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ENTERPRENURSHIP
PRACTICAL


Aim: Preparation of Techno Economic Feasibility
Project Report












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Contents
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
CORRUGATED BOARD ......................................................................................................................................... 4
The Manufacturing Process ..................................................................................................................................... 4
Advantages of Corrugated Fibre Board Boxes ................................................................................................ 5
Applications............................................................................................................................................................ 5
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................................................... 7
How are corrugated boxes formed?................................................................................................................... 8
The Main Process ............................................................................................................................................. 9
INVESTEMNT REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF MANUFACTURING UNIT ............................. 10
a. Basis & Presumptions .................................................................................................................................... 11
b. Product(s) Mix, Capacity & Its Utilisation .................................................................................................... 11
c. Land .................................................................................................................................................................. 11
d. Cost of Building & Structure .......................................................................................................................... 11
e. Plant & Machinery .......................................................................................................................................... 12
Corrugating Unit .............................................................................................................................................. 12
Box Making Unit .............................................................................................................................................. 13
Printing Unit ..................................................................................................................................................... 13
Testing Equipment .......................................................................................................................................... 13
f. Misc. Fixed Assets .......................................................................................................................................... 14
g. Total Cost of the Project ................................................................................................................................ 14
h. Means of Financing of the Project ............................................................................................................... 15
i. Term Loan ......................................................................................................................................................... 15
j. Term Loan and Its Repayment ...................................................................................................................... 16
k. Staff & Labour Requirements And Annual Salaries/Wages Bill .............................................................. 16
l. Annual Cost Of Raw Materials, Consumables & Packaging Materials ................................................... 17
m. Annual Cost Of Utilities (Power & Water) .................................................................................................. 17
n. Depreciation Chart ......................................................................................................................................... 18
o. Repairs & Maintenance ................................................................................................................................. 19
p. Insurance ......................................................................................................................................................... 19
q. Sales Expenses .............................................................................................................................................. 20
r. Projections of Performance And Profitability Statement ........................................................................... 21
r. Projections Of Performance And Profitability Statement (Contd.) .......................................................... 22
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s. Break-Even-Efficiency Analysis .................................................................................................................... 23
PLANT LAYOUT ..................................................................................................................................................... 24
ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INDUSTRY ............................................................................................... 26
1) Odor ................................................................................................................................................................. 26
2) Noise ................................................................................................................................................................ 27
3) Dust .................................................................................................................................................................. 27
4) Black liquor ...................................................................................................................................................... 28
5) Air pollution...................................................................................................................................................... 28
6) Water pollution ................................................................................................................................................ 28
7) Dioxin ............................................................................................................................................................... 29
8) Landfill Waste ................................................................................................................................................. 30
9) Inks ................................................................................................................................................................... 30
SOLID WASTE GENERATION AND DISPOSAL .............................................................................................. 31
HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION AND DISPOSAL ................................................................................. 31
TRAINING INSTITUTES ........................................................................................................................................ 32
SOURCES OF PLANT & MACHINERY AVAILABILITY ................................................................................... 32
Corrugated Kraft Paper Boxes making Machinery ................................................................................................ 32
Offset Printing Machine ........................................................................................................................................ 33
SOURCES OF RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY .............................................................................................. 33
1. Kraft Paper ......................................................................................................................................................... 33
2. Gum Tape .......................................................................................................................................................... 33
3. Gum ................................................................................................................................................................... 34
4. Stitching Wire .................................................................................................................................................... 34
5. Printing Ink ......................................................................................................................................................... 34



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INTRODUCTION

Packaging plays a very important role in the country's economy. Till recently only the
western world, more particularly the developed countries cared about proper packaging.
However, now even developing countries like India have changed their outlook towards
packaging and in the last few years increasing stress have been laid on improved and
proper packaging. In fact, today, packaging is as important as the contents.

Corrugated Kraft Paper Board Box, technically called Corrugated Fibre Board Box is the
most popular shipping container, now-a-days. The box is manufactured from corrugated
board which consists of 3 or more layers of kraft paper. The middle fluted layer is pasted
with two flat parallel sheets of paper. The boxes find their number of applications in the
packaging of chemicals & drugs, tobacco, engineering goods, canned & bottled goods, food
products, lamps, electrical appliances, glasswares etc.

Corrugated boards were first produced in India in early fifties. Since then the production of
corrugated boards has increased steadily. Corrugated boxes have replaced wooden boxes
& crates in many applications. Today, about 80% of all shipments in the world are being
made in fibre board boxes. In India, about 60% of the packaging is being done with
corrugated fibre board boxes.


CORRUGATED BOARD

The Manufacturing Process

Corrugated fibre board consists of a flat layer of paper sheet (liner) glued on one or both
sides of a corrugated paper (medium). The corrugated board is made by passing two layers
of paper (usually Kraft) through corrugating machine. One layer of paper becomes
corrugated after being passed through the heated rolls and other is brought into contact
with it after the former having glued at tips.

The corrugating 'medium' is generally made from a 0.009" thick (9 calliper) or 0.23 mm. The
glue frequently used is starch or silicate of soda adhesive. When only one liner is used, the
product is known as "Single face" or "two ply" board. This board is flexible in one direction.
When the corrugated medium is combined on both sides with flat sheets, it is known as
double faced or "3-ply board".











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Advantages of Corrugated Fibre Board Boxes

Corrugated fibreboard boxes have replaced the wooden and tin containers due to their
several advantages for safe transportation of the goods. These are discussed here under:

Light in weight (freight advantage)
Cellular structure with high compressive strength, resiliency & shock resistance.
Can be stored conveniently in folded condition when not in use, thus saving storage
space.
Can be attractively printed, thus advertising advantage.
By lining, lamination or coating, they can be made water resistant and resistant to
other adverse conditions.
Easy to fabricate.
Contents packed in these boxes remain dust free.
Available throughout the year. .pa
Expedites production due to one line conveyor packing.
Re-usable
No strapping necessary
Desired in export market
Eliminated dependency on natural wood.



Applications

Corrugated fibre board boxes are being used for the packing of industrial as well as
consumer goods. They are used for packing of chemicals, drugs, tobacco, engineering
goods, canned and bottled goods (such as Whisky, Beer, Soda, Drinking Water, Ketchups
etc.), food, electrical appliances, confectionary, textiles, fruits, vegetables, potteries,
footwear, glasswares and other fragile items, medical instruments, photographic equipments
and a number of other products.

The use-pattern of corrugated board containers is approximately as follows :-


(%)
Chemicals & Drugs 20
Tobacco 20
Engineering Goods 10
Canned & bottles goods 10
Light Engg.Products & Lamps 8
Electrical products 5
Confectionery 3
Textiles 2
Other (including fruits,
potteries etc.) 22


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Some of the products where corrugated fibreboard boxes find extensive application are:-

Pharmaceuticals.
Glassware, crockery ware
Soaps & Cosmetics
Biscuits
Hosiery & readymade garments
Electronic products
Breweries
Cigarettes
Footwears
Toys
Milk products & other food items
Tea & Coffee
Automobile components
Rubber & rubber products
Engineering items and consumer durable like
Refrigerators, TVs, Air Coolers, fans etc.
Stationary items
Match boxes
Frozen fish
Apple, cherry, grapes etc.
Cashew nut industry




It would not be an exaggeration if one states that practically every product at some or the
other stage, has to be packed in corrugated paper board or box. Usually, at the
manufacturer/wholesalers level the individual units of a particular item are packed together
in a carton/corrugated box for the sake of convenience in handling/transporting.
The strength or weakness of corrugated paperboard depends upon the member of ply, which
vary from 2 ply to 9 ply. The higher the member of the ply, the thicker and stronger will be the
board. However, the strength required will depend upon the purpose for which the corrugated
board/box is to be used. For example, to pack vials and tubes, a thinner quality or lesser ply
corrugated board would serve the purpose, while packing of a television set or an air-
conditioner will require a very sturdy corrugated box with maximum ply. Similarly for electric
lamps, a 2 ply flexible board is used. The unit shall manufacture corrugated boxes of varying
plys to suit various needs.


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PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

Corrugated paperboard box is a paper box having different sizes used for packing industrial
products. The major raw materials used to manufacture corrugated paper box are liners,
glue, ink and other auxiliary materials. Manufacturing process involved include corrugation,
slitting, printing, slotting, folding and packing.


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How are corrugated boxes formed?

The flat sheets on the outside are called liners. Liner paperboard can be a natural brown
colour, mottled white, or all white. There are standard sizes of flutes, the ridges in the
corrugated medium. Some corrugated boards have small numbers of very large flutes; others
have higher numbers of very small flutes.

A single liner, glued to corrugating medium, creates single face corrugated board.
Corrugating medium glued between two fl at liners forms a single wall corrugated
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board. Most of the boxes we see every day are made of this material, and in fact about
90 percent of corrugated board is single wall.

Adding another corrugating medium and a third flat liner creates a double wall
corrugated board. Stronger than the single wall board, its also heavier and more
expensive. Furniture, appliances and products such as nails, meat, and bulk peanuts are
packed in boxes made from double wall corrugated board.

There are also triple wall corrugated boards, big tough boards with three layers of
corrugating medium and four flat liners, used for very large or very heavy products.






The Main Process

Rolling them
Lets start making a box by making corrugated board, on a long series of linked machines
called a corrugating line.

The corrugating medium, which will become the wavy middle layer in the typical three-
layer corrugated board sandwich, is pre-heated and steamed so its temperature nearly
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reaches the boiling point of water, 212F. This softens the natural ingredients in the
paperboard, making it easier to form into flutes.

The web, or long sheet of paper unwinding from the roll, is drawn between a pair of gear-
like cylinders called corrugating rolls. This shapes the paper into a series of precise
waves. Glue is applied to the tips of these flutes on one side just the right amount, and
at just the right places and the flute tips are pressed against a flat liner.

This creates a singleface web, a continuous sheet of fl at paper with fluted paper glued
to it. To make single wall corrugated board, the exposed flutes of the singleface web
have glue applied to them, and theyre pressed against a second fl at liner. Other parts of
the corrugating line press creases into the corrugated board at precise places, so later it
will fold on these creases to create a three-dimensional box.

The continuous web of corrugated board is now so stiff that it cant be rolled up. Instead,
its cut into flat sheets, just the right size for making the boxes that have been ordered.
The sheets are then stacked and set aside so the glue can dry properly.



How does a board become a box?

Converting machines convert flat corrugated boards into boxes. The most common
kinds of converting machines are flexible folder gluers and die cutters.

Flexo-folder gluers print, crease, slot, trim, fold and glue the box so that it can be
shipped flat and then be easily formed by the customer and packed.

Die-cut machines cut the corrugated board into a pattern the customer will fold and glue
into the box shape.

A rotary die cutter uses cutting edges called dies, and creasing rules, on a big roller to
cut and score the corrugated board as it moves beneath it.

A flat die cutter presses knives and creasing rules against a stationary board, the same
way you press a cookie cutter into cookie dough. Whichever converting system was
used, the corrugated box is now complete, and ready to carry, contain and cushion a
product that might be on its way to you.





INVESTEMNT REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF
MANUFACTURING UNIT
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a. Basis & Presumptions

No. of working days/year 300

No. of shifts/day Single

No. of working hours/shift 8

b. Product(s) Mix, Capacity & Its Utilisation
Finished Product(s)

Corrugated Kraft Paper
Boxes

Average Selling Price Rs.32,500 per ton

Annual Installed Capacity 900 tons

Capacity Utilisation :

First year of operation 60%
Second year of operation 65%
Third year of operation 70%
Fourth year of operation 75%
Fifth year onwards years of operation 80%

c. Land

a. Plot Size 1000 sq.mts


b. Location JAGADHRI in Yamunanagar


c. Rate of Land Rs. 500/- per sq.mt


d. Cost of Plot Rs. 5.00 Lacs


e. Registration etc. Exps. Rs. 0.50 Lacs


Total Rs. 5.50 Lacs

d. Cost of Building & Structure

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a. Works 300 sq.mts


b. Stores 150 sq.mts


c. Office 50 sq.mts


Total 500 sq.mts



Cost of construction Rs. 3500.00 per sq.mt.

Total cost of construction Rs. 17.50 Lacs


d. Misc. Civil Works like Boundry wall,
Security Cabins, Parking Sheds,
Inner-Outer Approach Roads etc.
Rs. 1.25 Lacs


Total Rs. 18.75 Lacs





e. Plant & Machinery

Following plant, machinery and equipment are required for the proposed project:-


S.No. Description Qty. Rate Amount
(Nos.) (Rs.Lacs)

A.
Corrugating Unit


1. Single Face Corrugating M/c 1 3.00 3.00
2. Slitting Attachment with cutter 1 0.18 0.18
3. Board Cutter, 62 x 62 1 0.26 0.26
4. Sheet Pasting Machine 1 0.44 0.44


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B.
Box Making Unit


1. 4-Bar Rotary Cutting & 1 1.95 1.95
Creasing M/c, 95

2. Eccentric Slotter, 42 1 1.95 1.95
3. Partition Slotter, 42 1 0.45 0.45

4. Stitching Machine, 30 1 0.25 0.25

5. Stitching Machine, 36 1 0.30 0.30

6. Vertical Bending Machine, 72 1 1.40 1.40
7. Single Slotting Machine, 12 1 0.15 0.15


C.
Printing Unit


1. Multi-colour Offset Printing M/c 1 10.00 10.00

2. Screen Printing Equipment 1 0.50 0.50



D.
Testing Equipment


1. Brusting Strength Factor Tester 1 0.30 0.30

2. Graqmmage Tester 1 0.05 0.05

3. Compression Strength Tester 1 1.50 1.50

4. Puncture Resistance Strength M/c 1 0.30 0.30

Rs.22.97Lacs




Cost of installation ,erection, commissioning Taxes ,
Freight Insurance etc.
10% Rs.2.30Lacs


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Total Rs.25.27Lacs



f. Misc. Fixed Assets

Additionally, following misc. fixed assets are required for the proposed
Project:-


(Rs.Lacs)


Standby Gen Set, 40 KVA 2.25
Electrification Expenses and
Electrical Equipments 0.75
Weighing Machine 0.20
Maintenance Tools & Equipment 0.05
Office Furniture & Equipment 0.75
Fire Fighting & Other Safety Equipments 0.50
Delivery Rickshaw 0.10
Misc. 0.25


Total Rs. 4.85 Lacs

g. Total Cost of the Project

(In Lacs)
a. Cost of Land 5.50

b. Building & Structures 18.75

c. Machinery & Equipments 25.27

d. Misc.Fixed Assets 4.85

e. Preliminary & Pre-
operative expenses 4.41

f. Contingencies/Price- 1.10
Escalation

g. Margin Money for 10.59
Working Capital


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Total Rs. 70.46 Lacs





h. Means of Financing of the Project


It is proposed to finance the project as follows:-


a) Term Loan from Bank/State 40.00
Financial Corporation

b) Promoters Contribution 30.46
including Unsecured Loans
from friends/relatives


Total Rs.70.46Lacs


Promoters Share to Project Cost 43.23%

Debt-service Ratio 1.31 : 1

i. Term Loan

S.No Description Value Term Loan

1. Land 5.50 75 % 4.13
2. Building & Structure 18.75 75 % 14.06
3. Machinery & Equipment 25.27 75 % 18.95
4. Misc. Fixed Assets 4.85 75 % 3.64
5. Contingencies/Price Esc. 1.10 75 % 0.82


Term Loan Eligibility 55.47 Rs.41.6Lacs

Term Loan to be applied for Rs. 40 Lacs




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j. Term Loan and Its Repayment

Term Loan Rs.40.00 Lacs
Repayment Period 4 Years
Moratorium Period 12 months
Annual Interest Rate 10.50 % p.a.



k. Staff & Labour Requirements And Annual Salaries/Wages Bill


S.No. Designation Nos. Rate Annual Bill
Rs.p.m. Rs.Lacs

a. Office Staff

1 Accountant 1 10000 1.20
2 Sales & Marketing 2 7500 1.80
3 Peon/
Watchman
1 5500 0.66



b. Supervisory

1 Supervisor 1 10000 1.20


c. Factory

1 Skilled Workers 3 7500 1.80
2 Semi-skilled Workers 9 6500 4.32
3 Unskilled Labour 6 5500 2.52



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l. Annual Cost Of Raw Materials, Consumables & Packaging Materials
Following Raw Materials, Consumables & Packaging materials are required for the proposed project:

S.No. Description Amount (Rs.Lacs)
1. Kraft Paper }
2 Printing Ink }
3 Stitching Wire }
4 Binding Cloth }
5 Adhesive Tape }
6 Adhesives }
7 Misc.Consumable Stores }
8 Packing Materials }




Cost of raw materials, consumables and packing materials
is assumed at 75.00 % sales revenues, that works out to

Total Rs. 219.38 Lacs
m. Annual Cost Of Utilities (Power & Water)
(at 100% efficiency)


a. Power

Total Load 40 KW

Consumption Load x 8 x 300 x 0.7
Hrs. x Days x Power Factor


67200 KWH

Power Rate Rs. 4.50 KWH

Total Power Bill Rs. 3.02 Lacs

b. Water


Water 500 KL
@ Rs. 8.00 Per KL
Rs. 0.04 Lacs
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Total Power & Water Bill Rs. 3.06 Lacs

n. Depreciation Chart


Building & Structure : Rs. 18.75 Lacs

Machinery & Equipment :

Rs.

25.27

Lacs

Misc.Fixed Assets :

Rs.

3.85

Lacs




S. Description Rate 1
st

N. Year
2
nd
Year
3
rd
Year
4
th
Year
5
th
Year

1. Building & Structure
Depreciation Rate


10%
18.75
1.88
16.88
1.69
15.19
1.52
13.67
1.37
12.30
1.23
16.88 15.19 13.67 12.30 11.07



2. Machinery &
Equipment
Depreciation Rate


15%
25.27
3.79
21.48
3.22
18.26
2.74
15.52
2.33
13.19
1.98
21.48 18.26 15.52 13.19 11.21



3. Misc.Fixed Assets
Depreciation Rate 15%
4.85
0.73
4.12
0.62
3.50
0.53
2.98
0.45
2.53
0.38
4.12 3.50 2.98 2.53 2.15



Total Depreciation 6.39 5.53 4.78 4.14 3.59
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o. Repairs & Maintenance


p. Insurance
The fixed assets of the project will be insured for all types of risks. Annual insurance charges
payable shall be as under:-
S.N. Description 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
1. Building &
Structure
18.75 16.88 15.19 13.67 12.30

2. Machinery &
Equipment
25.27 21.48 18.26 15.52 13.19

3. Misc. Fixed
Assets
4.85 4.12 3.50 2.98 2.53

Total 48.87 42.47 36.95 32.16 29.02

Insurance Charges :

Rate (%) 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Amount
(Rs.Lacs)
0.49 0.64 0.74 0.80 0.84





S.No Description 1st
Year
2nd
Year
3rd
Year
4th
Year
5th
Year
1. Building & Structure
Repairs/Maintenance
Rate (%)
Amount (Rs. Lacs)
18.75

0.50
0.09
16.88

1.00
0.17
15.19

1.50
0.23
13.67

2.00
0.27
12.30

2.50
0.31

2. Machinery Equipment
Repairs/Maintenance
Rate (%)
Amount (Rs. Lacs)
25.27

0.50
0.13
21.48

1.00
0.21
18.26

1.50
0.27
15.52

2.00
0.31
13.19

2.50
0.33

3. Misc. Fixed Assets
Repairs/Maintenance
Rate (%)
Amount (Rs. Lacs)
4.85

0.50
0.02
4.12

1.00
0.04
3.50

1.50
0.05
2.98

2.00
0.06
2.53

2.50
0.06

Total 0.24 0.42 0.55 0.64 0.70
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q. Sales Expenses

Sales Expenses include brokerage, commission, discounts etc. They are assumed at 1.75
percent of sales revenues

























(Rs.Lacs)

Year Sales Selling Expenses

1st 175.50 3.07

2nd 190.13 3.33

3rd 204.75 3.58

4th 219.38 3.84

5th 219.38 4.10
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r. Projections of Performance And Profitability Statement


(Rs.Lacs)
1st
Year
2nd
Year
3rd
Year
4th
Year
5th
Year

Capacity
Utilisation (%)
60 65 70 75 75

A. Annual Sales
Revenues

Value (Rs.Lacs) 175.50 190.13 204.75 219.38 219.38

B. Cost of Sales

a. Raw Materials,
Consumables
&Packing
Materials
131.63 142.59 153.56 164.53 175.50

b.Power/Water 1.84 1.99 2.14 2.30 2.45

c. Salaries &
Wages
Salaries 4.31 4.74 5.21 5.74 6.31
Wages 6.89 8.22 8.85 9.48 10.11

d. Repairs &
Maintenance
0.24 0.42 0.55 0.64 0.70

e. Insurance 0.49 0.64 0.74 0.80 0.84

f. Depreciation 6.39 5.53 4.78 4.14 3.59

Cost of Sales 151.79 164.13 175.84 187.63 199.50


* 10% increase every year









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r. Projections Of Performance And Profitability Statement (Contd.)

(Rs.Lacs)
1st
Year
2nd
Year
3rd
Year
4th
Year
5th

Capacity
Utilisation (%)
60 65 70 75 75

C. GrossProfit 23.71 26.00 28.91 31.74 34.50

Selling Expenses 3.07 3.33 3.58 3.84 4.10

Overheads @ 1.76 1.90 2.05 2.19 2.19

Preliminary &
Pre-operative
Expenses w/off
0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88

Financial Expenses:

a. Interest on
term loan
4.20 3.68 2.63 1.58 0.52

b. Interest on
Working Capital
Loan
3.33 3.59 3.87 4.15 4.15

D. Profit
(before taxes)
10.47 12.62 15.90 19.10 22.50

E.Provision for
Taxes 20%
3.45 4.17 5.25 6.30 7.43

F.Profit (after
taxes)
7.01 8.46 10.65 12.80 15.08

Depreciation,
added back
6.39 5.53 4.78 4.14 3.59

G.Cash
Accruals:
13.41 13.98 15.43 16.94 18.67


@ Telephone Bills, Postage/Courier Expenses, Travelling/Conveyance,
Bank Charges/Commissions, Publicity etc. considered as 1%
of Annual Sales Revenues



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s. Break-Even-Efficiency Analysis
(Rs.Lacs)
1st
Year
2nd
Year
3rd
Year
4th
Year
5th
Year
Capacity
Utilisation (%)
60 65 70 75 75

A. Sales 175.50 190.13 204.75 219.38 219.38

B. Variable Costs

a. Raw Materials,
Consumables
& Packing
Materials
131.63 142.59 153.56 164.53 175.50

b.Power/water 1.84 1.99 2.14 2.30 2.45

c. Wages 6.89 8.22 8.85 9.48 10.11

d. Intt.on
Working
Capital Loan
3.33 3.59 3.87 4.15 4.15

e. Sales
Expenses
3.07 3.33 3.58 3.84 4.10

Total 146.76 159.72 172.01 184.30 196.31

C.Fixed Costs

a. Salaries 4.31 4.74 5.21 5.74 6.31
b. Admn.
Overheads
1.76 1.90 2.05 2.19 2.19
c. Repairs &
Maintenance
0.24 0.42 0.55 0.64 0.70
d. Insurance 0.49 0.64 0.74 0.80 0.84
e. Interest on
term loan
4.20 3.68 2.63 1.58 0.52
f. Depreciation 6.39 5.53 4.78 4.14 3.59

Total 17.39 16.91 15.96 15.09 14.30

D. Contribution 28.74 30.41 32.74 35.07 37.69

E. Break-even-
efficiency
(%)
60.51 55.59 48.75 43.03 37.95

Average Break-even-efficiency 49.17




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Break-Even-Efficiency Analysis Chart





0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Year 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th
Break Even Efficiency
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PLANT LAYOUT
A single storey building is preferable. Since there are heavy machinery, multi storied building
may not prove to be safe. Since the production process carries on a chain form, product or
line method is applied. It helps in easy supervision, minimum material handling and
smoothens production function.



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ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INDUSTRY
VARIOUS HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT RELATED PROBLEMS AND THE
PREVENTIVE MEASURES TO BE TAKEN

1) Odor
The corrugated manufacturing process produces gaseous sulfur compounds called "total
reduced sulphur" or TRS gases having odor of a rotten egg. The smelly chemicals are
reduced sulphides, ammonia, and other organic compounds.
Causes of odor
Sulfite mills emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) which has a strong, choking odor.
Wastewater treatment plants can have a rotten garbage odor.
Landfills may have an odor from decaying organic matter.
Health issues
Area residents may experience eye and breathing irritation.
Other symptoms may include nausea and headaches.
People with asthma may experience asthma episodes when the odors are strong.
People with emphysema or COPD may also be at risk. These symptoms should
disappear shortly after the odors disperse.
Precautionary measures:

Incineration system: Installation of this system helps to eliminate odor completely and
installed Non-Condensable Gases Handling System consisting of Collection,
Transportation and Incineration of NCG.
If odors change or get worse near the pulp and paper mills, contact the local mill and the
DNR. The DNR encourages public participation in addressing air quality issues and your
comments are encouraged. Information about past problems can be useful in evaluating
air permit renewals. Contact the DNR about how to become involved in these issues.







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2) Noise
Noise is a known hazard in the paper and board industries. A hazard that if not adequately
controlled can have significant health effects to those exposed to uncontrolled levels of
noise.
Health Problems
Short duration exposure to high noise levels can cause temporary hearing loss, but
longer exposures can result in permanent damage.
Some effects of being exposed to noise can be quicker, such as developing tinnitus. It is
a permanent ringing or whooshing sound in the ears that can get worse when its quiet,
such as when you are going to sleep.

Precautionary measures:
There are noise exposure limits that must not be exceeded. If you cannot eliminate noise,
you must reduce it as low as possible at source.
a) Noise calculators: HSE has produced noise calculators that can help a competent
person in within your workplace to work out what the likely exposure levels are.

b) Provide hearing protection: Hearing protection will only provide the right level of
protection if it is worn properly and for the whole time that users are exposed to high
noise levels.


c) Health surveillance: Health surveillance (hearing checks)

must be provided for all
employees who are regularly exposed above the upper exposure action values (daily or
weekly exposure of 85dB or peak sound pressure of 135dB) or are at risk, for example
already suffer from hearing loss.
3) Dust

Health problems:
Being regularly exposed to high levels of dust in a workplace can affect the respiratory
system and cause your workers to become ill.
Precautionary measures:
Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV): If designed and implemented properly LEV can
provide a good means of reducing dust in the workplace.
Water Showers: It is a method of reducing dust exposure and can be more effective
than LEV in some situations.
General Dilution Ventilation: General dilution ventilation can be sufficient to reduce
exposure.
Cleaning down and good housekeeping: For maximum effect it is better to carryout
cleaning at the end the end of the shift rather than during it. Vacuums, sprays and damp
cleaning methods are the best to stop dust being pushed into the air.
Electrostatic precipitators: The emissions from the boilers contain dust particles
(Suspended Particulate Matter, SPM) and contain gases like Sulphur dioxide and
Hydrogen sulphide etc. In order to control the dust particles and gases from the boilers,
we will install most modern sophisticated Electro Static Precipitators as Pollution Control
Equipments.

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4) Black liquor

Health Problem:
The black liquor contains organic compounds as a result of the pulping process and
inorganic compounds such as sulphur and sodium which is used in the cooking process
which serves as a major waste.
Precautionary measure:
Kraft recovery boiler can be used for the treatment of black liquor.
5) Air pollution

Health issues:
Nitrogen dioxide (NO
2
) sulphur dioxide (SO
2
) and carbon dioxide (CO
2
) are emitted
during paper manufacturing. Nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide are major contributors
of acid rain, whereas CO
2
is a greenhouse gas responsible for climate change.

Various gases emitted can cause respiratory problems and eye irritation.

Precautionary measures:
For generating the steam we will installed Coal Fired Boilers and Recovery Boilers,
where in the black liquor is fired in the furnace to recover and reuse the valuable
chemical in the process.

Installing Rotary Lime Kiln where the lime sludge (CaCO
3
) is burnt to get burnt lime
(CaO) to reuse in the Causticizing Process.


6) Water pollution
Waste water discharges for a pulp and paper mill contains solids, nutrients and dissolved
organic matter such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and unless at low levels these are classed
as pollutants.
Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus can cause or exacerbate eutrophication of
fresh water bodies such as lakes and rivers.
Organic matter dissolved in fresh water changes ecological characteristics, and in worse
case scenarios leads to death of all higher living organisms.


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Precautionary measures:
Water Treatment using effluent treatment plant: The main pollutants in the effluent
discharged are Suspended Solids, B.O.D, and C.O.D etc.

a) Primary Treatment: In this process wastewater is passed through bar screens and
perforated screens to remove any foreign material and clarified effluent from the top
of the clarifier is taken to Secondary Treatment.

b) Secondary Treatment (Activated Sludge Process): In this treatment the effluent
from the Primary Treatment is taken to an aeration tank and nutrients like Urea and
SSP (Single Super Phosphate), are dosed in to the aeration tank as food to the
bacteria. The effluent after Secondary Treatment is pumped to Land Treatment.

Land Treatment: The removal of constituents from wastewater by filtering and straining
action of soil is an excellent treatment for removing B.O.D, T.S.S & Faecal Coliform
almost completely removed. The soil also works as colour removal media which is
otherwise prohibitively expensive treatment.
7) Dioxin
The term "dioxin" describes a group of highly toxic chemicals which are produced by several
processes involved in corrugated paper making. Dioxins are among the most potent toxic
chemicals known.
Health issues
Cancer
Disrupt hormonal, reproductive, and immune systems
Birth and Developmental Defects
Learning Disabilities
Increased Risk of Diabetes
Tumour Promotion
Decreased Fertility
Reduced Sperm Counts
Endometriosis
Suppressed Immune Systems



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Are certain people at risk?
Developing fetuses and infants: Because dioxins are passed to them in uterus and
through their mothers breast milk at the most sensitive stages of their development.
Fish consumers: Certain populations that consume large amounts of fish, such as
recreational and avid anglers, subsistence fish consumers and are at an increased
risk due to their larger consumption of fish contaminated with dioxins.
Wildlife: Animals on the top of the food chain, such as birds and mammals that eat
contaminated fish, face the greatest risks.

Precautions measures:
Dioxins are generated through following
Air
Water
So our precautionary steps will involve the air treatment and water treatment as discussed
above.

8) Landfill Waste
Paper waste like other wastes faces the additional hazard of toxic inks, dyes and polymers
that could be potentially carcinogenic when incinerated, or comingled with groundwater via
straditional burial methods such as modern landfills.
Health problems:
Emission of green house gases like methane and carbon dioxide is there from these wastes.
Precautionary measures:
Paper recycling
9) Inks
Health problem:
This ink contains the non renewable oils toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, selenium,
mercury, cadmium and hexavalent chromium that causes many health problems like
headache, eye irritation, respiratory problems, etc.
Precautionary measures
Instead of using vegetable oils, use petroleum oils for better sustainability.
The waste slurry resulting from Deinking recycled paper pulp may go to landfill.

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SOLID WASTE GENERATION AND DISPOSAL

S.No. SOURCE WAY OF DISPOSAL

1. Fly ash / Boiler ash

Given to outside parties for cement, sheets and bricks
manufacturing
2. ETP Sludge Used in Vermi- compositing or burnt in boiler and board
manufacturing.

HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION AND DISPOSAL
The hazardous waste generated in paper mills include waste oil, Oily cotton waste, Oily
filters, Empty drums and filter wash. All the waste will be stored in the specially earmarked
hazardous waste yard before disposal. The details related to hazardous waste generation
and disposal are given below:

S.No.

TYPE OF WASTE

WAY OF DISPOSAL
1.

Used oil / Waste oil

Sale to authorized party or incinerate in CFBC boiler
2.

Waste residue containing oil Metallic item after cleaning sold and remaining shall be
incinerated in CFBC boiler
3.

Use of paint pigment,
lacquers, varnishes, paints
and inks
Metallic and plastic items sold to scrap contractor after
cleaning and remaining shall be incinerated in CFBC
boiler
5.

Water residue containing
pesticides
Return to original party
6.

Discarded containers. Liners
used for hazardous waste /
chemicals.
Reused by original party / cleaned and sold to scrap
contractors.






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TRAINING INSTITUTES
1) Government Industrial Training Institute, Yamunanagar
2) Government Industrial Training Institute Sadhoura, Yamunanagar
3) Shivalik Industrial Training Centre, Yamunanagar
4) Web Service Industrial Training Centre Jagadhri Road, Yamunanagar
5) Mass InfoTech Industrial Training Centre, Yamunanagar

SOURCES OF PLANT & MACHINERY AVAILABILITY
Corrugated Kraft Paper Boxes making Machinery:
Natraj Industries
Plot No.65, Sector-6,
Faridabad (Haryana)-121006.
Tel.: 0129-2241403/404, 4001259
Fax : 0129-2243403
E-mail: sales@natrajindustries.com
Website:www.natrajindustries.com

Neelkanth Machinery Co.
Plot No.44, Sector-4
Industrial Area
Faridabad-121 004
Tel.: 0129-2242516, 2241580
Fax : 0129-2243069
E-mail: info@neelkanthmachinery.com
Website:www.neelkanthmachinery.com

Sidhartha Machinery Co.
406, Usha Kiran Building
Commercial Complex
Azadpur, Delhi-110033
Tel.: 65976383
Cell : 9811755369
E-mail: sales@sidharthamachinery.com
Website:www. sidharthamachinery.com


Nagpal Packaging Machinery Pvt. Ltd.
B-7, Sector-59, Phase-II
23rd Milestone, Mathura Road
Ballabhgarh, Faridabad-121 064
Tel.: 0129-2307700, 230 7800, 4067600
Fax : 0129-4067500
Cell.: 93122 73576

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Offset Printing Machine:


Bombay Offset Printers,
Computer Forms Machinery Division,
Post Box 6591, Worli,
Mumbai - 400018.

Indo European Machinery Co.Pvt.Ltd.,
Delhi
Kuncha Ustad Dagh,
Chandni Chowk,
Delhi - 110006.

Alois Gutenberg Machine Pvt.Ltd.,
Post Box No.457,
Wagle Post Office,
Thane - 400604.
(Maharashtra).

Raghubeer Machinery Pvt.Ltd.,
Gurgaon - 122015.
(Haryana).
SOURCES OF RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY
1. Kraft Paper:-
Chemopulp Issues,
A-4, Sector CX-II,
Meerut Road, Ghaziabad (U.P.)

Sirpur Paper,
Sirpur, Kaghaznagar

Rohtas Industries Ltd.,
Dalmianagar.

Ballarpur Industries Ltd.,
(Shree Gopal Division),
Thapar House,
124, Janpath,
New Delhi

2. Gum Tape:-

Million Tape Manufacturing Co.,
2640, Hamilton Road,
Kashmere Gate,
Delhi - 110006.

Natraj Paper Industries,
38/46, Nagdevi Street,
Mumbai - 400003.

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3. Gum:-

Vijay Adhesives Industries,
6, Friends Colony,
G.T.Road, Shahdara,
Delhi - 110032.

Synthetic Glue Chemicals Ltd.,
D-104, Industrial Area,
Bulundshaher Road, Ghaziabad (U.P.)


4. Stitching Wire:

Pearls Products,
Amar Hill,
Saki Vihar Road,
Powai, Mumbai.


Universal Wire Manufacturing Co.,
61/63, Jalan Wadai,
Gokhle Road, Dadar,
Mumbai.


United Export Trading Co.,
512, Loha Bhawan,
P.O.Mello Road,
Mumbai.

5. Printing Ink:-

Graphichem Sales,
Bhupender Bhawan,
Karishma Market, Paharganj,
New Delhi - 110055.

Rainbow Ink & Varnish
Manufacturing Co.Pvt.Ltd.,
D-7, Sector - III,
Noida (U.P.).

Roopson,
1274/4/C, Baidwara,
Delhi - 110006.

Coats of India Limited,
Transport Depot Road,
Kolkata - 700088.

B.K.Ink Enterprise,
C/2, 2, Ambawadi,
Udyoganagar,
Wadwan (Gujarat).

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