (sc. that is bad), you do not fear me, the one mam. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en: han
;o. JA 11 .Jt /! iJ:. 1.1Jfi.. /J G'Z. m 1, /,j- ,p; 17 0 m 1t.
Jfi 19. 1i1t z .w j; f(o z;t. v 1% f0 f)i z .g .!t RI.v 'J:'fUfi; M oF .tf J} Jf& Jf .:s r?.A
1( n /r .15.1: x H fit 3<1. $ % 3! :53 {>f' 14' '3) ii x Jv.t 17. # :JJ'.
A A. +a'*- f 1idif: t -A. 'it 1; .;s:
1 "1
41 'to contain, to hold' = 'to keep hidden', thus: It is not that I myself neglect this
(virtue =) goodwill (sc. between ruler and subjects), it is you who (hold, keep shut up =)
conceal this goodness and do not fear me, the one mam. - C. Chang Ping-lin: h an 41
(*g'am I I han) and 42 (*k'liam I k'iem I k' i en) both mean 'to hold in the mouth'
and >>are really the same word>>(!). Now 42 serves as loan char. for 43 (k'liam) 'deficient'
in Kyii: Tsin yii, and our 41 does the same here, so han t e 44 means 'a (deficient=)
small virtue': It is you who have a small virtue>>. In contrast to this the preceding
huang t e 45 means 'great virtue'. A curious speculation. -D. Sun Sing-yen: Sr-ma
Ts'ien, paraphrasing these ideas in a few lines, says: 46 >>Throwing it away and not exerting
oneself, how can one achieve the virtue>>. This shows that the curious han 41 of the
orthodox text is a graphical error for she 47, which makes a clear and easy sense: It
is not that I myself neglect this goodwill (sc. between ruler and subjects), it is you who reject the
good will and do not (fear =) respect me, the one mans.
1422. P u t ' i y ii y i j e n 48.
A. PK'ung: You do not (fear =) respect me, the one man. T' i (*t'iek I t'iek It' i)
in the sense 'to fear' is common (Meng: Kung-sun Ch'ou, shang; Kyii: Ch'u yii etc:). -
B. Sun Sing-yen: Erya sa.ys t 'i t' i 49 means 'to love', and the Han school applied
this sense to a line in Ode T 'i would mean the same here: do not love me,
the one mam. But this meaning of the char. lacks corroboration, see Gl. 345. - C.
Another school (ap. Po hu t'ung: T'ung hao) reads 51. The meaning of 52 (*sia I si{! I
s hi} here is obscure, since this char. has a great many meanings. One very common
is 'to give, to bestow', and the present case might be an extension of this meaning: You
(bestow nothing on=) are not generous to me(?}. (When Tuan Yii-ts'ai argues that
53 and 52 were phonetically kindred, he is quite mistaken).- A is simple and convincing.
1423. Y ii j o k u a n h u o y ii y i c h o m o u t s o n a i y i 54.
A. PK'ung: (I can see your minds) as if I looked at a fire; but I also have stupidly
planned, and caused your (license =) fault>>; in other words: I ought to have severely
forced you to obey, instead of humouring you. A forced expl. -B. In comm. on Chou
li: SI kuan shi, Cheng Hiian says: 55 is read like the k u a n 56 in Shang shu's phr. 57.
So far he only gives a sound gloss. :But then he continues: >>Now, in Yen, colloquially
one calls the heat of hot fluid k u an 56>>. From this it appears that Cheng really thought
k u an 56 could mean 'hot' and stand for the (ace. to him) homophonous 58. Many
Ts'ing scholars believe that this shows that Cheng interpreted our Shu phr. k u an h u o
59 as = (60 =) 'hot fire'. On the other hand, Shuowen quotes the latter part: 61 (when
Hii adds: t u j o 62 it is read like 63, it is only a sound gloss; he does not mean that it
stands for 63, for then he would have said t u wei 64; on the other hand, when
Wang Ming-sheng believes that the 63 of the orthodox text is a correction of a primary
65, based on Shuowen's gloss, this is a quite arbitrary conclusion). This rather confirms
the preceding suggestion about k u a n, for then there would have existed a version with
h u o 'fire' in both k u a n and c h o. Unfortunately the char. 65 is known from no
other text, and whereas Shuowen in its present version defines it as = 66 'fire being
brilliant' (the brilliance of fire), Shuowen as quoted in Lei p'ien has just the opposite 67
'fire not being brilliant' (an obscured brightness). Kiang Sheng follows the latter: I am
like a blazing fire; but I have been obscured in my prestige, and caused you to be (licen-
tious =) undisciplined (how m o u in c h o m o u 68 can be twisted in Kiang's way,
so that c h o m o u would mean 'lacking in prestige' is difficult to see). Sun Sing-yen
carries m o u to the last line: (Though) I am like a blazing fire, I have become obscured
(i.e. I am not so awe-inspiring as I really should be); I am planning to (create your ease=)
make it comfortable for yon. It must be admitted that both these interpr. make very
poor sense. (Chang Ping-lin has an even more eccentric interpr.: >>I am like a beacon
fire, I also c h o belch out smoke, planning to t so raise you from your ease). It would
be slightly better to accept the orthodox Shuowen version for c h o 65: I am like a blaz-
ing fire, and I also have brilliantly planned for (creating your ease=) making it comfor-
table for yon. But the fact remains that there is no pre-Han support whatever for c h
65 (be it in the sense of 'brilliant' or 'obscured'), and the B version is therefore exceedingly
unsafe. - C. Another interpr. With the readings of the A version it is still easily possible
to make a more natural sense out of the lines: > am as if watching a conflagration (i. e.
this sedition); and yet I have (only) (ineptly=) according to my poor capacity planned to (create
your ease =) make it comfortable for you1. >>I have ineptly planned>> is the earliest ex. of this
? h o 63 being. used in and self-depreciating way in which it is still employed
m modem Chmese. Y 1 69 m the adversative sense of 'and yet, still, pourtant' is com-
mon, e. g. Tso: Huan 5 (An arrow hit the king's shoulder) 70 and yet the king was able
to (the king was still, none the less, able to) maintain the fight. H u o 71 'fire' in the
sense of 'conflagration' is likewise common, see Ch'un ts'iu: Siang 9; Tso: Hi 24 etc.
1424. N a i p u we i j u n g t u y ii y ii an e r 72.
N a i here does not mean 'you' (which is always j u in the nominative and objective
case in the P'an Keng, n a i being exclusively genitive), but the temporal particle: 'then,
.A. PK'ung says simpl_y j u n .g 73 = 74 'great' (common e. g. in the Odes), and K'ung
expounds more m detail: Now you do not fear the great (poison=) harm in a
distant or near (future)>>, thus taking y ii an e r to refer to time. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en:
>>Now you do not fear (to be submerged in) great harm in far away and near (places)-
referring, ace. to Legge, to the inundations around the old capital, from which P'an Keng is
supposed to have fled. Couvreur, on the contrary, takes y ii an e r to refer to
persons: Vous ne redoutez pas les grands maux qui menacent vos parents et les etrangers>>.
- C: Kiang Sheng construes very curiously: >>Now you do not fear the great harm, (cal-
culatmg only) as to far or near, i. e. you think only of the distance you have to move.
The single preposition y ii 75 certainly cannot express all this. - D. Sun Sing-yen:
Erya (Shi yen) says j u n g 73 = 76, so that j u n g t u 77 means 78: You do not fear
become hat,ed f?'r, and But the Erya gloss means j u n g 73 = siang 76
m the of to a1d. (referrmg to Ode 164, see Gl. 387), and certainly not= siang 76
as the remprocal particle. Fundamentally, however, Sun is certainly right in taking t u
mean, r;ot 'hanJoi' (as A-C) but 'to hate, hatred' (a common meaning of t u). Adher-
mg to A s gloss J u n g = t a we thus obtain: Now you do not fear the great hatred
(you incur) far and near. That this is the correct interpr. of t u follows from the next
line: 79 When you do not friendlily and nicely speak to the people, you (yourself for
yourself produce hatred =) create hatred against yourself>>. Here the very context
proves that t u has its sense of 'to hate'. Simularly in Li: Tsi yi 80: >>Only the noble
man can love the righteous, the small man hates the righteous (here h a o 'to love': t u
'to hate' are quite unambiguous).
%- fii )J..h\-ft 47. t- w 1- r#7 r- A_.;., l::.. 57 -A. a.
ii n 51' f f'; 't 1t' jJ .Xfi.YYk Y<. co;tl}( ?/ f

J", f ;.:!, 7JA. '1f ?l- -t ;rc:_.f1 T1A-If '1f ffi "11: ;,t 13 'f Ei
Jt' oft .t _:t. j(_ .ibh A.._.i .:it .if. J'/. :f: {)i 'M F.:t :i fJ. N t K ftl -t_
1425. P u h u n t s o l a o 81.
-!'-v Chen? Hiian: u n 82 (*xmwan I xuan l.h, u n) is a short-form for 83 (*mjwsn I
I m 1 n) = 84 to make an effort, energet1c . We have this latter meaning 'strong,
forceful, violent' in Shu: K'ang kao and Li cheng. Thus: >>(When a lazy farmer takes his own
ease) and does not energetically toil. This would entail that we should really read it min
(*miwen) here, not hun (*xmwan). -B. In Erya: Shi-ku, however, we find an entry: 85 x
andy both mean strong>>. By this the Erya author e i t h e r meant that x 82 andy 83 here
are two equivalent variants, and we are then authorized to read 82 as well as 83 *miwsn 1
miwen I m i n; o r meant to distinguish them as two synonymous words, and then the
first should be read, not *miwsn but *xmwrJn I xuan I hun. The comm. Sun Yen (3rd
c. A. D.) was of the latter opinion - indeed it is improbable that the Erya author would
have registered first a short-form 82 and then the complete character 83, so that in all pro-
bability he meant to distinguish them. Sun Yen defines 82 = 86 'the (strength =) exertion
of morning and evening', reading 82 *xmwan I xuan I hun. Thus our Shu line: n(Wben a
lacy farmer takes his own ease) and does not ( evening-wise n =) unto evening toil. Whether
this was already the idea of the Erya author, when defining hun 82 as= k' ian g
'strong', thus taking the latter in the sense of 'persevering', is of course uncertain. PK'ung
and Ts'ai Ch'en simply follow.Erya's definition 82 = 87 without reflecting upon how it could
mean this.- The word *miwsn 'strong' is known, besides wr. 83, in several other variants:
88, but in no other case abbreviated into 82. In both of the certain Shu cases it is written
by the full form 83, and there are no variant readings having any 82. That the
82 in our present chapter could be a short-form of 83 seems therefore unlikely. In following
B we need not operate with any short-form speculation (reading m i n inst. of h u n)
but we can take the 82 as it stands and read it hun in its ordinary way; it makes good
sense. Cheng's speculation (A) is therefore unnecessary.
J u p o h o k i yen see Gl. 1451.
1426. N a i k i s i en n go (w u) y ii min 89.
A. PK'ung, followed by most later comm.: s i en n g o 90 = 'to go before in evil';
thus: >>When you now have taken the lead in evil among the people>>. -B. Wang Sien-
k'ien: 91 should here be read w u 'to hate', not n go 'evil': When you now first have
become hated by the people. Since this follows up the preceding: >>Wei j u t s 1 she n g
t u (79) >>you create hatred against yourself>>, it is strikingly plausible.
1427. J u h u e i s h e n h o k i 92.
A. This is the orthodox version: >>(When you now have become hated by the people,
and then receive the pain), that you regret (the effect on) your persons, what will it
avail?>> - B. The oldest version attestable is in the stone classics of 175 A. D. which
reads 93 nThat you regret your fate, what does it avaih. - B is clearly superior.
1428. S ian g s h i t s ' i e n (s i en) m i n 94.
K'ung Ying-ta takes a w o 'I' as understood subject: >>I see those ..... people>l; but
it is obvious that siang 95 is an imperative: >>Look at>>, as frequently in the Odes (Odes
52, 165, 197 etc.).
A. Ma Jung defines t s' i en 96 as = 97 'glib-tongued and petty-minded'. Shuowen
similarly says that char. means 98 'fawning, ingratiating'. Thus: >>Look at those ingra-
tiating people>>. For a par. see Shu: Li cheng below. The char. is read *k'sf:am(1) f
ts'jiim / t s' i en (Ts'ie yiin, Shiwen) or I sjiim Is i en (Shiwen alt.). But it
is doubtful whether these readings are right. We have the word hie n 99 in this sense
of 'ingratiating, fawning' both in Chuang: Yii fu and Han fei: Kuei shL That this has
there its ordinary reading *xliam I xf:iim 1 hie n follows from its being merely an exten-
sion of meaning from its ordinary sense, as shown by the binome hie n pi 100,
properly 'sloping, oblique, leaning towards one side', hence 'fawning on, ingratiating',
which occurs in this sense in Siin: Ch'eng siang and Lii: Kiin shou. It seems possible
that 96 is only a variant with rad. 'heart' in this special sense of 99 (sloping =) 'ingra-
tiating' and that it should really be read h i e n. - B. PK'ung and Ts'ai Ch'en:
t s 'i en min 1 = 2 'the small people'. For this there is not the slightest foundation.
Possibly they guessed that ts'f!im, sjam was the same stem as 3 (*siam I sjam Is i en)
'thin, slender'? - C. Shuowen has a char. 4 defined as = 5 'glib-tongued', quoting:
>>The Ode 6 says 7>>. ))The Ode>> must here be wrong for >>The Document>> 8 and the line
is a quotation from our chapter here. Ts'ie yiin reads this 4 sjam, but that is obviously
because Lu Fa-yen identified it with the 96 in A above, and it is just as clearly wrong:
the 9 (short for 10) series must end in -n; this is confirmed by the version in the stone
classics of 175 A. D., which has 11 instead. This is generally recognized to be a variant
of 12 *san I san I s an 'to scatter, to disperse', which is quite safe (the radicals 13 and
14 having kindred meanings), and the line in this version means: Look at those dispersed
(homeless) people, sc. those suffering from the floods. It seems reasonable to assume
that 4 (phon. 10) was merely a variant of this 12 *sdn, stressing the mental side (rad.
>>heart) of the idea: dispersed and suffering. If so, Hii Shen has given his 4 a wrong
interpr., influenced by his knowledge of the alternative reading 96, and his version with
4 should instead be joined to that of the stone classics with 11 = 12. The two versions
with -m and -n respectively are equally early attested (Ma Jung *k'sjam, Hii Shen *san,
both 1st c. A. D.). But A makes a far less natural sense than B: >>Look at those
fawning (ingratiating) people - even they are considerate in their remonstrating
here the y u 15 ))even they>> is quite unreasonable. B is far better: at those
dispersed (homeless) people, even they (sc. in spite of their extreme suffering) are
considerate in their remonstrating words, lest in their utterances they should have
reckless mouths. We compare:
Shu: Li cheng: Wang y u I i c h eng y u n g t s 'i en (s i en) j en 16, and
next line: wu yi ts'ien jen 17.
A. Here again Ma Jung says t s' i en = 18 'glib-tongued, ingratiating'. Thus: It
has never occurred that in establishing the government one has employed ingratiating (insincere)
men. (When Shlwen says: l)Qriginally also written 4>>, this is not an ancient alter-
native version in this chapter, but a note based on the variant in chapter P'an Keng
above). -B. Shuowen quotes 19; defining 20 as= 21 'to inquire'. It is quite evident
that by this definition Hii Shen means that 20 is the proper graph for the word that is
written (by a loan char.) 22 'to test, try, verify' (*nglfam I ngjiim 1 yen). It
1s doubtful how Hii understood our line. Did he mean: >>men to be inquired about, men
should be tested>>? Kuang yiin says 20 = 23 'fawning', and the author evidently
thinks that the 20 of Hii's version was merely a loan char. for 96; but that, at any rate,
was not Hii's opinion, for his formulation indicates that he illustrates his sense de-
finition by this Shu phr. - A is here clearly superior, as far as the meaning:
'fawning, ingratiating' is concerned; but it is still doubtful whether the char. should be
read t s 'i en (s i en), as an independent word, or it is merely a variant of 99 and should
be read hie n (see above).

R 9.);l:rJ 9.; tlt 9 J ')v h f Z ""- 7f fJ p:e f!. I / h Z 3 it\, f .f:}, S: ;f<J .:
dt. vh:J K_ S.! 'l rt'J /17 fllltj 111R1.t 13 .t If .z_ /&. *J :Jl: f_.( JB 1'1 ?;j
'l:i:: A. IS A<-H? 19 &J A._.zc, v /:Ju fflt. z.;.J&J f$1 tcp i7R5:
1429. S hen y ii chi n a i t u an c h ' an g chi m i n g 24.
A. PK'ung: How much the more, since I determine your short or long lives>>, sc.
should you be considerate in your utterances. The weakness of this interpr. is that the
essential part of the passage is not expressed but left to be supplied. It assumes a violent
ellipsis. - B. Sun Sing-yen: min g 25 here means 1 in g 26 'an order' (as often):
(Even those homeless people are considerate in their remonstrating words etc.); how much
the more then I, in formulating your short or long ordenP t. B, which obviates the ellipsis,
is certainly more plausible.
1430. K ' u n g c h ' e n y ii c h u n g 27.
A. PK'ung: >>I fear that you will be submerged in all kinds (sc. of miseries)>>. A comical
ellipsis. - B. K'ung Ying-ta: >>I fear that you c h' en cause submersion (sc. in misery)
y ii c h u n g to the multitude. This construction of c h ' e n is, of course, impossible
(Kiang Sheng makes the same fault). - C. Ts'ai Ch'en: k' u n g is transitive: >>k 'u n g
you scare and c h' en submerge (in misery) c hung the people>>. Ts'ai has simply
skipped the inconvenient y ii 28. - D. Sun Sing-yen: >>(You excite each other by
loose talk), I fear that it will sink down deep in the multitude. Dis grammatically faultless
and obviously right. ....,
1431. Before the words j o h u o chi I i a o y ii y ii an 29, there are four charac-
ters: n g o c h 'i y i y e 30 in this passage as quoted by Tso. Since this quotation
(Shang-shu says: n go chi y i y e, j u (31) h u o c h 1 I i a o y ii y ii an) occurs
both in Yin 6 and Chuang 14, there can be no doubt that those words really belonged to
the Shu text read by the Tso author, and should be restituted. An orator in Tso: Yin
6 paraphrases y i 32 by 33 'to extend', thus: >>The (extending =) spreading of evil is
like a fire's flaming in the plain>>. But this word has no such sense as 'to extend' (when
Ts'ing scholars would identify it with 34, this will not do, since they were all *dia j it( 1
y i). Cf. also Gl. 1244. There is no reason why y i should not have its original sense:
The (facility =) easy success of evil is like a fire's flaming in the field
1432. T s 'i t s o f u t s i n g 35.
A. Ma Jung: t sing 36 = 37 'quiet, rest'. In Kyii: Chou yii, hia, an orator defines
t sing as = 38 'harmony, concordance', which comes to much the same thing (as also
the t sing = 39 'good' proposed by Wang Nien-sun, based on a Han-school gloss, see
Gl. 233): You younelves create the unrest. - B. PK'ung (after Erya): t sing = 40,
thus: >>You yourselves have made not (well- )planned (things)>>, i. e. rash actions. For the
refutation of this expl. see in detail Gl. 653.
1433. S ii k i y i k 'i n 41.
A. PK'ung reads thus, and so the line was already quoted by Hii Shen in Wu king
yi yi; thus: They (together came to=) shared ease and toil. - B. Another version (ap.
a stone inscription by Ts'ai Yung, 2nd c. A. D.) reads s ii k i y i k ' in 42, inst. of
y i 43 (*djet I iet / y i) 'escape, leisure, ease' having y i 44 (*djJd f i 1 y i) 'toil' (for par.
ex. see Shi). Y i- k' in is then a synonym compound: >>They shared the labours>>. -
Both versions make good sense. We can only abide by the version that is earliest
attested (A, Hii Shen, 1st c. A. D.).
1434. S h 1 s ii an e r I a o 45.
A. PK'ung: sua n 46 = 47 'to count', thus: >>For generations they have counted your
labours. For par. in the Odes see Gl. 68, 267. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en: s ii an 46 = 48
'to select', in the sense of 'to pick, critically examine': >>In generations they have examined
your labours>>. -C. Yu Yiie: sua n 46 (*siwan and *su:an) is loan char. for 49 (*tswan)
'to continue': >>For generations you have continued your labours (merits)>>. A very
arbitrary and unnecessary loan speculation. No reason to abandon the oldest interpr.
which is well corroborated.

- -
1435. Y u p u yen e r shan 50.
A. PK'ung reads thus: >I do not (cover=) conceal your good points>>. -Another
version ap. Hu Shen: Wu king yi yi reads: y ii p u t sue e r shan 51 I do not
cut off your (good things =) prosperity, referring to their official positions and emoluments.
From a long disquisition in Shang shu ta chuan we can see that Fu Sheng had the B
version (with t s ii e 52), not the A version (with 52a). B is thus much earlier attested
and should be followed. Moreover the contrast: s ii a n 1 a o to count the labours>>
(record the merits and reward them) and t sue shan >>to cut off the prosperity>>
(to make an end to the hereditary emoluments) corresponds precisely to the following
t s o f u t s o t s a i, see next gloss.
1436. T so f u t so t sa i y ii y i p u k an tung y u n g f e i t e 53.
A. PK'ung that an understood >>yon is the subject: >>You create your fortune,
you create your disaster, I also dare not apply and use an incorrect (virtue=) goodness>>
(sc. give you unmerited rewards). - B. From Ts'ai Ch'en's paraphrase it is not clear
whether he means: >>(The Spirits) cause fortune, cause disasten> to their descendants, or:
>>(When) I make your fortune or make your disasten. - C. Kiang Sheng insists that
>>I>> is the subject. In fact the line logically connects with the preceding, the question of
rewarding by hereditary positions and the punishment by cutting off>> such positions.
Thus: When I make your fortune or make your disaster, I likewise dare not apply and use incorrect
(virtue =) morals.
1437. y ii k a 0 j u y ii nan, j u she c he y u chi 54.
A. PK'ung: nl tell you about (i. e. point out to you) the difficulties, just as an archer (has =)
does his aiming (at the goal) C h i in this sense 'to aim at' is common (Legge misses
the sense entirely: >>My will is that of an archen). - B. Kiang Sheng (after Huei
Tung): chi 55 has here the technical sense of 'a practice-arrow'. This is attested in
Yi li: Ki si li: 56 (There are) practice-arrows, one set of four, the front part and
back part (of the arrow) (talleying in weight=) being equally heavy. Erya: Shi k'i
says that an arrow with bone head and untrimmed feather is called c hi 55. Since this
arrow, in contrast to the ordinary arrow with a heavy (bronze) head, is well-balanced,
57 >>equalized>>, it is used metaphorically here: >>I tell you about the difficulties, just as
the archer has his equalized arrow (sc. my orders are well-balanced). An exceedingly
far-fetched expl. - A is simple and plausible. .
1438. J u w u w u lao c h' eng j en w u j o k u y u y u 58.
A. This is the present orthodox version, current ever since K'ung Ying-ta's time. Here
w u 59 and j o 60 serve as the corresponding transitive verbs: >>Do not w u (insult =)
despise I a o c h 'eng j en the old and grown-up men, do not j o (consider weak =)
ma_ke little of k u the (lone =) helpless and y u y u (>having youth>> =) young ones.
This was followed by Ts'ai Ch'en. - B. The original Ku-wen version of Han time,
however, read j u w u I a o w u c h ' e n g j e n etc. 61. So it was still cut in the stone
classics of the T'ang dynasty, and Cheng Hiian says >>l a o 62 and j o 60 both mean
'to despise>>, which shows that in his version it was I a o and not w u that balanced

3s1a. j9 rlfl.Jt...Jt.1/J it. f rJd;, 4)tJ, {I>JM_ 't8. MJ JZJ.
1" )/ 1 f/Jl;TJl;tj/J t% .f
if :<f. Jt: G. 1-:. - f-f f' v .f' q :>t!: A. 1#. if M st {# .-a >/
j o, thus confirming this sequence of the stone classics. Thus: Do not 1 a o coruider
(too) old and w u despise c h' eng j en the grown-up men, do not j o consider (too)
weak and k u helpless y u y u the young oneu. The inversion from the original w u
l a o w u c h ' eng j e n into the w u w u I a o c h ' e n g j e n of the orthodox
version is undoubtedly due to influence from Ode 255, phr. 63 >>Though there are no old
and perfected mem. - B. The Kin-wen version (ap. the stone classics of 175 A. D.;
first 6 char. also so quoted in Tung kuan yi.i lun, Sung time) read differently: J u w u
hi w u c h ' en g j en, wu I i u (k u y u y u) 64. The h i 65 must obviously be a loan
char.; Tuan Yi.i-ts'ai proposes 65 (*Xl"P I xiap I hi) for 66 (*g'ap I yap I hi a) 'to treat
contemptuously'; P'i Si-juei proposes *xiap for 67 *xiap I xf:vp I hie 'to constrain'. The
latter is phonetically clearly preferable. Thus: not constrain and insult the grown-up
men>>. As to 1 i u 68, Sun Sing-yen says I i u = 69 'to be impolite', referring to a gloss.
by Cheng Hi.ian on Li: Hiang yin tsiu yi, which, however, is not applicable here. P'i
Si-juei better says I i u = 'to scatter, to throw about', thus: Do not throw about and
make helpless the young ones>>. All this is very doubtful. - The A version, which makes
good sense, is attested (Cheng Hiian) just as early as the very obscure B version and
should be preferred.
1439. Ko chang yii k1le kii, mien ch'u nai li 70_
PK'ung's paraphrase does not reveal how he read and understood 71.
A. Lu Te-ming: 71 is read *ti_ang / ti,ang 1 c h an g, which indicates that, ace. to Lu,
it does not mean 'long' but 'senior, president, to preside'. Thus: May each of you preside
over his abode (sc. his district in the new capital), strive to exert your strength. Cf. Ode 241,
phr. 72 >>He was able to preside, to be ruler>> (71 here read *tjang). - B. K'ung Ying-ta
reads 71 *d'fang I a'jang I c h , an g = 'long': >)May each of you (think of) staying long
in your abodes (in the new capital), and .... >> etc. K'ung here must supply a >>think of>>
which is not in the text (PK'ung had already read such a s l 73 into the line), and B is
therefore inferior to A.
1440. T 'i n g y i.i y i j en c h l t s o y u 7 4.
A. PK'ung: and listen to the plans, which I, the one man, make. - B. Tuan Yi.i-ts'ai:
Erya says y u 7 5 = y i 76 'to finish', and t s o y u here means 'to make an end to,
to stop'. There are, in fact, some cases in the classics, where a y u 77 has been defined
as = 76 by the early glossists, but not in this sense; and moreover his interpr. ill suits
the context.
1441. Y u n g t sue i fa k ii e s I, y u n g t e chang k i.i e shan 78.
A. PK'ung has observed that s I 79 'to die' and shan 80 'good' balance each other,
and concludes that s 1 does not refer to the death penalty but to the mode of action of
the culprit. He interprets: >>By t sue i punishments I will fa (cut away =) eliminate
your s i lethal ways (i.e. ways leading to death), by (virtue=) benevolent attention I
will display your goodness>>. Thus PK'ung refers the y u n g to the speaker (>>by my
using punishments>>). His construction of s i is desperate. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en refers the
y u n g to those addressed: nlf you (use =) commit crimes, I will punish yon by death. if
you (use virtue =) have a good behaviour, I will display your goodness . This is undoubtedly
right, though it sacrifices the strict parallelism, but the difficulty is to explain how
fa k ii e s i can mean l>punish you by It must be a brachylogy for f a c hi
k ii e s i 81 >>I will punishing effectuate your death>>.
K o kung e r s hi see Gl. 1401.
1442. T u n a i k ' o u 82.
A. PK'ung explains t u 83 by 84 'laws and rules', and Ts'ai follows him. Thus:
(Rule =) regulate your months. - B. Kiang Sheng and most Ts'ing scholars: t u 83
is a short-form for t u 85, which Shuowen defines as = 86 'to shut'. This char. is very
' .. ..,...

rare, but in Shu: Pi shi, where the orthodox text has 87, Cheng Hi.ian's text (ap. comm.
on Chouli: Yung shi) had 88, so 88 t u (*d'dg I d'uo It u) and t u 89 (*d'o I d'uo It u)
'to block, to stop up' are evidently synonymous (the Ts'ing scholars mostly say that 89
is loan char. for 83, which is phonetically excluded). Thus: Shut your mouths. - B
is quite possible in itself, but the ancient interpr., which takes the char. as it stands,
without any short-form speculation, suits the parallelism better: t u 83 'to rule' here
matches the preceding t s ' i 90 'to regulate'.
1443. P 'an Ken g t so wei she h o y i min t s 'i en 91.
A. PK'ung reads t s 0 wei she h 0 together and construes wei she h 0 as
a direct object of t so and therefore has to supply an understood 92 'means': P'an Keng
made cross-the-river [means = }> = l>P'an Keng made means for crossing the river.
An impossible construction. - B. Cheng Hiian: t s o 93 'to make' refers to boats and
oars: >>P'an Keng fabricated (boats and oars) and crossed the river. A comical ellipsis.
- C. Ts'ai Ch'en: t so 93 = 94 'to rise, to start' thus: P'an Keng (rose=) started and
crossed the River. This is confirmed by a good Shi par.: Ode 133, phr. 95 l>Together
with you I will (rise =) start (sc. on the expedition)>>; here t so is defined as = 94
by Mao, and the line balances 96 Together with you I will march>>. - D. Yi.i Yiie like-
wise takes t so 93 as = 'to rise', but in the sense Of 'to ascend the throne' (as in Yi:
Hi ts'l 97 >>When Shen Nung ascended the throne), thus: >>When P'an Keng had become
king, he crossed the Riven>. Though D of course is quite possible, C certainly comes
most naturally in the context.
1444. N a i h u a m in c h l f u shu a i 98.
A. Ma Jung: h u a 99 = 100 >>He addressed those of the people who would not
follow>>. PK'ung rightly insists that h u a has not simply this fundamental sense but
a certain nuance: 1 'good words', valuable words. Indeed the phr. h u a yen 2 is
well attested in the sense of 'a lesson', see Gl. 959. Thus: Then he lectured those of the
people who would not follow. - B. Hii Shen in Shuowen defines h u a as = 3 l>good
(valuable) words at a reunion>>, quoting a Tso line with the phr. h u a yen 2 'lecture'
(see A above). This, as often, is an attempt at etymology of Hii's (4 *g'wiid: 99 *g'wad)
but of course it does not prove any fundamental meaning of 'to unite, assemble' of h u a
99. When Kiang Sheng and Sun Sing-yen explain our line: >>Then he assembled those
of the people who would not follow>>, this is entirely unwarranted. We should then, with
Yii Yiie, have to say that h u a 99 (*g'wad) is a loan char. for 5 (*g'wat and *kwat) 'to
join, to unite' (ex. of this word in Ode 66, see Gl. 198). But this loan theory is quite
unnecessary, since the word 99 makes a good and attested sense as it stands.
1445. Hie n t s' a o w u s i e t sa i wang t 'in g 6.
A. PK'ung: 7 read t s 'a o = 'to come' (common); thus: >>They all came and without
(familiarity =) impropriety they were in the king's hall. - B. Ma J ung says 7 read
t sao = 8. It is quite obscure how Ma understood the line; Sun Sing-yen believes he meant
that t sao 'to make' refers to making boats for crossing. >>They all fabricated (sc.
.:{WJ ;#..A. .:1 -:t ,;; ftti 14:. .-,- -1;;-l/t ffi {:tfrt\ A. . .-ft 5fU..::t/J.1f M) cs:fi .;df 671J tY 5'i. &r 1(
f.t. 711. ;:&- .fZ f fij( fi If:\ Jj jJ 71 k J'.t :t ..k i. 'JJ :E: w f' - A....Z {f. .!'ie JC c. 771/t,
7$. l:f.l kK n .-1(. 1'111. ft;g(YL at fit .!7 a n ,;;.;g if./9$: s,;:f,)'j n
1'-.:t. 75 f{ srlttJJ .fl ;3' ):,( I\ n--fii f9 tt:f)i{;
97 i'i 7J tK, z111 # 7'1 M;;a>_S I . M; %' 5. lr
boats)*- Sun then has to twist some sense into the remaining words and he says that
s i e 9 'familiar, unceremonious' fundamentally means 'close-standing, intimate' and
hence here means 'near', thus: )>They were not near to the king's hall. A hopeless forcing
of the text. - C. Ts'ai Ch'en in the main follows A, but would have the word w u
10 to indicate an imperative, which it does as a rule: ))All came, (the king warning them:)
do not be (familiar=) improper in the king's ball!>> :But this is really not necessary,
for w u 10 sometimes serves as an ordinary negation, equal to p u 11 or w u 12, e. g.
Ode 109, phr. 13 *Indeed they give it no thought*. It is then particularly common with
verbs indicating a mental function or act of the will (*they will not think), e. g. Tso:
Wen 10: )>He feasted lady Mi of Kiang,16 but was not respectful (would not be respectful)*,
and this is precisely the case in our line here with A: w u s i e they were not (familiar =)
improper (would not be familiar). There are many such par. cases and they clearly
prove that w u 10 here need not be construed as an imperative, and should not, since
it would require an ellipsis. - D. Kiang Sheng believes, with Hii Shen, that 10 was
the primary graph for w u 15 in the sense of (15 has this sense in Chouli: Si
ch'ang) - indeed 10 occurs as short-form for this char. 15 in Ho Kuan-tsi: Wang fu
- and that 9 (*sjat) is an error for 16 (*sljwat) = 17 'to lead' because of sound simil-
arity(!). Thus: >>All (created =i set up pennons and led (the people) to be in the king's
hall. A dreadful speculation. Chuang Shu-tsu carries this idea in absurdum by taking
the tan 18 'sincere' in the preceding line (19 with sincerity)>) to be a short-form for
20 'flag', 7 short-form for 21 'assistant', and 9 in the sense of 22 'a familiar, a servant'.
- E. Yii Sing-wu, in part following ideas expressed by Sun Yi-jang, likewise would
read the preceding y u n g tan 19 together with our line, and since Ma Jung's version
had 23 inst. of 18 (the two are often interchangeable), and since 23 often serves as short-
form for 24 'to exhaust' (see Gl. 423), the line 25 would mean: >>Therefore exhausting
the crowd that there was, they all came>>. The following s i e 9 Yii would take as an
enlarged form of chi 26, but his expl. of c b I t sa i wang t 'in g 27 ma.kes poor
sense. - F. Chung king yin yi 15 quotes the line 28, the 29 being merely a va.riant for
9. If this is right, the 10 of the A text is a short-form for 30. H u s i e undoubtedly
ma.kes a good and na.tural binome: All came, but carelessly and (familiarly =) nonchal-
antly they (were in =) stood in the Iring's hsll' - describing the still very insubordinate
attitude of the people making further appeals necessary. - A is perfectly admissible.
But that F is the best reading and meaning follows from the whole context: *He
lectured those of the people who would not follow, grandly he informed them, with
sincerity; the crowd that there was (sc. of malcontents) all came, but carelessly and
nonchalantly they stood in the king's hall>> - and then he gave them a long sermon.
1446. Min g t 'in g chen yen, w u huang s hI chen min g 31.
Wang Nien-sun would take min g 32 as a variant for men g 33, which in Erya
is defined as = 34 'to make an effort, energetic' (he has the same proposal in Lo kao
35 and 36, To fang 37, Ku ming 38). Chuang Shu-tsu proposes to correct the first chen
39 into 40, a variant of 41, so that there would be )>listen to the instructing words)>. And
Kiang Sheng insists that s h I 42 is a short-form for y i 43 (the meaning, however,
being much the same). Nothing is gained by such arbitrary and unnecessary emendations.
1447. K u w o t s ' i e n h o u w an g p u wei m i n c h I c h ' eng p a o h o u
s ii t s ' i s i en y i p u f o u y ii t ' i e n s h 'i 44.
It should be remarked first that c h i 45 in w e i m i n c h I c h ' e n g is the
pronoun in the objective case, resuming the anteposed object m i n : non erant qui non
populum - eum curabant, a common construction, e. g. Ode 28, phr. 46 *The former
princes, of them I think, Ode 40: y en y ii an c h i k ' i u ))A beautiful one, him
she sought, etc.
A. PK'ung punctuates after c h' eng, interpreting: ))Anciently, of our former princes,
there were none who did not (receive, take charge of =) take care of the people; (and
the people) p a o h o u held on to the princes and s ii t s ' i (reciprocally worried =)
cared for them in return; it was rare that they did not move (in a.ccordance) with the
times of Heaven>>. F o u 'to float' would then mean 'to move along'. This, of course
is quite unacceptable, the change of subject (first the and then the
people) being too unnatural. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en accepts A but for the last line: f o u
'to float' means 'to surmount, overcome': )>It was rare that they did not overcome (the
difficulties of) the times of Heavem. - C. Sun Sing-yen points out that in Shu: Lo
kaowe have: Ch' eng pao nai wen tsu shou ming min 47, which shows
that c h' eng p a o is a phrase and the two belong together, and we should punctuate
after pao: wang pu wei min chi ch'eng pao (undoubtedlycorrect). He
further says f o u 48 is loan char. for f u 49 'to trust'. Thus: Anciently, of our former
princes, there were none who did not take care of and protect the people, h o u the
princes s ii together with (the people) t s ' i were full of concern, it was rare tha.t they
did not trust each other in the times of Heavem. - D. The stone classics of 175 A. D.
inst. of t s ' i 50 had k a o fjJ and this gives Kiang Sheng occasion for a bold
speculation. He reads the central line thus: H o u s ii k a o s i en 52, defines s U.
53 as = 'to inspect' (refuted in our Gl. 790), s i en 54 'small mountain separated from
big mountains' (after Mao on Ode 241, refuted in our Gl. 838) and finally f o u 48 'to
float' =55 'to pass over'. Thus: The princes inspected the heights and the small
mounta.ins (and moved there), and did not transgress the times of Heaven. This weird
speculation has been warmly recommended by Ch'en K'iao-tsung, accepted by Liu
Feng-lu and approved at least alternatively by Wang Sien-k'ien. - E. Yii Yiie follows
C for the first part, but in the line s i en y i p u f o u y ii t ' i en s hI he says 54
(*sian f sf,_iin I s i en) is a loan char. for 56 (*sjeg I si Is i); and 48 (*b'j6g I b'jgu If o "?")
is loan char. for 58 (*b'jwat I b'juat If u), and the line is equal to 59 and so they d1d
not act contrary to the times of Heaven)>. He crowns this dreadful speculation by
saying that the fjJ (*kog 1 kiiu 1 k a o) of the Kin-wen version is merely a loan char. for
the 50 (*ts'iok 1 ts'iek Its' i) of the Ku-wen version, finishing off with an admonition
to students to pay careful attention to the phonetic loans! - F. Sun Yi-jang accepts
the impossible 54 *sian = 57 *sjeg of E above, and ends the line with t' i en 60,
carrying s hi 61 to the next line. He says f o u 48 = 55 'to', as in Li: Fang
ki 62 )>Let the man surpass his emoluments)>. Thus: ..... h o u s ii etc.: The prince
together with (the people) worried about s i this, and thus did not (surpass Heaven =)
offend Heavem. - G. Chang Ping-lin: h o u 63 is equal to 64, s ii 53 to 65 and 50
to 66, thus: P a o h o u s u t s ' i *They preserved their followers and distant (rela-
r:. 01 n: .:.A 7. .it. tr. g., 9. ii /<1 J;; 11 :r.:. l.t. %i.- 1:1 ,j..fJ .., f.i7 17J ;Jj{( e 1s 1'7
;;z 11 1: ;? ftl i tt1 J3l v . n. .3 * !J/ iS !R 'If- :tt J!J U4. t?. 1ft.:/ .3:. .M 3 A t.

. .JR.;f :JtB!i 1J];;. :u:{:i J.f.WJ1i 'lf.J/J x- {:;:: efli* f ;t +-
3? f!!.. eA . .;t N r!i ,p;. ::f li.
V< ::K .f fi.. at r.r: .z. it: 4t.,? z .:'. JC.:f11. 4t tK.. fs. A w '1- Jlit 52. ft
.n'/t 5'!.;J# ::r-.15 't <?'A g1Jt.A .. CJ if;
1 Ql
tives =) descendants>>. - H. Yii Sing-wu adopts the s ii 53 = 'to inspect' of D, and
the 48 = 58 of E, but adds that s i en 54 is a corruption of 67, which in bronze
inscriptions is equal to 68 'I'; and the t s ' i 66 is a place name, thus: The prince
inspected Ts'i; and I (we?) therefore did not transgress the times of Heaven>>. Quite
apart from the violent text alterations, this makes very poor sense in the context. - L
Another interpr. Of all the attempts to explain this difficult passage, Sun Sing-yen's
alone (C) is coolly reasonable. But I think his interpr. can be improved on two points.
First h o u s ii t s ' i is rhythmically very abrupt, as pointed out by Legge, and
rhythmically it is much better to divide after s i en : h o u s ii t s ' i s i en, y i p u
f o u y ii t ' i en s h i, which also places the y i 69 in a more natural position. :But
s i en 54 then does not mean 'rare' but 'good', a sense in which it is well attested (see
Gl. 122), e. g. Shu: Wu yi 70 >>He was kind and good to widowers and widows>>. H o u
s ti t s ' i s i e n 71 is then equal to 72; s ii = siang = 'towards them' (sc. the people):
>>The princes towards them were (worried, anxious =) thoughtful and good>>. (The
punctuation h o u s ii t s 'i s i en was already advocated by Chu Pin.) Secondly f o u
48 need not be altered into f u 49, for f o u 48 'floating' often means 'unreliable, fickle,
frivolous', e. g. 73 'frivolous words, unreliable rumours'. The passage then becomes clear:
the last line refers to the movV!g of the capital because of the t ' i e n s h i times of
Heaven: uAncienUy, of our former princes there were none who did not take care of and guard the
people, the princes towards them were thoughtful and good; therefore they .were not frivolous
in regard to the times of Heavenu (sc. the epochs of natural disasters). The Kin-wen
version: h o u s ii k a o s i e n 52 likewise gives a good meaning, fairly analogous:
The princes towards them were loftily good. It is quite impossible to decide which
version best represents the original Shu.
1448. Yin kiang ta niie 74.
A. Cheng Hiian and PK'ung take yin as the name of the royal house, and then
have to place the word in a absolute position: As to (the) Yin (house), when (Heaven.)
sent down great calamities. Grammatically strained, this is unreasonable in content:
P'an Keng was just moving to Yin, and could not possibly, at this stage, call his house
in its past generations >>the Yin (house). -B. Chuang Shu-tsu: yin 75 is a short-form
for 76; thus: >When painfully there were sent down great calamities>>. - C. Chuang is
right in regard to the construction: yin is undoubtedly an adverbial phrase. But it is
not necessary to take it as a short-form. Yin 75 is well attested in the sense of 77 'great':
Li: Sang ta ki 7 8 >>The host prepared the rites for a great offering>> (Cheng Hiian: y i n =
77); Chuang: Ts'iu shuei 79 >>The essence is the smallest of the small; the mass is the great-
est of the great>> (here the contrast confirms that yin really means 'great'); etc. (common).
Thus: When greatly there were sent down grand calamities.
1449. S i en wang p u h u a i k ii e y u t so s hi min l i y u n g t s' i en 80.
A. PK'ung: h u a i 81 = 82 'to think of, to cherish' (common): The former kings
did not cherish (the old place), but in what they did they considered the people's profit
and then moved. Ts'ai Ch'en modifies this slightly by defining h u a i 81 as = 83
'to find peace in': >>The former princes did not find their peace in (the old place), an exten-
sion of meaning from 'to cherish', not uncommon in early texts. - B. K'ung Kuang-sen
takes the line in present time: >>The (Spirits of) the former kings do not h u a i give
peace to (i. e. protect) k tie y u t so what they have made>> (the city they themselves
built) - they want us to remove. - C. Sun Sing-yen does not want a h u a i with
understood object, hence he carries k ii e y u t s o to the preceding and defines t s o
84 as = 85 'to begin, to start'. He likewise takes h u a i 'to cherish' with the extension
of meaning just said: 'to find peace in'. This is really not necessary, and we may abide
by the fundamental meaning 'to carry in the bosom' = 'to cherish'. Thus: The former

did not cherish (that where they started =) their original place, they considered the
pnnce t' . thi . rt inly
Jleople's profit and then moved. Since t s o = rise, star IS common, s IS ce a
much better. _ D. Kiang Sheng punctuates like PK ung but takes s h I 86 as equal
to 87: >>The former kings did not (cherish =) find their peace (in place), by
they did they showed the people that it was profitable to (use movmg =) move>>. This
is certainly much more far-fetched.
1450. C h 'eng j u p e i j u wei hi k 'an g kung 88.
A. PK'ung punctuates: c h ' e n g j u, p e i j u, w e i h i k ' a n g k u .n g : I take.
care of you and direct you (sc. to move), in order to kung With you have
hi joy and k' an g peace. This is not reconcilable with. the placm.g of kung;. t.he
line should then have run: wei kung hi k' an g (Ts'ai Ch'el_l's: order to, reJOice
in our common peace>> is no better, for the line should then be: we I hI k u n. g a n.g).
_ B. Sun Sing-yen: >>I take care of you and direct you, (so that you) hI will enJOY
k ' a n g peace and k u n g (furnish =) do your work>>. A. Wang
Sien-k'ien therefore tries to better it: I take care ...... , I hI enJOY k an g to (ease
you =) give you ease and k u n g furnish yom, which is hardly an - C.
Liu Feng-lu: p e i 89 = 90 'to pull forward': I take care of you and bnn.g you
In support Liu adduces a line in Shu: Ku ruing 91, p e I after has Its
(lrdinary sense of 92 'to cause'. -D. Y ti !tie: p e I 8.9 m Its ordinary sense of to use,
to make (somebody) do (something)' requrres a followrng verb, and stand m an
sense absolute= 'to order, to direct'. Hence it must have another meanmg here. Shuo":en
defines it as = 93 'to augment, to add', thus: l take care of you, I (augment you =) enriC.h
yoU>>.. There are no text ex. of 89 (*pfeg 1 pjit< 1 p e i) in this sense, but Shen .. took .It
simply as variant for 94 (*pfeg 1 pjif< 1 p e i) 'to supplement, to add' (ex. ill Kyu: Tsm
yii 4, Mo: Shang bien, chung), a word cognate to 95 (*b'jeg) 40).
This, in itself, is quite possible. But is n_o for not givmg , p e I .Its
meaning. p e i is quite synonymous With s hI 92 to cause .. This s hI fre-
quently has a following verb: 96 He him to I? It Ym .1 ). very
(){ten it stands in an absolute sense = 'to drrect the people ; LI: Ta hue 98 I.s that
by which one directs the multitude>. This is perfectly analogous to our present p e I J u 99
1 direct yom. Yti further insists that kung 100, placed at the end of the sentence, cannot
have its ordinary meaning of 'all together, common', ?ut must be analogous to
preceding k' an g ]. He is undoubtedly nght. if we force we I
h i k ' a n g kung into grammatical correctness: >>It IS only that hI I k an g
peacefully kung to share with yom, this ill suits the Yii believes
kung 100 (*kf:.ung 1 kjwong 1 kung) is a short-form of 2 m Kuang
.as = 3 'solid, steady, safe'. Of 2 in this sense there are n_o text e;c., but the word k1ung I
kfwong 1 k 11 n g 'solid, steady' is well attested: we It wr. 4.m 264, phr. 5
is nobody whom it [Heaven] cannot steady>>; we have It wr. 6 m YI Chou shu: Shi fa .. 7
>>The one who manages affairs solidly and steadily is called k u n g> (6 here has not Its
a;$ a'f,:t.l:<?a ;;;- /a ;fJ { 73 "M iz.ft:Z4 '7jx_
:t" .. r:;. A 7i .:1. A_ Jt Az_ z 1-j..?! z {tX.t_;t:}. A. ztJ.. ill. 7tL !t
JfJ;.! 3/ ti. iJrli 3i:1l/3 8'1 ));_ '" .$: .PTi\f 1.;1 <11
,;i)tnf Z 17.{i_ fX. 1.1' 1t_* hf Y.A {.i( .t.. 9r 11'f .?f / ;j(_ -f :#{
ill 'I 11 s .:y, 1. .-. :ff. . " l1l s 1f s ;! tt 'l }'; fiK. *- ;r.. j: /.H: .. .P;. t :A tx.. M f
ordinary sense of 'respectful'). K' an g- kung 8 'peace and (steadiness=) safety'
makes an excellent phrase in our context. Thus: (When) I take care of you and direct you,
it only that you shall rejoice iu peace 1111d (steadiness =) safety n. - F. Some authors
(mentioned by Liu Feng-lu) would punctuate thus: C h' eng j u, p e i j u hi k' an g
u n g: take _care of you and cause you to rejoice>> etc. But our c h 'eng j u, p e i
J u here IS certainly analogous to the k a o j u, h ii n j u earlier in our chapter, see
Gl. l4J5 above.
Y ii j o y ii h u a i t s 1 s i n y i etc. see Gl. 1409.
1451. N a i hie n t a p u s ii an n a i sin k 'in n i en y i c h 'en tung y ii
y i j en 9.
A. PK'ung punctuates: n a i h i e n t a p u s ii an n a i s i n, k ' i n n i e n y i
c h 'en tung y ii y i j en, interpreting: Yon all greatly do not proclaim your (hearts)
ideas or resp.ectfully think of moving me, the one man, by sincerity - B. Sun Sing-yen
punctuates m the same way, but after Wang Yin-chi he takes s ii an to stand for h o
10, thus: >>You all greatly do not make your hearts concordant (sc. with my wishes),
respectfully thinking with sincerity>>. Yii Yiie had followed that same idea earlier in our
chapter, insisting that the phr. 11 When you do not friendlily and nicely speak to the
people, should be emendated il'lto: 12 *When you do not proclaim good words>> etc. The
reaso?s for curious speculati?n are two. In Yii kung, phr. 13 >>In the (region of the)
Ho YI barbanans he effected achievements, Cheng Hiian says H o 10 (.*g'wd 1 yud f h o)
should be read u an 14 (*g'wtim I yuiln I h u an), and 14 (*g'wtin) and 15 (*siwan) have
the same phonetiC ( 16), hence 10 can stand for 15 and vice versa -a bad piece of specula-
tion based on a phonetic fantasy in a commentary of the 2nd c. A. D. On the other hand,
Wang Yin-chi compares Chouli: T'ai tsai 17 with Chouli: Siao si k'ou 18, and concludes
that 10 in the former should be altered into 15 and read together with the following p u
accepts this curious emendation). The whole theory is phonetically utterly
Impossible. - C. Yii Yiie, wh? in an earlier line followed the *g'wd = *sjwan speculation
of B above, does not accept It here, but punctuates differently: N a i hi en t a p u
s ii an, n a i sin k ' in, n i e n y i c h' e n tun g y ii y i j en. He says s ii a n
15 is often = min g 19 'to make clear = to proclaim' and here it means 'to make clear
to oneself', thus: >>You all are (not making it clear =) not understanding (you are stupid);
Y:our (should be) fervent, (you should) think of moving me, the one man, by your
srncenty. But the fundamental sense of s ii an 15 'to proclaim' is really 'to spread
out, to propagate' and p u s ii an certainly cannot mean you are not understanding>>.
No reason to abandon A.
1452. E r c h' en p u c h u wei s ii y i c h' en 20.
A. Ma Jung: c h u 21 (*tjuk) stands for 22 (*d'uk). It is doubtful how he understood
the line, but probably he took c h 'en 23 'sincere, sincerity' as an adverbial phr. 'sin-
cerely' = 'really, truly': You are truly not alone, we shall all together sink in ruin. There
are many semantic parallels to this: c h 'eng 24, sin 25, s ii n 26, tan 27 all mean
'sincere', and .as adverbs 'truly, really'. And further, if the early graph was simply 28
(loan char. Without radical, Chou fashion), it is quite conceivable that it was wrongly
enlarged by the transcribing early Han scholars into 21 instead of into 22 (just as 29
was sometimes wrongly enlarged into 30 instead of 31 etc.). For a confusion of the two
cf. that the name of a famous sword is written c h u -1 o u 32 (*tjuk) in Tso:
11, but t u -1 u 33 (*d'uk) in Siin: Ch'eng siang. This affords a strong support forMa's
mterpr. Yii Yiie would alter c h ' en 34 'sincere' into 35 'to sink': >>You, in sinking, are
not alone, all together you will sink, a repetition which is not very likely. - B. PK'ung:
>>Since your (sincerity =) loyalty is not (connecting with =) reaching (sc. the ancient
standard), you shall together sink in ruin. An absurd interpr. - C. Ts'ai Ch'en: Since
1 C\A
your (sincerity =) loyalty (is not connected =) is broken to pieces, you shall all together
sink into - D. Kiang Sheng: If your (sincerity =) loyalty does not attach itself
(to me), we shall together sink into ruin. -E. Sun Sing-yen connects the line with the
preceding simile of the boat crossing the water: If you do not sincerely (attach yourself
to =) concentrate upon it (sc. the crossing), you will all together sink. - D and E are
both possible, but after all the oldest interpr. (A) gives the simplest and most natural
1453. p u k ' i h u 0 k i, t s r n u h 0 c h ' 0 u 36.
A. PK'ung reads thus and interprets: maybe you do not examine it, to be angry
against yourself (sc. afterwards), what does it (cure=) help? PK'ung says >>examine>> by
aid of the former kings, and K'ung Ying-ta expounds this into: If maybe you do not
(examine =) verify it (by aid of the removals made by the former kings)>>. Ts'ai Ch'en,
more generally: If maybe you do not examine (what is good or bad) .... .>> -B. Sun
Sing-yen: k i 37 has a sense 38 'to stop, to detain, to stay', e. g. Kuan: Kiin ch'en 39 Orders
are given out, but they do not (tarry =) remain in force for long (comm.: k i = 40).
Thus: *If maybe you stay (sc. and do not go to the new place), (afterwards) to be angry
with yourselves, what does it help?>> A curious interpr., since Sun simply skips the nega-
tion p u 'not'.- C. The Kin-wen version ap. the stone classics of 175 A. D. read p u k' i
h u o t i, t s i y ii an h o c h' o u 41. -a. Kiang Sheng accepts this, and says: h u o
42 = y u 43. He connects the line logically with the preceding: >>(you will all sink) and
44 there will exist no (way=) chance (of life)>>. The idea that 42 *g'w;,k I yw;,k I h u o
could serve as loan char. for 43 *g"ii1g f jjgu I y u (so Kuang ya: Shiku) crops up quite
early. Shu: Hung-fan 45 is rendered as 46 in Lii: Kuei kung; Shu: Wei tsi 47 is rendered
by Si:-ma Ts'ien (Sung shi kia) 48; and in consequence the gloss h u o 42 = y u 43 is
given by Kao Yu on Lii: Kuei kung, PK'ung on Shu: Wei tsi, Cheng Hiian on Ode 166
and on Li: Tsi yi etc. But, after all, in all these cases h u o 42 can very well have its
ordinary meanings, either 'perhaps, maybe', or 'some, somebody, in some way' and need
not at all be taken as a loan graph for 43, which is phonetically very improbable. Similarly
some scholars have thought that 49 (*gjw;,k) can serve as loan char. for 43 (*gjug), but
erroneously, see Gl. 304 and 875. - {3. T i 50 is well attested in the sense of 51 'to go
forward, to advance' (Erya), e. g. Ode 257, phr. 52 >>He does not seek (office), he does
not (advance =) push himself forward. (Mao Heng: t i 50 = 51). Thus: ll yon
perchance do not go forward (sc. to the new place), to be angry against yourselves (afterwards),
what does it (cure =) help?. - C is the oldest version attested, and in its f3 inter-
pretation makes a clear and natural sense.
1454. J u t an k ' ii an y u 53.
A. PK'ung gives no clear expl., and K'ung Ying-ta fills out: You greatly stimulate
yourself with disastrous (principles)>>. This is grammatically unacceptable. - B. Kiang
Sheng rightly considers y u to be a direct object of k ' ii an. He says our k ' ii an y u
must be equal to the chao y u 54 'to presage (anticipate) disaster' in Tso: Chao 1.

.( u; 2:Z :i) .f'l 7L :lt'. :11 tX. 'i :JJ 115 ffi;. 3417t.. "J.s:;.;t 5t: 5f- j(: tl 37.
:38 W :s1 f' ::t. 07 W 1"-- 1t N i\ f.J. N Jt 11 .1: +s
1i kJ. w :4 -19 iz :it AS JE -ff fi .ifl( T- ;,f; :;5 i'1 }'};. SlJ stili
It is difficult to see how k' ii an could have that sense. Sun Sing-yen (after Kuang
ya) says k 'ii an 55 = 56 'to assist'. More precisely it has its ordinary sense of 'to
encourage', thus: You greatly encourage the grief (to come) - The Han stone classics inst.
of tan 57 have 58, which is leBB suitable in the context.
1455. J u h o she n g t sa i shan g 59.
A. PK'ung: >>How will you be able to live above (the people) -the king speaks
to the leaders, so t sa i shan g above means above the people>>. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en
paraphrases: 58b >>What (reason of) life will you have (above =)from Heaven?. - 0.
Kiang Sheng and Sun Sing-yen: How will you be able to live (above=) upon earth (sc.
not land in the grave).
1456. Kin y ii min g j u y i w u k 'i wei y i t s i c h' o u 59b.
A. PK'ung filled out by K'ung Ying-ta: Now I order you one single thing (sc. with
my whole mind concentrated upon one thing); do not (raise=) start doing (dirty=)
wicked things, thus making yourselves foul. - B. Ts'ai Ch'en: Now I order you to
y i (unite =) be of one mind>>, etc. - C. Yii Yiie punctuates after j u, and defines
y i = 'one' as = 'the totality, all', as in Ta Tai: Wei tsiang kiin Wen tsi 60 They all
are (capable of being) ministers to feudal princes>> - y i here is equal to the common
phr. y i t s ' i e 61 in the mter language. Cf. also Siin: K'iian hiie 62 They all are
worth being taken as patterns>> (Yang Liang: y i = 63 'all'). Thus: aNow I order you,
all (not to start=) to beware of starting (dirty=) wicked things, and making yourselves foula.
It might seem strange with y i = 'all' before a negation: y i p u k' i all not to
start>>, but that is quite in good order, for we have numerous parallels with k i e,
e. g. Tso: Siang 9, phr. 64 the princes all did not wish to fight>>; Tso: Ting 8 phr. 65
>>All did not get their will(= nobody got his will) with Kishi. Meng: T'eng Wen kung,
shang 66 >>All were not willing(= nobody was willing)>>. - Cis well supported and strik-
ingly plausible.
1457. Y ii y a s ii n a i min g y ii t 'i en 67.
Yen Shi-ku (K'uang miu cheng su) quotes 68, still read y a s ii : 69, 70 and 71 *nga J
nga / y a are interchangeable, meaning 72 'to meet, to go to meet, to welcome'.
A. Both PK'ung and Ts'ai Ch'en simply define y a as = 72, without explaining the
obscure phr. y a s ii. K'ung Ying-ta curiously expounds y a and s ii as contrasting
verbs: if Heaven is favourable to you, I y a (go to meet =) welcome it, if Heaven
wants to destroy your (endowment =) life I