Sinusoidal functions are one of the most fundamental functions for STEM branch. Every student from his
secondary standard and onwards experiences their necessity at every next step. Motive of this article is to enlighten
schooling students about an equation which provides satisfactory sine values. This method is based upon the linear
interpolation for an interval of 5º. Obtained values are very much close to their natural values and hence, are helpful for
rough estimation of engineering problems in the absence of trigonometric tables and calculator. Methodology applied to
obtain this equation is purely analytical and have no any derivational roots. Maximum deviation of obtained values from
their sinusoidal values is 0.009 only so it can be applied widely if change in 1º hardly matters.

© All Rights Reserved

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Sinusoidal functions are one of the most fundamental functions for STEM branch. Every student from his
secondary standard and onwards experiences their necessity at every next step. Motive of this article is to enlighten
schooling students about an equation which provides satisfactory sine values. This method is based upon the linear
interpolation for an interval of 5º. Obtained values are very much close to their natural values and hence, are helpful for
rough estimation of engineering problems in the absence of trigonometric tables and calculator. Methodology applied to
obtain this equation is purely analytical and have no any derivational roots. Maximum deviation of obtained values from
their sinusoidal values is 0.009 only so it can be applied widely if change in 1º hardly matters.

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 6

ISSN(P): 2319-3972; ISSN(E): 2319-3980

Vol. 3, Issue 3, May 2014, 39-44

© IASET

VAREESH PRATAP

Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT

Sinusoidal functions are one of the most fundamental functions for STEM branch. Every student from his

secondary standard and onwards experiences their necessity at every next step. Motive of this article is to enlighten

schooling students about an equation which provides satisfactory sine values. This method is based upon the linear

interpolation for an interval of 5º. Obtained values are very much close to their natural values and hence, are helpful for

rough estimation of engineering problems in the absence of trigonometric tables and calculator. Methodology applied to

obtain this equation is purely analytical and have no any derivational roots. Maximum deviation of obtained values from

their sinusoidal values is 0.009 only so it can be applied widely if change in 1º hardly matters.

KEYWORDS: Arithmetic Progression (A.P), Greatest Integer Function [X], Linear Interpolation Reminder

Operator (a % b)

INTRODUCTION

Structure of today’s trigonometry is based on pillars of work of many mathematicians belonging to different

continents, distinct civilizations and for a wide time span. It dates back to the early ages of Egypt and Babylon about

1500 BC. Trigonometry was then advanced by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus who put a trigonometry table that

measured the length of the chord subtending the various angles in a circle of a fixed radius r. His work was taken further by

Ptolemy by creating the table of chords with increment of 1° which was known as Menelaus's theorem. Angle

measurement in degree was started by Babylonians and we are using it till now. Around the same period, Indian

mathematicians created the new trigonometry system based on the sine function instead of the chords. Trigonometry also

includes appreciable contribution of Muslim astronomers who compiled both the studies of the Greeks and Indians in the

middle age. From13th century and onwards, modern trigonometry was enhanced by Europeans like Isaac Newton, Euler by

defining trigonometry functions as ratios rather than lengths of lines.

The application of trigonometry came about primarily due to the purposes of astronomy, surveying, navigation,

construction and now it has extended so far [1]. Siddhantas and Aryabhatia (work of Indian Mathematicians) contain the

earliest surveying table of sine values (jyā table) in 3°45' from 0° to 90°, to an accuracy of 4 decimal places [2].

Investigations were made on circle of radius 3438 units. Later on Bhaskara in 7th century provided a formula to obtain sine

values with a relative error less than 1.8% [3] [4]. First accurate sine table was produced by Muhammad ibn Mûsâ al

Khwârîzmî in early 9th century.

Purpose

We all are very much familiar with multidisciplinary nature of trigonometry. It plays a vital role in solving diverse

problems of STEM field. Many times, we are known to the complete procedure to find out solution but problem get left

www.iaset.us editor@iaset.us

40 Vareesh Pratap

due to unavailability of trigonometric values. There are several tactics to obtain sine value of an angle very accurately with

high precision like Tayler series, Bhaskara II formula and many other trigonometric identities but it become cumbersome

to get sum of first 3 or 4 terms of Madhava’s sine series. Mugging up these many formulae may also lead to confusion and

tedious to deduce values from them. Equation provided in article, obtained analytically, provides very good approximation.

It gives sinusoidal value of angles which are very close to their natural values. Once, the value of sin θ is found other

trigonometric ratios can also be found. I hope that it would be fun learning mathematics for secondary and senior

secondary students

Method Applied

Purely analytical method is adopted for the development of formula. On considering the difference between two

consecutive sine values for angles being multiple of 5, a pattern is obtained which has consecutive differences in which

sine values are in pair-wise A.P amazingly! But a small deviation occurs at beginning and at end.

Sum of first two terms which are not in A.P is 16*10-2 =0.16

In this pair wise AP 9, 9 is first term, 8, 8 is second term and so on. As 9, 9 is first term occurs for θ = 15 and

θ = 20.

n = [(θ-5)/10]

an = a1 + (n-1)*d (1)

an = a1 + (n-1)*d

an = 0.09 + (n-1)*(-0.01)

an = {10-n}*10-2

an = {10 - [(θ-5)/10]}*10-2

Sn = n/2*{2*0.09+ (n-1)*(-0.01)}

“A New Approach to Calculate Sinusoidal Values” 41

Sn = n/2*{18-n+1}*10-2

Sn = n/2*[19-[(θ-5)/10]]*10-2

The above mentioned equation for Sn could provide very accurate values for angles in between 15° to 70°. So,

two correction terms, one of the terms corrects sinusoidal values till 10° and another term corrects values from 75° to 90°,

are made added to make it applicable for all angles. For θ≤10°, term [2[(10-θ)/5]]*10-2 is added which provides required

corrective values for θ≤10° and 0 for other angles. And for 75° ≤θ≤90°, term [(θ-70)/5]*[θ/70]*10-2 is added which

provides required corrective values for 75°≤θ≤90° and 0 for other angles. Here term [(θ-70)/5] provides the corrective

value and term [θ/70] restrict it to work only for θ≥70°.

So equation becomes,

From our previous exercises, we are familiar with the obtained pattern. Difference in values occurs in pair wise

A.P for an interval of 5° angle. As for every interval, difference varies in A.P, so we can easily apply linear interpolation to

deduce values in between them.

θ = 5p +q

RESULTS

Values obtained by equations are very close to sine values with high accuracy. Approximate sine values can be

deduced for every angle. One example is solved below:

Y (θ) = (1-q/5)* Y (5p) + q*(Y (5p+5))/5 (1) For any general value of θ

And,

www.iaset.us editor@iaset.us

42 Vareesh Pratap

Table 1

Deviation

Θ [(θ -5)/10] [2[(10-θ)/5]] [( θ -70)/5] *[θ /70] [θ /10] (θ %2) Y(θ) Sin θ

= Sin θ - Y(θ)

0 -1 4 0 10 0 0.00 0.00 0

5 0 2 0 10 1 0.08 0.087155 0.007156

10 0 1 0 9 0 0.17 0.173648 0.003648

15 1 1 0 9 1 0.25 0.258819 0.008819

20 1 0 0 8 0 0.34 0.342020 0.002020

25 2 0 0 8 1 0.42 0.422618 0.002618

30 2 0 0 7 0 0.50 0.5 0

35 3 0 0 7 1 0.57 0.573576 0.003576

40 3 0 0 6 0 0.64 0.642787 0.002787

45 4 0 0 6 1 0.70 0.707106 0.007106

50 4 0 0 5 0 0.76 0.766044 0.006044

55 5 0 0 5 1 0.81 0.819152 0.009152

60 5 0 0 4 0 0.86 0.866025 0.006025

65 6 0 0 4 1 0.90 0.906307 0.006307

70 6 0 0 3 0 0.94 0.939692 -0.003073

75 7 0 1 3 1 0.96 0.965925 0.005925

80 7 0 2 2 0 0.98 0.984807 0.004807

85 8 0 3 2 1 0.99 0.996194 0.006194

90 8 0 4 1 0 1.00 1.00 0

Values of every individual term of expression Y (θ) is mentioned in various columns. Obtained values Y (θ) and

sine values are very close to each other. Y (θ) is obtained by the equation

GRAPHS

Figure 1

“A New Approach to Calculate Sinusoidal Values” 43

Figure 2

Figure 3

Graphs are potted between angle (on X – axis in degree) and their corresponding ‘Natural sine value’ and

‘obtained value’ (on Y – axis). Natural sine values are indicated by blue line and obtained values are indicated by red line.

In figure 1 both of lines coincides. Both lines are very closer to each other in every graph.

Figure 4

Graph is potted between angle (on X – axis) and corresponding difference between ‘natural sine value’ and

‘obtained value’ (on Y – axis). Deviation of obtained value from standard sine value is indicated by points. Maximum

deviation is nearly 0.009 only. It is very close to its natural sine value 0.82903757! It is the maximum deviation given by

equation.

DISCUSSIONS

Readers can do some exercises on their own, and verify the formulae by checking with the obtained values as

www.iaset.us editor@iaset.us

44 Vareesh Pratap

shown in the tables and graphs. Hope that it would be very fun leaning mathematics for young school students which may

encourage for innovating new mathematical riddles and looking for possible formalism if any.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Satya Pal Singh, Assistant Professor in Physics, Madan Mohan

Malaviya Engineering College, Gorakhpur, UP, India for having fruitful discussions with him and Mr. D.K Singh, PGT

Mathematics, JNV Farrukhabad for motivating me at budding stage. I also thank to my friends Mr. Abhinav Tripathi,

Mr. Ankit Rai for helping me to prepare the graphs and table for the manuscript.

CONCLUSIONS

In this paper we derived an empirical formula which provides approximate sinusoidal values. In the absence of

trigonometric table or calculator, this formula is very helpful for rough estimation of elementary science and engineering

problems.

REFERENCES

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry

http://www.dli.gov.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005af0_121.pdf (1967)

4. Amulya Kumar Bag, sine table in ancient india, Digital Library of India

http://www.new.dli.ernet.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005b65_79.pdf (2005)

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