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Nguyen Van Nghi

Tran Viet Dzung


Christine Recours Nguyen
huangdi
neijing
LINGSHU
Volume I
Books I - III
N.V.N. Edition
Translated from the French by
Edward S. Garbacz, MD
With Additional Commentary by
Sean Christiaan Marshall, D. Ac.
Jung Tao School of Classical Chinese Medicine - 2002
7.
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To my fellow Vietnamese countrymen
For many long years, our medicine has been stifled. Today, we are
liberated and independent. Cadre must help their fellow countrymen and the
government to promote a medicine responsive to the needs of our people
supported by the foundations of Science, Nation, popular Support.
Once, our grandparents had invaluable experience treating diseases
thanks to Vietnamese medicine. In order to enlarge the medical horizon,
their descendants will have to engage in the research and coexistence of
Oriental and Western medicines.
Ho Chi Minh
(Letter to the Minister of health,
hanoi, February 27, 1955).
no 8/9.
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We insist on thanking
_ Doctor Nguyen Van Huong, former Minister of health of the
Democratic republic of Vietnam,
_ Mister Vo Van Sung, former Delegate General of the Democratic
republic of Vietnam, France,
_ Doctor Tran Quang Hy, former member of the Institute of research of
Oriental Medicine, hanoi
thanks to whom we have been able to have access to research texts of
Oriental Medicine during the long resistance (1926-1974) of the
Vietnamese people.
Nguyen Van Nghi, MD
Marseille, October, 1972
no 10/11.
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INTRODUCTION
Regrettably, the Confucian literature of our era reports: Since the
publication of the translation of the Lingshu into popular and Western language, the
practice of acupuncture and moxabustion is lost.... It is not about a literal loss, but a
loss in quality due to translators ignorant of all medical material, distorting the
thinking and extremely subtle facts of Oriental energetic medicine without which
acupuncture no longer makes sense.
Shu signifies hinge - that which fastens the strap hinge to a door to
facilitate its opening and closing.
Ling (1) implies the qualities of genius, inspired and marvelous
regarding the work.
The term Lingshu has been rediscovered in the writings of Zhang Jing Yue
(1563-1640 AD): The essential dwelling of the mind (shen) bears the name Lingshu.
It can be otherwise said that the human brain is the door of intelligence and that
all works of genius depend on it.
Wang Tao (702-772 AD), native of Mei county in Shangxi province and
distinguished doctor of the Tang Dynasty (618-906 AD), more precisely states
regarding this:
Shu designates Tian Shu (Celestial Hinge). The celestial movements
take place in the space where the hinge and machinery (driving force) are
constantly active.
Lingshu comprises the sense of using needles and abandoning medicines.
This is why the celestial machinery is traced out in space so that each of us has the
ability to perceive it.
The space is Ling and the driving force shu. The Lingshu also includes the
notions of the jingmai, ying and wei becoming evident in our shen ling (mind,
brain). Nothing is more marvelous than this.

1. According to the Zhongwen Dictionary, the etymology of this character describes two sourcerers sitting around a
campfire invoking a rainstorm (SCM).
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According to these assertions, we may then define the word Ling in the
sense of rapidity, agility, that is to say, to constantly have in mind the logic of
following the spontaneous celestial (seasonal) movements . The word shu is
envisioned in the sense of motor, the driving force, thanks to which the human
organism is able to respond with rapidity to modifications in the 5 movements and
6 energies. Ling and shu then are the indispensable movements of our energetic
system allowing us to be able to confront all pathological problems. For this reason,
the Lingshu has been the object of passionate discussion and research for over two
thousand years, and it is again at the end of the 20th century.
According to Ma yuan Tai of the Tang Dynasty (618-906 AD), author of
commentaries and explanations of the Lingshu that we possess: The Lingshu has
also been called Zhen Jing (Classic of Acupuncture) for the first time by Huang
Fumi, alias Shi An, of the jin Dynasty (265-420 AD) In reality, this designation had
already been utilized by Huangdi himself in Paragraph 1 of Chapter 1 of the Lingshu:
Huangdi questions Qi Bo:
I govern 10,000 people. I feed a hundred families and collect the taxes. I pity
myself when they are no longer provided for and moreso when they fall ill.
I therefore desire that they be protected from using toxic medicines and that
they no longer use stone-puncture, but only use the fine needles:
_to activate and aerate the jingmai
_to balance the blood and energy
_and in analyzing the favorable/contrary movements and
the arriving/exiting movements of the energy.
This therapeutic method is destined for posterity. We must therefore formulate
the rules to perpetuate them and render them easy to apply and difficult to forget,
and organize them carefully in chapters in which the notions of interior and
exterior, Beginning and Ending must be presented in a didactic and complete
manner. For this, we must consider everything and omit nothing in the writing of
the Classic of Needles (Zhen Jing). What do you think ?

*
* *
We have published the Suwen before the Lingshu because:
1- The Suwen speaks on the mechanism of the triggering of illnesses. Once
the illness reveals itself, caution cannot safeguard against a future complication. For
this reason, in this classic work, it is advised to delve deeply into:
_ the origin of yin and yang, cold and heat
_ the preservation of yin, dietary hygiene and the behavior of the
individual
_ the phenomena of stimulation and inhibition, of victory and
response of the 5 movements
_ the favorable and unfavorable phenomena of the 6 energies
which are the necessary conditions for the prevention of the illness, one of our
greatest everyday preoccupations.
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2- The Lingshu is centered totally on therapy because pathophysiology alone
cannot ensure the longevity of illnesses. It is the first work which teaches us: 13.
_ about the circulation of ying (or rong: nutritive energy) and wei (defensive
energy), qi (energy), xue (blood) and about the activities of the jing (channels) and
mai (vessels), zang (organs) and fu (bowels);
_ about the annual and seasonal movements of the natural world which man
must be subjected to and about the necessity of neutralizing wind;
_ about needle use, thanks to which one can open the way(Dao) so as to
master all aspects of the problem of the jiao-ben (summit and root) of the illness and
its treatment.
The Suwen and Lingshu are, therefore, two critical works in service to
humanity from antiquity to our times. It is written: Man unites with heaven and
earth and responds to the solar and lunar movements. It is in this way that the Dao of
the Santai (The Ultimate Three: heaven-Man-earth) is completed. Above, the
energy of man follows the movements of the sun (traveling through the 28
constellations) and moon (Lunar phases: full moon, waning moon), and below, the
energy of man answers to the ebb and flow of the ocean. This comparative study of
man and the cosmos is also found in the analogous study of the 12 jingmai of the
human being and the 12 rivers of earth.
The Suwen constitutes the penultimate reference book of medical practice
which addresses all those who practice general medicine (phytotherapy, physical
therapies, massage therapy, etc.), while the Lingshu is a specialty work of
acupuncture and moxabustion (Zhen Jiu). Both the Suwen and Lingshu are each
composed of 81 chapters because, according to the ancient masters: The number 81
is the multiple of 9 (=9 x 9); 9 results from multiples of 3 (=3 x 3) and the number 3 is
the number of Santai (The Ultimate Three: heaven-Man-earth). The multiple of
numbers spreads out to infinity and the transmission of the Dao is eternal. All this
thanks to two works, Lingshu and Suwen.
We will publish the Lingshu in 3 volumes of approximately 1500 pages. The
original work and commentaries belong to Ma yuan Tai and his collaborator Zhang
An Yin (2), physicians of the Tang Dynasty (618-906 AD). Our translation is complete
which allows our readers to savor the subtlety of Oriental energetic medicine. Our
commentaries are developed under the symbol N.V.N. (Nguyen Van Nghi).
Volume 1 consists of 3 books:
1- Book 1 concerns numerous studies:
_ the study of the use of 9 Needles according to different techniques
_ the study of the Wu shu (5 shu-antique) points according to the principle
Judge the origin in order to study the causes.
_ examination of the pulses and complexions of the body (3)
_ the functions of Opening-Hinge-Closing of the 3 yin and 3 yang and their
clinical applications
_ the concordance and discordance of xing (bodily form) and qi (energy), jing
(principal channels) and luo (secondary vessels)
_ the different needling techniques.

2.

Designated in the text under Commentaries by the abridged names Ma Shi and Zhang Shi.
3. Here, complexions refers not just to the face, but the complexions of the xing (form); for example, the complexions
of the skin, eyes, voice quality, nails, acupucture points, channel trajectories, etc. (SCM).
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_
2- Book 2 concerns the following studies:
_ the mental activities in the maintenance of the health of the living being
_ the different pathophysiologic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects at the
time of the manifestation and disappearance of the illness.
_ the jingmai and luobie : energetic points, emptiness/fullness, treatment.
3- Book 3 contains the following notions:
_ the jingbie (distinct channels) and their system of union.
_ the depth of needling and the duration of time to leave the needle in place.
_ the jinjing (tendinomuscular channels) and their analgesic effect.
_ the method of measurement of the length of the jingmai and the method of
determination of the topography of the points.
_ the production and distribution of ying (nutritive) and wei (defensive)
energy as a function of the sanjiao (SJ).
_ the rules of needling and choice of points following the rules of the Four
Seasons; the attack on the 5 organs by perverse energy and its treatment.
_ the classification and treatment of illness caused by cold and heat. The use of
points called windows of heaven.
The Neijing comes before all medical texts, and we have constantly used our
knowledge and long experience in Classical Chinese Medicine to offer a translation
that is as faithful as possible. It is evident that such work cannot pretend to attain
perfection. Also, critiques and corrections will be welcomed.
Finally, we thank our readers, colleagues and friends who have understood the
necessity of having a thorough knowledge of traditional foundations and whose
loyalty is for us the most precious of encouragements and needed support for our
perseverance.

Marseilles, February 1994




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15.
Book 1
Book 1 consists of 7 chapters :
Chapter 1:
9 Needles and 12 yuan
(Jiu Zhen Shi Er yuan)
Chapter 2:
Origin of the shu-antique points
(Ban Shu)
Chapter 3:
Explanation of the Little Needles
(Xiao Zhen Jie)
Chapter 4:
Pathologic Forms of Attack on the Organs and Bowels
by Perverse energy
(Xieqi Zang Fu Bing Xing)
Chapter 5:
Origin and Gathering
(Gen Jie)
Chapter 6:
Long and Short - Hard and Soft
(Tu Yao Gong Ru)
Chapter 7:
Use of the Needles
(Guan Zhen)

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no 16/17.
CHAPTER I
9 Needles and 12 yuan
(Jiu Zhen Shi Er yuan)
9 Needles (Zhen) represent the collection of different types of acupuncture
needles used before, during and after the era of Huangdi.
12 yuan (sources) are the places of external gathering of the source energy
originating from the 5 organs and 6 bowels located in the interior. These source
points are specific in the treatment of the organs and bowels.
Chapter 1 of the Lingshu contains 17 paragraphs devoted to:
1 - the study of the 9 Needles, their names, forms and different lengths, used
according to various techniques:
- rapid and slow needling
- needling in opposition and in pursuit, in opening and in closing
- needling for tonifying and dispersing effects
- needling to balance the shen
- needling and waiting for the energy
- needling and the examination of the pulses
which, at a practical level, are of prime importance.
2 - the study of deleterious illnesses caused by erroneous treatments or by poor
manipulation of the needle which emphasizes the importance of the evaluation of
the state of emptiness and fullness and the seriousness or benignness of the illness.
3 - presentation of the 12 yuan (source) points which are not only situated
between the elbows and hands and between the knees and feet, but also in the
thoraco-abdominal region. These points must be used systematically in all cases of
energetic problems of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. The study of these yuan points leads
to that of the Wu shu points (the 5 shu antique points): jing, ying, shu, jing and he
and their relationships to the organs and bowels.
All these problems are presented in the chapter aptly entitled: 9 Needles and
12 Yuan (Jiu Zhen Shi Er Yuan).
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PARAGRAPH 1 18.

Huangdi questions Qi Bo:
I govern 10,000 people. I feed a hundred families, and I collect
the taxes from them. I pity myself when they are not provided for and
especially when they fall ill.
I therefore desire that they be protected from toxic medicines and
that they no longer use lithopuncture, but only use the fine needles:
- to activate and aerate the jingmai
- balance the blood and energy
- and analyze the favorable/contrary movements and the
entering and exiting movements of the energy.
This therapeutic method is destined for posterity. We must
therefore formulate the rules to perpetuate them and render them easy
to apply and difficult to forget, and organize them together carefully in
chapters in which the notions of interior and exterior, Beginning and
Ending must be presented in a didactic and complete manner. For that,
we must consider all and omit nothing in the drafting of the Classic of
Acupuncture (Zhen Jing). What do you think about this?

EXPLANATION AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma yuan Tai (Ma Shi) explains:
It is written in The Annals (Ban Qi) that the emperor had divided the earth into jing
and had invented the system of measure Bo (foot = measure of length) to divide up the jing
into Mu where he cultivated the 5 grains (5 types of rice) to feed the people and be paid taxes.
This notation explains the phrase: I govern 10,000 people. I feed a hundred families and I collect
the taxes.
In this paragraph, Huangdi seeks to define the foundation of acupuncture, and Qi Bo
contemplates over it to compose the texts.
II - Zhang An Yin (Zhang Shi) comments :
... If the peasant falls ill, he can neither work the earth nor provide for his needs.
Therefore, the emperor created the methods of 9 Needles and Fine Needles which he wished to
perpetuate.
All medicines, whatever their origin, are toxic; lithopuncture was used to evacuate
perverse energy. These two methods are resolvents and dispersants. 19.
Favorable and contrary movements are transmitted by the blood and energy, and the
movements of exiting and entering are the sites of reunion by which the energy is secreted to
the exterior and regains the interior (internal and external trajectories).
Man lives thanks to the energy of heaven and earth. The yin and yang of man, obeying the
reason of heaven and earth, circulate in perpetual fashion because everything stopping is a sign of
disease. Based on the Dao of heaven and earth, Huangdi invented the method of the 9 Needles so
that the yin and yang, blood and energy of man follow the cosmic rhythm. Knowing this principle
well, one cannot forget the channels and rules, that is to say, the routes and directions,
the knots and framework.
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Figure 1
Plan of rice fields in the era of ancient China (land divided into 9 plots).
In this chapter of the 9 Needles, Huangdi mentions the Fine Needles and Qi Bo
indicates the Little Needles. Does there exist then, other than the 9 Needles, a category of
Little Needles?
The sage utilizes 9 Needles based on the numbers of heaven and earth which begin with
the number 1 and end with the number 9. The multiple of 9 (9 X 9 = 81) conforms to the number
of Huang Zhong.
The use of the 9 Needles associated with the Little Needles permits the reuniting of
the number 5 of yin and the 5 flavors with the numbers of Xia Du (I Jing: Book of Changes) in
order to carry on the work of Fu Xi and Shen Nong. As a result, the development of the technique
of needling based on the study of Liang Yi and Si Shang and the even and odd numbers of the
Xia Du (I Jing) precedes the method called mastery of self and the method of government of the
country and of pacification because the people are the basis of the state.
20.
III. N.V.N.
In ancient China, each rice paddy had the shape of an ideogram (not jing) divided into
9 parcels (see Figure 1). Each parcel was divided into 100 Mu (1 Mu = 3600 m
2
).
The central parcel belonged to the state and the other 8 peripheral parcels belonged to the
8 rice-cultivating families. These 8 families used not only their land, but also that of the state.
At the time of the rice harvest, the state received its share of 1/9th of the crop in the form of
taxes known as jing taxes.
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PARAGRAPH 2

Qi Bo:
That His Majesty permits me to show him with order all that
I know, beginning with the number 1 and ending with the number 9.
In effect:
_ The knot and ankle (1) of the little needles resides in the
difficulty of putting into practice simple words.
The inferior doctor deals only with the form (xing); the good
doctor keeps watch over the jing shen (essence-mental) of the illness in
marvelous fashion.
At the moment when the guest is still at the door, there is no
illness; how then can one know the etiology? The skill of needling
resides in the speed or slowness of the needle.
_ The inferior doctor only attends to guan (joints, barriers).
_ The good doctor becomes attached to go (movement, driving
force). These movements do not become detached from the xue (2, 3)
(points); they are delicate and sublime.
At the moment of the arrival of the energy, he does not deviate by
the minutest amount, and when he ignores this, he attains no result.
It is then necessary to know the movements of arrival and
departure of the energy well in order to intervene in time. The inferior
doctor ignores this rule; the good doctor respects it.
_ Needling performed at the moment of departure of the energy is
contrary, and needling at the moment of arrival is favorable. To know
the contrary and favorable and bring ones knowledge to the
determination of the regulation is to attain the height of the
acupuncture technique.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES: 21.
I- Ma Shi comments:
In Chapter 74 (Great Study on the True Basic Notions) of the Suwen, we have also noted
the phrase: To know contrary and favorable well is to intervene in time without error. But
the spirit of this phrase concerns the summit and root and not the needling technique per se.
The meaning varies, therefore, within this context.
The previous paragraph explicitly demonstrates the knot and ankle of the little
needles and the reasoning of the method of acupuncture.
It is easy to speak of the knot and ankle of the little needles, but difficult to put into
practice. The inferior doctor, like a little worker, holds obstinately to the prestige and principle
of the technique. The good doctor instead closely follows the jing-shen of the individual because,

1. Term used symbolically to convey what is essential, most important or the key element of a concept (ESG).
2. Literally, holes; acupuncture points (see Chapter 60 (Dissertation on the Bone Holes), Suwen, Volume III, NVN Ed.).
3. Dr. Vannghi likened the xue to chiney pots or ventilation conduits. Thus, acupuncrtue points serve as a means of
energetic aeration between the cosmos and the internal milieu (ESG).
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within the emptiness and fullness of the energy and blood, a good tonification or dispersion
depends not only on the needling technique, but also on the state of the shen which is nothing but
the essential energy of man.
The phrase ... in marvelous fashion implies that the essential energy must always be
safeguarded. Infiltration of perverse energy into the organism is short-lived, like a guest passing
through; this is why one gives it the name of guest energy.
The phrase ... The guest is again at the door means to say that the perverse energy tends
to penetrate into the doors (energetic points). If one does not succeed in determining it or the
channels affected, how can one dare to study etiologies to therapeutic goals? Once the cause of the
illness is known, one can carry out the method of needling, but the skill resides in the rapid or
slow implantation of the needle.
The inferior doctor only attends to the 6 guan (joints of the 4 limbs) because he
ignores the entering and exiting movements of the essential energy and perverse energy. The
good doctor only attends to the go (movement, mobility, driving force), that is to say, to the
movements of departure and arrival of the energy. These movements do not leave the xue (holes).
The energy of man can be found in a state of emptiness or fullness; the needling can be rapid or
slow. After placing the needle in permanently, one obtains deqi (arrival of the energy); one must
conserve it and not lose it. 22.
At the time of fullness of the energy, one must not tonify; this is why at the moment of
arrival of the energy, one must not go to meet it. At the time of emptiness of the energy, one must
not disperse; this is why at the moment of departure of the energy, one must not go to pursue it.
If one knows go (movements, driving forces), one must penetrate (needle) them without
the slighest deviation (that is to say, needle exactly in its center); If one does not know them, no
result is obtained; that is to say, one ignores the emptiness and fullness and the application of
tonification and dispersion in the case of exhaustion of the blood and energy, responsible for the
stagnation of perverse energy. This is why it is necessary to clearly determine the contrary and
favorable movements, the emptiness and fullness, to apply the needle at the opportune moment.
The inferior doctor becomes confused and fails to appreciate the marvels of the energy; only the
good doctor is capable of delving deeply into the method of the use of the needles.
II - Zhang Shi explains:
_ The inferior doctor only deals with the form means that he only needles the skin,
flesh, muscles, vessels and bones.
_ The good doctor keeps watch over the jing shen means to say that he knows how to
determine the emptiness and fullness of the blood and energy in order to apply the methods of
tonification or dispersion.
_ ... in marvelous fashion: praise addressed to good doctors who know how to keep watch
over and direct the jing shen.
_ The door designates the place of entry and exiting of the essential energy, and the
guest is again at the door denotes that the perverse energy is again found at the place where the
essential energy enters and exits.
_ Etiology, the word which implies that one must determine the location of the illness
before applying acupuncture.
_ Slow and rapid, words designating slow and rapid needling
_ The inferior doctor keeps watch over the guan. Guan are the generic names for the
joints of the 4 limbs.
_ The good doctor becomes attached to the movements of go (driving force); in other
words, he knows perfectly the precise spot where the energetic points occur. Then the needling is
as rapid as an arrow flying from a crossbow.
_ These movements do not become detached from the holes (points). This means that
the good doctor recognizes in precise fashion the points to needle.
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_ The perverse energy and essential energy are sometimes in fullness, sometimes in
emptiness. One must clearly know their arrival and departure at the level of the points.
Needling must be exact without deviating even the slightest from its center.
_ The moment of arrival of the energy is the moment of fullness of the perverse energy and
emptiness of the essential energy. Therefore, one must not hurry to go to meet it to tonify it. In
other words, one must not tonify when the perverse energy is in a period of virulence.
_ When the perverse energy is moving away, this is the period of weakening of the
essential energy. Therefore, one must not hurry to pursue it to disperse it at the risk of injuring
the essential energy. It is necessary then to wait for just the right moment when the energy is
underway, arriving or leaving to intervene as rapidly as an arrow drawn in a crossbow.
23.
In Chapter 27 (Separation and reunion of Pure energy and Perverse energy) of the Suwen,
it is said :
If one does not discern the perverse energy in a clear-sighted manner and if one uses
acupuncture to disperse it after its departure, the essential energy escapes without returning and
the perverse energy comes back to worsen the illness.
For this reason, it is mentioned: When the perverse energy has left, one must not pursue
it, and, when the perverse energy has arrived, one must not hurry to go to meet it. This assertion
means that one must aim for just the right moment of arrival or departure of the perverse energy
to disperse or tonify because needling performed too early or too late causes defeat. This is why
the inferior doctor who ignores this principle is an insignificant doctor. An erroneous
application of tonification or dispersion injures the blood and energy and does not eliminate the
perverse energy.
Knowledge of the moment of departure and arrival of the perverse energy therefore
permits determining the emptiness and fullness of the essential energy in order to needle in time.
This fact is also ignored by the inferior doctor; it is that which is the difference between him and
the good doctor.
At the moment of departure of the energy, the perverse energy and essential energy are
simultaneously empty or in a weak state. A tonification or dispersion performed on the field is a
favorable action.
This is why to know the contrary is to know how to act without error; this means
knowing the opportune moment to needle.
To go against it and eliminate it, is dispersion, that which brings about emptiness. To
go in pursuit of it and aid it is tonification, that which brings about fullness. In this way, to
know the reasoning behind against and pursuit is to widely possess the techniques of
acupuncture.
III - N.V.N. :
All oriental methods and reasoning, in a general manner, follow a logical progression
comprised of its own appropriate laws.
The drafting of a book, even a medical one, must also conform to these same laws, with its
chapters, table of contents, orderly diagrams of numbers 1 to 9 . These numbers are not just a
simple numerical order, but possess a qualitative and progressive value.
The knot and ankle of the little needles is easy to speak of but difficult to practice.
The inferior doctor sees only the form (xing), while the good doctor studies the jing shen of the
person to determine the excessive and insufficient states of the blood and energy. In other words,
he masters a very effective technique which consists of observing the illness in order to
appreciate the emptiness and fullness of the shen qi (mental energy); he understands the reason
for the fixation of perverse energy within the organism and knows in precise fashion its sites of
infiltration. These facts are vital because, without them, it is impossible to define pathologic
characteristics.
The efficacy of the needling technique depends essentially on the slow or rapid
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manipulation of the needle. In this regard:
_ the inferior doctor knows only the energetic points located near joints;
_ the good doctor bases his judgment on the constitution, diet and the psycho-affective
state of the patient to determine the mechanism of emptiness or fullness, the processes of excess
and insufficiency of the perverse energy, because the alteration of the organism is intimately
linked to that of the points of acupuncture, sites of appearance of the very subtle reactions of
emptiness and fullness, excess and insufficiency.
24.
When the perverse energy is in fullness, it is advised against to use the method of
tonification which would reinforce it. When it has left, the method of dispersion to expel it is
contra-indicated.
The physician must know the reason for the evolutive mechanism of the illness to analyze
the phenomena of coming and going, entering and exiting of the perverse energy in order to
use the method of tonification in time and without error. One who does not know this reasoning of
these pathological processes cannot perform in time the desired needling during tonification and
dispersion, like an arrow on a tense bowstring which does not slacken at the opportune moment.
The one who uses acupuncture must know the movements of coming and going (of arrival
and departing) of the energy, that this movement can be contrary or favorable, excessive or
insufficient. By that, one must know the duration of the needle in situ. The inferior physician
ignores this fact; only the good physician clearly comprehends it and uses it in marvelous
fashion.
Concerning favorable (shung) and contrary (ni) movements, when the pulse of the
energy is empty and small, it is contrary; and when the pulse of the energy that has already
arrived is harmonious and balanced, it is favorable. Understanding the systems of movements of
arrival and departure and of the favorable and contrary movements, therefore, permit performing
the needling at the moment desired with certainty.
One must base his judgment on the direction of orientation of the departure and arrival of
the jingmai in order to carry out the needling. If the movement of arrival is contrary, one must
disperse to eliminate the fullness; then the perverse energy passes from fullness into emptiness.
In the opposite case, when the movements are favorable, one must follow the path of the
circulation in order to perform the needling, and the method of dispersion (to go against in order
to eliminate) and the method of tonification (pursue to augment) are intended to effectively
harmonize the emptiness and fullness. In this manner, to grasp this bolt and hinge is to clearly
understand the essential reasons for needling.
PARAGRAPH 3

In a general way, in the event of [therapeutic] victory, the
principles of use of the needles consist of rendering full the empty,
excreting the too full, removing blood stasis and weakening the
perverse energy. According to the Dao Yao (4): To transmit to the needle
first slow then rapid movements is to render full, and to transmit to the needle first
rapid then slow movements is to render empty. To speak of emptiness and fullness is
like to not have and to have. To judge before and after is like to survive and
to die; this is emptiness and this is fullness; it is like gain and loss.


4. Classic??.... (ESG).
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EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 25.
I- Zhang Shi explains :
Render full the empty means to say that, in the event of emptiness of the radial pulse,
one must tonify.
Excrete the too full: In the event of fullness of the radial pulse, one must disperse.
Remove stagnated blood: Eliminate contaminated blood accumulated within the vessels.
...Weaken the perverse energy ...in event of [therapeutic] victory: In event of fullness of
the perverse energy at the level of the channels, one must disperse to evacuate it.
First slow then rapid movements: Slow implantation of the needle and rapid removal.
First rapid then slow movements: Rapid implantation of the needle and slow removal.
To speak of emptiness and fullness: Fullness implies the sense of the presence of the
essential energy, and emptiness, the absence of the perverse energy.
To judge before and after: To examine the state of emptiness and fullness in order to
apply tonification and dispersion.
This is emptiness, this is fullness: During tonification, it is necessary to tense the body
as in a moment of receiving something, and during dispersion, it is necessary to relax it as in a
moment when one loses something.
Such are the words on the technique of the Little Needles.
II - N.V.N. :
This important paragraph merits a more precise interpretation.
The principles of use of the needles consist of applying the method of tonification in
syndromes of emptiness to reinforce the potential of the essential energy and the method of
dispersion in syndromes of fullness to excrete the perverse energy.
In chronic syndromes of compression/accumulation of the blood, it is also necessary to
use the process of dispersion to combat the stasis of perverse energy.
In the evolutive period of the illness, the perverse energy triumphs over the essential
energy; one must also use the method of dispersion to evacuate the perverse energy which, in
fullness, then becomes empty.
The Dao Yao states: Slow insertion and rapid withdrawal of the needle retains the
essential energy which is not evacuated to the exterior; this is the method of tonification. Rapid
insertion and slow withdrawal of the needle exteriorizes the perverse energy by the route of
insertion; this is the method of dispersion.
To speak of emptiness and fullness also implies to speak of the sensation of the arrival of
the energy (deqi). The departure and arrival of the energy are at once slow and rapid as if it was
alternately present or absent. Therefore, the examination of these phenomena must be meticulous.
III. S.C.M.:
While bearing in mind that this emptiness and fullness may refer to the states of either
the perverse energy or essential energy, clinically, one would always disperse the perverse
energy and tonify the essential energy.

16 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 4 26.

Knowledge of the knot and ankle of the emptiness and fullness
is an excellent standard by which to comprehend the chapter on
9 Needles; thus, tonification and dispersion are based solely on the
manipulation of the needle.
In order to disperse, first hold the needle and push it in rapidly,
then withdraw it slowly. Moving the yang energy away by advancing
the needle, the perverse energy will be secreted.
In order to tonify, press on the point with the finger before
performing a slow needling. This technique bears the name make the
heat enter, to allow ofr the prevention of dispersal of the blood and
secretion of the energy. Tonification implies the sense of submission
(obedience) whose ideogram expresses the image of a light step, of a
light support (of the finger), like the poise of a mosquito. Setting the
needle in place is slow, and the withdrawal of the needle is as rapid as
the shooting an arrow from a crossbow. The left hand is associated with
the right in order to stop the energy. The door being closed, the
energy is in fullness in the interior, preventing the formation of blood
stasis. In the event of stasis, one must eliminate it rapidly.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi emphasizes :
This paragraph is presented in Chapter 3 (Explanation of the Little Needles) of this
same work, but in a slightly different fashion.
II - Zhang Shi explains :
This paragraph completes the previous one and explains the knot and ankle of needling
based on emptiness and fullness.
In practice, if the radial pulse is in emptiness, it is necessary to tonify; this is why it is
said: render full the empty. If it is full, it is necessary to disperse; this is why it is said:
Excrete the too full.
The radial pulse is the site of gathering of the hundred vessels and site of examination
of emptiness and fullness. Chapter 7 (Special Study on Yin and Yang) of the Suwen also states:
Qi Kou (radial pulse) becomes the inch (thumb) pulse in order to determine life and death; in
the event of blood stasis, one must eliminate it... .
If the perverse energy at the level of the channels is in fullness, one must disperse. This
is why it is said : render empty in the event of victory of the perverse energy. In the Dao Yao, it
is also stated : In order to tonify, implantation of the needle is slow and withdrawal rapid; and in
order to disperse, the insertion of the needle is rapid and the withdrawal slow. It is also stated
differently: Slowly then rapidly, this is fullness; rapidly then slowly, this is emptiness. 27.
Fullness and emptiness owe their name only to the presence or absence of the energy. The
energy makes up part of the group without form; it seems to exist and to not exist.
Examining before and after the needling, the fullness seems to disappear then appear, and the
emptiness to appear then disappear because:
_ for the energy to be in fullness, it is necessary that it be in emptiness before becoming
full.
_ for the energy be in emptiness, it is necessary that it be in fullness before becoming
empty.
In summary, the phenomena of emptiness and fullness are those of the same energy which
17 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
appears always to exist.
Emptiness and fullness are like gain and loss. At the moment of dispersion to render
empty, the patient experiences a sensation of quivering as if he had lost something; and at the
moment of tonification to render full, the subject experiences a sensation of tension as if he had
received something. The patient feels these sensations because emptiness and fullness come from
the same energy and are like a gain or a loss.
Emptiness and fullness are the genuine knot and genuine ankle of the acupuncture
technique and the true marvelous expression of 9 Needles. One must know the emptiness in
order to tonify and the fullness in order to disperse at the opportune moment. The technique is
therefore simple since it is based on the manipulation of a single needle.
In order to disperse, one must firmly hold the needle, implant it rapidly and withdraw it
slowly. If one can dissipate the yang energy during the manipulation to advance the needle, the
perverse energy will be eliminated.
In order to tonify, press firmly on the point with the finger before needling. This
technique is called Entry of the heat; it prevents the dispersal of the blood and secretion of the
energy.
Tonification implies the sense of pursuit with contemplation as if, desiring to leave, one
constructed a plan; as if already at the door, one considered what one was going to do, or else, as if
one held out his hand toward an uncertain support... . It is like the movement of a fly which is
poised. But to withdraw the needle, it evokes the image of the break in the arc of a bowstring. All
this has the same meaning as the phrase: First slowly then rapidly. The right hand withdraws
the needle and the left closes the point of impact of the puncture; it is what one calls the
technique of 2 hands (left and right). At that instant, the essential energy stops in the interior
and the door is closed at the exterior; the central energy (Zhongqi) is in fullness and the blood
does not stagnate. In the event of stagnation, one must quickly eliminate it. In principle, this
technique of tonification never provokes blood stasis.
III - N.V.N. :
The essential point of the method of regulation of the emptiness and fullness is using the
9 types of needles according to the different methods of tonification and dispersion. Each of these
methods has its specificity, and the needles are employed as a function of the opening and closing
of the energy. 28.
In the process called dispersion, the insertion of the needle is rapid and withdrawal
slow; the point of impact of the needle is left free because, in fact, it involves an action at the
level of the external region responding to the yang. In this way, the needle has created a path of
exit to facilitate the evacuation of the perverse energy.
If, in some illnesses where dispersion is obligatory, the method of heated needles is used
in its place, a compression of blood and energy forms in the interior to trigger the illness called
Nei Wen (mild internal heat). This Nei Wen therefore comes from blood stasis whose end result is
the non-excretion of the perverse energy.
In the process called tonification , the essential point depends on the orientation of the
energy of the pulse at the moment of its departure in order to transmit to the needle movements of
rotation, advancing and retreating. As a result, needling performed after the departure of the
energy is absolutely in vain.
Needling to direct the energy and pressure on the point must be delicately and skillfully
performed like a mosquito poised on the skin and subtly taking off, leaving the impression of
still being there.
The removal of the needle must evoke the image of the precise and lightning-quick
departure of an arrow. The right hand performs the process of withdrawal of the needle, the left
hand compresses and blocks the point of impact of the needle to prevent the central energy
(Zhongqi: energy of the spleen) from becoming evacuated to the exterior, like a closing a door, so
18 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
that the Zhongqi becomes full in the interior.
Such is the therapeutic method of tonification of the essential energy and of the evaluation
of the perverse energy without provoking blood stasis. If, in spite of all, blood stasis forms at the
level of the luomai (secondary luo vessels) after the needling, it is necessary to evacuate it by
techniques of local bleeding.
PARAGRAPH 5

Concerning technique, firmness and confidence are invaluable.
Needle vertically without angling to the right or left; focus attention on
the specks of dust of autumn (5, 6) and on the patient. Knowledge of the
points allows needling without danger.
At the moment of implantation of the needle, to stimulate with
attention to the yang energy and the 2 wei without diverting the jing-
shen allows determining the persistence or disappearance of the
i l l nes s .
Also examine the little vessels across the shu points which are
hard and solid to the touch.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph is devoted to the technique of the manipulation of the needle. The
physician must be sure of himself in order to determine in precise fashion the points of the
channel affected.
The essential feature of the method is to firmly hold the needle; this is why firmness is
called invaluable. While the needle is firmly maintained in this manner, implant it vertically
with dexterity without angling to the right or left; concentrate the jing shen on the needle without
apprehension; the skill is extreme.
The jing shen becomes fixed on the specks of dust of autumn implies the sense of the
concentration of the mind of the physician on the patient in order to determine the emptiness and
fullness of the channel. Needling will be, in this way, without danger. This effort of concentration
mobilizes the yang energy of the physician. In this manner, the 2 wei (wei of the physician and
wei of the patient) is in communion of effort and lucidity. At this moment, the mental state of the
physician becomes concentrated on the patient to help him recognize if the illness persist or not.
One determines the exact location of the point when, upon pressure of the
finger, a hard and firm point is felt. 29.
The essential feature for the physician is to look after his serenity in order to discern the
points of the channel to attain. Such is the knot and ankle of the art of acupuncture.
II - N.V.N.:
The essential points of this paragraph are:
_ The art of holding the needle is extremely invaluable in the practice of acupuncture.
_ During needling, one uses three fingers of the right hand (thumb, index, middle) to

5. Literally, the skill of needling resides in the spaces of specks of dust of autumn, an expression showing how subtle
the way of dexterity is.
6. In autumn, the metal movement and quality is respponsible for the drying of leaves into dust particles...????. The
Chinese character for it is sean (SCM)
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firmly maintain the needle and stick it vertically into the skin without angling right or left.
_ The mind of the physician must be concentrated on the body of the needle and tips of his
fingers.
_ The observation must be meticulous. Attention must be focused on the mental state of
the patient.
Therefore, before needling, one must :
_ become preoccupied with the mental spirit of the patient,
_ examine the emptiness and fullness of yin and yang and of the 2 wei (7), the inviolable
residence of the shen,
_ determine the state of the mental energy and energy of the organs and bowels to control
the seriousness of the illness
_ and search for the existence of the little vessels (blood vessels) that cross the shu
points (transporting points) to perform movements of pressure/friction in order to have a
sensation of hardness that gives evidence of the formation of the accumulation of the perverse
energy.
III. S.C.M:
Regarding the inviolability of the residence of the Shen and the 2 wei (exterior and
interior) which house the shen, one must keep watch over the mental state of the patient during
treatment. If the patient becomes emotionally disturbed by or during a treatment, that treatment
is to be terminated.
PARAGRAPH 6 30.

Each of the 9 Needles are totally different:
1. Chai Zhen or needle with an arrow point, 1.6 cun long.
2. yuan Zhen or needle with an oval point, 1.6 cun long.
3. Di Zhen or needle with a blunt point, 3.5 cun long.
4. Feng Zhen or needle with a triangular point, 1.6 cun long.
5. Pi Zhen or needle with a sword point, 4 cun long, 1.6 cun wide.
6. yuan Li Zhen or needle with a fine, rounded point, 1.6 cun long.
7. Hao Zhen or needle with a filiform point, 3.6 cun long
8. Chang Zhen or needle with an elongated point, 7 c. long
9. Da Zhen or needle with a wide point, 4 cun long.

7. Regarding the 2 wei, Zhang Jing Yues explanation is slightly different from Ma Shis.
According to him, The wei located at the yang is the wei of the exterior. The energy of the spleen,
located in the interior, is the wei of the organs and bowels. These two places (yang and yin, exterior and
interior) are the sites where the mental energy (shen qi) gathers that must not be disturbed. During use of
the needles, one must keep watch there. Zhang Jing Yues explanation appears to be clearer and more
plausible than that of Ma Shi.
20 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
Chai Zhen, with a wide shaft and head pointed like an arrow, is
intended to disperse yang energy.
yuan Zhen is egg-shaped and allows massage of the point before
incising the skin without affecting the flesh to disperse the energetic
par t .
Di Zhen, with blunted point calling to mind a barb of a grain of
rice, is intended for superficial puncture of the channels to draw the
e ne r g y.
Feng Zhen, with 3 facets, is intended to hollow out (enlarge)
points in individuals affected by chronic disease.
Pi Zhen, needle with a sword-like point, is intended to drain
pyogenic formations.
yuan Li Zhen, small and rounded, calling to mind the neck hair of a
fox, is intended to treat the Bao qi syndromes (generic name given to
chronic painful paresthesias).
Hao Zhen, fine, calling to mind the stinger of the mosquito, is
intended for needling in a lively manner. This needle is left in place a
long time to combat painful paresthesias.
Chang Zhen, long with pointed head and fine thin shaft, is intended
to treat painful syndromes of deep parts.
Da Zhen, calling to mind the shape of a stick with a rounded tip, is
intended to drain serous fluid at the level of the guan (joint =
hydr ar t hr os i s ) .
Such are the general features of the 9 Needles. 31.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains :
This paragraph is devoted to the description of the 9 Needles and their uses. The
Little Needles are developed at length in Chapter 3 (Explanations of the Little Needles).
Knowledge of the knot and ankle of the emptiness and fullness is the essential basis in
the practice of the 9 Needles. That is to say that each needle type must be used wisely.
Tonification and dispersion are based on the manipulation of the needle. In other words,
the opening and closing of points must be in accordance with the state of the essential energy
and perverse energy.
Push the yang energy away so that the needle advances. here, yang energy means the
essential energy. When the yang energy is pushed away, the perverse energy is driven back to the
exterior.
Make the heat enter. When heat manifests at the point of the needle, the perverse energy
is evacuated and the essential energy is not secreted to the exterior. This expression represents
the action of needling during tonification and dispersion.
In the classics, it is said : The blood is with Ying Qi, and energy is with Wei Qi. Wei
energy circulates at the same time in the yin and in the yang; this is why one uses this yin and
this yang energy between 2 wei (8).
In Chapter 76 (Circulation of Wei energy) we read: It is imperative to wait for the
energy to know where it occurs in order to apply a suitable needling; this is what one calls
timely needling. When the illness is found within the three yang channels, one must wait for
the arrival of the energy in the yin part in order to needle.

8. See also commentary in the Zhen Jiu Da Cheng in Art and Practice of Acupuncture and Moxabustion Volume II,
Wording 75, page 12 (N.V.N. Edition) and Footnote 5 above.
21 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
In Chapter 75 (Effects of Needling on the Source energy and Perverse energy) it is also
stated: The harmony of the 6 channels (3 yin and 3 yang) is synonymous with health. If the area
above the channel is in fullness, the area below is surely in emptiness and the blood does not
circulate. In this case, perverse energy is certainly present in the yuan luo (secondary vessels)
and is found in a state of fullness and accumulation causing a compression/obstruction of the
great channels (principal channels). One must needle to disperse; this is the technique called
freeing the accumulation. This is why, in the presence of little vessels located across the shu
points of the channel (jing shu: energetic point and not the 3rd shu-antique point), they are not
only visible, but indeed they give an impression of fluctuance (slightly painful) upon pressing
with the finger. (see Figure 2) 33...
9 Needles is the generic names given to the 9 different types of needles. Each type is
used according to precise indications.
II - Ma Shi explains :
This paragraph deals with the forms and usage of the 9 Needles. Figures are inserted in
this paragraph.
III - N.V.N :
The explanation of Zhang Shi concerns instead the previous paragraph. That of this
paragraph is presented only in a few words.
32.

Figure 2
State of emptiness of the principal channel and state of fullness of the secondary vessels.
In the 1st case: tonification. In the 2nd case: dispersion.
22 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
Figure 3
The 9 Needles
PARAGRAPH 7 33.

Perverse energy is at the top, impure energy is at the center and
pure, clarified energy is down below.
Needling the Xianmai (vessels of the fossa: vessels located at the
level of the nucha (9)) excetes the perverse energy, and needling the
Zhongmai (center vessels) excretes the impure energy.
Needling too deeply submerges the perverse energy and worsens
the illness.
This is why it is said: The skin, flesh, muscles and vessels have their
different locations, their different illnesses and their different treatments. In the
event of fullness, do not augment the fullness; in the event of emptiness, do not
augment the emptiness. Worsen neither the insufficient nor the excessive because to
act in this manner is to worsen the illness. To needle the 5 Mai (5 Vessels) is to
provoke death; to needle the 3 Mai (3 Vessels) is to also provoke death; to
eliminate yin is to provoke inanition; to eliminate yang is to provoke Kuang
(agitation, violent madness).


9. Pertains to the nape (neck) (ESG).
23 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This chapter develops the methods of utilization of the Little Needles in the treatment
of illnesses brought about by perverse energy and their disadvantages.
The energy of wind, rain, cold, heat attacks the upper part of the body. This is why it is
said : Perverse energy is at the top.
The cereal energy (diet: drinks, food) penetrates into the stomach and becomes
transformed into jing (pure energy: essence) which flows towards the lungs via the
intermediary of the spleen; this cereal energy also becomes transformed into zhuoqi (impure
energy) which gathers at the level of the intestines. This transformation can occur in the course
of a climatic disturbance (unbalanced cold or heat) or in the course of a diet disturbance to
trigger intestinal illnesses. This is why it is said: The impure energy is at the center.
34.
The aggression of the clear and damp energy (humidity) of earth always begins at the feet.
This is why, it is said: The pure energy is down below.
Xianmai (xian = fossa ; mai = channel-vessel) is a point of the channel located at the
level of the nucha which is easily spotted. Needling this point excretes the perverse energy.
Zhongmai (zhong = center) designates Sanli (St 36), he point of the Foot Yangming.
Needling too deeply submerges the perverse energy means that it is not necessary to
needle Sanli (St 36) too deeply when the illness is superficial at the risk of conducting the
perverse energy more toward the interior.
Skin, flesh, muscles and vessels have their different places... . means that the jingluo
(principal and secondary channels) have a specific location and a specific function. This is why
deep or superficial illnesses manifest at different levels (either at the skin, flesh ...). It is at
these levels that one must needle according to the principle Do not render full what is already
full; do not render empty what is already empty... . On the other hand, if one weakens the body in
an insufficient state and if one reinforces the perverse energy in a state of fullness, one worsens
the illness.
5 Mai designates the 3 yang channels (taiyang, yangming and shaoyang). Too intense a
dispersion of the yang energy is responsible for inanition. This term encompasses the sense of
fright, collapse and weakness.
To eliminate yin is to provoke death means to say that needling the point Wuli (LI 13)
can carry with it serious accidents. In Chapter 60 (Inscriptions Engraved on Jade) of the
Lingshu, it is stated: After having performed 5 times the reducing method of the energy at the
level of Wuli and after having awaited the arrival of the energy (deqi), if withdrawal of the needle
is done after the departure of the energy, the energy of the organ will become exhausted.
To eliminate the yang provokes kuang (violent madness) means to say that needling the
point Wuli can carry with it a loss of the yang energy of the patient. This phrase explains the
dangers of an erroneous needling.
II - Ma Shi specifies :
This paragraph defines three types of perverse energy (xieqi: cosmic energy), impure
energy (zhuoqi) and clear energy (qingqi) and emphasizes the disadvantages of needling too
deeply thereby avoiding errors.
Perverse energy attacks the top part of the body. This is why it is said: Perverse energy
is at the top. This attack takes place at the points Fengmen (Bl 12) and Fengfu (GV 16).
The cereals (foods) penetrate the stomach and are transformed into energy which gathers
at the lung. But during the course of unfavorable climatic changes (unbalanced cold or heat), this
energy accumulates at the level of the intestines and has the name Zhuoqi (impure energy). This is
why, the text states: Impure energy is at the center. 35.
Clear, cool and damp energy (energy of earth), infiltrates into the organism via the feet.
24 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
This is why it is said: Clear and humid energy is below.
Needling Xianmai (Bl 12, GV 16) located at the top eliminates the perverse energy and that
of Zhongmai (center vessel represented by Sanli St 36) evacuates the impure energy. Needling
must not be too deep because the illness is found in the superficial zone of the body. Deep
needling worsens the illness. This is why it is stated: Skin, flesh, muscles, jing and luo have
their different locations.
Wuli (LI 13), belonging to the Hand Yangming, is a prohibited point. As a consequence,
during dispersion, if one removes the needle in the full act of needling, and if one repeats the
process 5 times, the energy of the organ will be wiped out. The term organ designates the Hand
Taiyin (Lu) whose energy commands the 100 energetic currents. This is why it is stated : To
eliminate yin is death and To eliminate yang is madness (kuang).
III - N.V.N :
Perverse energy infiltrates into the jingluo to provoke illness.
Cosmic perverse energy (wind-cold) generally penetrates into the cephalic region at the
level of Fengfu (GV 16) and Fengmen (Bl 12). One then says: Perverse energy is at the top.
A dietary disturbance is caused by the production of impure energy (Zhouqi). This energy
accumulates within the stomach and intestines. One then says: Impure energy is at the center.
Cold-damp of the earth infiltrates into the organism at the level of the feet. One says then:
Clear and damp energy is at the bottom.
This is why needling points on the head can evacuate perverse energy, and needling points
belonging to earth can eliminate impure energy accumulated within the stomach and intestines.
In superficial illnesses, one must avoid needling too deeply because the perverse energy
can follow the path of the needles to penetrate more deeply into the organism and aggravate the
illness. This is why one says: Skin, flesh, muscles and vessels (jingluo) are each in a well-
established layer. Each illness is treated by therapeutic methods that are appropriate to it. The
variety of the types of the 9 Needles answers to that of the illnesses.
One does not apply the tonification method in syndromes of fullness and the dispersion
method in syndromes of emptiness. As a result, if, in the case of insufficiency of the essential
energy, one uses dispersion and, in the case of excess, tonification, one worsens the illness.
On the other hand, in serious cases, dispersion of the energy of the yin channels of the
5 organs causes fatal accidents, and dispersion of the energy of the yang channels of the 6 bowels
is responsible for a weakening that is difficult to restore. In other words, erroneous application
of dispersion of the yin channels causes annihilation of the energy of the 5 organs, resulting in
death; and an erroneous application of dispersion of the yang channels is the origin of violent
madness (kuang).
36.
PARAGRAPH 8

During needling, if the energy does not arrive, the number of
needlings is not of importance.
Needles are used for different purposes according to their type.
The knot and ankle of needling consists of obtaining the arrival
of the energy (deqi) which is the mark of effectiveness.
This effectiveness is like that of the wind sweeping the clouds
away revealing the blue sky. This needling method is entirely
s uf f i c i ent .

25 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph defines the efficacy of needling, taking deqi as knot and ankle. The
preceding paragraph emphasized the importance of the following axiom according to which
different illnesses are treated by different needles.
... like the wind sweeping the clouds away and revealing the blue sky is an expressive
image representing the dissemination of the essential energy after needling.
II - Ma Shi states:
This paragraph defines the knot and ankle of needling, taking the arrival and non-
arrival of the energy as the basis of explanation.
During needling, if the energy has not yet arrived, one must know how to wait and stay
close by the patient to repeat the needling as many times as is necessary. The attitude of the
physician is like that of a man who awaits a distinguished guest. If the energy has arrived, one
should stop needling.
In the preceding paragraph, it is stated: The skin, flesh, muscles and vessels have
different locations; illnesses also have different locations and must be treated differently. This
assertion shows that needling must be done with great prudence as a function of the location of
the illness.
When the energy arrives, one must stop needling justifies that one attaches much
importance to the deqi of the needling itself. 37.
III - N.V.N. :
During needling, one does not obtain deqi when one manipulates the needle carelessly. It
is necessary to begin the procedure again until it has arrived.
removal of the needle cannot be done until after obtaining the energy. The 9 Needles are
each used with a specific indication and each presents a particular form. It is advised to only use
them in order to treat the place where they will be victorious.
One attaches importance to the deqi because the arrival of the energy is a sign of the
effectiveness of needling. As stated in this paragraph, this effectiveness is comparable to that of
the wind sweeping the clouds away.
PARAGRAPH 9

Huangdi :
Tel l me about the site of exit of the energy of the 5 organs and
6 bowels.
Qi Bo:
The 5 organs each have 5 shu-antique points, that is, a total of
5 X 5 = 25 shu points. The 6 bowels each have 6 shu points, that is, a
total of 6 X 6 = 36 shu points.
The jingmai are 12 in number, and the luomai, 15 in number,
making a total of 27 energies that ascend and descend.
The place of exteriorization of the energy bears the name jing; the
place of flowing out, ying; the place of flowing down, shu; the place of
passage, jing and the place of gathering, he.
For this reason, the 27 energies of the 27 jingluo all circulate at
the level of the 5 shu-antique points.

26 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains :
During needle use, perfect knowledge of the places of birth and beginning, of entry and
exit, of the energy is indispensable.
Ying and wei, blood and energy are produced via the cereals (food) at the level of the
stomach bowel.
Ying circulates within the channels and wei outside the channels. But the blood and
energy circulating within the channels saturate the exterior and flow down into the interior via
the luomai.
In the interior, the 5 organs unite with the 5 movements which is why they each have
5 shu antique points.
Among the 6 energies coming from from the 5 movements, one distinguishes 2 types of
fire (Ministerial fire and Imperial fire). 38...
The jingmai are 12 in number because they belong to the 6 organs and 6 bowels.
The luomai are 15 in number because they belong to the 12 jingmai, to 2 curious vessels
(renmai and Dumai) and to the spleen (Dabao, Sp 21, great luo).
The 27 energies of these 12 jingmai and 15 luomai (27 jingluo) enter and exit at the level
of the 4 limbs, between the knees and toes and the elbows and fingers.
The site of departure of the energy is the jing point, the place of flowing out in a trickle,
the ying point, place of flowing down, the shu point, place of flowing out strongly, the jing
point, place of passage, and the he point, place of gathering. The circulation of the 27 energies
also passes by these points.
The energy and blood circulating outside the channels at the level of the skin and flesh,
originating from the great luo (dai luo: longitudinal luo and tendinomuscular channels) of the
5 organs, flows down to the ying and shu points to unite with the blood and energy circulating
within the channels at the level of the elbow and knee, that is to say, at the he points. Such is the
circulatory process of the energy and blood of the organs/bowels and of the jingmai at the level of
the shu-antique points. (Figure 4).
II - Ma Shi comments :
The jing, ying, shu, jing and he points are the sites of passage of the energy of the
organs/bowels and of the jingluo (principal and secondary channels).
The 5 organs are heart, lung, spleen, liver and kidney. They each have their shu-antique
points: jing, ying, shu, jing and he, that is, 5 X 5 = 25 shu-antique.
To the 5 organs and 6 bowels, one adds the xin bao luo (XB), totaling 12 principal channels
(jing). Each channel has its own luo, making 12 points, to which one adds Changqiang (GV 1) of the
Dumai, Jiuwei (CV 15) of the renmai and Dabao (Sp 21) of the spleen, totaling
15 luo points. 39.
The study of these luo is found in Chapter 10 (Channels-Vessels) of this classic. But the
Nanjing does not consider Changqiang (GV 1), Jiuwei (CV 15) and Dabao (Sp 21) to be luo and
speaks of yangqiao and yinqiao, which are not adapted to the text of the Lingshu.
According to Chapter 18 (Energetic Aspects of the Pulses of Man in Good Health) of the
Suwen, the stomach has 2 luo points, Fenglong (St 40) and Xie Li (internal luo vessel of the
stomach), and the spleen also has 2 luo points, Gongsun (Sp 4) and Dabao (Sp 21, external vessel),
thereby showing the importance of the generatory system (spleen-stomach) of blood and energy.
But if one only considers the external circulation of the luomai, there are 15. 38...
The energy of the 12 channels and that of the the 15 luo circulating in the external part of
the body form one circulatory system of 27 energies. The place where the energy begins its
circulation is called the jing point, implying the sense of a source (from a mountain), such as the
point Shaoshang (Lu 11) of the lung channel.
27 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
From there, the energy flows out in a trickle; this is the ying point, like the point
Yuji (Lu 10).
From there, the energy flows out strongly; this is the shu point, implying the sense of
movement, like the point Taiyuan (Lu 9).
From there, the energy passes to the jing point (route of passage), like Jingqu (Lu 8).
From there, the energy gathers at a specific place; this is the he point, like Chize (Lu 5).
These 27 energies carry out their movements at the level of these shu-antique points.
Figure 4
Circulatory system of the blood and energy in the channels and outside the channels.
III - N.V.N.:
This paragraph does not mention the yuan points because the yuan points of the yin
channels unite with the shu points and because the shu points and yuan points of the yang
channels possess the same action.
IV - S.C.M.:
Dabao (Sp 21) as the upper belt channel.....
28 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 10

The places of secretory exchanges correspond to the 365 reunions
(articulations, shu or energetic points). When one knows the knot
and ankle, a single phrase can explain all. When one ignores them,
there is total confusion.
The places of secretory exchanges are the sites of entry and exit of
the shen qi (mental energy) and involve neither the skin, nor the
flesh, nor the muscles, nor the bones.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 40.
I - Zhang Shi explains :
During needling, it is necessary to clearly differentiate the sites of entry and exiting of
the shen qi which is none other than the source energy. It comes from heaven (celestial or innate
energy) and unites with the cereal energy in order to maintain the entire organism. This is why it
is said : When one knows the knot and ankle, a single phrase can explain all. When one ignores
them, there is total confusion.
The luomai (secondary vessels) infiltrate into these sites of exchange and not into the
skin, nor into the flesh, nor into the muscles, nor into the bones.
II - Ma Shi states :
The sites of secretory exchanges are the places of entry and of exiting of the shen
(mental). These are places called knot and ankle which one must clearly know.
These sites of exchanges are the 365 reunions which represent the zones of permeation of
the jingluo (principal and secondary channels).
The four sentences of this paragraph are mentioned in Chapter 74 (Great Study on the
True Basic Notions) of the Suwen, but they concern the inch pulse and foot pulse, the left and
right, responding or not responding to the laws of Sitian-Taiguan (10).
On the other hand, the term secretory exchanges implies the sense of conduction, of
entering and exiting of the blood and energy designated under the name of shen and does not
involve the skin, flesh, muscles or bones. For this reason, during use of the needle, one must pay
attention to the shen qi, and to do that it is necessary to know the secretory sites. In this way,
those who are learning acupuncture must realize the importance of the 365 reunions.
III - N.V.N. :
This paragraph defines, in fact, the points of acupuncture.
IV - S.C.M.:
This paragraph highlights the critical fact that the channels and points of acupuncture are
unique energetic structures not of neuro-musculo-vascular origin.....more

10. See Suwen, Volume III, NVN Edition. unclear ?... see p.39/top
29 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 11

Examination of the color of the eyes allows appreciation of the
state of loss or the state of recuperation of the energy.
Examination of the body and the movements of the pulses allows
distinguishing the essential energy and perverse energy.
The right hand directs the needle, and the left hand transmits a
pressure against the point to be needled. At the perception of the
arrival of the energy, one must withdraw the needle.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 41.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The good physician examines the color of the eyes to determine the loss or recuperation
of the energy at the level of the eyes which enables the appreciation of the seriousness or
benignness of the illness.
To distinguish the essential energy and perverse energy is to evaluate the emptiness of the
essential energy and fullness of the perverse energy.
When the energy arrives, one removes the needle indicates the withdrawal of the needle
after tonification or dispersion, that is to say, after the regularization of the energy.
II - Ma Shi specifies:
This paragraph demonstrates the technique of using the needle.
First, one must examine the body and colors before inserting the needle.
In man, the 5 colors manifest in the eyes. This is why examination of the eyes determines
the state of the essential energy. Furthermore, it is necessary to examine the body and tune into
the movements of the pulses. A small, large, late, rapid, slippery or rough pulse allows one to
determine disease caused by perverse energy or by the essential energy.
Once this examination is completed, one performs the needling. The right hand inserts the
needle, and the left hand maintains the area surrounding the needle. This is the technique used
during tonification and dispersion. Wait for the arrival of the energy to remove the needle.
PARAGRAPH 12

Before needling, one must examine the pulses to evaluate the
benignness or seriousness of the illness.
If, when the energy of the 5 organs is exhausted in the interior,
one performs the needling in order to provoke fullness at the exterior,
one creates a phenomenon called Zhongjie (juxtaposition of exhaustion
or double exhaustion); it provokes death preceded by a period of calm.
If, when the energy of the 5 organs is exhausted at the exterior,
one performs the needling in order to provoke fullness in the interior,
one creates a phenomenon called Nijue (contrary afflux or flow in the
wrong way); it also provokes death, preceded by a period of agitation,
the consequence of a fatal error in the use of points of the 4 limbs.

30 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 42.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph underscores the importance of examining the pulses in determining the
degree of virulence of the perverse energy to a therapeutic goal.
The energy of the 5 organs is exhausted in the interior means that if, when the energy of
the radial pulse is exhausted in the interior and is no longer perceived by the finger, one
performs the needling at the exterior, at the level of the he point where the energy of the luo yang
reunite, and one leaves the needle in place to attract the energy, it is the yang energy which
arrives and one therefore creates the phenomenon called zhongjie in the interior. This
phenomenon is fatal. In the interior, the absence of the energy and the absence of movement are
total; this is why it is said ...death preceded by a period of calm.
This phrase demonstrates that the yin energy of the 5 organs comes from the yang energy
located at zhongjiao (middle jiao). When one needles to attract the yang energy, it leaves the
interior; one then has the phenomenon of double exhaustion: exhaustion existing within the
5 organs and exhaustion provoked at the level of the source of production of yin energy, hence
zhongjie.
The energy of the 5 organs is exhausted at the exterior says that if, when the energy of
the radial pulse is exhausted at the exterior, one performs the needling of the shu points of the
4 limbs and one leaves the needle in place to attract the yin energy, one provokes, in fact, the
arrival of the yang energy because the yin energy is exhausted within the interior and, in this
manner, one creates a circulation in the wrong way known as jueni (contrary afflux). In other
words, this phrase indicates that the yin energy must be within the interior and the yang energy
at the exterior; if one attracts the yang energy towards the interior, the phenomenon is contrary
(ni) and is grave.
II - Ma Shi states:
The knot and ankle of the needling method consists first of examining the pulses. In
the event of error, the consequences are disastrous. The examination of the pulses is essential
before needling because it allows evaluating the seriousness of the disease in order to apply an
adequate therapy.
When the energy of the 5 organs is exhausted in the interior, the energy of the radial
pulse is also exhausted and does not reach the finger. It is then recommended to tonify and fill
the interior. But the bad physician needles the site of the illness located at the exterior, at the
level of the he point of the yang channels, and leaves the needle in permanently to make the yang
energy flow. When the yang energy arrives, the exhaustion in the interior is double (zhongjie,
juxtaposition of exhaustion). The zhongjie phenomenon is fatal. The absence of movements is
linked to the total exhaustion of the energy which is why death [is] preceded by a period of
calm.
... Provoking fullness at the exterior means to say making the energy return by sticking
the points located in the axilla and thorax which are the disseminating points of the organs
located at the exterior. 43.
When the energy of the 5 organs is exhausted at the exterior, the energy of the radial
pulse is also exhausted at the exterior and does not arrive at the finger. In this case, one must
render full and tonify the exterior. But the bad physician creates the rendering full within the
interior by sticking the points of the 4 limbs, that is to say, the jing, ying, shu, jing and he points
which are the origin points of the organs belonging to the interior; and he, furthermore, leaves the
needle in place to call forth the yin energy which benefits the yang energy in penetrating into the
interior. This results in the formation of jueni (contrary afflux) which is a fatal phenomenon.
31 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
III - N.V.N. :
Radial pulse examination allows evaluation of the degree of seriousness of the illness.
1 - When the energy of the 5 organs is in a state of emptiness and annihilation, the illness
belongs to the emptiness of yin (interior) . If the physician tonifies the yang channels, he
aggravates this emptiness of yin. One is then in the presence of a deleterious illness called
zhongjie. The annihilation of yin is fatal and explains why death preceded by a period of calm.
The cause of this disaster is a fatal therapeutic error because it is contrary to the principle
according to which all cases of emptiness of the energy of the organs must be reinforced by the
method of tonification, and the points located in the region under the axilla and thorax, which are
the sites of exiting of the energy of the organs, are strictly prohibited.
2 - Similarly, when the energy of the 5 organs manifests at the exterior by signs of
exhaustion-annihilation, the illness is associated with the emptiness of yang. If the physician
tonifies the yin channels responding to yin in order to help the yin, he provokes a double
exhaustion of yang, responsible for the separation of yin and yang. The deleterious illness
created in this manner has the name Nijue (contrary afflux: flow in the wrong way) which is
also fatal. It is provoked by an excess of yin energy, explaining that death preceded by a period
of agitation. This illness is therefore created by a therapeutic error because the physician
opposes the fundamental principle according to which in all cases of emptiness of yang energy, it
is necessary to tonify yang and the points located at the extremities of the fingers and toes are
strictly prohibited.
3 - This paragraph emphasizes the following facts:
a. When the energy of the radial pulses does not arrive at the finger following an internal
exhaustion, this energy is yin. In this case, one must tonify yin, that is to say, the organ.
b. Similarly, when the energy of the radial pulse does not arrive at the finger following an
external exhaustion, this energy is yang. In that case, one must tonify yang, that is to say, the
bowel.
c. The Nanjing considers the energy of the heart and lung at the level of the inch (thumb)
pulses as the external energy, that is to say, yang energy, and the energy of the kidney and liver
at the level the foot and barrier pulses as internal energy, that is to say, yin energy. This
reasoning does not conform to the spirit of the Lingshu, and it appears then that it is a question of
conceptual reasoning according to which the heart and lung are located within the thorax which is
yang in relation to the abdomen which is yin.
PARAGRAPH 13 44.

Needling presents two risks:
1. To not remove the needle when it has already reached the zone
of the illness because this risks provoking an excretion of the jing
( es s ence) .
2. To remove the needle as soon as it reaches the zone of the illness
because this risks making the perverse energy return.
The excretion of jing worsens the illness with weakness, and the
return of perverse energy is the origin of abscesses and ulcerations.

32 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph emphasizes the disadvantages of abundantly or insufficiently attratcting
the energy during needling. In effect, the energy originates from jing (essence). This is why when
the needle touches the ill zone, as long as the needle is not removed immediately, it seriously
injures the jing energy and excretes the source energy, hence, the worsening of the illness with
weakness; or else, when the needle comes to touch the zone of illness, immediate removal of the
needle is the origin of the return of the perverse energy with stasis, responsible for the formation
of abscess and ulceration.
According to Chapter 81 (Abscesses and Tumors) of this same work: The jingmai
circulate without interruption following the celestial degrees and the terrestrial laws. If the
stars make a mistake of a single degree, it produces interference in solar and lunar phenomena... .
If the surface of the earth does not have a dam and and water accumulates, it overflows everywhere
and causes a flood... . blood and vessels, ying and wei circulate without stopping. Their
obstruction is at the origin of inflammations and edema. It is because the ying and wei circulate
continuously throughout the entire organism, within the interior as well as at the exterior, above
as well as below, that there is no illness. This is why Chapters 1 (9 Needles and 12 yuan) and
81 of the Lingshu, the first and last, are devoted to explaining the phenomena of the production
and beginning, the entering and exiting of the jing energy. If yin and yang are in disequilibrium,
stagnation of blood and energy is set up, resulting in abscesses and ulcerations
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph, like the previous one, emphasizes the errors of acupuncture practice.
When one needles to disperse fullness, it is necessary to remove the needle as soon as it
makes contact with the ill zone because the needle left in place favors excretion of the jing energy
which worsens the illness with weakness.
When one needles to tonify emptiness, one must leave the needle in place as soon as it
makes contact with the ill area because, if one removes it immediately, the perverse energy
returns and provokes abscesses and ulcerations. 45.
In Chapter 21 (Diseases of Cold and Heat) of the Lingshu, it is stated: The risk of the
needling touching the effected zone with the needle left in place is excretion of jing (essence).
The risk of the needling not touching the effected zone with removal of the needle is the return of
the perverse energy. With respect to this paragraph, the difference lies in the negative form.
Note, however, that this paragraph is centered on the principles of tonification and dispersion,
while Chapter 21 exclusively studies the method of dispersion of fullness.
III - N.V.N. :
In practice, during dispersion,
_ when the needling touches the zone of the perverse energy, one must remove the needle
because leaving it in place can injure the jing energy;
_ when the needling reaches the zone of the perverse energy, one must at once apply the
method of rotating the needle before removing it in order to avoid stagnation of the energy
responsible for the phenomena of compression/obstruction;
_ late removal of the needle can equally diminish the potential of the jing thereby
aggravating the illness and weakening the patient;
_ the immediate removal of an implanted the needle can also bring about a stagnation of
the perverse energy responsible for inflammation and abscesses.
33 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 14

The 5 organs are with the 6 bowels; the 6 bowels have 12 yuan
(sources); the 12 yuan have their origins at the si guan (4 barriers:
elbow, axilla, knee and hip). The si guan are specific in the treatment of
the 5 organs. During disturbances of the 5 organs, one must needle the
12 yuan.
The 12 yuan are the source-sites of the 5 organs; the energetic
activities of the 365 articulations (reunions, points) come from there.
When the 5 organs are ill, the reaction manifests itself at the 12 yuan.
The 12 yuan are therefore the sites of the beginning of all organic
manifestations. To know the yuan well is to observe the reactions of the
exterior to determine which of the 5 organs is disturbed.
taiyin in yang is the lung. Its yuan manifests at Taiyuan (Lu 9).
Taiyuan is bilateral.
taiyang in yang is the heart. Its yuan manifests at Daling (XB 7).
Daling is bilateral.
shaoyang in yin is the liver. Its yuan manifests at Taichong (Li 3).
Taichong is bilateral.
Zhiyin in yin is the spleen. Its yuan manifests at Taibai (Sp 3).
Taibai is bilateral. 46.
The yuan of Huang manifests at Boyang (Xiahuang, Qihai CV 6).
Boyang is on the midline (unilateral).
The yuan of Gao manifests at Jiuwei (CV 15). Jiuwei is also on the
midline (unilateral).
All 12 yuan are specific points to treat the 5 organs and 6 bowels.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph is devoted to the study of the organic liquids (xinye) originating from the
pure energy (literally, extremely pure, rarefied energy; essence).
From Gao (serous membranes) and from Huang (peritoneum), the organic liquids (xinye)
reach the exterior, permeate the skin and luomai (where they turn red (blood)) and moisten the
channels at the level of the shu (energetic) points by which they penetrate into the organs and
bowels. In this manner, exterior and interior, exit and entry establish reciprocal exchanges.
Under the action of zhongjiao (middle jiao), the energy of the cereals (geqi) becomes
transformed into organic liquid, extremely pure substance, which floods the interstitial milieu,
exteriorizes at the level of the sweat glands, infiltrates into the bones, maintains the marrow and
brain and makes the skin glow. Such is the circulatory system passing by 365 secretory sites
(articulations, reunions: acupuncture points) in order to permeate the skin, pores and
interstitial milieu. When the organic liquids spread to the exterior, the skin and flesh weaken;
34 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
when they are in excess within the interior, the Gao and Huang swell.
Gao are the serous membranes which cover the organs and bowels, and Huang,the
peritoneum. Organic liquids originating from the pure energy leave the Gao and Huang to permeate
the exterior. This is why, in fat people, the flesh is flabby, the skin fragile and the belly hanging
down. Such is the phenomena of reciprocal response of the interior and exterior.
In Chapter 81 (Abscesses and Tumors), it is stated: The zhongjiao (middle jiao) secretes
an energy similar to the drops of a rose which appear within Xi and Gu (small valleys and big
valleys) and saturate the sunluo (system of energetic capillaries). The organic liquid, formed in
this way, changes color (red) and transforms into blood (xue). When the blood is harmonious, it
fills first the luomai (system of secondary channels) and jingmai (system of principal channels).
When yin and yang are complete, they circulate without stopping under the action of the
respiration, according to well-determined rules and their circulatory cycle is in accordance with
the Celestial Dao... .
Xi and gu make up part of the flesh and skin. They constitute the yuan of the channels by
which the organic liquids infiltrate to reach the sunluo where they transform into blood, the
latter gathering at the level of the organs and bowels. This is why it is said: The 12 yuan are the
source-sites of the 5 organs and the sites of passage of the energy of the 365 articulations
(reunions: acupuncture points). 47.
The si guan designate the 2 elbows, 2 axilla, 2 knees and 2 hips, These are the sites of
the articulations (joints) where blood and energy passes. The 12 yuan manifest at the si guan. The
si guan treat the illnesses of the 5 organs because the 5 organs are linked to the 6 bowels and each
possesses its yuan. Such is the system of reunion and internal and external relationships of the
organs and bowels, of yin and yang. This is why it is said: To know the yuan well is to observe
the reactions of the exterior to determine which of the 5 organs is disturbed.
The liver, heart, spleen, lung and kidney are the 5 internal organs. To speak of shaoyin in
yin, shaoyang in yin, etc. is to speak of the energy of the 5 organs. This is why, in the attack of
the organs or bowels, one must needle the yuan of the corresponding channel.
In the event of abdominal bloating, needle the 3 yang (taiyang, shaoyang, yangming), and
in the event of diarrhea, needle the 3 yin (taiyin, jueyin, shaoyin). This means to say that in
disorders of the energy of the 3 yang or 3 yin, one must needle the channel effected.
In total, this paragraph studies the sources of production of the energy and blood and
their movements of entering and exiting. For this reason, Chapter 1 is named 9 Needles and
12 yuan; this means to say that the methods of the 9 Needles are all united to yin and yang,
blood and energy.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph stresses the use of the 12 yuan points in treating the 5 organs and
6 bowels.
The 5 organs and 6 bowels constitute a system of Internal-External relationship and
have 12 yuan points which manifest at si guan (4 limbs).
Siguan designates the elbows and knees where the energy of the articulations
(reunions, acupuncture points) gather together. This is why the localization of the jing, ying,
shu, jing and he (5 shu-antique) points goes past neither the elbows nor the knees. From this fact,
the si guan have a therapeutic action on the 5 organs.
Illnesses of the 5 organs must be treated at the level of the 12 yuan because the yuan are
the 365 articulations (reunions, acupuncture points). For this reason, the yuan points are the
reactive sites of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. One must, therefore, know the existence of the yuan
well to observe the reactions at the exterior in order to determine the illnesses of the 5 organs.
The heart and lung located above the diaphragm are yang:
Taiyin in yang is the lung. Its yuan point is Taiyuan (Lu 9), located at the crease of the
35 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
wrist outside the artery in the radial groove. This point is bilateral; it is the site of flowing down
of the lung channel called earth-shu. Needle depth of 0.2 cun; left in place for 2 expirations;
moxa 3 times; The yin channel does not possess a yuan point; the shu point substitutes for it (11).
Taiyang in yang is the heart. Its yuan point manifests at Daling (XB 7). This point is
bilateral. Daling belongs to the Hand Jueyin (xin bao, XB); it is the site of flowing down of the
xinbao called earth-shu. The Hand Jueyin channel substitutes for that of the heart in material
activities which is why one does not speak of using Shenmen (He 7). Daling is located at the
middle of the anterior crease of the wrist between 2 large tendons. Needle depth 0.6 cun; left in
place during 7 expirations; moxa 3 times. 48.
The kidney and liver, located underneath the diaphragm, are yin, as is the spleen :
Shaoyang in yin is the liver. Its yuan manifests at the point Taichong (Li 3). This point
is bilateral and located in a crease in front of the juncture of the 1st and 2nd metatarsals where
an artery (dorsal pedalis) is found. It is the site of flowing down of the liver vessel called earth-
shu. Needle depth 0.3 cun; left in place during 7 expirations; moxa 3 times.
Zhiyin in yin is the spleen. Its yuan point manifests at Taibai (Sp 3). This point is
bilateral and located at the internal side of the foot behind the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint. It is
the site of flowing down of the spleen vessel called earth-shu. Needle depth 0.3 cun; left in
place during 7 expirations; moxa 3 times.
Taiyin in yin is the kidney. Its yuan point manifests at the Taixi (Ki 3). This point is
bilateral and located behind the internal malleolus above the calcaneus where one finds an artery
(posterior tibialis). In the event of illness, the absence of beating of this artery has a fatal
prognosis. It is the site of flowing down of the kidney vessel called earth-shu. Needle depth 0.3
cun; left in place during 7 expirations; moxa 3 times.
The yuan of Gao manifests at Jiuwei (CV 15). This point is on the renmai (CV) on the
anterior midline. It is located 0.5 cun below the tip of the xiphoid. In some individuals with
absence of the xiphoid appendage, this point is located 1.0 cun below the body of the sternum.
Moxa is forbidden at the risk of provoking a decrease of the energetic potential of the heart.
Needling this point is reserved for good acupuncturists only because improper needling can
result in too significant a loss of energy which can cause death. Needle depth 0.3 cun; left in
place during 3 respirations; to disperse, watch over it during 3 respirations.
The yuan of Huang manifests at the Qihai (CV 6) located 1.5 cun below the umbilicus also
on the renmai (CV) on the anterior midline. Qihai has two other names: Boyang and Xiahuang. It is
the sea of production of the energy in man. Needle depth 0.8 cun; dispersion as soon as the
arrival of the energy. The dispersion must always be followed by tonification. Moxa 7 times.
III - N.V.N. : 49.
1. This paragraph only mentions the yuan of the 5 organs and Gao and Huang.
Gao is the generic name given to the serous membranes covering the organs, and Huang,
the name given to the peritoneum, which is to say the serous membranes which blankets the inner
surfaces of the abdominal cavity (therefore not comprising the exterior surfaces of the organs
which instead bear the name Gao). Gaohuang (Bl 43) is therefore the site of concentration of the
energy originating from all serous membranes (pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, periosteum,
synovium, tendon sheaths, neural sheaths, organ capsules, etc.) associated with the secretion of
interstitial and lacunar (12) liquids which facilitate the sliding of parts in contact.

11. Energetically and clinically, the yuan and Shu points of the yin channels are one and the same. On the yang channels,
there are separate yuan and Shu points (ESG).
12. Anatomically, pertains to the extracellular spaces that containinterstitial fluid (tendinous, synovial, dermal, etc.)
(ESG).
36 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
2. Difficulty Number 66 of the Nanjing completes this notion of yuan :
_ the yuan of the gallbladder manifests at Qiuxu (GB 40)
_ the yuan of the stomach, at Chongyang (St 42)
_ the yuan of the sanjiao (SJ), at Yangshi (SJ 4)
_ the yuan of the bladder, at Jinggu (Bl 64)
_ the yuan of the large intestine at Hegu (LI 4)
_ the yuan of the small intestine at Wangu (SI 4).
In this way, the theory of the 12 yuan is complete.
PARAGRAPH 15

In the event of abdominal bloating, one must choose the 3 yang,
and in the event of diarrhea, the 3 yin.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
N.V.N :
This paragraph emphasizes the use of the points of the channels in bloating and diarrhea.
In the event of bloating, it is advised to needle points belonging to the 3 yang, that is to
say, stomach, bladder and gallbladder, and, in case of diarrhea with undigested food, points
belonging to the 3 yin: spleen, liver and kidney.
PARAGRAPH 16

The illnesses of the 5 organs are comparable to the pricks of
thorns, dirty stains on the body, the knots of a rope and an obstruction
by a mass.
The thorns can be removed, even implanted a long time; the stain
can be cleansed, even when old; the knots can be undone, even formed
for a long time; the mass can be leveled, even when very old. 50.
Some maintain that chronic diseases cannot be treated. This
opinion is false because the good physician utilizes the needle to treat
diseases like one removes thorns, cleans up stains, undoes knots, shaves
down a mass.
Chronic diseases are treatable. Those who pretend that they are
not have still not mastered the art of acupuncture and moxabustion.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
In the hundred diseases caused by wind, rain, cold, heat, joy, anger, diet, fright,
unexpected fear... the blood and energy become separated, yin and yang scatter, the jingluo
exhaust and the circulatory paths are obstructed.
The aggression of the wind, rain, cold, heat, fright and unexpected fear are like the pricks
of thorns and dirty stains, which is to say of external origin. Joy, anger and diet are like knots
37 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
and obstructions, which is to say of internal origin.
The thousand diseases are not separate from the etiologic context of internal and
external. This is why one must remove and cleanse them in order to liberate the interior. Once
these two causes are known, one can cure diseases, even chronic ones. Those that claim that they
are incurable fail to appreciate these two causes.
Yang Yu Lu clarifies: The stains involve the skin and hair; the pricks of the thorn reach
to the fibers of the flesh; the knots are located at the level of the vessels and the masses and
barriers at the level of the bones.
II - N.V.N. :
This paragraph emphasizes the possibility of treating chronic diseases with acupuncture.
PARAGRAPH 17

To treat (needle) the re (heat) diseases is like soaking a hand
in hot water (cold); treating the han (cold) diseases is to remain a
long time as if one did not wish to leave.
In the case of yang disease manifesting in the yin region, one
must needle Xialing Sanli (Zusanli, St 36). Needling must be performed
vertically and meticulously; withdrawal of the needle can only be
carried out after regression of the energy; otherwise, it is necessary to
start the process over again. 51.

If disease localizing in the upper part of the body belongs to the
interior (organ), one must needle Lingquan of the yin channel, that is
to say Yinlingquan (Sp 9), and if the disease localizing in the upper part
of the body belongs to the exterior (skin, flesh, muscle, bone), it is
necessary to needle Lingquan of the yang channel, that is to say,
Yanglingquan (GB 34).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES:
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The cold, heat, wind and rain energies come from the exterior. Needling of diseases of
heat is like bathing the hand in hot water means to say that in illnesses of heat (re) localizing
within the skin and flesh, needling is superficial. Diseases of cold (han) are syndromes of yin
emptiness localizing within the interior; here the needling is deep. Calmly, the physician waits
for the arrival of the energy (deqi) as if ready to leave, he hesitates instead of leaving
immediately.
Within the yin part with manifestations of yang disease means to say: the infiltration of
perverse yang energy into the interior (organ). One must needle Xialing Sanli (St 36) located
3 inches (cun) below the knee on the external edge of the tibia. This point belongs to the Foot
Yangming channel which controls closure (like that of a door).
Needling is done vertically and meticulously... and withdrawal...only after regression of
the energy... implies the sense of liberation of the perverse energy by the lower (urinary,
intestinal) routes.
The disease is located in the upper part of the body and belongs to the interior (organ)
means to say that in yin diseases manifesting in the upper part, one must needle Yinlingquan
38 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
(Sp 9) belonging to the yin (spleen) channel governing opening (like that of a door). The energy is
evacuated via this opening, that is to say, by the upper (cutaneous) route.
In brief, this paragraph stresses that when yang disease contaminates the interior, it is
necessary to evacuate it by the lower (urinary, intestinal) route (11), and when yin disease
reaches the exterior it is necessary to evacuate it by the exterior, superficial (cutaneous)
route (12).
Zhang Yu Lu clarifies: Needling Lingquan (Sp 9) of the yin channel and Lingquan of the
yang channel (GB 34) is in accord with the law of sitian-taiguan. The top and bottom are, in this
way, aerated.
II - Ma Shi explains:
Each disease has its specific therapeutic point.
To treat heat diseases is like soaking the hand in warm water. This means to say that one
can easily be easily damaged by the heat.
To treat cold diseases as if one did not want to leave implies also the sense that one is
able to be easily damaged by cold.
Attack of the yin channel by yang disease, it is necessary to needle Xialing Sanli
belonging to the Foot Yangming (St). These four words (Xialing Sanli) are none other than
Zusanli (St 36). This name is recalled in Chapter 2 (Origin of the shu-antique Points) of the
Lingshu. 52.
Needle vertically and carefully, then wait for the arrival of the energy... After needling,
if the disease does not regress, it is necessary to needle again.
The disease being at the top and belonging to the internal organ one must needle
Yinlingquan (Sp 9) located at the bottom, at the internal side of the knee, belonging to the Foot
Taiyin (Sp).
The disease is at the top and belonging to the exterior, one must needle Yanglingquan
(GB 34) located at the external side of the knee. This point belongs to the Foot Shaoyang (GB).
III - N.V.N. :
This paragraph is devoted to the superficial needling of heat diseases and deep needling of
the cold diseases and to the use of the points Zusanli (St 36), Yinlingquan (Sp 9) and
Yanglingquan (GB 34).

13. In the Eight Therapeutic Methods, this represents the method of purgation (see Traditionnelle Chinese Medicine,
NVN Edition, Chapter , Page VVVV (SCM)
14. ibid. The method ofsudorification (SCM).
39 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
53.
CHAPTER II
Origin of the Shu-Antique Points
(Ben Shu)
Chapter 2 of the Lingshu, comprising 18 paragraphs, defines the energy of the
jingmai located below the elbow and knee where the sites of entry and exit, of
flowing down and flowing out, of passage and of gathering of the energy are found.
These sites are successively called jing, ying, shu, jing and he (1).
This chapter also presents the points of the cervical region belonging to the
six yang channels of the hand and foot and the two curious vessels ren (mai) and du
(mai) with point naming, point location and classification.
The reciprocal action of the organs and bowels and the method of choice of
points according to the four seasons are also studied.
The object of this chapter is to present the shu-antique points which are a
group of important points of the channels according to the principle: Judge the
origin in order to study the cause. This is why it is entitled: Origin of the shu-
antique Points.

1. Recall that the actions of 5 shu-antique points (wushu), jing, ying, shu, jing and he, are energetically reminiscent of the
40 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
properties of water, thus the water analogies utilized to portray them: jing-well, ying-spring, shu-stream, jing-river, he-sea. (SCM)
PARAGRAPH 1

Huangdi :
The art of acupuncture demands perfect knowledge of
_ the departure and termination of the 12 jingluo
_ the sites of detachment of the luomai
_ the sites of flowing out of the wu shu (5 shu-antique points)
_ the sites of reunion of the 6 bowels
_ the sites of entry and exiting of the 4 seasons
_ the sites of flowing out of the 5 organs
_ the variations in diameter of the jing and luo
_ the degree of depth of their distribution 54.
_ and their success at the top and at the bottom, etc.
Will you clarify all this for me?

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The departure and termination of the 12 jingmai are established in the following manner :
_ the 3 yang channels of the hand begin on the hand and end at the head
_ the 3 yang channels of the foot leave from the head and arrive at the foot
_ the 3 yin channels of the foot begin on the foot and end at the abdomen (2)
_ the 3 yin channels of the hand leave from the thorax (2) and arrive at the hand.
The circulatory cycle of the 12 jing (principal channels) start at the lung and ends at the
liver. Such are the departure and termination of the circulatory cycle of the blood and energy.
At the level of these jingmai, the energy of the 5 organs and 6 bowels exteriorizes at the
jing point of the tip of the digits, arrives at the ying point, flows down to the shu point, flows out
toward the jing point and gathers at the he point. It is via these points that the energy of the
vessels returns to the organs and bowels. This circulation constitutes what one calls the
beginning and ending of the jing (principal channels).
_ The sites of detachment of the luomai (secondary vessels)designates the sites where
the great luos leave the jingmai (principal channels) and where the sites of the sunluo (energetic
capillaries or little secondary vessels) leave the great luos to branch at the level of the skin.
_ The sites of flowing out of the 5 organs and the sites of reunion of the 6 bowels
designates the 5 shu-antique points of the 5 organs and 6 shu-antique points of the 6 bowels.
_ reentry and exit of the 4 seasons designates the circulation of blood and energy
obeying the laws of the energies of the 4 seasons in order to be born, grow, accumulate and be
conserved.
_ The sites of flowing out of the 5 organs are the sites by which the blood and energy
penetrate into the vessels and appear at the level of the radial pulse, and also the sites by which
the blood and energy exteriorize outside the channels and by the intermediary of the point Wuli
(LI 13), reaching the skin and flesh. Such is the circulation of the blood and energy at the
epidermo-dermal level and at the level of the jing (principal channels). 55.
_ The jingmai have 365 reunion points. As a result, the luomai (secondary vessels) also
have 365 sites of reunion just as do the sunmai (energetic capillaries). The jingmai are large and
wide and the luomai are small and narrow; this is why the text states: ...variations in diameter

2. The use of the terms abdomen and thorax instead of chest highlight the internal nature and the internal origins
41 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
of these organs within the sanjiao: Sp, Li, Ki in the lower jiao, He L, XB in the upper jiao (SCM).
of the jing and luo.
_ ...The degree of depth of their distribution designates the jing (principal channels)
which are deep and luo (secondary vessels) which are superficial.
_ Success at the top and bottom means that the blood and energy circulate everywhere in
the body.
II - N.V.N. :
The Dao of the use of the needles consists of knowing clearly:
_ the trajectories of the 12 jingmai
_ the sites of detachment of the luomai
_ the sites of flowing out of the 5 shu-antique points whose localization is
determined at the level of the 4 limbs
_ the system of internal-external relationships of the organs and bowels
_ the influence of the 4 seasons on the organism and the reactions at the level of
` the blood and energy characterized by the phenomena of fullness and emptiness
_ the circulation and concentration of the energy of the jingluo of the 5 organs and
6 bowels
_ the diameter of the jing, luo and sunluo
_ the level of depth of distribution of the jingluo at the head and 4 limbs.
Note: The energy and blood of the 6 bowels exteriorizes towards the skin by way of the
great luo (3) and infiltrate into the channels by way of the jing points at the tips of the digits.
This is why, in clinical practice,one must ventilate the sites of detachment of the luomai, that is
to say, at the level of the luo points.
PARAGRAPH 2

Qi Bo:
Permit me to show them to you according to the following order:
The lung vessel begins at Shaoshang (Lu 11) responding to the
movement jing-wood, located at the internal ungual angle of the
t humb.
From this point, the energy flows out toward the point Yuji (Lu 10)
responding to the movement ying-fire.
From this point, the energy flows down into the point Taiyuan (Lu 9)
responding to the movement shu-earth, located at a crease 1 cun
behind Yuji (Lu 10).
From this point, the energy is directed towards the point
Ji ngqu (Lu 8) corresponding to the movement jing-metal. 56.
From this point, the energy gathers at Chize (Lu 5) responding to
the movement he-water, located on the artery of the elbow.
Such are the 5 shu-antique of the Hand Taiyin (Lu).


3. The sites of detachment of the 3 great luo are Dabao (Sp 21), Changqiang (GV 1) and iuwei (CV 15) (ESG).
42 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The word jing is a symbol which represents water preceding wood, that is to say,
the movement jing-wood has a double action:
a - penetration of water in the pilocutaneous system.
b - activation of the energetic movements at the level of the channel:
_ movement of flowing down toward the shu-earth point
_ movement of flowing out toward the jing-metal point
_ movement of gathering toward the he-water point to unite with the blood and energy
already existing in the channel.
The lung, heart, liver, spleen and kidney are the 5 internal organs; gallbladder, stomach,
large intestine, small intestine, sanjiao and bladder are also internal. On the other hand, the
channels of the hand (shou) and foot (zu) of these organs and bowels, such as the taiyin, shaoyin,
taiyang, shaoyang... are the external energetic paths.
The lung vessel begins at the point Shaoshang (Lu 11) has a double meaning:
_ on the one hand, the energy of the lung organ, via the route of the great luo, reaches the
sunluo and spreads out to the level the skin and flesh
_ and on the other hand, this energy infiltrates into the Hand Taiyin channel (Lu) to
successively activate the movements jing-wood, ying-fire, shu-earth, jing-metal and he-water.
In this manner, the point Shaoshang (Lu 11), located 1 he leaf from the internal ungual
angle of the thumb, responds to the movement jing-wood. The point Yuji (Lu 10), located 1 cun
below the thumb joint at the place where the white muscle is found, evoking the image of a fish
belly (thenar eminence), corresponds to the movement jing-fire. The point Taiyuan (Lu 9) is
located at the wrist crease 1 cun behind Yuji (Lu 10) and responds to the movement shu-earth.
Jingqu (Lu 8), located on the artery (radial), responds to the movement jing-metal. Chize (Lu 5),
located on the elbow, corresponds to the movement he-water.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph defines the jing (wood), ying (fire), shu (earth), jing (metal) and he
(water) points.
_ The 12 channels designates the 3 yin and 3 yang of the foot and hand: taiyang,
shaoyang, yangming, taiyin, jueyin and shaoyin.
_ The 12 luo belong to the 12 jing (principal channels). Each jing has a luo point, 57.
except the spleen which has two: Gongsun (Sp 4) and Dabao (Sp 21). Dumai (GV) also has its luo; it
is also the same for renmai (CV) which also has its luo, making a total of 15 luo.
_The 5 shu designates the movements of the jing, ying, shu, jing and he points: The
movement of the departure of the energy of the channel is the jing and the movement of the
gathering, the he point. The site of departure of the energy is therefore the cereal jing (food
essence) which has the property of provoking the movements of flowing down, flowing out and
passage to end up at the movement of gathering.
Each yang channel has a yuan (source) point (4). When the energy flows out towards the
shu point, it passes immediately to the yuan point. The yuan and shu therefore have the same
property. This is why, in disorders of the yang channels, treatment carried out at the yuan point
is equivalent to that carried out at the shu point. The yin channel does not have a yuan point, and
it is the shu point which replaces it. In this manner, treating the shu also treats the yuan.

4. See Chapter 1 (9 Needles and 12 yuan).
43 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
The jing point of the yang channel responds to the movement geng-metal, while that of
the yin channel corresponds to the movement yi-wood (5).
_ As a result, the jing point of the yang channel responds to the movement metal which
creates the ying point corresponding to water. The movement ying-water creates the shu point
responding to wood. The movement shu-wood creates the jing point responding to fire. The
movement jing-fire creates the he point responding to earth.
_ The jing point of the yin channel responds to the wood movement which creates the ying
point corresponding to fire. The ying-fire movement creates the shu point responding to earth.
The shu-earth movement creates the jing point corresponding to metal. The jing-metal movement
creates the he point responding to water.
Such is the order of the 5 movements of production of the 5 shu-antique points.
In this manner, the energy of the lung begins at Shaoshang (Lu 11), responding to the
jing-wood movement, located at the ungual angle of the thumb; needle depth 0.1 cun, left in for
5 expirations, no moxa.
_ The energy of jing-wood flows out towards Yuji (Lu 10), responding to the ying-fire
movement, located 1 cun below the metacarpo-phalangeal joint of the thumb at the place of the
white muscle resembling the belly of a fish, needle depth 0.1 cun, left in for 3 expirations,
moxa 3 times.
_ The energy of ying-fire flows down into Taiyuan (Lu 9), responding to the shu-earth
movement, located in a crease on the line of the wrist 1 cun below Yuji (Lu 10); needle depth
0.1 cun, left in for 2 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ The energy of shu-earth is directed toward Jingqu (Lu 8), responding to the jing-metal
movement, located within the radial pulse (always in motion, never ceasing), needle depth 0.1 cun,
left in during 3 expirations, moxa forbidden. 58.
_ The energy of jing-metal gathers at Chize (Lu 5), responding to the he-water movement,
located on the artery of the elbow; needle depth 0.3 cun, left in during 3 expirations, moxa
3 times.
III - N.V.N. :
This paragraph and the following ones are devoted especially to the study of the shu-
antique points and their power to flow.
The shu-antique points are propelled by the 5 movements.
For example: Under the action of the movement of wood-jing, the energy of Shaoshang
(Lu 11) passes to Yuji (Lu 10); under the action of the ying-fire, the energy reaches Taiyuan
(Lu 9), etc. As a result, the words wood, fire, earth, metal, water are the generic names given to
these movements.

5. Geng-metal and yi-wood refer to associations with the Celestial Stems. See Medecine Traditionnelle Chinoise. NVN
edition. 1984. Chapter II, page 26ff (SCM).
44 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 3

The heart vessel begins at the point Zhongchong (XB 9), responding
to the jing-wood movement, located at the tip of the middle finger.
From this point, the energy flows out towards Laogong (XB 8),
responding to the ying-fire movement, located at the middle of the palm
at the medial metacarpo-phalangeal joint of the middle finger.
From this point, the energy flows down into Daling (XB 7) ,
responding to the earth-shu movement, located in the bony space at the
base of the hand.
From this point, the energy is directed towards Jianshi (XB 5),
responding to the jing-metal movement, located between two tendons, 3
cun behind the wrist. If the energy passes here, it arrives; if not, it
stops.
From this point, the energy gathers at Quze (XB 3), responding the
he-water movement, located in the elbow crease. One locates this point
with the elbow flexed.
Such are the 5 shu-antique points of the Hand Shaoyin (He).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Hand Shaoyin is the channel of the heart, and Zhongchong (XB 9) is the jing point of the
xin bao luo (XB). The heart governs the blood, and xinbao, the vessels. The heart and xinbao
constitute a emperor-minister system of union.
_ The heart vessel begins at Zhongchong (XB 9) means the energy of the heart organ, after
having permeated the pilocutaneous system, is directed towards Zhongchong (XB 9) in order to
infiltrate into the Hand Jueyin (XB). 59.
_ Jianshi (XB 5) is a route of passage which evokes the image of the ascent of a hill by
soldiers and officers. If the energy passes, it arrives; if not, it stops indicates: when the energy
and blood of heart organ arrives at the jing point (Jianshi, XB 5), they reach the elbow in order to
unite with the energy and blood of the xin bao luo (XB). Otherwise, it stays at the jing of the Hand
Shaoyin (He). This is why this paragraph begins with the words Hand Shaoyin (He).
Because the formation of blood depends on the xin-shen (heart-mental) and because the
heart and xinbao (XB) forms a whole, the blood and energy produced by the heart reaches the two
channels Hand Shaoyin and Hand Jueyin.
II - Ma Shi comments
This paragraph is devoted to the Hand Jueyin channel (XB). The text has employed the
words heart-vessel to stress the importance of the relationship of the heart and xinbao (XB).
_ The xin bao luo (XB) begins at Zhongchong (XB 9) responding to the wood-jing movement,
located at the tip of the middle finger at 1 he leaf from the internal ungual angle; needle depth
0.1 cun, left in during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
45 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
_ From this point, the energy flows down into Laogong (XB 8) corresponding to the ying-
fire movement, located in the palm of the hand at the base of the joint of the middle finger; needle
depth 0.3 cun, left in in during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From the point Laogong (XB 8), the energy flows out towards Daling (XB 7) responding to
the shu-earth movement, located between 2 bones on the wrist line; needle depth 0.5 cun, leave
the needle in during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From the point Daling (XB 7), the energy passes to Jianshi (XB 5) responding to the
metal-jing movement, located between 2 tendons 3 cun below the wrist line; needle depth 0.3 cun,
left in during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times. If the energy passes, it arrives; if not, it stops
means to say that, when there is illness, it is at the level of Jianshi (XB 5) that it stops. In the
opposite case, the energy passes there before being directed to Quze (XB 3).
_ From the point Jianshi (XB 5), the energy gathers at Quze (XB 3) responding to the he-
water movement, located in the crease of the elbow. Bend the elbow to locate the point. Needle
depth 0.3 cun, left in during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
Such are the 5 shu points of the Hand Jueyin controlled by the heart organ.
The heart is the great director of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. It must not be affected by
perverse energy. The xin bao luo (XB) and the heart channel communicate and substitute for the
royal master (heart) in order to command all functions of the organism. 60.
When one uses needles, the needling is generally performed only on xinbao (XB). This is
why the points cited in the above paragraph belonging to xinbao (XB) are used in place of those of
the Hand Shaoyin (He).
III - N.V.N. :
The commentaries of Zhang and Ma emphasize the notions of the close relationship of the
heart and xin bao luo (XB).
Regarding the phrase If the energy passes, it arrives; if not, it stops, Ma Shis
explanation appears to us clearer and more plausible because, in clinical practice, Jianshi (XB 5)
is a specific point to needle in all rebellious and chronic illnesses, all febrile illnesses,
intermittent fever and chills and all cases of schizophrenia, paranoid dementia and insanity.
PARAGRAPH 4

The liver vessel begins at the point Dadun (Li 1), corresponding to
the jing-wood movement, located atop the great toe at the spot called
3 hairs.
From this point, the energy flows out toward Xingjian (Li 2),
responding to the ying-fire movement, located in the interdigital space
of the 1st and 2nd toes.
From this point, the energy flows down towards Taichong (Li 3),
responding to the shu-earth movement, located in a crease, 2 cun below
Xingjian (Li 2).
From this point, the energy is directed toward Zhongfeng (Li 4),
responding to the jing-metal movement, located in a crease, 1.5 cun in
front of the internal malleolus. Countercurrent needling of this point is
the cause of an energetic compression (obstruction); on the other hand,
needling for a regulating effect ventilates the circulation that one can
notice at the level of the foot.
46 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
From this point, the energy gathers at Ququan (Li 8), responding to
the he-water movement, located below the femoral condyle, on the large
tendon visible to the naked eye when the knee is flexed.
Such are the 5 shu-antique points of the Foot Jueyin channel (Li).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The jing-metal movement is a movement of passage. If one blocks this passage by a
counter-current needling, the blood and energy of the channel stagnate and are found in a state of
compression/obstruction. On the other hand, a regulatory needling (needling following the
direction of the current) harmonizes the blood and energy. Also, Zhong Yu Si has said: The one
energy of the channel arrives at the he-sea point thanks to the action of the jing-well point. If
blocks the passage, jing-river point, one produces the phenomena of stagnation/obstruction of the
channel.
61.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph demonstrates the 5 shu-antique points of the liver.
_ The energy of the liver begins at Dadun (Li 1) corresponding to the jing-wood movement,
located at the middle of the 3 hairs. Another theory states: At the side of the internal ungual
angle is Yinbai (Sp 1) and at the side of the external ungual angle is Dadun (Li 1).
_ From the point Dadun (Li 1), the energy flows out towards Xingjian (Li 2) responding to
the ying-fire movement, located in a crease on the artery, on the interdigital crease of the 1st and
2nd toes. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From the point Xingjian (Li 2), the energy flows down into Taichong (Li 3) responding to
the shu-earth movement, in a crease, on the artery, 2 cun above Xingjian (Li 2). Needle depth 0.3
cun, left in during 10 expirations, moxa 7 times. In Chapter 1 of the Suwen, it is written: In
young girl (2 X 7), Taichong (Li 3) is plethoric, the menstrual cycle is activated and she can
conceive. During diagnosis, examining Taichong (Li 3) can allow predicting life or death.
_ From the point Taichong (Li 3), the energy is directed towards Zhongfeng (Li 4)
responding to the jing-metal movement, located 1.5 cun in front of the internal malleolus, in a
crease between two tendons. Needle depth 0.4 cun, left in during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
Needling this point in order to demonstrate its existence provokes a circulation in the wrong way
whereas needling for the purpose of regulating the energy and ventilating the channel causes a
sensation of fatiguability of the foot.
_ From the point Zhongfeng (Li 4), the energy gathers at Ququan (Li 8) responding to the
he-water movement, located above the internal condyle of the knee, by the large tendon, easily
located when the subject bends his knee. Needle depth 0.6 cun, left in during 10 expirations,
moxa 3 times.
III - N.V.N. :
This paragraph raises the problem of needling done at the level of the point Zhongfeng
(Li 4) in the direction of and against the current.
In effect, needling Zhongfeng (Li 4) counter-current amounts to preventing the jing-metal
movement from progressing towards Ququan (Li 8) and obliges it to move back towards Taichong
(Li 3). It is, then, a harmful effect, provoking stagnation and obstruction at the level of the Foot
Jueyin (Li) channel.
In contrast, needling in the direction of the current of Zhongfeng (Li 4) amounts to
activating the jing-metal movement towards Ququan (Li 8). The effect is, therefore, balancing and
beneficial, provoking ventilation of the channel. These effects are felt at the level of the needling.
47 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 5 62.

The spleen vessel begins at Yinbai (Sp 1), responding to the wood-
jing movement, located at the internal ungual angle of the great toe.
From this point, the energy flow out towards Dadu (Sp 2), responding
to the ying-fire movement, located in front of the metatarso-phalangeal
joint of the great toe.
From this point, the energy flows down to Taibai (Sp 3), responding
to the shu-earth movement, located behind the metatarso-phalangeal
joint of the great toe.
From this point, the energy is directed towards Shangqiu (Sp 5),
responding to the jing-metal movement, located in a crease below and in
front the internal malleolus.
From this point, the energy gathers at Yinlingquan (Sp 9),
responding to the he-water movement, located under the internal
condyle of the tibia.
Such are the 5 shu-antique points of Foot Taiyin (Sp) channel.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The energy of heaven is at the top; water and its source are below; the earth is in the
intermediary space. The spleen makes up part of the zhi yin in yin and responds to
kun-earth (6). Yinglingquan (Sp 9) belongs, therefore, to the yin part, that is to say that it
designates the source of water in the center of the earth.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph presents the 5 shu-antique points of the Foot Taiyin (spleen) channel.
_ The spleen vessel begins at the point Yinbai (Sp 1) corresponding to the jing-wood
movement, located at the internal ungual angle of the great toe; needle depth 0.1 cun, left in
during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From the point Yinbai (Sp 1), the energy flows out towards Dadu (Sp 2), responding to
the ying-fire movement, located in front of the metatarso-phalangeal joint of the great toe on the
line of demarcation of the skin of white and red color of the foot. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in
during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Dadu (Sp 2), the energy flows down into Taibai (Sp 3), responding to the shu-earth
movement, located behind the metatarso-phalangeal joint of the great toe; needle depth 0.3 cun,
left in during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Taibai (Sp 3), the energy gathers at Shangqiu (Sp 5) responding to the jing-metal
movement, in a crease below and in front of the internal malleolus; needle depth 0.3 cun, left in
during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Shangqiu (Sp 5), the energy gathers at yinglingquan (Sp 9), responding to the
he-water movement, located under the internal condyle of the tibia, in a crease. Bend the leg to
locate this point; on the other hand, to locate Yanglingquan (GB 34), extend the leg. Needle depth
0.5 cun, left in during 5 expirations, moxa 3 times.

6. Kun designates one of the eight tempero-spatial signs (trigrams) of ancient times.
48 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
III - N.V.N.:
Zhang Shi defines the word Quan from the term Yinlingquan (Sp 9) as the source of
subterranean water in order to explain that water is at the bottom; but this interpretation turns
out to be a subject of caution because the word quan that occurs in Taiquan, employed in the
cyclic movements of energy, indicates the seasonal energy located at the surface and not within
the earth.
PARAGRAPH 6

The kidney vessel begins at the point Yongquan (Ki 1), responding
to the jing-water movement, located in a crease on the sole of the foot.
From this point, the energy flows out toward Rangu (Ki 2),
responding to the ying-fire movement, located in a crease below the
scaphoid bone.
From this point, the energy flows down to Taixi (Ki 3), responding to
the shu-earth movement, located in a crease behind the internal
malleolus on the upper edge of the calcaneus.
From this point, the energy is directed to Fuliu (Ki 7), responding to
the jing-metal movement, located 2 cun above the internal malleolus.
From this point, the energy gathers at yinqu (Ki 10), responding to
the he-water movement, located behind the tibial plateau, between the
large and small tendons, at the level of the artery whose beat one can
feel. Bend the knee to locate this point.
Such are the 5 shu-antique points of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains: 64.
Water from the subterranean source is created by the number 1. This is why the shaoyin
channel of the kidney begins at yangquan (Ki 1 = Gushing Source).
Fuliu (Ki 7 = Return of Flow) implies that the flowing out of water returns to its
subterranean source. For this reason, the he-water movement of the kidney carries the name yingu
(Ki 10 = Cavern of yin).
I am engaged in defining the names of the points in order to demonstrate that the Dao of
Man becomes united with the Dao of heaven and earth, to yin and yang, to the 5 movements and 6
energies. As for measurement in cun of the localization of points, it is necessary to refer to the
Statue of Bronze (Tongren). The depth of needling, duration of placing the needles and number of
moxas, etc. are variable facts.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph demonstrates the 5 shu-antique points of the channel of the kidney.
_ The kidney vessel begins at Yongquan (Ki 1) responding to the jing-wood movement,
located on the sole of the foot, in the crease which is formed when the subject places the knee with
the toes flexed. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in place during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times. Do not
make this point bleed.
49 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
_ From the point Yongquan (Ki 1), the energy flow out toward Rangu (Ki 2), responding to
the ying-fire movement, located below the scaphoid bone. This point has another name: Long-yuan.
According to some authors, Yongquan is located 1 cun in front and below the internal malleolus.
Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in place during 3 expirations. Do not bleed this point, otherwise the
patient will immediately feel a sensation of hunger and asks to eat.
From the point Rangu (Ki 2), the energy flows down toward Taixi (Ki 3), responding to the
shu-earth movement, located behind the internal malleolus in a crease where the artery (posterior
tibialis) is found, above the calcaneus. In boys and girls, absence of the beat of this artery is of
fatal prognosis. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
From the Taixi (Ki 3), the energy is directed to Fuliu (Ki 7), responding to the jing-metal
movement, located 2 cun above the internal malleolus right between the tibia and the tendon
(Achilles). Behind Fuliu (Ki 7), at the side of the tendon, Jiaoxin (Ki 8) is found. These two points
are separated by a tendon. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
From Fuliu (Ki 7), the energy gathers yingu (Ki 10), responding to the he-water movement,
located behind the tibial plateau, below the large tendon and above the little tendon, at the level
of the artery whose beat one can feel. Bend the knee to locate this point. Needle depth
0.4 cun, left in place during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
III - N.V.N. :
The number 1 creates water is a phrase of the yi jing (I Jing: Book of Changes). Zhang
Shi has recaptured this phrase in order to define the word quan of the point Yongquan
(Ki 1: Gushing Spring) (see p. 49).
PARAGRAPH 7 65.

The bladder vessel begins at Zhiyin (Bl 67), responding to the jing-
metal movement, located at the external side of the little toe.
From this point, the energy flows out towards Tonggu (Bl 66),
responding to the ying-water movement, located in a crease on the
antero-external part of the 5th metatarso-phalangeal joint.
From this point, the energy is flows down into Shugu (Bl 65),
responding to the shu-wood movement, located behind the metatarso-
phalangeal joint.
From this point, the energy is directed into Jinggu (Bl 64), which is
the yuan point, located at the external side of the foot, below the large
bone (cuboid).
From this point, the energy passes to Kunlun (Bl 60), responding to
the jing-fire movement, located behind the external malleolus below the
cal caneus .
From this point, the energy gathers at Weichong (Bl 40), responding
to the he-earth movement, located at the middle of the popliteal crease.
To locate this point, the subject must be face down, legs held very taut.
Such are the 6 shu-antique points of Foot Taiyang channel (Bl).

50 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Within the Foot Taiyang channel, cold energy dominates. This is why this channel
begins at Zhiyin (Bl 67) (7).
_ The lung, by its location, is comparable to heaven.
_ The energy of yang birth comes from water and unites with heaven. water follows the
energy in order to move toward the exterior. For this reason, one studies the relationship of the
lung and bladder according to the principles of Movements and Energies of si Tian and Taiquan.
_ Tongshu (Bl 66) is in communication with Rangu (Ki 2).
_ Kunlun (Bl 60) is the source place of water, the sea of stars.

II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph studies the 6 shu-antique points of the bladder channel.
_ The bladder vessel begins at the point Zhiyin (Bl 67), responding to the jing-metal
movement, located at the external side of the tip of the little toe (at a distance of a he leaf from
the ungual angle). Needle depth 0.1 cun, left in place during 5 expirations, moxa 3 times. 66.
_ From Zhiyin (Bl 67), the energy flows out towards Tonggu (Bl 66), responding to the
ying-water movement, located on the external surface of the little toe, in front of the metatarso-
phalangeal joint. Needle depth 0.2 cun, left in place during 5 expirations, moxa 5 times.
_ From Tonggu (Bl 66), the energy flows down into Shugu (Bl 65), responding to the shu-
wood movement, located behind the metatarso-phalangeal joint. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in place
during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Shugu (Bl 65), the energy passes to Jinggu (Bl 64), which is the yuan point, located
at the external side of the foot, at the site of change in color of the flesh, below and in front of the
5th metatarsal tuberosity. Needle depth 0.5 cun, left in place during 7 expiration, moxa 3 times.
_ From Jinggu (Bl 64), the energy is directed toward Kunlun (Bl 60), responding to the
jing-fire movement, located behind the external malleolus, above the calcaneus, on a little artery
whose beat one can feel. Needle depth 0.5 cun, left in during 10 expirations, moxa 3 times. In
women, needling this point can provoke miscarriage.
_ From Kunlun (Bl 60), the energy gathers at Weichong (Bl 40), responding to the he-earth
movement, located behind and at the middle of the knee where the artery (popliteal) is found. To
locate this point, the subject must be prone with legs very taut. Needle depth 0.5 cun, left in place
during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
III - N.V.N. :
In this paragraph, we discover the abortive effect of Kunlun (Bl 60) and therapeutic effect
of Tonggu (Bl 66) (8).

7. Zhiyin means Extreme Yin, and, therefore, by definition,describes a place where there is abundant water.
8. See Art and Practice of Acupuncture and Moxabustion (Zhen Jiu Da Cheng). Volume II, N.V.N. Edition.
51 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 8

The gallbladder vessel begins at Qiaoyin (GB 44), responding to
jing-metal, located at the external ungual angle of the 4th toe.
From this point, the energy flows out towards Xiaxi (GB 43),
responding to ying-water, located at the junction between the 4th and
5th toes.
From this point, the energy flow down into Linqi (GB 41),
responding to shu-wood, located in a crease 1.5 cun from Xiaxi (GB 43).
From this point, the energy passes to Qiuxu (GB 40), which is the
yuan point, located in a crease in front of the external malleolus.
From this point, the energy is directed to Yangfu (GB 38),
responding to jing-fire, located 4 cun above the external malleolus, in
front of the fibula and at the lower end of the tibia.
. 67.
From this point, the energy gathers at Lingquan of the yang part
(Yanglingquan: GB 34), responding to he-earth, located in a crease outside
and below the knee.
Such are the 6 shu-antique points of the Foot Shaoyang (GB)
c ha nne l .

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The 5 organs join together with the 5 movements, and 6 bowels respond to the
6 energies.
_ Among the 6 energies, one distinguishes two fires. This is why the yuan points belong to
fire and are auxiliary to the channels.
_ The shu-antique points of the 5 organs begin with the jing-wood movement because the
5 organs join together with the 5 movements of earth to respond to energy of birth, growth,
transformation, concentration and conservation. This is why these shu-antique points circulate
following the wood-fire-earth-metal-water movements.
_ The shu-antique points of the 6 bowels begin with the jing-metal movement because the
bowels respond to the 6 energies of heaven. The 6 energies are created by yin and the birth
energy originates from earth. For this reason, the energy of the 6 bowels begins in autumn and
winter, then arrives in spring and summer. Such are the energies called contrary and
favorable of yin and yang.
_ In Chapter 81 of this classic, yin and yang, blood and energy, left and right, front and
back are developed in the contrary sense while taking into account the favorable. If one
develops them in the favorable sense, one takes in account the contrary.
_ qin Yue ren (alias Bian Que) states: yin-jing (-well) is yi-wood; yang-jing (-well) is
Keng-metal. If yang-jing corresponds to geng (7th Celestial Trunk), it is that it is hard from yi
(2nd Celestial Trunk); if yin-jing corresponds to yi, it is that it is soft from geng.
52 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph describes the 6 shu-antique points of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) channel.
_ The gallbladder vessel begins at the point qiaoyin (GB 44), responding to the jing-metal
movement, located at the external ungual angle of the 4th toe, at a distance of a large he leaf.
Needle depth 0.1 cun, left in place during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From qiaoyin (GB 44) the energy flows out towards Xiaxi (GB 43), responding to the
ying-water movement, located at the juncture of the 4th and 5th toes. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in
place during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Xiaxi (GB 43) the energy flow down into Linqi (GB 41), responding to the shu-wood
movement, located 1.5 cun above Xiaxi (GB 43). Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in during 3 expirations,
moxa 3 times. 68.
_ From Linqi (GB 41) the energy passes to qiuxu (GB 40) which is the wood-yuan point,
located below and in front of the external malleolus, in a crease, 3 cun above Linqi (GB 41).
Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in place during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From the point qiuxu (GB 40) the energy is directed towards yangfu (GB 38), responding
to the ying-fire movement, located 4 cun above the external malleolus, in front of the fibula and
0.3 cun above Quegu (also named Xuanzhong- GB 39). The distance between Xiaxi (GB 43) and
yangfu (GB 38) is 7 cun. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in place during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From yangfu (GB 38) the energy gathers at Yanglingquan (GB 34), responding to the
he-earth movement, located below and in front of the head of the fibula. To locate this point, the
leg must be taut. Needle depth 0.7 cun, left in place during 10 expirations, moxa 7 times.
III - N.V.N. :
1. The 5 movements of the earth respond to the 6 energies of heaven. In man, the
energy of heaven responds to the 3 yang and 3 yin channels of earth (9).
2. In order to locate the point sought in exact fashion, it is necessary to determine the
painful reaction of the point by palpation. The efficacy of the needling depends on this.
PARAGRAPH 9

The stomach vessel begins at Lidui (St 45), responding to jing-metal,
located at the external ungual angle of the 2nd toe, at a distance of a
he leaf.
From this point, the energy flows out toward Neiting (St 44),
responding to the ying-water, located in a crease at the juncture of the
2nd and 3rd toes.
From this point, the energy flows down into Xiangu (St 43),
responding to shu-wood, located in a crease 2 cun above Neiting (St 44).
From this point, the energy passes to Chongyang (St 42), which is the
the yuan of Foot Yangming, located in a crease at the top of the foot
2 cun from Xiangu (St 43).
From this point, the energy is directed to Jiaxi (St 41), responding to
jing-fire, located 1.5 cun behind Chongyang (St 42), in a crease.

9. See Medecine Traditionnelle Chinoise, N.V.N. Edition. 1984. Chapter II, 5 Movements and 6 Energies.
53 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
From this point, the energy gathers at Xia Ling (Sanli - St 36),
responding to he-earth, located 3 cun below the knee at the external
side of the tibia. 69.
From this point, the energy descends to Shangjuxu (St 37), located
3 cun below Sanli (St 36).
From this point, the energy descends again toward Xiajuxu(St 39).
Shangjuxu (St 37) belongs to the large intestine and Xiajuxu (St 39) to
the small intestine. The large intestine and small intestine depend
therefore on the stomach, that is to say on the Foot Yangming (St)
c ha nne l .

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
In this way, the energy of the 3 yang channels originates from yin and manifest from the
earth. The energy ascends, therefore, from the feet.
_ The 6 channels of the foot and hand unite with the energy of the 3 yang channels and
distribute next into the channels of the hand (Shou) and foot (Zu). It is a question of a study of the
formation of the 6 channels of the foot and hand and not of a study of the energy of the 3 yang
channels. This is why it is said: The 6 bowels exteriorize at the 3 yang channels at the level of
the foot to unite with those of the hand.
Huang Tai Hua clarifies: The large intestine and small intestine receive the waste of the
cereals coming from the stomach-bowel. The liver decants the water of the residue. They are,
therefore, subordinate to the stomach. For this reason, the large and small intestines breathe in
the energy of the stomach channel at the level of Shangjuxu (St 37) and Xiajuxu (St 39).
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph describes the jing, ying. shu, yuan, jing and he points of the Foot
Yangming (St) channel.
_ The stomach vessel begins at Lidui (St 45), responding to the jing-metal movement,
located at the external ungual angle of the 2nd toe, at a distance of the width of a he leaf. Needle
depth 0.1 cun, moxa 1 time.
_ From Lidui (St 45), the energy flow out towards Neiting (St 44), responding to the ying-
water movement, located at the commissure of the 2nd and 3rd toes. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in
during 10 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Neiting (St 44), the energy flows down into Xiangu (St 43), responding to the shu-
wood movement, located 2 cun from Neiting (St 44). Needle depth 0.5 cun, left in during 7
expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Xiagu (St 43), the energy passes to Chongyang (St 42), the yuan-wood point, located
in a crease at the top of the foot, 5 cun above Neiting (St 44) and 3 cun from Xiangu (St 43).
_ From Chongyang (St 42), the energy is directed to Jiexi (St 41) responding to the jing-
fire movement, located in a crease 1.5 cun above Chongyang (St 42). Needle depth 0.5 cun, left in
during 3 expirations, moxa 7 times. 70.
_ From Jiexi (St 41), the energy gathers at Xua Ling (Sanli-St 36), responding to the water-
earth movement, 3 cun below the knee, located outside the tibia. Needle depth 0.5 cun left in
during 5 expirations, moxa 7 times, sometimes up to 100 times according to the case.
_ From Sanli (St 36), the energy flow out towards the bottom, that is to say towards
Shangjuxu (St 37), then towards Xiajuxu (St 39), because the stomach is the sea of the 5 organs/
54 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
6 bowels and the energy of the large and small intestines responds to the points of the stomach.
III - N.V.N. :
This paragraph emphasizes the circulation of the energy at the level of the shu-antique
points of the Foot Yangming channel (St) whose significance is carried on the shu-earth point,
Sanli (St 36).
In effect, the cereal jing (cereal essence) at the level of the pilocutaneous system
infiltrates into the jing-metal point and provokes successive movements to the he-earth point
(St 36). From this point, the energy descends again to penetrate into the points Shangjuxu (St 37)
and Xiajuxu (St 39). This movement, according to Qi Bo, is transmitted under the action of the
large and small intestines.
The origin of the inferior (lower) mu points of the large and small intestines is diagramed
in the following figure:


Figure 5
Circulation of cereal jing in the 6 shu-antique points of Foot Yangming (St)
and formation of the mu points (breathing in) of the large and small intestines.
55 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 10 71.

At the top, the sanjiao (SJ) unites with the shaoyang of the arm
whose circulation begins at Guanchong (SJ 1), responding to jing-metal,
located at the external ungual angle of the 4th finger.
From this point, the energy flows out toward Yemen (SJ 2),
responding to ying-water, located at the juncture of the 4th and 5th
finger.
From this point, the energy flows down into Zhongzhu (SJ 3),
responding to shu-wood, located in a crease formed by the 4th and 5th
met acarpal s.
From this point, the energy passes to Yangchi (SJ 4), which is the
wood-yuan point, located in the crease of the wrist.
From this point, the energy is directed towards Zhigou (SJ 6),
responding to jing-fire, located 3 cun above the wrist crease between
2 bones.
From this point, the energy gathers at Tianjing (SJ 10), responding
to he-earth, located in a crease above the olecranon. Cross the arms to
locate this point.
At the bottom, Xiashu (inferior Mu point) of the sanjiao is
located behind the Foot Shaoyang (GB), at the external side of the bend
of the knee and bears the name Weiyang (Bl 39). A vessel leaves from this
point which therefore at the same time, belongs to the Foot Taiyang (Bl)
and Hand Shaoyang (SJ).
This secondary and lower vessel of the sanjiao (SJ) runs parallel to
the Foot Taiyang (Bl) and Foot Shaoyang (GB).
A branch of the taiyang (Bl) located 5 cun above the malleolus
penetrates deeply into the calf and comes back out at Weiyang (Bl 39), and,
with the principal channel of the bladder, it attaches firmly to the
lower vessel of the sanjiao (SJ).
Fullness of this lower vessel of the sanjiao manifests as urinary
retention with cystitis and painful micturition, and the emptiness of
this vessel by urinary incontinence. In the first case, one must disperse
weiyang (Bl 39), and in the second case, tonify it.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Huang Tai Hua instructs: The sanjiao (SJ) is a bowel responsible for the irrigation of the
organism. This is why its xiashu (lower mu point: Bl 39) manifests at the level of a vessel of the
taiyang (Bl) located at the knee which, with the principal channel (Bl), firmly attaches to the
56 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
sanjiao located at the lower part of the body. Obstruction of this vessel provokes dysuria with
painful micturition, and emptiness of the vessel, urinary incontinence. Tonify Weiyang (Bl 39) in
case of incontinence and disperse it in case of dysuria (cystitis).
_ The energy of sanjiao manifests from the kidney and diffuses everywhere, as much at the
top as the bottom, in reaching the parts which belong to it; then it circulates within the Hand
Shaoyang channel (SJ). 72.
_ The longitudinal routes form the jing (principal channels) and the transervsal routes,
the luo (transversal). As for the luobie (longitudinal luos) of the taiyang (SI), they run
alongside the space located between the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) and Hand Taiyin (Lu) channels. This
is why it is said: The shaoyang and taiyin are the Bie of the taiyang.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph describes the jing, ying, shu, yuan, jing and he points of the Hand
Shaoyang (SJ).
In Chapter 41 of this classic, we note: The kidney unites with the sanjiao and bladder....
This implies that the right kidney goes to the bladder and the left kidney to the sanjiao. But the
lower portion of the sanjiao also unites with the right kidney and ascends to the 4th finger. This
is why it is said:
_ Above, the sanjiao unites with the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) which begins circulation from
guanchong (SJ 1), located at the external ungual angle of the 4th finger and responds to the jing-
metal movement. Needle depth 0.1 cun, left in during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From guanchong (SJ 1), the energy flows out towards Yemen (SJ 2), located in a
commissure formed by the 4th and 5th fingers and responds to the ying-water movement. Needle
depth 0.1 cun, left in during 2 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Yemen (SJ 2), the energy flows down into Zhongzhu (SJ 3), responding to the shu-
wood movement, located in a crease formed by the 4th and 5th metacarpals, 1 cun above Yemen
(SJ 2). Needle depth 0.1 cun, left in during 2 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Zhongzhu (SJ 3), the energy passes towards yangchi (SJ 4), responding to the yuan-
wood movement, located at the wrist crease. Needle depth 0.2 cun, left in during 6 expirations,
moxa prohibited.
_ From yangchi (SJ 4), the energy is directed towards zhigou (SJ 6), responding to the
jing-fire movement, located 3 cun below the wrist crease, between the two bones of the forearm.
This point also is called Fihui. Needle depth 0.2 cun, left in for 7 expirations and moxa 3 times.
_ From zhigou (SJ 6), the energy gathers at Tianjing (SJ 10), responding to the he-earth
movement, located in a crease above the olecranon. Cross the arms to locate this point. Needle
depth 0.3 cun, left in during 7 expirations, moxa 3 times.
Although the sanjiao (SJ) channel is directed towards the hand, its bowel attaches itself
strongly to the kidney and sends off a vessel to xiashu (lower point = Mu point- weiyang Bl 39).
_ From weiyang (Bl 39), a vessel emerges which descends to the foot, to the front of the 5th
toe, between Foot Taiyang (Bl) and Foot Shaoyang (GB). Therefore, this vessel is, at the same time,
the luobie (longitudinal luo) of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) and Foot Shaoyang (GB) channels.
_ From weiyang (Bl 39), another vessel also emerges which reaches the area located 5 cun
above the external malleolus where guanming (GB 37- luo of the gallbladder) is found. Then from
there, it passes to Feiyang (Bl 58- luo of the bladder) to deeply penetrate into the calf before
rejoining weiyang (Bl 39) and flowing down into the principal channel of the bladder in order to
reach the bladder bowel and to link firmly to the xiajiao (Lower Jiao- LJ).
Fullness of this lower vessel of the sanjiao (SJ) causes cystitis with painful micturition.
In this case, one must disperse weiyang (Bl 39).
Emptiness of this lower vessel is the origin of urinary incontinence; one must tonify it.
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III - N.V.N. :
The lower Mu point of the sanjiao (SJ) had been described in 1969 by Chamfrault and
ourselves in The Energetic Human and in Energetic Pathogenesis and Pathology without
dwelling over the pathophysiologic mechanism of this point.
Today, we propose the diagram below (Fig. 6):

Figure 6
Internal canal and lower vessels of sanjiao (SJ):
_ In event of fullness of lower vessels: urinary retention, cystitis. Disperse weiyang (Bl 39).
_ In event of emptiness: urinary incontinence, polyuria: Tonify weiyang (BL 39).
58 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 11 74.

At the top (hand), the energy of the small intestine unites with
the Hand Taiyang (SI channel). It begins at Shaoze (SI 1), located at the
external ungual angle of the 5th finger, responding to jing-metal.
From this point, the energy flows out towards Qiangu (SI 2), located
in a crease at the external side of the base of the little finger,
responding to ying-water.
From this point, the energy flows down into Houxi (SI 3), located in a
crease behind the base of the little finger, responding to shu-wood.
From this point, the energy passes to Wangu (SI 4), located at the
external side of the hand, in front of the wrist bone, responding to
yuan- wood.
From this point, the energy is directed toward Yanggu (SI 5), located
in a crease in front of the ulna, responding to jing-fire.
From this point, the energy gathers at Xiaohai (SI 8), located in a
crease of the elbow, between the olecranon and internal (medial)
condyle of the humerus, responding to he-earth. Extend the arm to
locate this point.
Such are the 6 shu-antique points of the Hand Taiyang (SI).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Huang Tai Hua teaches: The large and small intestines make up part of the stomach.
These two bowels manifest at Shangjuxu (St 37) and at Xiajuxu (St 39). This is why it is said: At
the top, the small intestine unites with the Hand Taiyang (SI).
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph defines the jing, ying, shu, yuan, jing and he points of small intestine.
This Hand Taiyang channel (SI), whose bowel is in the abdomen, is found on the hand.
This is why the text states: Above, the small intestine unites with the Hand Taiyang (SI).
_ The energy of this channel begins at Shaoze (SI 1), is located at the external ungual angle
of the 5th finger at a width of a he leaf, responding to the jing-metal movement. Needle depth
0.1 cun, left in during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Shaoze (SI 1), the energy flows out towards Tiangu (SI 2), located in a crease at the
external edge of the hand in front of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, responding to the jing-water
movement. Needle depth 0.1 cun, left in during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Tiangu (SI 2), the energy flows down into Houxi (SI 3), located behind the
metacarpo-phalangeal joint of the little finger, responding to the shu-wood movement. Bend the
hand to locate this point. Needle depth 0.1 cun, left in during 2 expirations, moxa 3 times. 75.
_ From Houxi (SI 3), the energy passes to Wangu (SI 4), located at the external edge of the
hand in front of the wrist bone, responding to the yuan-wood movement. Bend the hand to locate
this point. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
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From Wangu (SI 4), the energy is directed to yanggu (SI 5), located in a crease in front of
the ulna, outside the wrist, responding to the jing-fire movement. Needle depth 0.2 cun, left in
during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
From yanggu (SI 5), the energy gathers at Xiaohai (SI 8), located in the elbow crease
between the olecranon and medial epicondyle of the humerus, responding to the he-earth
movement. Cross the arms to locate it. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in during 7 expirations, moxa 5
times.
III - N.V.N. :
Note, however, that the small intestine has its lower Mu point (Xiajuxu: St 39) (Figure 5).
PARAGRAPH 12

At the top, the large intestine unites with the Hand Yangming
(LI). This vessel begins at Shangyang (LI 1), located at the tip of of the
index finger, responding to the jing-metal movement.
From this point, the energy flow out towards Erjian (LI 2), located in
front of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, responding to the ying-water
movement .
From this point, the energy flows down to Sanjian (LI 3), located
behind the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, responding to the shu-wood
movement .
From this point, the energy passes to Hegu (LI 4), located at the
angle formed by the 1st and 2nd metacarpals, responding to yuan-wood.
From this point, the energy is directed to Yangxi (LI 5), located in a
crease between 2 tendons (anatomical snuffbox), responding to jing-
f i r e .
From this point, the energy gathers at Quchi (LI 11), located in a
crease outside the epicondyle, at the external side of the elbow,
responding to he-earth. Cross the arms to locate it.
Such are the points belonging to the Hand Yangming (LI).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph describes the jing, ying, shu, yuan, jing and he points of the large
intestine channel.
The large intestine bowel is found down at the bottom, and its channel is directed towards
the hand; this is why it is said: At the top, the large intestine unites with the Hand Yangming
(LI).
_ This vessel begins at Shangyang (LI 1), located at the internal ungual angle of the index
finger, responding to the jing-metal movement. Needle depth 0.1 cun, left in during 1 expiration,
moxa 3 times.
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_ From Shangyang (LI 1), the energy flows out towards Erjian (LI 2), located in front of the
metacarpo-phalangeal joint of the index finger, responding to the jing-water movement. Needle
depth 0.3 cun, left in during 3 expiration, moxa 3 times.
_From Erjian (LI 2), the energy flows down into Sanjian (LI 3), located behind the
metacarpo-phalangeal joint, responding to the shu-wood movement. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in
during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From Sanjian (LI 3), the energy passes to hegu (LI 4), located in a crease formed by the
1st and 2nd metacarpal bones (of thumb and index), responding to the yuan-wood movement.
Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in during 6 expirations, moxa 3 times.
_ From hegu (LI 4), the energy is directed towards yangxi (LI 5), located in a crease
between 2 tendons (in the anatomical snuffbox), at the side of the anterior fold of the wrist,
responding to the jing-fire movement. Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in place during 7 expirations,
moxa 3 times.
_ From yangxi (LI 5), the energy gathers at Quchi (LI 11), located in a crease at the
external side of the lateral epicondyle, responding to the he-earth movement. Cross the arms to
locate it. Needle depth 0.5 cun, left in during 7 expirations, moxa 5 times.
II - N.V.N. :
We emphasize the pathophysiology and treatment of the lower vessel of the large intestine
(Figure. 5).
PARAGRAPH 13

Such is the significance of the shu points of the 5 organs and 6
bowels: 5 X 5 = 25 shu and 6 X 6 = 36 shu.
The 6 bowels manifest at the 3 yang channels of the foot and unite
with the 3 yang channels of the hand.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains: 77.
Zhang Gai Chi teaches: The large and small intestines belong to the stomach. The sanjiao
(SJ) manifests at the luo of the taiyang (Bl) and unites with the Hand Shaoyang (SJ). The
6 bowels manifest at the 3 yang channels of the foot and gather together with the 3 yang channels
of the hand. The upper half of the body responds to heaven and the lower half to earth. If the
6 bowels manifest from the 3 yang channels of the foot, it is because their origin comes from
earth.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph tabulates the shu-antique points of the 5 organs and 6 bowels and the
channels.
The channels of the 6 bowels are:
a - At the foot, taiyang-bladder, and at the hand, taiyang-small intestine.
b - At the foot, yangming-stomach, and at the hand, yangming-large intestine.
c - At the foot, shaoyang-gallbladder, and at the hand, shaoyang-sanjiao.
Such are the connections of the yang channels of the foot with those of the hand. In reality,
if they are called channels of the foot (zu), it is because of the presence of the shu-antique
points which circulate from the foot, and if they are called channels of the hand (shou), it is
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because their shu-antique points circulate from the hand.
III - N.V.N. :
At the exterior, the 3 yin and 3 yang respond to the 6 energies of heaven, and, at the
interior, they unite with the energy of the 12 jingmai.
The 3 yang channels of the hand have their root at the foot; this is why the text stresses:
At the top, the large intestine unites with the Hand Yangming, because, at the exterior, the
5 organs and 6 bowels receive the energy of the 3 yin and 3 yang to join to that of the channels.
The diagram of the circulation of the 3 yin and 3 yang of the foot and hand, proposed in
1969 by Chamfrault and ourselves, has become standard (Fig. 7).

Figure 7
Position and circulation of the 3 yin and 3 yang of the foot and hand.
62 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 14

Inside of Quepen (St 12) is Tiantu (CV 22), located on medial anterior
vessel No. 1 belonging to renmai (CV).
The artery is contiguous with renmai (CV) and belongs to Foot
Yangming (St) where Renying (St 9) is found, located on lateral vessel
No. 2.
Futu (LI 18) belonging to the Hand Yangming (LI) is located on
lateral vessel No. 3.
Tianchuang (SI 16) belonging to the Hand Taiyang (SI) is located on
lateral vessel No. 4. 78.
Tianrong (SI 17) (10) belonging to the Foot Shaoyang (GB) is located
on lateral vessel No 5.
Tianyou (SJ 16) belonging to the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) is located on
lateral vessel no. 6.
Tianzhu (Bl 10) belonging to the Foot Taiyang (Bl) is located on
lateral vessel no. 7.
Fongfu (GV 16) belonging to the Dumai (GV) is located on medial
posterior vessel no. 8.
Tianfu (Lu 3) is located of the artery (of the arm) equal with the
axi l l a.
3 cun below the axillary artery Tianchi (XB 1) is found, belonging to
the Hand Jueyin (xin bao luo).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 79.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The 12 jingmai of the foot and hand adhere to the 3 yin and 3 yang channels. These both
are the 6 energies circulating outside of earth, while the organs and bowels form a couple like
male and female and the 5 movements spread out within the entire universe.
This paragraph defines the 3 yin channels and 3 yang channels. This energy, originating
from the 4 cardinal directions, infiltrates into these channels to vitalize the organs and bowels so
that they respond to that of heaven in the same manner as when they deeply penetrated into the
earth.
This paragraph describes moreover the specific direction of the circulation of the
3 channels, according to a precise order, towards the neck and nucha, exactly like that of the yang

10. Tianrong (SI 17) belonging to the Foot Shaoyang (GB) has been the object of discussion through the ages. For Ma
Shi, it is concerns an error in printing, and he corrected it via Tianchong (GB 9), and, since that day, this thesis was unanimously
accepted. Yet, Ma Shi himself has written: This paragraph describes the localization of the cervical and nuchal points.
Consequently, we do not think that it was a matter of an error in printing because Tianchong (GB 9) is located on the skull and not
on the neck. We are inclined to favor the following thesis: Before the Tang Dynasty (618-906 AD), Tianrong (SI 17) had been
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classified among the points belonging to Foot Shaoyang (GB), probably because of the close connection between taiyang and
shaoyang (shaoyang being the half-internal channel and half-external channel = barrier).
energy coming to leave the surface of the earth.
The two vessels ren (mai) and Du (mai) manifest from the kidneys and have the power to
communicate with the yin and yang energy of the entire organism.
The Hand Taiyin (Lu) and xinbao (XB) manifest thanks to the sanjiao (SJ) and have the
power to activate the circulation of energy and blood a posteriori. By way of this, yin and yang,
blood and energy are directed from the top downward and from the interior to the exterior.
Yu Shi states: The jingmai respond to the jing shui (routes of water; rivers) of the earth
and communicate with heaven. This is why certain points of the neck and nucha bear the name
Tian (heaven):
Tiantu - CV 22
Tianchuang - SI 16
Tianrong - SI 17
Tianyou - SJ 16
Tianzhu - Bl 10
Tianfu - GV 16, etc .... .
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph describes the points of the channels of the cervico-nuchal region
beginning with the anterior medial vessel (No. 1) and finishing with the posterior medial vessel
(No. 8) and the localization of certain points in the brachio-thoracic region. here, it is a matter of
instruction on the search for points intended for future generations.
The anterior medial vessel is renmai (CV) where Tiantu (CV 22), located in a crease 4 cun
below the pharynx between the 2 supraclavicular points Quepen (St 12), is found. renmai (CV) is
line No. 1, and Quepen (St 12), belonging to the Foot yangming (St), is located above and in the
middle of the superior border of the clavicle.
Two cun outside of renmai (CV) the Foot Yangming (St) is found whose arterial point
(carotid) bears the name renying (St 9), located 1.5 cun lateral from the pharynx (Adams apple).
The Foot Yangming (St) is line No. 2. 80.
The point belonging to the Hand Yangming (LI) is Futu (LI 18), located 1 cun below the
maxillary angle and 1.5 cun lateral to renying (St 9). The Hand Yangming (LI) is line No. 3.
The point belonging to the Hand Taiyang (SI) is Tianchuang (SI 16), located behind the
posterior fascia of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, 0.5 cun from Futu (LI 18) in a crease at the
spot where one feels the arterial beat. The Hand Taiyang is line No. 4.
The point of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) is Tianchong (GB 9), located above and behind the
pinna of the ear, 2 cun above the hairline. The Foot Shaoyang is line No. 5.
The point of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) is Tianyou (SJ 16), located behind Tianrong (SI 17)
and in front of Tianzu (Bl 10). The Hand Shaoyang (SJ) is line No. 6.
The point of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) is Tianzhu (Bl 10), located outside the large tendon (of
the trapezius) and 0.5 cun below the edge of the scalp. The Foot Taiyang (Bl) is line No. 7.
From anterior medial line No. 1 (renmai-CV), in passing by the anterior then lateral
surface of the thorax and the back, up to the posterior medial line, one counts a total of 8 lines.
The posterior medial line No .8 designates the Dumai (GV) whose point is Fengfu (GV 16),
located above the scalp line in a crease between 2 large tendons. Fengfu (GV 16) also has the name
Sheban (root of the tongue); to locate this point, have the patient speak quickly and loudly- the
point swells. It is prohibited to moxa this point at the risk of causing mutism.
Tianfu (Lu 3) is located 3 cun outside of the axillary crease, 5 cun above the elbow fold,
where an artery beats. To locate this point, lift the elbow and touch the nose with the arm. The
points located from Tianfu (Lu 3) to the elbow and from the elbow to Shaoshang (Lu 11), that is to
say to the tip of the thumb, all belong to the Hand Taiyin (Lu).
Three cun below the axilla, that is to say 1 cun behind the breast, in an intercostal space,
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one finds Tianchi (Pe 1) belonging to the xin bao luo (XB). From this point, a vessel passes to
Tianquan (XB 2) located 2 cun below the end of the anterior axillary fold, reaches the elbow and
forearm and arrives at Zhongchong (XB 9) at the tip of the middle finger. This vessel and these
points belong to the Hand Jueyin (XB-xin bao luo).
III - N.V.N.:
This method of detection of the localization of points of the cervico-nuchal region is very
precise and constitutes again, in our era, a wise teaching.
Note, however, that in practice, we have stated that: 81.
1. The localization of points is variable according to the individual (therefore sometimes
vary according to the author).
2. All points of acupuncture are located on nerve fibers or blood capillaries (results from
our acupuncture analgesic studies in 1971). (7)
3. Pathological points are always found to be painful.

(7) See Theory and Practice of Acupuncture Analgesia, NVN Edition.
Therefore, the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture depends not only on precise point
localization and needle manipulation, but also on detection of the sensitivity of these points.
PARAGRAPH 15

The Foot Yangming (St) is a vessel contiguous with the throat;
their shu (points) are on the thoracic cage.
The Hand Yangming (LI) is a vessel located 1 cun outside Qu Jia
(maxillary angle).
The Hand Taiyang (SI) is found at Qu Jia.
The Foot Shaoyang (GB) is found below the ear and behind Qu Jia.
The Hand Shaoyang (SJ) circles behind the ear, above Wangu
(mastoid; GB 12).
The Foot Taiyang (Bl) joins to the nucha, outside the large tendon
(trapezius) at the edge of the scalp.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The preceding paragraph gives an account of the ascent of the energy of the 3 yang
channels, while this one inform us on the descent. In other words, as soon as the yang energy
arrives at the head, it begins making movements of descent.
Tian Tong si describes: When the energy of Foot Yangming (St) is found in the upper part
of the body, it flows down into the lung, and Xian qi (fierce energy) rises up towards the head
via the laryngo-pharyngeal route, reaches the orifices, encircles the eyes and penetrates into
the brain without any order. Then from the brain, it reappears at Gua shu ren (also Shangquan-
GB 3), descends to the mandible, encircles the gums and unites with the yangming in order to
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descend to renying (St 9). Such is the circulation of the energy which goes from the bottom
upwards to the brain, then from the top downward. Then, from renying (St 9), the energy joins the
points located at the thorax. The energy of the other yang channels follows the same path as that
of the yangming, but next to and outside of it. These ascents and descents respond exactly to those
of the energy of heaven.
82.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph completes the previous one and deals with the energetic paths of the
thoraco-dorsal region.
_ In effect, between the 2 Quepen (St 12) is Tiantu (CV 22), to the bottom is medial path
No. 1.
_ The vessel next to renmai (CV) belonging to Foot Yangming (St), where one finds renying
(St 9), is path No. 2. This yangming runs alongside the neck and descends successively towards
the points shuitu (St 10), qishe (St 11) and Quepen (St 12)... and then from there to the points
qihu (St 13), Kufang (St 14), Wuyi (St 15), etc. This is why the text states: The Foot Yangming (St)
is a vessel contiguous with the throat, and its points are located on the thoracic cage.
_ The Hand Yangming (LI) is a vessel located 1 cun outside of Qu Jia means to say that
Futu (LI 18) of the Hand Yangming is located on path No. 3. But, this path extends out beyond and
outside the shu points of the Foot Yangming (St), 1 cun outside of Qu Jia (maxillary angle where
Jiache- St 6 is found). In other words, Futu (LI 18) is located 1 cun below Jiache (St 6).
_ The Hand Taiyang (SI) is found at Qu Jia means that Tianchuang (SI 16) is located on
path No. 4, and that these points are positioned on the vertical line below Qu Jia and above Futu
(LI 18).
_ The Foot Shaoyang (GB) is found below the ear and behind Qu Jia indicates that
Tianchong (GB 9) is located on path No. 5 and that the points are positioned either below the ear
and behind Qu Jia or in front of the ear and within the scalp.
_ The Hand Shaoyang (SJ) goes around the ear, above Wangu indicates that Tianyou
(SJ 16) is located on path No. 6 and that the points are positioned behind the ear and below the
mastoid (GB 12).
_ The Foot Taiyang (Bl) joins with the nucha, outside the large tendon, at the edge of the
scalp wishes to say that Tianzhu (Bl 10) is on path No. 7 and that this point is positioned behind
the nucha, outside the tendon, at the root of the hair
III - N.V.N. :
a) Zhang Shi reveals to us the cranio-facial circulation of yangming (St). This teaching is
of prime interest because it allows comprehension of the pathophysiologic processes of this
region unknown up to today (see Figure 8).
b) In this paragraph, the text again states: The Foot Shaoyang (GB) is found below the ear
and behind Qu Jia (maxillary angle) in order to explain that path No. 5 runs from Tianrong
(SI 17), and not from Tianchong (GB 9) which is located at the level of the cranium. Tianrong
(SI 17) has indeed been localized below the ear and behind Qu Jia (maxillary angle). It seems to
us that our thesis (see Paragraph 14) is more in accordance with the spirit of the Lingshu than
that of Ma Shi.
c) Paragraphs 14 and 15, as well as this Paragraph 16, can be summarized in table form
below:

83.
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Figure 8
Cranio-facial circulation of the yangming (St).
Table of Classification of points
of the cervico-nuchal region

In a crease below the occipital protuberance Fengfu (GV 16) Dumai (GV) No. 8
0.5 cun above the scalp line, at the external part
of the trapezius muscle
Tianzhu (Bl 10) Foot Taiyang (Bl) No. 7
Behind the ear, below Wangu (GB 12) Tianyou (SJ 16) Hand Shaoyang (SJ) No. 6
Behind the maxillary angle, in a crease
Behind and above the ear pinna, 0.5 cun behind
shuigu (GB 8)
Tianrong (SI 17)
(Lingshu)
Tianchong (GB 9)
(Ma Shi)
Foot Shaoyang (GB)
3.5 cun outside Adams Apple behind
Futu (LI 18)
Tianchuang (SI 16) Hand Taiyang (SI) No. 4
1.5 cun outside qishe (St 11)
1.1 cun below the maxillary angle; between the
2 fascia of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
Futu (LI 18) Hand Yangming (LI)
1 cun from Adam Apple, on carotid artery renying (St 9) Foot Yangming (St) No. 2
In a crease, at upper edge of manubrium Tiantu (CV 22) renmai (CV) No. 1
No. 5

No. 3
Localization points jingmai Line
PARAGRAPH 16 84.

Wuli (LI 13) located on the artery is forbidden to be needled.

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EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the circulation of yin and yang, of blood and energy of the
organs and bowels at the level of the two channels, Hand Taiyin (Lu) and Hand Yangming (LI). This
circulation going from the interior to the exterior and from the exterior to the interior is none
other than perpetual movements of going and returning, favorable and contrary movements.
_ The artery designates that which is in direct communication with the radial pulse of
Hand Taiyin (Lu).
_ Wuli (LI 13) is a point belonging to the Hand Yangming (LI) located above the elbow, this
side of the shu antique points: jing, ying, shu, jing, he of the organs.
_ The energy and blood of the 5 organs manifest at the radial pulse of Hand Taiyin (Lu).
_ Via the path of the Jing Bie (distinct channels), a part of the energy and blood of the
5 organs circulates outside the Hand Taiyin (Lu) channel and follows the Hand Yangming (LI) in
order to manifest at the skin.
_ As for the blood and energy circulating within the Hand Taiyin (Lu) channel, they leave
from the thumb and successively reach the wrist, forearm and elbow.
_ The energy and blood located outside the Hand Yangming (LI) channel leave from the arm
and elbow and are directed toward the skin.
Such is the situation of the movements of going and returning and the favorable and
contrary movements located outside and inside the jing (channels), the luo (secondary vessels)
and the skin.
The Hand Taiyin (Lu) is master of the energy of the entire organism and the
100 currents (energetic) gather there. The Hand Yangming is its bowel.
The bowel is yang; its role is to direct the energy and blood outside the channel. The organ
is yin; its role is to direct the energy and blood within the channel.
If the skin is rich in blood and energy, and if the movements of going and returning and
the favorable and contrary movements are perpetual, it is thanks to the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and
Hand Yangming (LI) which are the driving force in the first impetuses. 84.
It is stated: If Wuli (LI 13) receives the blood and energy in an incomplete fashion
coming from the exterior (skin), and if one needles it more than five times, the blood and energy
at the level of the five shu-antique points are destroyed. This is why the text stresses: The
artery located at Wuli is forbidden to be needled. In other words, the blood and energy, always
in motion at the level of the radial pulses, comes from the exterior, and it is Wuli (LI 13) which
brings them into the interior (pulse). By this fact, needling Wuli (LI 13) is strictly prohibited at
the risk of fatal accidents.
The previous paragraph demonstrates the ascending and descending movements of the
yang energy which responds to the ascending and descending energies of heaven, while this
paragraph addresses the entry and exit movements of the blood and energy which respond to the
movements of jing shui (routes of water; rivers) of heaven and earth becoming transformed into
clouds and rain in order to humidify the surface of the earth.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns Wuli (LI 13) of the large intestine channel, forbidden point of
the 5 organs.
Three cun above Chize (Lu 5), that is to say above the elbow, on the external side of the
muscle (biceps), on the large artery of the arm (brachial), Wuli (LI 13) is found, a point which is
forbidden to be needled.
Huangdi questions: One can kill a living man and not resuscitate a dead man. Can you do
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the opposite?
Qi Bo replies: The perfect channels are the Great luos. One waits for them and
monopolizes them. On the other hand, if one waits for Wuli (LI 13), one must stop; if one needles
it five times, and if each time one awaits the arrival of the energy (deqi), the energy of the 5
organs becomes empty. This is why needling Wuli (LI 13), the point which controls the five shu-
antique points of the five organs (5 X 5 =25), comes down to monopolizing the celestial energy.
It is also written: When one needles in front of the door, the patient dies in the house;
and when one enters nearby the door in order to needle, the patient dies on the steps.
In Chapter 1 (9 Needles and 12 yuan) of the Lingshu, it is stated: To monopolize yin is
to provoke death. The explanation is found in Chapter 3 (Explanations of the Little Needles):
That means that Wuli (LI 13) must not be needled more than five times. If one contacts the
artery, the five shu-antique of the five organs (5 X 5 = 25) are paralyzed, and it is death.
In this manner, Wuli (LI 13) is a strictly forbidden point; we must take this into account.
III - N.V.N. :
This paragraph gives the reason why Wuli (LI 13) is forbidden to be needled.
Wuli (LI 13) is an arterial point which controls and maintains not only the pulse
movements of Cun Kou (radial pulses), but also the energetic transformative movements at the
level of the 5 shu antique points of the 5 organs: 5 X 5 = 25; that is to say, the collection of
energy and blood of the organism. This is why it is strictly forbidden to needle it at the risk of
provoking fatal accidents. See the particular pathophysiologies of the points demonstrated by
Zhang and Ma which can be synthesized in the following diagram (Figure 9).
86.
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Figure 9
The returning circulation of blood and energy at the level of Wuli (LI 13).
PARAGRAPH 17

The lung unites with the large intestine. The large intestine
is a bowel of transit, transformation, secretion and excretion.
The heart unites with the small intestine. The small intestine is a
bowel where the food products coming from the stomach are conveyed.
It has the role of separating the pure and impure; for this reason,
its function consists of controlling liquid formation.
The liver unites with the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a bowel of
propriety. It judges all physiologic activities of the organism.
The spleen unites with the stomach. The stomach is a bowel of the
5 cereals. The five sapors originate from there.
The kidney unites with the bladder. The bladder is a bowel where
the organic liquids gather. It is responsible for urinary excretion.
The shaoyang (sanjiao-SJ) belongs to the kidney. At the top, the
kidney is connected to the lung; this is why the kidney coalesces with
these two organs. The sanjiao (SJ) is a faithful and solitary bowel; the
liquid routes originate from there and reach the bladder; it is, then,
bowel called isolated.
87.
Such are the principles of union of the 6 bowels.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
This paragraph defines the systems of yin-yang union of the 6 organs and 6 bowels.
The organs which store the grains and transform them and which excrete the food residues
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and collect the pure water are called bowels.
The large intestine is an excretory organ; the transformations originate there, hence the
name evacuating bowel.
The small intestine is an absorptive bowel. It has the role of propelling the food residues
and handling them in light of transforming them into nutritive substances, hence the name
transformative bowel.
The gallbladder receives the pure liquid, hence the name bowel of Pure water.
The stomach is a depot of cereals, hence the name bowel of the five sapors.
The bladder is an organ of strong concentration; the organic liquids gather there, hence
the name bowel of organic liquid.
In Chapter 61 (Study on the water-heat points) of the Suwen, it is stated: The kidney
belongs to zhi yin, and zhi yin is the site of conservation of water. The lung is taiyin and shaoyin
(Ki) responds to the pulse of winter, having for root the kidney and for summit the lung. The
lung and kidney are organs which receive water. Therefore, the kidney unites on the one hand
with the shaoyang (SJ) which responds to fire, and on the other hand with the lung which responds
to water. This is the reason for which the text states: The kidney coalesces with these
two organs. (8)
The sanjiao (SJ) channel begins at the stomach. A vessel branches to the kidney and ties
up to the xiajiao (LJ). This vessel is solitary. This is why the text states: The sanjiao (SJ) is a
solitary organ. The liquid pathways come from there and reach the bladder.
The zhongjiao (MJ) is the energy of the shaoyang (SJ), that is to say the energy which
produces Budding yang from water.
Ministerial fire of the Hand Jueyin (XB) manifests from kidney-yang and gathers in the
area below the heart in order to form an organ system.
The two kidneys respond to the number 1 corresponding to celestial water and to the
number 2 corresponding to terrestrial fire. One determines them in this manner in order to better
examine them. The shaoyang (SJ = fire) belongs to the kidney, and the kidney is linked to the
taiyin (Lu = water) in such a way that in the kidney-lung-sanjiao system, yin and yang, water
and fire make a pact. yin and yang, water and fire are interdependent with the jing of the five
organs to represent the source of vital energy.
The two kidneys have as a bowel the bladder. As for the sanjiao (SJ), it is linked to the
xinbao (XB) which is why the sanjiao is a isolated bowel.
On the other hand, the sanjiao (SJ) originates from the energy of the shaoyang which
manifests from the kidney organ. This energy spreads everywhere, up to the pores at the exterior,
then returns to the stomach, that is to say,
_ to the shangjiao (Upper Jiao = cardia)
_ to the zhongjiao (middle jiao = fundus)
_ to the xiajiao (Lower Jiao = pylorus).
This is why it is stated:
_ the non-return of the shangjiao (UJ -> cardia) is the cause of sour eructations
_ the non-return of the Zhangjiao (MJ -> fundus) is the cause of dyspepsia
_ the non-return of the xiajiao (LJ -> pylorus) is the cause of urinary incontinence.
The sanjiao (SJ) is an formless energy which spreads everywhere in the organism; it
penetrates there and comes back out from every part, then reaches again the stomach which is an
organ with form. This is why the sanjiao is a specific bowel which has its own channel and its
own points.
The energy of Hand Jueyin (XB-xinbao) is yin-fire originating from the terrestrial
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branches. It also manifests from the kidney organ and returns to the xinbao whose location is
found under the heart. The xinbao plays a role as the official which directs the circulation of
blood in the vessels.
To speak of the energy a priori is to speak of the shaoyang belonging to the kidney; and
to speak of the organ and bowel a posteriori is to speak of the xinbao located under the heart and
of the sanjiao located in the stomach in order to form a distinctive system of energy of the organ
and bowel.
II - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph defines the system of union of the five organs and six bowels.
_ The lung and large intestine are internal-external. The lung therefore unites with the
large intestine channel. The large intestine is a bowel of transit; the products already
metabolized by the small intestine pass there and are driven towards the bottom.
_ The liver and gallbladder are internal-external. The liver therefore unites with the e

8. hence the existence of kidney-yin and kidney-yang (yin function and yang function of the kidney).
gallbladder channel. The gallbladder is a bowel that is filled with Zhong jing (essence of the
center: extremely pure liquid). In effect, the products transformed by the other bowels are
impure substances, except that of the gallbladder which only conserves the pure liquid.
_ The spleen and stomach are internal-external. The spleen therefore unites with the
stomach channel. The stomach is a bowel of cereal liquids (shui-Gu). In effect, the ingested
cereals are received by the stomach 89.
_ The kidney and bladder are internal-external. The kidney therefore unites with the
bladder channel. The bladder is a bowel which contains the organic liquid. In effect, after
ingestion of liquids, the jing qi (energetic essence) flows towards the lungs in order to balance
and bring the liquid pathways towards the bladder which is the bowel of liquids.
The Hand Shaoyang (SJ) belongs to kidney yang and the kidney itself is linked to the
lung. In this manner,
_ the sanjiao (SJ) and kidney yang are at the right side (foot pulse of the right side)
_ the bladder and kidney yin are at the left side (foot pulse of the left side).
In these two cases, it is always the kidney which commands them.
But the sanjiao (SJ) is a bowel which widens the water routes (Zhong Du). This is why the
liquid routes come from there.
In Chapter 8 (Temple of Sacred Books) of the Suwen it is stated: The sanjiao is an
irrigation system; it constitutes the source of water routes of the entire economy. This assertion
defines the role of the xiajiao (Lower Jiao), site of accumulation of water (Du) having the property
of collecting it and making it flow, hence the name Zhong Du.
In the same chapter it is also stated:
_ The sanjiao (SJ) is a bowel of irrigation.
_ The bladder unites with the left kidney and the sanjiao to the right kidney (9).
_ The bladder and the sanjiao have the same function.
But in practice, the bladder and the kidney are reunited in order to form the external-
internal system, while the sanjiao is linked to the Hand Jueyin (xinbao - XB). The sanjiao
therefore is a bowel which is isolated from the kidney.
III - N.V.N. :
The explanations and commentaries of Ma and Zhang bear importance to the laws of the
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5 movements in pulsology:
a) kidney yang and sanjiao must be placed at the foot pulse on the right side in order to
respond to the fire movements which soften metal (Lung).
b) kidney yin and bladder must be placed at the foot pulse of the left side in order to
respond to the water movement which moderates the potential of fire (heart).
Note: In 1969, with Chamfrault, in our Energetic Human, we had already placed the
internal canal of the sanjiao and kidney yang at the foot pulse on the right side.

9. here, Left kidney designates the yin function of the kidney and Right kidney, the yang function of the kidney.
Ignoring this information risks the worst errors.
PARAGRAPH 18 90.

In spring, needle the luomai; these respond to the ying point and
are located between the large channel and the flesh. Needling must be
deep in serious cases and light in benign cases.
In summer, needle the sunluo; these respond the shu point and are
located between the flesh and the skin.
In autumn, needle the he points according to the same methods
used in spring.
In winter, needle deeply the jing and shu points and leave the
needle in place a long time.
Such is the order of needling according to the four seasons in
accordance with the localization of the energy, the location of the
illness and response of the energy of the organ to that of the season.
In the event of cramps, one must needle the patient in the
standing position; cure is immediate.
In the event of impotence and of cold feet, one must needle the
patient supine with limbs well spread out; a sensation of relief is
immediately felt.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
This paragraph defines yin and yang, blood and energy according to the rules of birth,
growth, stagnation, conservation of the four seasons and according to the characteristics of their
movements (deep and superficial, entering and exiting).
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_ In spring, the energy of heaven is born; the energy of man is found in the luo vessels.
This is why one must needle the luomai (secondary vessels).
_ In summer, the energy is found in the sunluo (branches of the luo) and, at the end of
summer, it is found in the flesh (dermis). This is why one must needle the sunluo located
between the flesh and skin. Such is the energy of these two seasons, spring and summer, which
become manifest from interior toward exterior.
_ The energy of autumn descends and becomes condensed. This is why the technique of
needling is the same as that employed in spring; that is to say the needling must be performed at
the luomai in passing by the sunluo.
_ The energy of winter becomes accumulated and conserved. This is why one must needle
deeply and allow the needle to remain in place.
Such is the order of exiting and entering of the energy of the four seasons, of the
localization of the energy of man, of the site of the illness and of the manifestation of the energy
of the five organs responding to that of the five seasons (four seasons + end of summer).
In conclusion,
_ in spring, needle the ying
_ in summer, the shu
_ in autumn, the he 91.
_ in winter, the jing.
Such is the technique known as Mother-Son which consists of using the son in order to
lead the mother (10).
Cramps are involuntary, painful and transitory contractions of a muscle or group of
muscles.
Impotence is a generic name given to the inability or difficulty of using a limb.
Cold feet has the name Jue.
The standing position and distance between the four limbs responds to heaven and earth,
to the four cardinal directions and to the energy of the four seasons, and permits facilitating
energetic movements, therefore correcting certain flows going the wrong way (jue nie). This is why
the texts emphasizes the fact that, in the event of obstruction of the energy and blood causing
spasms or sensations of cold, one must spread the four limbs out so that their energy has the
ability to circulate in accordance with that of the four season.
II - Ma Shi explains:
The energy of the four seasons responds to that of the specific shu-antique points. Those
who judiciously use them can obtain rapid cure.
a) The twelve channels each have a luo point such as Lieque (Lu 7) of the Hand Taiyin (Lu)
and Pianli (LI 6) of the Hand Yangming (LI). The twelve channels each have a ying point such as
Yuji (Lu 10) of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and Erjian (LI 2) of the Hand Yangming (LI). The twelve
channels each have jing point such as jingqu (Lu 8) of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and yangxi (LI 5) of
the Hand Yangming (LI)... .
Consequently, in spring, one must needle the luomai in the space located between the ying
point and the large channel and determine gravity or benignity in order to perform a deep or
superficial needling.
b) The 12 channels each have a shu point such as Taiyuan (Lu 9) of the Hand Taiyin (Lu)
and Sanjian (LI 3) of the Hand Yangming (LI). The sunluo are little branches of the luo. In summer,
one must needle the shu points and the sunluo, located in the space between the skin and flesh.
c) The 12 channels each have a he point such as Chize (Lu 5) of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and
Quchi (LI 11) of the Hand Yangming (LI). In autumn, one must needle the he points and luo points
in the flesh, the ying points and the large muscles, etc; that is to say following the method of
needling in spring.
d) The 12 channels each have a jing point such as Shaoshang (Lu 11) of the Hand Taiyin
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(Lu) and Shangyang (LI 1) of the Hand Yangming (LI). In winter, one must needle the jing point, the
shu points... but it is necessary to needle deeply and leave the needle in place a long time because
the energy of winter has already reached deeply into the interior, to the level of the organ.
Such is the method of needling according to the four seasons, as a function of the
localization of the energy of the channels, of the determination of the location of the illness and of
the response of the energy of the organ to that of the seasons.
III - N.V.N.: 92.
This paragraph defines the needling technique of the shu-antique points according to the
four seasons which consist of taking the son in order to lead the mother.

10. Not to be confused with the Mother-Son technique intended for tonification/dispersion. (See Medecine
Traditionelle Chinoise - N.V.N. Edition).
Example:
As spring corresponds to jing-wood, one must employ the ying-fire point which is the son
of jing-wood. In other words, when the illness is found at the sunluo (branches of the luo in the
superficial layer; skin = spring = jing-wood), one must needle the ying-fire point located within
the layer of the luo (great luo in relation to the sunluo: dermis = summer = ying-fire).
Consequently, the luo points (ex: Lieque lu 7) not belonging to the shu-antique group of
points, as cited by Ma Shi, are not in accordance with the spirit of the text.
In the Lingshu Explained published in 1965 in Shanghai (11), one finds again the same
error.




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11. Translated into French and published by Masson.
93.
CHAPTER III
Explanations of the Little Needles
(Xiao Zhen Jie)
While Chapter 1 of the Lingshu defined the knot and ankle of the Little
Needles, Chapter 3 returns to and explains certain classical terms contained in
Chapter 1. For this reason, Chapter 3 is entitled: Explanations of the Little Needles.
Zhang Shi and Ma Shi present the full text devoid of all commentary because
these have been largely put forward in Chapter 1. Nevertheless, the analysis of this
important chapter seems necessary to us because it concerns the basic fundamental
elements of the practice of acupuncture. In effect, ignorance of them places in
serious question the efficacy of this medical method.
We have already shown in Chapter 1 of the Lingshu the reason for which the
Western translations of this great classic are not very loyal to the thinking of the
original text. In order to preserve the foundations of traditional acupuncture, our
duty is, chapter by chapter, to emphasize and analyze the fundamental notions of
energetic physiology, pathology and therapeutics, still poorly explored because of
difficulties in translation and adaptation by a Western mind of the realities of
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thinking in the Orient.
recall that the Lingshu and Suwen are not philosophical documents and that
each possesses 81 chapters composed of numerous paragraphs holding the key to the
theoretical basis and practice of energetic medicine. It proves, therefore, to be
indispensable to translate them in the most faithful way possible so that researchers
are able to labor on these works without distortion.
Chapter 3 contains 7 paragraphs.
PARAGRAPH 1 93.

_ To speak about is easy ... implies: To discourse on needling is easy.
To practice is difficult means: Needling the human body is difficult.
_ The little worker watches over the form implies: The inferior
physician only knows to base his judgment on the techniques of
needling. The great worker watches over the shen means: The good
physician knows how to appreciate the emptiness and fullness of the
blood and energy of the patient in order to practice tonification and
di spersi on.
_ Mental (shen)... guest (Ke) speaks of the meeting of the perverse
energy and essential energy. shen (mental) designates the essential
energy and Ke (guest), the perverse energy. ... next to the door means to
say: The perverse energy follows the routes of access (entering and
leaving) of the essential energy.
_ Still not determining the illness implies: One must understand
clearly the perverse energy and essential energy and specify clearly
the channel affected. How to know the source insinuates: Before needling,
one must specify the site of the illness at the level of the channel in
order to choose the points.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
N.V.N.:
This paragraph, as well as the following ones, make explicit the information cited in
Chapter 1. This information is an introduction to the fundamental bases of the practice of
acupuncture.
1 - The knot and ankle of the mode of use of the little needles are easy to argue, but
the subtlety of needling is difficult to demonstrate.
2 - The inferior acupuncturist utilizes the needles in mechanical fashion without
reasoning. The good acupuncturist discerns the emptiness and fullness of the blood and energy so
as to tonify the areas of insufficiency or disperse those in excess.
3 - The essential energy is designated under the name of shen (mental) and the perverse
energy under the name of Ke (guest). Stagnation of these two energies within the blood and within
the jingluo is the principal cause of numerous illnesses.
4 - It is absurd to practice acupuncture without deeply delving into the patho-physiologic
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nature of the illness. The diagnosis of the causes and forms of the illness and of the sites affected
are vital in the evaluation of the state of emptiness or fullness of the blood and jingluo in light of
establishing an adequate therapy.
PARAGRAPH 2

_ The art of needling resides in rapidity and slowness means: Needling
must be carried out rapidly or slowly. 95.
_ The little worker watches over guan wishes to say: The inferior
physician only takes into account the 4 limbs and ignores the
movements of going-returning of the blood and energy, of the perverse
energy and of the essential energy. The great worker controls go implies:
The good physician knows how to master the energetic driving force.
The propulsive movements of the go do not leave the points ... means to
say: One must know how to determine the emptiness and fullness in
order to apply a slow or rapid needling. go at the level of the point is subtle
suggests: After needling, once daqi is obtained, one must know how to
conserve it.
_ At the time of arrival, do not go against it implies: At the time of
fullness, tonification is forbidden. At the time of departure, do not go in
pursuit means: At the time of emptiness, dispersion is contraindicated.
_ Do not deviate the slightest... implies: The energy is easily lost.
_ Unable to expel, even by hammering... implies: By failing to
recognize the methods of tonification and dispersion, needling does not
modify the state of insufficiency of the essential energy and blood, and
the perverse energy does not regress.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - N.V.N.:
This paragraph defines the first basic notions of the practice of acupuncture:
1 - The effect of needling depends on the type of manipulation of the needle. The arrival of
the essential energy resides in slow manipulation and rapid manipulation during insertion and
removal of the needle.
2 - The inferior acupuncturist only knows a limited number of points located on the
4 limbs. The qualified acupuncturist wisely utilizes tonification and dispersion and detects the
harmonious and peaceful nature of the energy.
3 - The hole (acupuncture point) is the site of pathophysiologic activity of the blood and
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energy. Knowledge of it permits a diagnostic evaluation of the state of emptiness or fullness of the
blood and energy, and, in this manner, authorizes the good choice of needling technique, slow or
rapid manipulation, during tonification or dispersion.
The reactive phenomena at the level of the points are subtle. During insertion of the
needle, one must observe not only the sensation of daqi, but also the going-returning movements
of the energy in order to avoid technical errors.
4 - If the perverse energy is in fullness, one must not go to meet it in order to tonify.
During its departure, dispersion is strictly forbidden at the risk of provoking an escaping of the
source energy into a state of emptiness.
5 - During insertion and the obtaining of daqi, one must use the appropriate technique
without even the minutest of deviations because this type of daqi easily disappears. 96.
6 - Ignoring the principle of tonification and dispersion often carries with it lost
opportunities like an arrow on a bowstring which is not released at the opportune moment. The
blood and energy of the patient becomes exhausted, and the perverse energy is not eliminated.
PARAGRAPH 3

_ To know the going-returning movements is to know how to determine
the contrary and favorable movements, the insufficient and excess.
The little worker gets lost in the dark shows the incapacity of the inferior
physician to comprehend the fineness and complexity of the energy.
_ Efficacy resides in learning the technique implies the mastering of
acupuncture methods.
_ going is contrary means: the departure of the energy in a state of
emptiness is contrary. return is favorable designates: The returning
movement of the energy in a peaceful and harmonious state is
f avor abl e.
_ To know clearly the contrary and favorable is to act correctly without
error contains the sense of knowledge of the the points to needle,
_ To go in opposition and eliminate is to disperse. To go in pursuit and
help is to tonify.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
N.V.N.:
This paragraph stresses the notions of waiting for the energy, of the favorable and
contrary movements necessary to the application of the methods of tonification and dispersion.
1 - The practice of acupuncture demands the following fundamental knowledge:
_ the going-returning movements of the energy,
_ the rules of contrary-favorable and empty-fullness,
_ the essential nature of waiting for the energy for the purpose of seizing the opportune
moment to perform the needling.
The incompetent acupuncturist ignores these rules and understands neither the fantastic
and subtle effects of the energy nor the mechanism of its functioning.
2 - The qualified acupuncturist knows perfectly the importance of the use of acupuncture
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methods and the meaning of waiting for the energy.
3 - The departure of the perverse energy leaves the essential energy on the spot in a state
of emptiness; it grows weak and has the name of ni (contrary). on the other, the arrival of the
essential energy denotes that it is normal, therefore peaceful and harmonious. One give this the
name shun (favorable). 97.
4 - Comprehension of the importance of the favorable and contrary movements of the
energy no longer creates doubt in the choice of points for therapeutic purpose.
5 - In basing ones judgment on the direction of the circulation of the jingmai (principal
channel), to go in front of the energy and transmit to the needle rotatory movements is the process
of dispersion; to follow the direction of circulation of the jingmai and transmit to the needle
rotatory movements is to master the technique of tonification.
PARAGRAPH 4

_ To render emptiness into fullness means: one must apply the
technique of tonification in the event of emptiness of qi Kou (mouth
of the energy: radial pulse). To excrete that which is full, One must apply
the technique of dispersion in the event of fullness of qi Kou.
_ To eliminate compressions is to dissolve the stagnation of perverse
energy in the jingmai. To render fullness into emptiness is to disperse the
perverse energy in fullness located within the channel.
_ First slow, then rapid, is to render full implies the sense of slow
implantation and rapid withdrawal of the needle (in the case of
tonification). First rapid, then slow, is to render empty implies the sense of
rapid implantation and slow withdrawal of the needle (in the case of
di spersi on) .
_ To speak of emptiness and fullness, like to be or not to be means to say:
To speak of fullness when the energy is present, and to speak of
emptiness when the energy is absent. To examine before and after, like to
lose and not to lose means to say: one must determine the emptiness and
fullness of the energy to order to apply in the first place or second
place tonification or dispersion and to examine for the regression or
persistence of the energy.
_ This is emptiness, this is fullness- like gain and loss means: During
tonification, the subject quivers as if he gained something, and during
dispersion, he jumps as if he lost something.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
N.V.N.:
This paragraph defines the terms used in the techniques of tonification and dispersion.
1 - In the event of emptiness of the radial pulse, one must utilize the method of
tonification to reinforce the potential of the essential energy; and in the event of fullness, one
must utilize the method of dispersion to excrete the perverse energy. 98.
Qi kou is located in the radial groove where jingqu (Lu 8) is found. The lung being the
Mother of energy, the emptiness and fullness of the collection of the energy must be examined
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at this level, hence the name mouth of the energy (qi Kou). Qi kou is located 1 cun (thumb, inch)
from Yuji (Lu 10), which is why it has the name cun kou (mouth at 1 cun).
2 - In the event of chronic compression/stagnation at the level of the channels, one must use the
method of dispersion to dissolve it; and, in the event of illness of perverse energy in an evolutive
period, one must also use the method of dispersion to excrete it by the path of the needle.
3 - Slow implantation and rapid withdrawal of the needle are the actions of tonification.
This method can tonify emptiness and render it full.
Rapid implantation and slow withdrawal of the needle is associated with the method of
dispersion; this technique can eliminate fullness and render it empty.
4 - During tonification in order to render full the essential energy when it is in a state of
emptiness, the subject feels a sensation of heat or warmth at the tip of the needle.
During dispersion in order to render empty the perverse energy when it is in a state of
fullness, the subject feels a sensation of freshness or cold.
This is why, before needling, one must determine the emptiness or fullness in order to
perform, before or after, the technique of tonification or dispersion; at the same time, observe for
the phenomena of regression or persistence of the perverse energy.
5 - During tonification, it is necessary to provoke a feeling of gain in the patient, and,
during dispersion, it is necessary to provoke a sensation of loss in the patient.
PARAGRAPH 5

_ Perverse energy (xieqi) is at the top means to say: the attack of
perverse energy always occurs in the upper part of the body.
_ Impure energy (Zhuo qi) at the center implies: in the course of food
metabolism, the jing (pure energy, essence) of the cereals reaches the
lung, while Zhuo qi (impure energy) passes to the intestines. A diet
disturbance or an exposure to cold or heat after a meal is the origin of
an intestinal ailment.
_ Clear energy (qing qi) is down below means: the humid energy of
earth, during its aggression, always infiltrates into the organism via
the feet.
_ To needle the top implies: needling must be done at Xian Mai
(vessels of the fossa: vessels located at the nucha) in order to eliminate
the perverse energy.
_ To needle Zhongmai (center vessels) means: needle the Ho point of
yangming to disperse Zhuo qi (impure energy). 99.
_ Needling deeply immerses the perverse energy means to say: in the
superficial illnesses, needling must not be deep because the perverse
energy can follow the path of the needle to infiltrate more toward the
i nt er i or .
_ Skin, flesh, muscles and vessels have their location means: The jingmai
have their specific localizations.
_ To needle the 5 vessels is to provoke death implies: in illnesses caused
by insufficiency of energy of the center, use the needle to disperse
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the vessels of the 5 organs is a fatal procedure.
_ To needle the vessels of the 3 yang channels means: dispersion of the
totality of the energy of the 3 yang channels can trigger a grave
weakness that is difficult to restore.
_ To monopolize yin is to also provoke death means to say: Needling
Wuli (LI 13) 5 times in succession is fatal.
_ To monopolize yang is to provoke violent madness implies: the
needling the 3 yang channels causes frenzy.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
N.V.N.:
This paragraph defines 3 types of perverse energy:
_ cosmic perverse energy (xieqi),
_ dietary perverse energy (Zhuo qi),
_ terrestrial perverse energy (qing qi).
1 - Infiltration of cosmic perverse energy (wind-Cold) occurs in the cephalic region, hence
the expression: The perverse energy is at the top.
2 - During food metabolism at the level of the stomach, it transforms the cereals into
energy called terrestrial immediately absorbed by the spleen, which has the essential role of
conversion of this cereal energy into jing (essence) and conducts it to the lung (according to the
mother-son law). The lung has the function of combining the Cereal jing and celestial energy
(air) to transform them into ying (nutritive) energy.
As for the residues of the cereals, they are repelled toward the intestines in order to
undergo a new transformation: the pure energy goes to the kidney by the mesenteric routes and
the impure energy (Zhuo qi, in the form of feces and urine) is evacuated to the exterior (anal and
urinary routes).
A dietary disorder influences digestion and can trigger gastrointestinal pathology. For
this reason, the text states: The impure energy is at the center.
3 - Cold-Damp energy, in order to infiltrate into the organism, always manifests in the
first place at the feet, hence the expression: The clear energy is down below. 100.
4 - Perverse energy always attacks the upper part of the body, particularly the head
region. One must always choose the points of this region to evacuate it by the route of the needle.
5 - To excrete perverse energy lodged in the stomach and intestines, one must always
choose the he point, which is Sanli (St 36) belonging to the earth Channel and earth point.
here, the term Zhongmai does not designate the Chongmai of the curious vessel group, but the
Center Vessel which is none other than the spleen-stomach system because spleen = Center =
earth.
6 - In the external syndromes, deep needling is strictly forbidden. An erroneous
technique does not eliminate the perverse energy, but, to the contrary, helps it to progress toward
the interior to aggravate the illness.
7 -Skin, flesh, muscles and vessels each have their own specific site. These are also the
sites of appearance of the syndromes and therapeutic sites of the jingluo of the entire organism.
8 - In the illnesses of the internal organs, the source energy is always in a state of
insufficiency. Needling done on the yin channels of the 5 organs according to the great
dispersion method always worsens the illness and accelerates death, hence the expression: To
needle the 5 vessels is to provoke death.
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9 - During needling, the non-determination of emptiness and fullness of the 3 yang
channels is the cause of physically exhaustion of the individual which is difficult to restore,
hence the expression: To needle the 3 yang channels is to exhaust the patient.
10 - An erroneous needling of the arterial point Wuli (LI 13), located 3 cun above Chize
(Lu 5), can exhaust the energy of the 5 organs and cause death, hence the expression: To
monopolize yin is to provoke death. (1).

1. See explanation in Chapter 2 (Origin of the shu-antique points) of this Classic.
11 - An erroneous needling of the 3 yang channels can provoke an intense exhaltation
which puts one outside oneself, hence the expression: To monopolize yang is to provoke violent
madness (Kuang).
These therapeutic recommendations are not negligible in acupuncture practice because the
effectiveness of treatment depends on it.
PARAGRAPH 6

_ To observe the complexion of the face and examine the color of the eyes in
order to appreciate the victorious energy and submissive energy; look at the body to
determine what is in motion and what is in repose... means: the great worker
knows all of these problems. ... and to evaluate the beating pulses which can be
small or large, slow or rapid, slippery or rough. This means: examining the
foot pulse and inch pulse allows study of the cause of the illness.
_ To know the essential energy and perverse energy... is to know how to
discern the Empty Perverse and True Perverse. The right hand
implants the needle and the left hand presses' against the side of the point of impact,
etc. means: The method of needling resides in the precise identification
of the opportune moment for the insertion and withdrawal of the
needl e.
_ During the arrival of the energy, remove the needle... implies
that the removal of the needle can only take place after balancing the
energy by tonification or by dispersion; Balancing is realized before and
after... implies: The success of the act of acupuncture can only be
obtained after having knowingly performed the methods of tonification
and dispersion.
_ Articulation/Liason; 365 reunions, etc. implies: the effects of the
permeation of the luomai (secondary vessels) takes place at the level of
the articulations (points).

101.
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
N.V.N.:
Examination of the complexion and pulses, discernment of perverse energy and essential
energy, arrival (daqi) of the energy and removal of the needle, and appreciation of the effect of
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needling at the level of the points of impact are also fundamental components of the practice of
acupuncture.
1 - The good physician examines the body and studies the complexion and change in color
of the eyes (2) in order to determine the benignness and seriousness of the illness. From the
character of the pulse, in particular the small or large, slow or rapid, slippery or rough natures
of the foot and inch pulses, one can evaluate the pathologic state of the patient.
2 - The good physician knows perfectly the agents of aggression which are none other than
Empty perverse or True perverse (3). To eliminate it, and during insertion and removal of the
needle, the use of the right hand and left hand is not the same.
3 - Before implanting the needle, one must wait for the arrival of the energy (daqi) and use
the methods of tonification or dispersion to realize the harmonization of the opening and
closing, of the ending and beginning, of the interior and exterior. Only the devoted
physician can realize it.
4 - The 365 articulations or reunions are the 365 points located in the places called
articular formed by the luomai, carriers of blood and energy from the jinmai (tendino-
muscular channels) to permeate and irrigate the tendons and bones, flesh and skin of the entire
organism.
PARAGRAPH 7 102.

_ The energy of the 5 organs is exhausted in the interior... . This means to
say that qi Kou (mouth of the energy: radial pulse) being in emptiness,
if one needles the he points of the yang channels in order to treat yang
(external) illnesses, or else, if one allows the needle to remain in place
in order to await the arrival of the yang energy, the energy of the
interior will be destroyed. At the moment of death, the subject is calm
because the yin energy is totally absent.
_ The energy of the 5 organs is exhausted at the exterior... means: At the
exterior, the energy of qi Kou being in emptiness, if one needles the
shu points (3rd shu antique point), and if one leaves the needle in place
in order to await the arrival of the yin energy, when it arrives, it
drives the yang energy back toward the interior and provokes a
contrary circulation, responsible for death. At the moment of death, the
subject is agitated because the yin energy is excessive.


2. regarding the color of the eyes, see the explanation of Ma Shi:
The jing (essence) of the 5 organs and 6 bowels gather at the eyes, site of reflection of the colors. The appearance of a
fresh and brilliant color at the eyes is an indication of good health. similarly, a clear speaking voice with clear tone permits
differentiation of the physiologic state and pathologic state.
3. As for Empty Perverse and True Perverse, here is the definition of these phenomena described in the Suwen
(Chapter 26- N.V.N. Edition):
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a) Empty perverse designates the emptiness of the 8 principal astronomic rhthyms which are:
_ spring equinox, _ beginning of spring,
_ autumn equinox, _ beginning of summer,
_ summer solstice, _ beginning of autumn,
_ winter solstice, _ beginning of winter.
b) True perverse designates wind which penetrates into the organism by the sweat glands during a sweat during
physical effort.
In other words, the energy of the four seasons and of the 8 annual divisions profits from the emptiness of the organism in
order to infiltrate there, hence the name Empty Perverse; and, during sweating, opening of the sweat glands favor the penetration
of wind into the organism, hence the name True Perverse.
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
N.V.N.:
This paragraph defines the causes of the Empty nature of the radial pulse and their
consequences.
1 - The very small, very supple and superficial radial pulse only being perceived with a
light touch of the fingers and disappearing with a stronger touch, is the sign revealing emptiness
of the kidney with exhaustion of the marrow and disorder of the jing (essence). It is a sign of
emptiness/destruction of the yin of the interior.
During needling, the choice of the he points of the yang channels and use of the method of
leaving the needle in place in order to tonify the yang energy are harmful to the yin part because
this maneuver augments the exhaustion of the energy of the interior, a fatal phenomena. At the
moment of death, the subject is calm because the energy of the organs is totally exhausted and is
found in the state of Emptiness/Escape.
2 - The very galloping, very soft radial pulse disappearing with a light touch of the
fingers is a grave, pathognomic sign of the yang energy which tends towards exhaustion.
During needling, the choice of the shu points (3rd shu antique point) of the limbs and the
use of the method of allowing the needle to remain in place in order to tonify the yin energy at the
interior is detrimental to the yang energy in a state of emptiness because this maneuver augments
the exhaustion of this energy and traps it in the interior following a flow in the wrong way
(afflux), responsible for death. At the moment of death, the subject is agitated because, relative to
yang, the yin energy is in excess.


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103.
CHAPTER IV

Pathologic Forms of Attack on the Organs
and Bowels by Perverse energy
(xieqi Zang Fu Bing xing)
Chapter 4 of the Lingshu studies the infiltration of perverse energy into
different parts of the organism.
From the differentiation of yin and yang, the etiologic factors of aggression
are multiple. Examination of the complexion and pulse in that case constitutes one of
the fundamental elements of diagnosis.
The 6 types of pathological pulses
_ hurried
_ slow
_ changeable/unsettled
_ small
_ slippery
_ rough
allow solution to the choice of points.
Ma Shi notes: In this chapter, the first 3 paragraphs study the processes of
the attack of perverse energy and the 4th, 5th... describe the pathological forms
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which result, hence the title: Pathologic Forms of Attack on the Organs and Bowels
by Perverse energy (xieqi Zang Fu Bing xing).
This chapter contains 23 paragraphs.
PARAGRAPH 1

Huangdi :
How does perverse energy attack the human body?
Qi Bo: 104.
It attacks the upper part of the body.
Huangdi :
Are its limits the top and bottom?
Qi Bo:
The upper half of the body is attacked by perverse energy, and
the lower half by humidity. This is why it is said: When perverse energy
affects man, it is not localized in a constant way. In attacking yin, it implies towards
the bowel, and, in attacking the yang, it reaches the channel.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph implies the fundamental relationships between the organs and bowels.
yin and yang, complexions and pulse, energy and blood, skin and dermis, jing and luo..., interior
and exterior. The combination of these pieces of information for a therapeutic objective can only
be accomplished by the good physician.
1 - Perverse energy (xieqi) is an energy produced by wind, rain, cold, heat; that is to
say, by an energy originating from heaven (energy of the environment; celestial energy). This
perverse energy attacks the upper part of the body.
2 - Humidity is an energy belonging to water, to earth (terrestrial energy). For this
reason, it attacks lower part of the body.
Briefly, this paragraph concerns the processes of attack of the perverse energy on the
human body differentiated into upper and lower parts. But once within the organism, its site of
fixation is not constant; it hits either the yin or the yang to localize in the bowel or organ. The
problem then becomes very complex.
PARAGRAPH 2

Huangdi :
yin and yang are only different by their names. They are
associated with the same system; the top and bottom are united; the
jingluo traverse the body in a circle without end; perverse energy
infiltrates into the organism at the level of yin or yang, at the top or
down below, to the right or left, without fixed rules. Why?
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Qi Bo:
The places of reunion of the perverse energy are found on the
f ace. Perverse energy only affects man at the moment of emptiness of
his yang or during physical fatigue... . similarly, the opening of the
pores during perspiration after a favored meal also allows infiltration
of perverse energy into the organism.
When it attacks the face, it descends to the yangming; when it
attacks the nucha, it descends to the taiyang; when it attacks the cheek,
it descends to the shaoyang; when it attacks the thorax, back or flanks,
these are the channels which are injured.
Huangdi :
Where does it proceed to attack yin?
Qi Bo:
Generally, the attack of yin starts at the level of the arms and
legs where the skin of the internal surface is thin and the flesh flaccid.
For this reason, attack of the wind is always located at the yin part of
the limbs.
Huangdi :
Can that cause disturbances of the organs?
Qi Bo:
During attacks of the wind, the organs are not necessarily
affected because, when it arrives at the channel, it provokes fullness of
the energy of the organ. Therefore, it is obliged to deviate toward the
bowel .
This is why when perverse energy attacks yang, it flows out into
the channels, and when it attacks the yin, it slips into the bowels.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
1 - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph addresses the problem of the energy and blood at the level of the
epidermo-dermal system linked to the jingluo and the organs and bowels.
1 - yin and yang designates the blood and energy of the organs and bowels. Despite
different names, it constitutes, in reality, a single system, blood-energy.
2 - Top and bottom are united implies the processes of entry-exit and root and
summit.
3 - The jing and luo traverse the body concerns the circulation of ying (nutritive)
energy beginning with the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and ending with the Foot Jueyin (Li); then, from the
jueyin, it returns to the taiyin in order to restart another cycle, realizing, in this manner, a
circle without end.
4 - Top, bottom, left, right ... designates the head, face, arms and feet. Perverse energy
attacks the yang (head, face) or yin (arms and legs). This is why, there are not fixed rules for the
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perverse energy. 106.
5 - The sites of reunion of yang energy are all found on the face. This means to say that
the yang energy arrives at the face in order to reach the orifices.
6 - When perverse energy affects the face, it descends to the yangming; when it affects
the neck, it descends to the taiyang; when it affects the cheeks, it descends to the shaoyang, etc.
These vessels (yangming, taiyang, shaoyang) designate the luo of the 3 yang channels of
the foot and hand; they pass everywhere via the nucha and neck to reach the head and face, then,
encircle the head to redescend to the thorax and abdomen, to the shoulders and back. These parts
of the body constitute the sites of circulation of the luomai of the 3 yang channels.
7 - Skin makes up part of the external area of the body associated with the 3 yang
channels. During the aggression of the perverse energy, it is the skin and dermoskeleton which
are the first affected. The perverse energy remains there before infiltrating into the luomai.
8 - The term it descends ... means that the perverse energy is first found in the skin
which is yang belonging to the sunluo (energetic capillaries) and luo (secondary vessels) before
being directed deeply towards the yang channels. This is why the text states: When the perverse
energy attacks yang, it flows out toward the channels.
9 - Attack of the yin starts ... at the internal surface of the arm and leg, sites of the
circulation of the luomai of the 3 yin; the external surface is associated with yang and the
internal surface with yin. The skin of these areas is thin and the flesh flaccid. For this reason,
the text emphasizes: Attack of yin starts at the internal surface of the arm and leg, that is to
say at the level of the skin belonging to the 3 yin to be directed toward the luomai of the 3 yin.
10 - In Chapter 63 (Discourse on Needling on the Opposite side) of the Suwen, it is
written: When the guest (Ke) perverse energy infiltrates into the organism, it first settles
within the pilocutaneous system. From there, it spreads out or it takes the route of the sunluo
(small luo or interstitial luo); from the sunluo, it spreads out or reaches the luomai (secondary
vessels); from the luomai, it spreads out or reaches the jingmai (principal channels-vessels)
linked to the 5 organs. From these latter, it invades the stomach and intestines. Note, however,
that the vessels of the 5 organs reaches the 6 bowels and that the vessels of the 6 bowels pass to
the 5 organs to constitute the system of mutual relationship of the organs-bowels and of the
jingmai (principal channels-vessels).
11 - The blood and vessels belonging to yin are specific components of the organs.
Infiltration of perverse energy into the jing (channel) is a triggering factor of the fullness of the
energy of the organ which prevents it from staying there. It is forced to divert toward the bowels,
particularly to the stomach and intestines. In this way, once it arrives in the yangming belonging
to the area called Center-earth, site of convergence of the thousand beings, the perverse energy
remains there and does not go elsewhere.
II - Ma Shi comments:
The text clearly explains the process of infiltration of perverse energy into the human
body. If perverse energy infiltrates into the yin channel at the moment when the energy of the
organ is still strong, that is to say in a state of plethora, it is directed towards the bowel. In
contrast, if it penetrates into the yang channel, it circulates within the channel affected. 107.
Huangdis question shows that this is the source of health problems, and Qi Bos reply
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explains to him that the sites of infiltration of perverse energy could be:
_ the upper half of the body, site of attack of wind, cold and heat,
_ the lower half, site of penetration of humidity.
Penetration of perverse energy into the organism does not obey absolute rules. Therefore,
for example, when it infiltrates into the yin channel, it reaches the yangming bowel (St), and when
it infiltrates into the yang channel, it only evolves in the affected channel.
1 - Why does it only evolve only in the affected channel?
All the sites of reunion are found at the face. Perverse energy profits from the state of
emptiness of the organism caused by being overtaxed, by a dietary disturbance or by the opening
of the pores during sweating in order to infiltrate there.
If it attacks the face, it penetrates into the areas belonging to the hand and Foot Yangming
where the points yingxiang (LI 20), Chenqi (St 1), etc. are found. In this case, the text states:
Perverse energy descends into the yangming.
If it attacks the angle of the mandible, it penetrates into the hand and Foot Shaoyang where
the points Tianyou (SJ 16), Tongqi (GB 20), etc. are found. In this case, the text states: The
perverse energy descends into the shaoyang.
The shoulder, back and the 2 sides of the thorax (flanks) are the areas belonging to the 3
yang. When these regions are attacked, the energy is directed toward the channels that are found
there. In this case, the text clarifies: When perverse energy attacks yang (the yang part of the
body), it descends into the corresponding channels.
2 - What is the process of attack of the bowel when perverse energy infiltrates into the yin
channel?
If the perverse energy attacks the yin channel of the hand, the affliction starts at the arm,
and if it attacks the yin channel of the foot, the affliction starts at the leg because, at these sites,
the skin is thin and the flesh is flaccid... . This aggression only involves the yin channels and not
necessarily the internal organs because the energy of the organ is still in fullness; the perverse
energy, not able to transform into guest energy (Ke qi), is pushed away towards the bowel. This
is why the text states: Attack of yin (yin channel) causes that of the bowel.
III - N.V.N.:
Zhang Shis and Ma Shis explanation is very clear. Nevertheless, we emphasize the word
descends used in this paragraph.
In effect, in order to infiltrate into the jing (principal channel), the perverse energy must
pass through the epidermo-dermal system, where the sweat glands, sunluo (small energetic
capillaries) and luo (secondary vessels) are found.
The descent of perverse energy simply represents the movement from the superficial
towards the deep. The interpretation of this word in the sense of movement towards bottom of the
body along the length of the channel is false. 108.
PARAGRAPH 3

Huangdi :
How can the organ be attacked by perverse energy?
Qi Bo:
Worries, sadness, fear and fright injure the heart.
Cold attacks the body and swallowing cold liquids damages the
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lung. Aggression of these two types of cold injures, at the same time, the
interior and exterior provoking an afflux of energy toward the top.
When a fall causing blood stasis in the interior, or else when
there is a strong anger, the energy rises and does not come back down;
it accumulates in the hypochondria and injures the liver.
Blows and injuries, sexual relations during intoxication or an
exposure to wind during perspiration injures the spleen.
Physical effort like lifting a heavy weight, sexual excess or a bath
during perspiration injures the kidney.
Huangdi :
How are the 5 organs when attacked by wind?
Qi Bo:
yin and yang are affected simultaneously. The perverse energy is
victorious at that time.
Huangdi :
good.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph studies the pathological processes of the organs during attack by
perverse energy.
1 - Perverse energy infiltrates into yin and passes to the bowels because the energy of
the organ is still strong and in a state of fullness.
shen qi (mental energy) still being conserved in the interior, the blood and vessels are
full. If the disturbance of the energy is of internal origin, the perverse energy profits from the
state of emptiness to infiltrate into the interior. 109.
wind is the first causal agent of the hundred diseases; it has the power to propagate and
be transformed.
2. yin and yang are affected simultaneously means: the interior and exterior are
disordered together.
The text states: The 8 types of wind follow the emptiness (of the energy of the body) in
order to provoke disease. simultaneous attack of the 3 yin is serious and fatal.
In this way, the internal peturbation of the organs (by psychological and digestive
elements) is a factor favoring attack by perverse energy. This is why the patient always looks to
avoid the wind as one would avoid a projectile (launching stones or arrows).
Briefly, this paragraph is divided into 2 parts:
_ the first part concerns shen-zhi (mental-will) of the interior which must be maintained
_ and the second concerns wind coming from the exterior which must be avoided.
II - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph studies the causes of disease of the 5 organs. They can be of external or
internal origin. But in order for strong perverse energy to infiltrate into the organ, yin and yang
must originally be disordered. This notion completes the previous one, according to which
perverse energy cannot penetrate into the organ when the energy of that organ is in fullness.
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Also, Qi Bo says that the energies do not resemble one another. There are different types
originating from internal peturbations:
a - Worries, sadness, fear and fright which injure the heart.
b - Cold body and cold coming from ice cold drinks which injures the lung.
The presence of these 2 types of cold simultaneously damage the interior and exterior of
the organism causing an energetic afflux towards the top responsible for disease.
c - Falls and contaminated blood accumulations (hematoma) in the interior or strong anger
provoking an accumulation of energy in the hypochondria, which injures the liver.
d - Blows and injuries, sexual relations in a drunken state or exposure to wind while
perspiring injure the spleen.
e - Lifting of heavy weights, sexual excess or bathing while perspiring injures the kidney.
Roughly, such are the diseases of internal origin favoring the penetration of perverse
energy into the organism. In reality, although one speaks of exposure to wind, bathing while
perspiring, etc., disease caused by perverse energy always starts originally by an internal
disturbance. 110.
On the one hand, in order for there to have been an attack on the 5 organs by wind, the
3 yin and 3 yang channels must originally be affected. On the other hand, if a single yin channel
is affected, infiltration of perverse energy into the organ is impossible because the energy of this
organ is in a state of fullness.
PARAGRAPH 4

Huangdi :
The head, face, body, bones and muscles are all related. similarly,
the blood unites with the energy in order to circulate throughout the
entire body. When the climate is cold, the earth is chapped and water
transforms into ice. If this cold is sudden and harsh, it is the hands and
feet that become numb, not the face. Why?
Qi Bo:
The blood and energy of the 12 jingmai and the 365 luo are
directed together toward the face in order to reach the orifices.
The energy jing yang (yang essence) comes back up to face to
attend to vision.
The energy Bie (distinct energy) comes back up to the ears to
attend to hearing.
The energy Tong (Dong) (innate, a priori energy) comes back up
to the nose to attend to the sense of smell.
The energy Zhou (impure energy) created at the level of the
stomach comes back up to the lips and the tongue to attend to the sense
of taste.
The liquid substances follow these energies and gather together at
the face. The skin there is thick, the flesh firm... .
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This is why the weather, even very cold or very hot, cannot
triumph over these energies.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
This paragraph studies the gathering of the blood and energy of the organs and bowels, of
the jing and luo, at the level of the orifices.
1 - The head, face, bones and muscles... energy and blood implies: the blood and energy
of the different parts of the body are identical. 111.
2 - The taiyin makes up part of zhi yin in yin; it responds to the earth and to the 4 limbs.
This is why when the cold is excessive, the earth becomes chapped... and water is transformed
into ice. In man, the hands and feet become numb; this reactive phenomena is due to the effect of
the response of the spleen to influences of earth on the living being.
3 - The blood and energy gather at the face... celestial (climatic) cold and heat cannot
triumph over these energies implies that the yin and yang energies, organic cold and heat, rise
from below toward the top and that the upper half of the body responds to the energies of heaven.
4 - The energy and blood of the jingmai and the 365 luo have their source in the shaoyin
(Ki). They are born of the Foot Yangming (St), are directed toward the Hand Shaoyin (He) and flow
out toward the Hand Taiyin (Lu)... .
jing yang (yang essence) is the jing-shen energy (mental essence) of the heart and
kidney; at the top, it reaches the eye to form the pupil.
Bie qi (distinct or different energy) is also the energy of the heart and kidney, but
it deviates towards the ear to attend to hearing.
Tong qi (innate or ancestral energy) is the great energy (Daiqi) coming from the
kidney. It accumulates in the thorax and reaches the lung to fulfill its respiratory function, then
passes to the nose to attend to the sense of smell.
Zhou qi (impure energy) is the jing energy of the cereals. It comes from the stomach
and ascends to the lips and tongue to attend to the sense of taste.
All the liquid substances of the energy flow towards the face ... This means to state that
the organic liquids follow the energy up to the face to make the skin and dermoskeleton shiny,
then gather at the orifices.
The lung governs the skin and responds to heaven; the spleen rules the flesh and responds
to earth. The skin is thick and the flesh is firm ... implies: the cold and heat energy of
heaven cannot prevail over that of man... . This means to state that the human energy defeats the
celestial (climatic) energy.
In conclusion, this paragraph defines the head and face as the site of reunion of the
energies of the 3 yang channels. But when it is concerns the yin energy and yang energy, of cold
and of heat, these go from the bottom upwards; this is why the study of the energy of the channels
must be completed by that of the jing (essence) of the different organs.
II - Ma Shi explains:
If the face can withstand the cold, it is because it is the site of gathering of the organic
liquids.
If the head, face and body form a whole, it is because the bones are bound by the tendons
and muscles and that they are irrigated by the same blood and the same energy. In principle,
when it is cold or hot, in all the parts of the body one must feel the same sensation of cold or heat;
then how is it that the hands and feet become cold while the face does not? 112.
Qi Bo replies:
Man has 12 jing and 365 luo and places called orifices (eyes, ears, nose, mouth) which
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are all located on the face. These are the site of gathering of the energy of the organic liquids; the
skin there is thick and the flesh firm; this is why excessive cold and heat cannot attack the face.
III - N.V.N.:
According to Quin Yue ren (also known as Bian Que), the face is the only part of the body
that can withstand the cold.
In effect, the cranium is the site of reunion of the yang channels. The yin channels
distribute to the neck or thorax, then return toward the bottom. Only the yang channels arrive at
the cranium. For this reason, the face withstands the cold.
This explanation appears incomplete to us because the head and face are also the sites of
gathering of the jing energy (essence) of the 5 organs.
PARAGRAPH 5

Huangdi :
What are the clinical manifestations during infiltration of the
perverse energy into the organism?
Qi Bo:
The attack by Empty Perverse (Xu Xie) manifests by piloerection
and shivers.
Attack by True Perverse (Zheng Xie) is indicated by a slight
change in complexion; the clinical signs are also imprecise like to be
or not to be, to persist and to disappear, without form and with
form. The situation is confusing... .

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph studies the confrontation of cosmic energy and human energy.
heaven has 6 energies: wind, cold, heat, humidity, dryness and fire. Man also has these 6
energies. This is why when True Perverse (Zheng Xie) attacks man, the complexion is slightly
altered because the complexion is the color of the energy. As for the bodily manifestations, they
are more imprecise like being or not being.
113.
The 6 energies of heaven are classified as:
_ Empty Perverse (Xu Xie)
_ True Perverse (Zheng Xie).
Empty Perverse energies belongs to Ba Zheng (8 astronomic rhythms = 8 cardinal
directions), and True Perverse energies are the seasonal energies of the year (see Chapter 2).
In total, this paragraph studies the infiltration of perverse energy. Disease sometimes
manifests at the level of the qi (energy) with change in complexion, sometimes at the level of xing
(form) with change in the pulse.
Sometimes the disease of the energy becomes reflected at Chi Fu (region which extends
between the elbow and wrist), sometimes that of the form at the foot (Chi) pulse, sometimes at
the inch (Cun) pulse.
Perverse energy can transform unexpectedly, and in man it can materialize or not. It is
therefore difficult to apprehend it. Only circumstantial reasoning allows its determination; such
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is the behavior of the experienced and qualified physician.
Yu shi clarifies: Zheng qi (True Perverse) of heaven have their cold, heat, humidity,
dryness ... predominance. This is why it carries the name True Perverse.
II - Ma Shi comments:
When perverse energy attacks man, the True Perverse (Xu Xie) is generally perceived
and the Empty Perverse (Zheng Xie) (1) is difficult to feel.
According to Chapter 26 of the Suwen (Ba Zheng shen Ming lun: The Eight Astronomic
Rhthyms): The Empty Perverse designates wind in a state of emptiness coming from Ba Zheng
(8 cardinal directions). As for the True Perverse, for example, in the course of physical
overwork with abundant sweating and opening of the pores, the attack of wind is usually
temporary and benign, explaining the difficulty in describing it.
PARAGRAPH 6

Huangdi :
I have understood it said that:
_ examination of the complexion in the determination of the
disease is called Ming (percepti on).
_ palpation of the pulses in the determination of the disease is
designated Chen (geni us). 114.
_ questioning the patient in the determination of the disease is
designated by the name gong (good worker; qualified physician).
In order to go thoroughly into these methods: examine the
complexion, palpate the pulses, question the patient ... What should I
do?
Qi Bo:
The complexion, pulses and Chi (Chi Fu)... are 3 components
repercussing like drumstick and drum, shadow and echo, exactly
replicated. It is also like the relationship between root and summit; if
the root dies, the leaves dry up.
The complexion and pulses, form and flesh, cannot be considered
separately. To know one of these components is gong; knowing two of
them is Chen; knowing three is Mi ng.
Huangdi :
I would like you to clarify the advantage for me .
Qi Bo:
The greenish complexion responds to the tense pulse.
The red complexion responds to the cramped pulse.
The yellowish complexion responds to the changing pulse.
The whitish complexion responds to feather pulse (superficial).
The blackened complexion responds to the stone pulse (deep).
If, upon examining the pulses, one detects at the place of the
corresponding pulse the pulse coming from the victorious chain
(chain of inhibition), it is death. In contrast, the appearance of the
pulse coming from the productive chain (chain of stimulation) is
c ur e .
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1. See also definition of Empty Perverse and True Perverse, page 85, footnote 3.
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph studies the relationship between the complexion, pulse and Chi (Chi
Fu) which are intimately linked like drumsticks and drum, shadow and echo... .
1 - The 5 bright complexions are the reflection of the essence energy (jing qi).
The pulses are the result of the circulatory movements of ying-blood.
here, Chi designates a type of energy and blood circulating outside the channels
following the luo routes of the Hand Yangming (LI) and associated with the level of Chi Fu (area
located between the elbow and wrist) of one part, and of the other part, another type of energy and
blood circulating in Hand Taiyin (Lu) and belonging to Chi-Cun (foot-inch).
These types of energy and blood are none other than the energy and blood produced at the
level of the stomach and 5 organs. They are intimately linked like root and summit.
115.
2 - Form, flesh ... designate Chi Fu.
Knowing these three essential pieces of information (complexion, pulse and Chi), the
practitioner is at once genius (Chen) and perceptive (Ming).
3 - Green, yellow, red, white and black are the colors of the energies of the 5 organs and
5 movements.
Tense, cramped, slippery, superficial and deep designate the pulsologic natures of these
organs and movements.
Because they reflect like shadow and echo, the green complexion responds to the tight
pulse, the red complexion to the cramped pulse, etc. The lone examination of the complexion
allows the determination of the corresponding type of pulse, like Kun ( : earth) responding
to Quan ( : heaven).
If with a green complexion, one finds a superficial (feathery) pulse, and if with a red
complexion one finds a deep (stone) pulse, etc., it is death because these pulses issue from the
victorious (inhibitory) chain of yin and yang. In contrast, the green complexion associated with
a deep pulse, the red complexion associated with a changing pulse, etc. are signs of cure because
these pulses originate from the chain of production (stimulation); yang produces yin in
accordance with the Dao of birth of yang and growth of yin.
III - N.V.N.:
remember the two types of pulses:
_ the pulse responding to the 4 seasons (normal pulse)
_ pathologic pulses.
a - Pulses of the 4 seasons:
These pulses are in agreement with the complexion:
_ with the appearance of green color, the pulse is tense, and long (liver pulse).
_ with the appearance of red color, the pulse is cramping excessive on arriving and
insufficient on departing (heart pulse).
_ with the appearance of yellow color, the pulse is changing and supple (spleen pulse).
_ with the appearance of white color, the pulse is superficial and light (Lung pulse).
_ with the appearance of black color, the pulse is deep and firm (kidney pulse).
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b - Pathologic pulses
These are not in agreement with the complexions:
_ pulse coming from the chain of production of yin, yang and the 5 movements. Example:
the deep pulse of the liver is a reactive pulse coming from the kidney. When water (kidney)
stimulates wood (liver), it indicates cure.
_ pulse coming from the chain of destruction. Example: The superficial pulse of the liver
and a reactive pulse coming from the lung. In effect, attack of wood (liver) by metal (Lung) is a
fatal sign.
116.

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Figure 10
Radial pulse and Chi Fu
PARAGRAPH 7

Huangdi :
From the attack of the organs, what is the evolution of diseases?
Qi Bo:
It is necessary to determine the agreement of the 5 complexions
and 5 pulses before any study on the evolution of the diseases.
Huangdi :
Once complexion and pulse is determined, how do you practice?
Qi Bo:
By a meticulous examination of the nature of the pulses, late,
hurried, changing, small, slippery, rough, one can determine the evolution of
the disease.
Huangdi :
How does one examine them?
Qi Bo:
When the pulse is hurri ed, the Chi area of the skin is also
hur r i ed. 117.
When the pulse is l ate, the Chi area of the skin is also late.
When the pulse is smal l , the Chi area of the skin is reduced and
the energy there is weak.
When the pulse is changi ng, the Chi area of the skin is raised.
When the pulse is sl i ppery, the Chi area of the skin is also
s l i pper y.
When the pulse is rough, the Chi area of the skin is also rough.
These modifications are minimal or considerable. In this manner,
by the lone examination of Chi, one can manage to do without the use
of the Cun (inch pulse), and by the lone examination of the pulse
one can manage without the study of the complexion; but their
association for therapeutic purpose permits one to become a great
pr act i t i oner .
The excellent practitioner cures 9 cases out of 10.
The good practitioner who uses these 2 methods cures 7 of 10 cases.
The poor practitioner who uses one of these two methods cures 6
cases out of 10.
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EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph studies the diseases of the 5 organs whose evolution must be evaluated by
a precise examination of the colors and pulses.
1 - Once the colors and pulse are determined one begins by examining the Chi Fu
pulse (pulse reflecting at the level of the Chi zone up to the point Chize- lu 5), the Chi
(foot) pulse and Cun (inch) pulse.
The energy and blood at the level of Chi Fu originates from the jing substance (essence)
of the grains of the stomach which is directed toward the deep channels of the organs and bowels
and spreads to the skin.
2 - The energy and blood at the level of Cun Kou (radial pulse) and the Chi pulse (foot
pulse) also originates from the jing substance of the cereals metabolized by the stomach. This
flows out into the organs and bowels and into the jingmai and appears at the radial pulses
belonging to the Hand Taiyin (Lu). By this fact, blood and energy originate from the 5 organs. This
is why when the pulse is hurried, the skin of Chi is hurried as well; when the pulse is late, the
skin of Chi is late as well. These reactive phenomena are as spontaneous as that of the reflection
of drumsticks on the drum, of shadow and echo.
118.
3 - In this manner, when one carefully examines Chi, it is not necessary to examine the
Cun Kou pulse, and when one examines well the pulse, one does not need to examine the
complexion. But if one associates these two processes for therapeutic purpose, one becomes a great
practitioner.
The numbers begin with 1 (odd) and 2 (even). Their union (1 + 2) forms 3 whose double
(3 + 3) is 6 and whose product (3 X 3) is 9. Such is the Dao of the 3 Cun (inch: unity of
superficial = 2 m
2
40 , being: 2 m
2
40 x 3 = 7 m
2
20) and of the 3 Ju (first three principles).
The number 1, number of birth, and 10, number of transformation, the concordance and
union of yin and yang, are the numbers of the Ha Du of the I jing (Book of Changes).
II - Ma Shi comments:
This chapter defines the agreement of complexion, pulse and disease. Perfect
comprehension of these three principles proves to be difficult. This is why the text specifies:
To examine the complexion and to know the disease is Ming (clear-sightedness), to
palpate the pulse and to know the disease is Chen (genius), to question the subject and to know
the disease is gong (common).
This is due to the speed of the response of the complexion, pulse and Chi like that of the
drumsticks, of shadow and echo, of root and summit, of root and summit... . To know one of these
methods is common; to know two is genius; to know three is at one time genius and clear-sighted.
How do you explain this?
The liver, whose complexion is green, answers to wood; its pulse must be tense.
The heart, whose complexion is red, answers to fire; its pulse must be cramped.
The spleen, whose complexion is yellow, answers to earth; its pulse must be changing (Da).
The lung, whose complexion is white, answers to metal; its pulse must be superficial.
The kidney, whose complexion is black, answers to water; its pulse must be deep.
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In contrast, if the pulse is not in agreement with the complexion and it presents in the
form of victorious pulse (like the green complexion with the superficial, rapid and short pulse),
one is in the presence of the phenomenon of destruction: metal (Lung) destroys wood (liver). The
disease becomes worse.
If the complexion accompanies a deep, full and slippery pulse, one is in the presence of
the phenomenon of production: water (kidney) produces wood (liver). The disease disappears.
This is why, despite the diversity of pathological aspects in the course of the evolution of
a disease, one can always analyze and determine them according to the complexion and pulse 119.
In total, to analyze and determine the pathological aspects of the disease consists of examining
and studying the late, hurried, changing, small, slippery and rough nature of the foot (Chi)
pulse and the state of Chi Fu. In this way, the complications of the evolution of the the disease
which are tiny or important can be diagnostically assessed because:
_ via the foot pulse (Chi), one can determine the inch pulse (Cun),
_ and via the pulse, one can determine the complexion.
In other words, by the pulse and complexion, one can judge the disease. Also, in Chapter
25 of this classic it is stated: By the sole appreciation of the late, hurried, changing, small,
slippery and rough nature of the foot pulse and the state of Chi Fu, one can already evaluate the
state of the disease.
The physician utilizing these three methods is a great worker; the one who utilizes two is
a good worker and that one utilizes only one is a little worker. One distinguishes these three
categories of physician by the percentage of cures: 9/10, 7/10 and 6/10.
III - N.V.N.:
1 - The changing pulse or Da pulse has been translated by German and French
sinologists as large pulse which does not conform to the thinking of the text. In this paragraph,
it concerns a pathological pulse called changing pulse which stops at regular intervals. See the
explanation of this pulse in Chapter 5 of this classic and in the Mai jing (Classic of Pulses, N.V.N.
Edition).
2 - We emphasize the presence of Chi Fu (see explanation of Zhang Shi, Paragraph 6).
PARAGRAPH 8

Huangdi :
What are the characteristics of the late, hurried, changing,
small, slippery and rough pulses?
Qi Bo:
That His Majesty allows me to demonstrate the pulses during the
course of the evolution of the disease of the 5 organs!
The very hurried pulse of diseases of the heart is the sign of
contracture and muscular laxity (Che Zong; spasm); if it is barely
hurried, it is the sign of cardialgia with dorsal radiation.
The very late pulse of the disease of the heart is the indicator of
the smile or silent laugh; if it is barely late, it is a sign of Fu Liang
(accumulation of energy of the heart in the form of tumor)
characterized by rising and descending movements, sometimes with
hemat emesi s 120.
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The very changing pulse of the disease of the heart is the sign of
congestion of the throat with respiratory noises; if it is barely
changing, it is a sign of Xin Bi (obstruction of the energy of the heart)
with cardialgia with dorsal radiation and tearing.
The very small pulse of the disease of the heart is the sign
revealing vomiting (Yue); if it is barely small, it is the sign of Jiao Dan
(overheating of the San Jiao- SJ); emaciation.
The very slippery pulse of the disease of the heart the sign of
polydipsia; if it is barely slippery, it is a sign of Xin Shan (heart pains)
wi t h umbilical radiation and boborygmi.
The very rough pulse of the disease of the heart is the sign of
aphonia; if it is barely rough, it is the sign of overflowing of the blood
(hemorrhage) with icy limbs (wei Jue), buzzing in the ear and cranial
ailments (headache of the vortex).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph studies the 6 types of evolution of disease of each of the 5 organs. These
afflictions are of a different nature when it is a matter of externally-caused syndromes by the
cold or when it is a matter of internally- caused syndromes by worry, fear... . The pulses called
late, hurried, unsettled, small, slippery and rough are the particularities belonging to yin and
yang, to the energy and blood of the 5 organs; they are defined in Paragraph 13 (see further on):
Usually
_ the hurried pulse is caused by cold,
_ the late pulse, by heat,
_ the changing pulse, by the abundance of the energy and shortage of blood,
_ the small pulse, by insufficiency of energy and blood,
_ the slippery pulse, by abundance of yang energy with slight fever,
_ the rough pulse, by abundance of energy and insufficiency of blood with not much cold
(shivers)..
1 - The heart responds to the fire organ. Excessive cold can bring about Che Zong
(shivering of the limbs) because the articulations are the sites of entering-exiting of the shen qi
(mental energy). Stated otherwise, it is the cold that injures the shen qi provoking spasm and
laxity of the limbs with a very hurried pulse.
The barely hurried pulse of the heart is the sign of cardialgia with dorsal radiation. It
is hurried because the shen qi is damaged, and it is barely hurried because the royal palace is
affected.
During the production of food energy of the stomach, Zhou qi (impure energy) is directed
towards the heart to provoke there an afflux of energy towards the top. This is why the food
products cannot descend.
2 - The very late pulse of the heart is the sign of the excess of the energy of the heart.
The heart conserves the shen; when the shen is in excess, the laugh is uninterrupted.
Fu Liang is an ailment characterized by an accumulation caused by an energetic excess
in the region under the heart. The barely late pulse is an indicator of the attack of this region.
The heart governs the blood. This is why the dissemination of heat in this region of the
heart causes hematemesis.
121.
3 - Tong qi (innate energy or thoracic energy) accumulates in the thorax and
communicates with the vessels of the heart in order to carry out respiratory function. When the
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energy of the heart is in fullness, respiration is strong and loud, and when this energy is barely
in fullness it produces the opposite phenomena in the region under the heart to activate Xin Bi
(obstruction of the energy of the heart and cardialgia) with dorsal radiation. These phenomena can
reach the eyes to provoke tearing.
4 - In the emptiness of the heart, the weakening of fire-earth energy (heart-spleen
system) causes vomiting (Yue) (2).
The 5 organs produce jing (essence). If the blood and energy of these organs are in
insufficiency, the organic liquids become exhausted, hence: Jiao Dan (overheating of the
sanjiao- SJ; dehydration, polydipsia and weight loss).
Jiao Dan is a disease of the sanjiao (SJ) whose shangjiao (Upper Jiao) belongs to the heart-
lung, zhongjiao (middle jiao) to the spleen-stomach system and xiajiao (Lower Jiao) to the liver-
kidney system.
5 - The very slippery pulse of the heart is the indicator of excess energy of the heart
with heat formation. If this excess is located in the upper of the body, it causes thirst. If it is
barely slippery, this excess is located down below; it is the origin of cardialgia with abdominal
bloating.
6 - The heart governs speech. Dysarthria therefore comes from the insufficiency of energy
of the heart. On the other hand, the excess of energy and blood causes overflowing of the blood
(hematemesis).
The heart is taiyang in yang. Insufficiency of yang energy produces frozen feet and hands.
South responds to the color red and communicates with the heart, and opens the ears.
This is why emptiness of the heart is the origin of buzzing in the ear (tinnitus) and cranial
ailments (ex: cephalgia of the vortex).
jin Qui (Box of gold) states: The 5 organs each have 18 forms of disease, making a total of
18 x 5 = 90 diseases because each organ has 6 types of complications, making 3 x 6 = 18 forms of
disease.(3)
Yu Shi adds: Late, hurried, changing, small, slippery and rough are 6 qualities of the
pathological pulse. The organs, therefore, have: 5 x 6 = 30 and 30 x 3 = 90 forms of disease. Only
the scholar understands this information; this is why only the qualified physician can cure
9 times out of 10.
. 122.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph is devoted to the study of the changes of the pulses during the course of
the evolution of the disease of the 5 organs and starts with the pathologic pulses of the heart.
These pulses are described according to their characteristics: hurried, late, changing, small,
slippery and rough responding to change in symptoms.
In this manner, for example:
1 - The hurried pulse belongs to the liver.
But here, the very hurried pulse of the heart is an indicator of infiltration of perverse
wind into the heart, triggering factor of spasm (Che) and muscular laxity (Zong), terms
corresponding in our era to convulsions, acute or chronic.
If the heart pulse is barely hurried, it is an indicator of cardialgia with dorsal radiation
and trouble swallowing.
In the case of the very hurried pulse, the illness settles in the interior with external
manifestations: contracture and muscular laxity (Che Zong), and in the case of a barely hurried
pulse, the illness is benign and the clinical signs are internal: cardialgia.
2 - The late pulse belongs to the spleen.
If the illness of the heart is signaled by a very late pulse, it is the sign of gathering of
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earth energy and perverse energy at the level of the heart which activates the illness Insane-

2. Some authors translate Yue as eructation (!?) which does not conform to the thinking of the text.
3. here, 3 designates the number of the trilogy, heaven-earth-Man, acting as factors in disorders .
Laugh (to laugh like a madman).
The heart governs the voice and laughter. But to laugh like a madman is the sign of loss
of the mind.
If the heart pulse is barely late, it is the sign revealing the presence of Fu Liang
(energetic accumulation in the form of a movable tumor), sometimes accompanied by blood-tinged
salivation.
The very late pulse is the sign of worsening of the illness. On the other hand, if the pulse
is barely late, the illness is chronic and transforms into Fu Liang.
3 - The changing pulse belongs to the heart.
The very changing pulse of the heart is the sign indicating an overflowing of fire of the
heart with respiratory noises (crepitant rales).
If the pulse of the heart is barely changing, it is the sign of Xin Bi (obstruction of the
heart energy with cardialgia) radiating dorsally with tearing.
Because the energetic system of the heart is linked to the laryngopharyngeal apparatus,
the back and eyes, the very changing pulse is the sign of abnormal respiratory sounds, and the
barely changing pulse is the sign of cardialgia radiating dorsally with tearing.
4 - The small pulse is contrary to the changing pulse.
The very small pulse of the heart denotes an insufficiency of energy of this organ; in this
case, the spleen is not maintained, hence vomiting (Yue). 123.
A barely small pulse of the heart is the sign revealing dryness of the organic liquids, that
is to say, of the illness Jiao Dan (overheating of the sanjiao- SJ; dehydration).
5 - The slippery pulse is contrary to the rough pulse.
The very slippery pulse of the heart indicates an excess of fire of the heart with thirst
(polydipsia).
A barely slippery pulse is the sign of Xin Shan (cardialgia and peri-umbilical pain)
with boborygmi.
6 - The very rough pulse belongs to the lung.
The very rough pulse of the heart is the sign of overheating of metal by fire and vice versa
hence, dysarthria.
A barely rough pulse of the heart is the sign revealing disorder of the blood with
overflowing (hemorrhage); the yinwei and yangwei vessels (4) then are cooled down causing
buzzing (tinnitus) and cranial ailments. These are due to the insufficiency of fire of the heart
with invasion of metal. This is why the very rough pulse is the sign of insufficiency just as easily
in the interior as at the exterior, and the barely rough pulse denotes an intricacy of external
signs.
III - N.V.N.:
This paragraph, 8, and the following ones (9, 10, 11 and 12) define the 6 pathological
characters of the pulses: hurried, late, changing, small, slippery and rough. Each character is
studied according to the degree of attack of the organ; ex: very hurried pulse of the heart and
barely hurried pulse of the heart.
This comparative study is fundamental to the comprehension of the natures of the pulse.
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4. These vessels make up part of the curious vessels (Ba qi Mai).
PARAGRAPH 9

The very hurried pulse of the disease of the lung is the indicator of
cranial ailments (Dian Xi); if it is barely hurried, it is the sign of attack
on the lung by cold-heat with such symptoms as: fatiguability, cough,
blood-streaked expectoration, thoraco-dorsalgia with radiation to the
lumbar region, or nasal polyps with difficulty breathing.
The very late pulse of the disease of the lung is the sign of excessive
sweating; if it is barely late it is the sign of amyotrophy/myatrophy (wei),
adenititis (shu Lou), hemiplegia (Tian Feng) and unremitting perspiration
from the head to the back.
124.
The very changing pulse of the disease of the lung is the sign of leg
edema; if it is barely changeable, it is Fei-Bi (obstruction of the energy
of the lung) with thoraco-dorsalgia and photophobia.
The very small pulse of the disease of the lung is the sign of diarrhea;
if it is barely small, it is the sign of Jiao Dan (overheating of the
sanjiao- SJ).
The very slippery pulse of the disease of the lung is the sign of
Xi Bun (accumulation of the energy of the lung) with dyspnea
followed by ascent of the energy; if it is barely slippery, it is the sign of
overflowing of blood (hemorrhage) just as easily at the top as down
bel ow.
The very rough pulse of the disease of the lung is the sign of
hematemesis; if it is barely rough, it is the sign of cervical and axillary
adenitis (shu Lou); the bottom not being able to defeat the top is the
origin of the disease Zan (disorders of motility).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - The lung belongs to metal-Coolness. It fears the cold; a great cold is the origin of
cranial ailments (cephalgia).
Attack of the lung by Cold-heat implies the skin is affected. In effect, the fixation of
cold at the level of the pilocutaneous system is the cause of a hurried pulse.
The lung is the master of the energy. signs like: fatiguability, cough and expectoration,
lumbar, dorsal and thoracic pains, nasal polyps and nasal obstruction... are signs of wind-Cold.
2 - The late pulse of disease of the lung is the sign of excess heat, hence abundant
sweating.
When the lung is affected by heat, the lobes dry out triggering wei ailments (atrophic
impotence).
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Zhou Lou (adenitis) are of Cold-heat origin; their root is found in the lung organ,
and their summit in the channel-vessel. This is why the barely late pulse is the sign of the
presence of heat, and the barely rough pulse, the presence of cold. As a result, these pulses
indicate the presence of cervico-axillary adenitis.
The lung is master of the energy of the entire organism and commands the hundred
vessels. Because of the opening of the pores, sweat flows out abundantly from the head to the
bottom.
From the head to the bottom implies the following regions: neck, nucha, thorax and back
which are controlled by the energy of the lung.
125.
3 - The changing pulse of the disease of the lung signifies abundance of energy and
shortage of blood. When the energy is plethoric at the lower part of the body, it is cervical
arthritis which is set up at the top, and when it is slightly in excess at the upper part, it causes
Fei Bi (obstruction of the lung energy) with thoraco-abdominal pains, followed by a blockage of
the energy coming from down below.
The light is the fire of taiyang. Insufficiency of yin-blood provokes fear of the light
(photophobia). In this case, one says metal fears fire.
4 - The small pulse of the disease of the lung is the sign of emptiness of the blood and
energy responsible for diarrhea because the lung and large intestine constitute a yin-yang,
interior-exterior system.
If it is slightly small or barely small it is the sign of the ailment Jiao Dan (overheating
of the sanjiao- SJ: dehydration, polydipsia) because the lung is the source of the production of the
organic liquids.
5 - The slippery pulse of the disease of the lung indicates an excess of yang energy,
triggering factor of Xi Bun (accumulation of the energy of the lung). If it is barely slippery, it
is the sign of overflowing of blood (hematemesis) just as easily at the top as down below. This is
due to a propulsion of blood by energy.
6 - The very rough pulse indicates an abundance of blood and shortage of energy. In this
case, the blood is no longer centralized by the energy, hence chaotic circulation causing
hematemesis.
Zan is an ailment of yin-Cold characterized by a progressive degradation of the essential
energy provoking disturbances of motility. In effect, the lung is master of the energy whose
source is located down below. In the event of insufficiency of energy, the bottom no longer has the
capacity to respond to the top, hence trouble walking.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph studies the different pathological pulses of the lung.
1 - The hurried pulse is a pathologic pulse belonging to the liver.
Illness of the lung is characterized by a very hurried pulse when the perverse energy of
wood-liver invades the non-victorious zone (area not commanded by metal-lung: cephalic zone)
triggering cranial ailments (Dan Xi).
The barely hurried pulse of the lung heralds an attack of the lung by Cold-heat
characterized by the following signs: asthenia, cough with thoraco-dorso-lumbar pains,
hemoptysis, nasal polyps with stuffed up nose. These signs originate from the emptiness of lung
energy and fullness of perverse energy.
The hurried pulse of the lung is the indicator of a severe and deep infiltration of perverse
energy, hence cough. In contrast, if it is barely hurried, the progression of perverse energy is
slow and can cause other illnesses.
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126.
2 - The late pulse is a pathological pulse belonging to the spleen.
Illness of the lung presents with a very late pulse, when the spleen is poorly maintained
by the blood. In a state of insufficiency, spleen-earth cannot maintain lung-metal, hence illness
of Empty-Cold.
On the other hand, the barely late pulse of the lung is the sign indicating atrophic
impotence (wei), adenitis (Zu Lou), hemiplegia (Tian Feng), and continuous perspiration from the
head to the feet.
When the pulse is very late, the illness rapidly progresses with a excessive Empty-Cold.
When the pulse is barely late, the illness is chronic with a complete clinical picture.
3 - The changing pulse is a pathological pulse belonging to the heart.
Illness of the lung presents a very changing/unsettled pulse when metal is overheated by
fire-heart and kidney-water dries up; the legs are edematous.
The barely changing pulse of the lung is the sign of obstruction of the lung energy (Fei Bi)
with fear of fire and light.
When it is very changing, heart, lung and kidney are simultaneously affected.
Leg edema indicates the simultaneous attack of the interior and exterior.
4 - The very small pulse is contrary to the changing pulse.
Illness of the lung presents a very small pulse when the center energy (Zhong qi) is in
great insufficiency causing diarrhea.
The barely small pulse of the lung is the sign of Jiao Dan (overheating of the sanjiao-SJ:
dehydration, emaciation).
In the case of the very small pulse of the lung, earth and metal are simultaneously in
insufficiency causing diarrhea. On the other hand, the barely small pulse indicates the
benignness of the illness. In that case, Jiao Dan only manifests in the areas associated with the
lung.
5 - The slippery pulse is contrary to the rough pulse.
Illness of the lung presents a very slippery pulse when there is excess of fire; the illness
is serious and transforms into Xi Bun (accumulation of the energy of the lung with forceful
cough).
A barely slippery pulse is the sign of invasion of the lung and large intestine by fire,
causing hemorrhages as easily above as below (epistaxis and melena).
When the slippery pulse designates the state of the energy, it affluxes toward the top and
cannot descend. On the other hand, when it is barely slippery, it responds to the state of the
blood; it affluxes just as easily toward the top as toward the bottom.
6 - The rough pulse is a pathologic pulse specific to the lung. 127.
When illness of the lung presents a very rough pulse, it is the sign of excess of perverse
energy; The blood spreads and provokes vomiting (hematemesis).
A barely rough pulse of the lung is the sign of cervical and axillary adenitis (shu Lou).
The Trunk answers to the upper part of the body with respect to the feet. The lower part
cannot defeat the upper part, means that the feet in a state of extreme weakness become disabled
(weak). In that case, the pulse is very rough because the blood is damaged. In contrast, the barely
rough pulse denotes the chronicity of the illness.
106 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 10

The very hurried pulse of the illness of the liver is the sign of fear
of speaking (logophobia: Yue Yon). Barely hurried, it is the sign of Fi qi
(accumulation of liver energy) in the subcostal region evoking the
image of an upside down bowl.
The very late pulse of the liver is the sign of frequent vomiting.
Barely late, it is the sign of shui Jia Bi (accumulation of aqueous
substances in the form of cystic nodules).
The very changing pulse of the liver is the sign of Nei Yong (internal
abscess), repetitive vomiting and epistaxis. Barely changing, it is the sign
of Gan Bi (obstruction of the liver energy with painful paresthesias), of
yin Xi (retraction of the penis) and of cough with painful tightness of
the lower abdomen.
The very small pulse of the liver is the sign of Da yin (potomania).
Barely small, it is the sign of Jiao Dan (overheating of the sanjiao- SJ);
dehydration, weight loss despite preserved appetite.
The very slippery pulse of the liver is the sign of Xiao Shan
(orchi-epididymitis). Barely slippery, it is the sign of yi Nao (urinary
i nc ont i nenc e) .
The very rough pulse of the liver is the sign of yi yin (limb edema).
Barely rough, it is the sign of Che lun (spasm) and Gan Bi (obstruction of
the liver energy; painful paresthesias).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 128.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - The liver controls speech, and, among feelings it answers to anger. For this reason,
the very hurried pulse of the liver is the sign of logophobia, and the barely hurried pulse, of the
accumulation of the liver energy (Fi qi). These two ailments involve excess of liver energy.
2 - Once in the stomach, the food products transform into Cereal jing (food essence)
flowing down toward the liver organ.
In this manner, the late pulse of the liver is the sign revealing the excess of dietary heat,
and, in the presence of this heat, the energy of the liver flows toward the top, hence vomiting.
shui Jia Bi is cystic formation (nodules) of dietary origin.
3 - The classics state: Worry, anger, diet disorder, insufficiency of yin energy, excess of
yang energy and stagnation of ying (nutritive) energy are the principal causes of the formation of
internal abcesses (Nei Yong).
107 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
In this manner, the changing pulse of the liver is the sign revealing excess of liver energy
which does not disseminate and is transformed into internal abscess (ex: intestinal abscess).
Vomiting and epistaxis are due to a flow of the liver energy in the wrong direction toward
the upper part of the body, and the retraction of the penis, to a flow in the wrong direction of this
energy toward the lower part of the body.
The diaphragmatic vessels reach the bottom (that is to say, the lower abdomen) on the one
hand, and on the other, they gather at the top (that is to say, at the lung). This is why cough and
tightness of the inside wall of the pelvis are due to an flow in the wrong direction of liver energy
just as easily toward the top as toward the bottom.
4 - The small pulse of the liver is the sign revealing the insufficiency of blood and energy.
This insufficiency is the cause of excess wood-fire responsible for potomania (excessive
drinking) and Jiao Dan (weight loss).
5 - The slippery pulse of the liver is the indicator of excess energy with the formation of
heat, hence orchitis and pelvic pain.
The liver has the function of regulating peristalsis and excretion. This is why the excess
energy of the liver with formation of heat is the cause of urinary incontinence.
6 - yi yin (edema) is an ailment caused by liquid overflowing at the level of the 4 limbs.
This type of edema hampers the circulation of the channel-vessels, hence a rough pulse.
The liver energy in a state of emptiness with the presence of cold is a causal factor of
spasm and painful paresthesias (Gan Bi) because the liver governs the neuro-muscular system.
129.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph is devoted to the 6 pathological characters of the liver pulse with clinical
explanations.
1 - The hurried pulse is a pathological pulse specific to the liver.
Strongly hurried, it is the sign of logophobia because the liver governs anger, This is why
when liver energy is in excess, the subject refuses to speak and retreats into a stubborn silence.
Barely hurried,it is the sign of Bi qi (energetic accumulation of the liver) in the subcostal
region like an inverted bowl. Bi qi is a chronic illness; it is why the pulse is barely hurried.
2 - The late pulse is a pathological pulse belonging to the spleen.
The strongly changing pulse of the liver is the sign of invasion of earth by wood, a
phenomenon characterized by repetitive vomiting.
If it is slightly late, earth cannot triumph over water; this transforms into shui Jia Bi
(cystic formations).
3 -The changing pulse is a pathological pulse specific to heart.
The strongly changing pulse of the liver is the sign of the exhalation of fire toward wood,
responsible for Gan Yong (liver abscess), hematemesis and epistaxis.
Slightly changing, it is the sign of hepatic obstruction and pain (Gan Bi), penile retraction
(yin Xi) as a result of the ascent of the fire of the yin channels. This pulse only differs from the
very changing pulse by the absence of hematemesis.
4 - The small pulse is contrary to the changing pulse.
The very small pulse of the liver is the plethoric sign of blood indicated by potomania.
Slightly small, it is the sign of Jiao Dan (weight loss despite preserved appetite). In
summary, potomania and emaciation are ailments of the same type.
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5 - The slippery pulse is contrary to the rough pulse.
The very slippery pulse of the liver is the sign of orchi-epididymitis because the testicles
are controlled by the liver.
If it is barely slippery, excretory function is no longer under control, hence urinary
incontinence.
6 - The rough pulse belongs to the lung.
If the liver pulse is very rough, it is the sign of invasion of wood by metal. In this case,
earth invaded by perverse energy cannot triumph over water, hence overflowing of water at the 4
limbs (edema).
If it barely rough, the blood does not maintain the muscles, hence painful spasms.

130.
PARAGRAPH 11

The very hurried pulse of the spleen is the sign of Che (spasms).
If it is barely hurried, it is the sign of Ge Zhong (attack of the
diaphragm) characterized by post-prandial vomiting and frothy stools.
The very late pulse of the spleen is the sign of wei Jue (atrophic
impotence caused by an afflux of cold). If it is barely late, it is the sign of
Feng wei (atrophic impotence caused by wind) with loss of the use of
the hands and feet, but preservation of intellectual power.
The very changing pulse of the spleen indicates the sensation of
being struck down by blows and wounds. Barely changing is the sign of
Shan qi (storage of spleen energy) with large abdomen and bloody-
purulent accumulation outside the stomach and intestines.
The very small pulse of the spleen heralds the illness Cold-heat.
Barely small, it is the sign of Jiao Dan (emaciation).
The very slippery pulse of the spleen is the sign of Hui Long
(painful micturition). Barely slippery, it is the sign of parasitosis (Shan
Xiao) with sensations of heat within the abdomen.
The very rough pulse of the spleen is the sign of Zhang Xiao (heat in
the intestines). Barely rough, it is the sign Nei Hui (perforation of
intestinal abscess with bloody-purulent stools).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - The spleen commands the 4 limbs.
The very hurried pulse of the spleen is the sign of spasms of the limbs caused by cold.
At the time of attack of the spleen by the cold, the non-metabolization of food is the origin
of Ge Zhong (attack of the diaphragm) responsible for post-prandial vomiting and frothy stools.
Frothy stools are a consequence of disturbance in the function of the liquid distribution
of the spleen; this, not able to bring the nutritive liquid toward the lung in order to irrigate the
pilocutaneous system, is obligated to be evacuated by the anal route in the form of frothy stools.
109 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
2 - wei Jue and Feng wei are atrophic impotencies of the limbs. 131.
The very late pulse of the spleen denotes illnesses of internal origin with external
manifestations. On the other hand, in the case of the barely late pulse, the illnesses are external
without internal manifestations which is why the subject still is in possession of all his faculties.
3 - The changing pulse is an excessive pulse.
The spleen is the only organ belonging to the center having the ability to humidify the
4 sides.
If the pulse of the spleen is very changing, it is the sign of the loss of motility of the
4 limbs as if a subject was struck down by blows and wounds.
Shan qi is an ailment characterized by a large abdomen as a result of an accumulation of
blood and pus outside the gastrointestinal system. This phenomenon is due to an accumulation of
the energy in an excessive state.
4 - The emptiness of the blood is favorable to the illness Cold-heat. The spleen in a state
of emptiness is incapable of aiding the stomach in the function of distribution of liquids, hence
the illness Jiao Dan.
5 - The spleen is associated with earth-Humidity.
Humidity-heat is a triggering factor of painful micturition and dysuria.
6 - The emptiness of spleen energy is responsible for intestinal inflammation and pain.
The stomach and intestines are composed of much blood and little energy which is why, in
the event of illness, hematuria and pyuria are not uncommon.
II - Ma Shi comments:
The 6 pathologic characteristics of the spleen pulse are presented in this paragraph.
1 - The hurried pulse is a pathologic pulse of the liver.
If the pulse of the spleen is very hurried, it is the sign of invasion of earth by wind-wood
responsible for Che Zhong (spasms of the limbs).
If it is barely hurried, this phenomenon occurs in the upper part of the body, at the level
of the diaphragm, triggering post-prandial vomiting. On the other hand, if it occurs in the lower
part, the stools are frothy because the spleen energy does not descend.
2 - The late pulse is a pathologic pulse of the spleen. 132.
If it is very late, it is the sign of extreme weakness of energy of earth, responsible for
atrophic impotence (wei) and of ice cold feet (Jue).
If it is barely late, the atrophic impotence is caused by wind (Feng). Despite the loss of
the use of the limbs, the subject is still in possession of all his faculties.
3 - The changing pulse is a pathologic pulse of the heart.
If the pulse of the spleen is very changing, it is the sign of collapse (loss of
consciousness) as if the subject had been struck down by his adversary.
If it is barely changing, it is the sign of the illness Shan (storage of spleen energy) with
large abdomen and presence of blood and pus outside the stomach and intestines.
In Chapter 40 (Study on Abdomen-Center) of the Suwen, we note:
Huangdi questions:
The lower abdomen is swollen as if it was deeply rooted at the top and down below, to the
right and to the left. Is this illness curable?
Qi Bo responds:
110 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
This illness is Fu Liang. It is a kind of membranous sac containing much blood and pus
located outside the stomach and intestines. It is incurable; a strong palpation can bring about
death.
If Fu Liang is localized within the lower abdomen, the illness is belongs to yin, and the
stools are bloody-purulent. Located within the upper abdomen, Fu Liang is compressed against
the stomach and transforms into Nei Yong (internal abscess), adherent to the diaphragm. Nei Yong
is a chronic ailment that is very difficult to treat.
The very changing pulse of the spleen is therefore the sign revealing Fu Liang with
external manifestations (bloody-purulent stools), and the barely changing pulse heralds Fu Liang
with internal manifestations (cystic accumulation).
4 - The small pulse is contrary to the changing pulse.
If the pulse of the spleen is very small, it is the sign of the illness of alternating Cold-
heat (sometimes fever, sometimes chills). This ailment is due to the insufficiency of blood.
A barely small pulse is a sign of Jiao Dan (overheating of the sanjiao- SJ = emaciation).
This illness results from a dryness of blood with shortage of organic liquids (dehydration).
5 - The slippery pulse is contrary to the rough pulse.
If the pulse of the spleen is very slippery, it is the sign of Hui Long (painful
micturition and dysuria). Because the earth cannot triumph over wood, it produces Xiao Shan
(orchi-epididymitis), and because the earth cannot activate the water movements, it produces
Long (painful micturition and dysuria).
A barely slippery pulse is the sign of parasitosis with heat sensations in the abdomen.
Because the slippery pulse is a yang pulse of oval and smooth form, evoking the image of a moving
pearl, its presence is the indicator of parasitosis with release of toxic heat.
6 - The rough pulse is a pathologic pulse of the lung. 133.
The very rough pulse of the spleen comes not only from the non-production of metal by
earth, but also from the excess of perverse energy at the level of metal. The lung and large
intestine constitutes an external-internal system. Consequently, the very rough pulse of the
spleen indicates the presence of Nei Hui (intestinal abscess and ulcerations).
If it is barely rough, Nei Hui, in the majority of cases, are formed of blood and pus.
Because the abscesses burst in the interior without discharge to the exterior, the pulse is very
rough. In contrast, when blood and pus are evacuated to the exterior, the pulse is barely rough.
PARAGRAPH 12

The very hurried pulse of the kidney is the sign revealing illnesses
of the cranium. Barely hurried, it is the sign of deep Jue (very ice-cold
limbs), Bun Dun (accumulation of kidney energy in the form of a
mobile tumor), difficult flexion of the knees and inability to defecate.
The very late pulse of the kidney is the sign of Xie Ji (extremely
intense spinal pain, like the pain of a fracture). Barely late, it is the sign
of profuse diarrhea (Zung) with dyspepsia and post-prandial vomiting.
The very changing pulse of the kidney is the sign of yin wei
(sexual impotence). Barely changing, it is the sign of Shi shui (edema
hard as stone); this illness starts at the infra-umbilical region and
reaches the lower abdomen. When it ascends to the stomach, it is death.
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The very small pulse of the kidney is the sign of profuse diarrhea
containing undigested food. Barely small, it is the sign of Jiao Dan
(extreme thinness).
The very slippery pulse of the kidney is the sign of Long Xiao
(dysuria with painful micturition). Barely slippery, it is the sign of Gu wei
(bony atrophy). Seated, the patient cannot stand up; standing, he has
vertigo and trouble seeing.
The very rough pulse of the kidney is the sign of anthrax; barely
rough, it is the sign of internal hemorrhoids.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 134.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - The kidney is a yin organ governing the bones. When yin is excessively cold, the
bones and skull are affected.
The kidney is the source organ of the vital energy. When the essential energy is in
Emptiness-Cold, the hands and feet are ice-cold.
The ascent of the energy of the kidney in a state of emptiness is the origin of the illness
Bun Dun (kind of energetic waves which ascend from the hypogastrium toward the top of the
thorax: dyspnea).
When yin-Cold occurs at the lower part of the body, the legs cannot be flexed.
2 - The energy of the kidney communicates with the intestinal and urinary routes. When
this energy is in a state of emptiness urinating and defecating is disturbed.
The Dumai (GV) comes from the kidney, running the length of the spine.
The late pulse of the kidney indicates loosening of the Dumai with sensation of a break in
the vertebral column.
When Wu (#5)and Gui (#10) reunite, they transform into fire and earth which are the
chief metabolizers of food products at the level of the stomach. The late pulse of the kidney
heralds that these principles are abolished, hence indigestion and vomiting of food.
3 - yin wei (sexual impotence) is an ailment characterized by a softening of yin energy,
hence inability to have erections.
Shi shui (hard edema) is an ailment of kidney-water origin. When this edema reaches
the top, that is to say the stomach, it constitutes what one calls phenomenon of overflowing of
water with defeat of earth.
4 - The emptiness of kidney energy is the origin of profuse diarrhea containing
undigested food.
Oligo-amenorrhea can trigger Jiao Dan (weight loss).
5 - The presence of heat in the kidney is the cause of dysuria and painful micturition or
orchi-epididymitis.
Gu wei (bony atrophy) is mainly indicated by difficulty getting up after sitting. It is due
to an attack of the energy of the kidney by heat. This illness can be accompanied by vertigo and
visual disturbance while in the standing position because the heat has damaged the bones and jing
(essence).
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6 - blood and energy are produced at the level of the kidney. The rough pulse of the
kidney denotes that blood and energy are hampered by an obstacle with formation of inflammatory
tumors (anthrax).
When blood and energy do not circulate, young girls do not have their menstruation
(amenorrhea), and young boys present with hemorrhoids.
135.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph studies the 6 pathologic natures of the kidney pulse.
1 - The hurried pulse is a pathologic pulse of the liver.
If the kidney pulse is very hurried, it indicates illness of the bones and skull (Gu Tian)
because the kidney governs the bones. This ailment is due to an infiltration of wind.
In Chapter 22 (Dian Kuang) of this classic, we note:
The barely hurried pulse of the kidney is the sign revealing insufficiency of the kidney
with infiltration of perverse wind, hence freezing cold limbs and paresthesias.
This barely hurried pulse also indicates:
a - the illness Bun Dun provoked by a chronic accumulation of the energy of the kidney.
b - laxity of the lower limbs following the non-descent of the kidney energy.
c - dysuria and difficult defecation owing to the loss of connection of the kidney energy
with the intestinal and urinary routes.
The very hurried pulse of the kidney is the sign revealing illness of the bones and skull.
This ailment evolves from interior to exterior. On the other hand, if the pulse is barely hurried,
it evolves progressively from exterior to interior, and, once in the interior, its progression is also
much slower.
2 - The late pulse is a pathologic pulse of the spleen.
If the pulse of the kidney is very late, it is the sign of invasion of water by perverse earth.
The kidney energy then becomes insufficient, and the subject feels a sensation of fracture in the
vertebral column with inability to stand up because the kidney and bladder constitute an
Internal-External system and because the bladder channel runs along the spine.
If it is barely late, it is the sign of insufficiency of kidney energy. In this case, the energy
of the spleen does not function, hence diarrhea containing undigested food or, sometimes, post-
prandial vomiting.
3 - The changing pulse is a pathologic pulse of the heart.
If the kidney pulse is very changing, it is the sign revealing the excess of fire and
shortage of water responsible for yin wei (sexual impotence).
Barely changing, it is the sign of the presence of Shi shui (hard edema) of the infra-
umbilical region. Down below, this ailment reaches the hypogastrium giving it a ptotic
appearance, and at the top it reaches the epigastrium. This illness is fatal. Also, Chapter 7 of the
Suwen specifies: yin and yang become concentrated because there is a plethora of yin and
deficiency of yang. This state is the origin of hard edema. 139.
Note, however, that in Chapter 57 of this classic, Huangdi had also questioned Qi Bo on the
formation of Shi shui, and the response occurs in Chapter 7 of the Suwen. As for this paragraph,
it determines the localization of this affliction: In the majority of cases, Shi shui manifests at
the level of the abdominal segment of the kidney channel.
4 - The small pulse is contrary to the changing pulse.
If the pulse of the kidney is very small, it is the sign of the great insufficiency of the
energy. The kidney can no longer control the xiajiao area (Lower Jiao), hence profuse diarrhea.
Barely small, it is the sign of edema. Without treatment this ailment can transform into
Jiao Dan (emaciation; extreme thinness).
5 - The slippery pulse is a pathologic pulse of the kidney.
113 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
If it is very slippery, it is the sign of fullness of perverse energy at the level of the
kidney. In this case, the bladder is contaminated, hence dysuria and cystitis or orchi-
epididymitis.
Barely slippery, it is also the sign of insufficiency of kidney energy responsible for bony
atrophy with inability to sit or stand up. sitting or standing provokes vertigo and dizziness.
6 - The rough pulse is a pathologic pulse of the lung.
The very rough pulse of the kidney is the sign of insufficiency of blood and jing (essence);
at the interior, it is ... (5).
PARAGRAPH 13

Huangdi :
In the presence of these 6 pathologic changes, how must one
needl e?
Qi Bo:
Gener al l y,
_ the hurried pulse comes from cold,
_ the late pulse, from heat,
_ the changing pulse, from abundance of energy and shortage
of blood,
_ the small pulse, from insufficiency of blood and energy,
_ the slippery pulse, from fullness of yang energy with slight
presence of heat,
_ the rough pulse, from abundance of blood and shortage of
energy with slight presence of cold.
This is why.
_ in the presence of a hurried pulse, needle deeply and leave the
needle in place a long time 137.
_ in the presence of a late pulse, needle superficially and
rapidly remove the needle in order to eliminate the heat
_ in the presence of a changing pulse, slightly disperse the
energy without making it bleed
_ in the presence of a slippery pulse, remove the needle rapidly,
needle superficially to eliminate the yang energy and make
it bleed
_ in the presence of a rough pulse, carefully locate the channel,
allowing the needle to stay in place according to the rules of
pursuit and go against; as soon as the needle is removed,
rapidly close the point of impact to maintain the pulsologic
balance without allowing bleeding.
_ in the presence of a small pulse, acupuncture is advised against
because it is ineffective in cases of simultaneous
insufficiency of yin and yang, blood and energy; one must
resort to the sweet-flavored remedies.

114 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only

5. NVN: This phrase is incomplete. According to the editor of that time, he was missing two pages in the original text.
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - The 6 pathologic changes designate the 6 clinical aspects of the 5 organs responding
to the 6 different types of pulses (hurried, late, changing, small, slippery and rough). They are
due to a dissociation of yin and yang, of energy and blood, of cold and heat.
2 - The cold energy is a concentrated and tense energy; it is why this pulse is hurried.
The heat energy is an energy which is diffuse; it is why its pulse is late.
Tong qi (a priori, thoracic energy) and ying energy (nutritive) circulate within the
channels, whereas wei (defensive) energy circulates outside the channels. This is why the
changing (Da) pulse denotes an abundance of energy.
If the energy and blood are insufficient, the pulse is small.
If the yang energy in an excessive state is endowed with a weak heat, the pulse is slippery.
If the energy is in insufficiency, the pulse is rough.
All these pulses depend on the circulation of blood following the state of the energy.
3 - Needle deeply and let the needle remain in place a long time, is to await the arrival
of the yang energy with sensation of heat at the point of the needle.
Superficially needle and take the needle out rapidly, is to eliminate the heat.
When the energy is in fullness, slight dispersion is necessary, without making it bleed, in
the goal of harmonizing yin and yang, blood and energy.
If the pulse is slippery, the removal of the needle is rapid and needling is superficial in
order to clear the yang-heat energy located outside the channels. 138.
If the pulse is rough, needling must fall exactly on the channel and the orientation of the
needle must obey the rule known as pursuit and in opposition. This operation is obligatory to
harmonize the energy and blood located within and outside the channel.
Before needling, pressure-friction (massage) on the point of impact is necessary to make
the energy located outside the channel return toward the area operated on.
To rapidly close the point of impact is to prevent bleeding in the goal of regularizing the
channels.
Not letting the blood ooze is to maintain the harmony of blood and energy located within
and outside the channels.
The goal of needling is to regularize the disharmony of yin and yang, blood and energy. If
the energy and blood are simultaneously insufficient, one must use the sweet-flavored remedies
because, in this case, acupuncture does not give the expected results.
The energy and blood come from yangming. In other words, under the action of the
stomach, the cereals are transformed into energy and blood, one part of which circulates at the
level of the pilocutaneous system and another part of which circulates within the channels
reaching the entire body, the interior as well as the exterior, following a circle without end. This
is why, if one knows how to regularize the foot pulse, it is not necessary to study the inch
pulse, and if one knows how to regularize the pulse, it is not useful to observe the complexion. In
practice, the great worker associates them. The great worker is one who knows the movements of
Beginning and Ending and the movements of entering and exiting of yin and yang, of blood and
energy.
115 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 14

Huangdi :
I have heard it said that the energy of the 5 organs and 6 bowels
gathers at the he point in passing by the ying and shu points. By which
route does it arrive in gathering and, during its gathering, through
where does it pass?

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains 139.
1 - The 12 jingmai (principal channels) of the 5 organs and 6 bowels begin at the jing
point located at the tip of the digits which has the property of absorbing the energy and blood
from the cutaneous level.
Once in the channel, this blood and energy arrives at the ying (gushing) point and empties
into the shu (transport) point, passes to the jing (passage) point and gathers at the elbow and knee
at the he (gathering).
For this reason, Huangdi desires to deeply explore the 5 shu (antique) of the 5 organs
and the 6 shu (antique) of the 6 bowels and their entering and exiting movements, etc. But the
5 shu (antiques) of the 5 organs have been shown in Chapter 2 (Origin of the shu points- Ban
shu); this is why Qi Bo only speaks of the he points of the 6 bowels, sites of gathering of blood and
energy, coming from the yuan point of the feet.
2 - wei (defensive) energy, whose production (from cereals) takes place at the level of the
stomach or, more exactly, at the level of xiajiao (Lower Jiao), reaches the face and head to spread
into the areas belonging to the yang channels (that is to say, outside the channels).
The energy and blood circulating outside the channels comes from Wuli (LI 13) belonging
to the Hand Yangming (see details, Chapter 2).
In this way, the energy of the yang channels of the hand and foot circulate up and down,
from superficial to deep, from the cutaneous level toward the channels. It penetrates into the
channels via the jing-well of the foot, and from the foot it passes to the hand. This is why it is
said: The jingmai of the 6 bowels manifests at the 3 yang of the foot, then they anastomose with
those of the hand like the yang energy of the center of earth ascends to heaven, then return to the
earth to heat up the routes of water (jing shui: waterways).
PARAGRAPH 15

Huangdi :
What are the characteristics of the ying, shu and he points?
Qi Bo:
The ying and shu points treat the channels, therefore the
exterior, and the he point, the bowels, therefore the interior.
Huangdi :
How do you treat the bowels?
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Qi Bo:
One treats them by the he point.
Huangdi :
Do the he points have particular names? 140.
Qi Bo:
The he point of the stomach is Sanli (St 36).
The he point of the large intestine is Juxu-Shanglian (St 37).
The he point of the small intestine is Juxu-Xialian (St 39).
The he point of the sanjiao (SJ) is weiyang (Bl 39).
The he point of the bladder is weizhong (Bl 40).
The he point of the gallbladder is Yanglingquan (GB 34).
Huangdi :
How are they needled?
Qi Bo:
To needle Sanli (St 36), the leg is lowered.
To needle Juxu (St 37 and 39), the leg is bent.
To needle weiyang (Bl 39), the leg is first flexed, then extended.
To needle weizhong (Bl 40), the 2 knees are bent.
To needle Yanglingquan (GB 34), the 2 knees are bent to the same
height; this point is found at the exterior of weiyang (Bl 39).
To needle the points outside the channel, one must also have them
precisely localized.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph defines the energy of the 3 yang as a synergistic energy of the 3 yang
channels of the exterior and of the bowels of the interior.
taiyang, shaoyang and yangming are the energies of the 3 yang. These energies circulate
outside the channels and penetrate into the jingmai of the 6 bowels via the ying (gushing) and shu
(transport) points. This is why these 2 points treat ailments associated with the jingmai at the
exterior.
The blood and energy circulating within the channels and the energy of the 3 yang gather
at the knees and elbows; this is why the he (gathering) point treats illnesses of the bowels.
Because the blood circulating within the channels comes from the 6 bowels, the points
Sanli (St 36), Juxu Shanglian (St 37) and Juxu Xialian (St 39) are the he (gathering) points of the
Hand Yangming (LI) and Foot Yangming (St). Therefore, needling Sanli (St 36) is done with the leg
dropped because this channel occurs at the lower part of the body.
Needling the Juxu (St 37 and 39) is made with the foot lifted in order to relax the muscles
of this area.
weiyang (Bl 39), belonging to the Foot Taiyang (Bl), is the he (gathering) point of sanjiao
(SJ). Needling this point is performed with the movements of flexion and extension to activate the
circulation of energy of the sanjiao into this part of the body. 141.
The bladder governs water which is why needling weizhong (Bl 40) is performed with the
knee bent.
shaoyang (GB) belongs to wood. This is why to needle Yanglingquan (GB 34) one must ask to
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bend the 2 knees to the same height so that the wood energy is well equilibrated (slack).
The gallbladder (GB) and sanjiao (SJ) are the same energy: shaoyang.
In conclusion, the jingmai (principal channels) divide into the channels of the hand and
foot. But when one speaks of the energy of the 3 yin and 3 yang, this division no longer enters into
play.
To needle the points outside the channels implies that these points are none other than
the ying (gushing) and shu (transport) points of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. At the moment of
needling, one must ask to relax the arms and legs to facilitate the circulation of the channels.
Huangdis question concerns the ying, shu and he points of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. Qi
Bos response only furnishes the he point of the 6 bowels. This question and response are for the
goal of applying the entering/exiting movements of yin and yang, blood and energy and the
external-internal communications of the jingmai.
PARAGRAPH 16

Huangdi :
Would you teach me about the diseases of the 6 bowels?
Qi Bo:
The sensation of heat of the face is the indicator of disease of the
Foot Yangming (St).
The abundance of blood in Yu luo (fish-vessel: longitudinal luo of
lung) is the sign of attack of the Hand Yangming (LI).
The hard and excavated pulse of the top of the foot (pedal pulse) is
the sign revealing disease of the Foot Yangming (St). This pulse is
specific in the determination of the energetic state of the stomach.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph defines the blood and energy circulating outside the channels. They come
from the hand and Foot Yangming (LI and St). 142.
1 - wei (defensive) energy is han qi (cold energy) (6) of yangming. On the one hand, it
reaches the cephalic region passing by the external canthus of the eye and the front of the ear to
spread into the regions of the 3 yang; on the other hand, it descends and encircles the gums,
following the yangming, arrives at renying (St 9) and descends to the top of the foot.
In this way, to speak of the sensation of heat of the face is to determine the disease of
the yangming with overheating (same in the event of irascibility) of the wei energy which flows
toward the face.
2 - At the exterior, the jingmai of the 5 organs and 6 bowels answer to the 6 energies:
taiyang, shaoyang, yangming, taiyin..., and in the interior they unite with the organs and bowels
to constitute the pulsologic system: stomach pulse, heart pulse, kidney pulse... . In other words,
in the interior, the energy of the 5 organs and 6 bowels unites with the 5 movements: wood
movement, fire movement, metal movement..., and at the exterior, with the 6 energies: wind,
Cold, heat... .
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The energy and blood coming from the stomach-bowel are conducted outside the channels
(principal) towards the Great luos; and, upon leaving these luos, they infiltrate into the sunluo

6. here, han qi designates water. In other words, wei (fire) energy comes from water (water produces fire).
(small luos or energetic capillaries) and into the skin. Then, they follow the Shou yangming (LI)
channel to gather above at Yu luo, which is to say Chi Fu (cutaneous area associated with the
foot pulse), all as the blood and energy circulating within the vessels and gathering into Chi
Cun (foot pulse and inch pulse: radial pulse) of Hand Taiyin (Lu). This is why the text states:
The abundance of blood at the level of Yu luo is the sign revealing the attack the Hand Yangming
(LI). This is aimed at demonstrating that the energy and blood circulating outside the vessels
gather at the Hand Yangming (LI). This is the reason why, in order to answer Huangdis question
on the diseases of the bowels, Qi Bo addresses those of the yangming first.
We note, finally, that this classic often grasps the occasion of the appearance of the
diseases in order to explain the notions concerning birth and beginning, entering and exiting of
yin and yang, blood and energy and particularly the notion of the interior-exterior system of the
jingmai of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. Our readers have certainly observed it.
PARAGRAPH 17

diseases of the large intestine are characterized by sharp
intestinal pains and boborygmi. 143.
In winter, the offensive of cold energy triggers diarrhea with
umbilical pain preventing the prolonged standing position.
diseases of the stomach present the same symptoms.
One must needle Juxu Shanglian (ST 37).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - The large intestine is an organ of transit and governs peristaltic movements. This is
why, in the event of disturbances, signs of spasmodic colitis and boborygmi appear.
2 - yangming controls metal-Purity. In winter, attack on the large intestine by cold
instantaneously triggers diarrhea with peri-umbilical pain.
The large intestine controls the organic liquid. These permeate the osseous system. This is
why, in the event of disturbances, the subject cannot maintain the prolonged standing position.
3 - The large intestine and stomach constitute the yangming system. This is the reason
why, in case of disturbances, the stomach presents these same symptoms as the large intestine.
4 - Juxu Shanglian (St 37) belonging to the stomach channel is the he point of the large
intestine.
PARAGRAPH 18

diseases of the stomach are characterized by abdominal bloating
and gastralgia with energetic obstruction at the level of the upper
limbs, hypochondria, diaphragm and esophagus; foods do not descend.
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One must needle Sanli (St 36).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The abdomen is the rampart of the stomach and intestines. The cardia is found behind
Jiu wei (xiphoid appendage: CV 15), just below the heart.
In the event of stomach problems, the clinical manifestations are essentially abdominal
bloating and pain of the cardia (cardialgia, gastralgia).
The upper limbs are dependent on the heart and lungs.
The hypochondria are associated with the liver. 144.
Once arriving in the stomach, foods are transformed into pure cereal energy (sheng qi)
which spreads to the liver, and into impure cereal energy (Zhou qi) which goes to the heart and,
from there, to the lungs. In the event of stomach problems, this energy circulates in the wrong way
and its physiologic function is stopped, hence circulatory obstruction at the level of the upper
limbs, hypochondria, diaphragm, esophagus.
It is advised to needle Sanli (St 36).
II - Ma Shi comments:
These 3 paragraphs (16, 17 and 18) study the diseases of hand and Foot Yangming
(LI and St) and their treatment by acupuncture.
1 - Foot Yangming designates the energy of the stomach. Its vessels reach the face. This is
why warm face is a sign of disturbance of the Foot Yangming (St).
2 - Hand Yangming designates the energy of the large intestine. Yu luo (Fish-luo:
longitudinal vessel of lung) is the vessel which goes around the base of the thenar eminence
between yangxi (LI 5) and Lieque (Lu 7). Yu luo is in relationship with the large intestine; this is
why congestion of Yu luo is a pathognomonic sign of the large intestine.
3 - The raised (hard) or sinking (soft) pulse of the top of the foot is located at the level of
Chongyang (St 42) and Jiexi (St 41). This pulse is specific in determination of diseases of the
Foot Yangming (St).
4 - diseases of the large intestine manifest as sharp abdominal pains and boborygmi.
Boborygmi results from the outflowing of water into the intestinal surface from the ascent of the
energy. In winter, the aggression of cold immediately transforms them into diarrhea.
Peri-umbilical pains with inability to hold a standing posture are presented because the
large intestine is precisely located in this region.
As Juxu Shanglian (St 37), belonging to the stomach channel, is the he point of the large
intestine and as the large intestine and stomach make up part of the same system of yangming, the
text has chosen this point in the treatment of ailments of this bowel (LI).
5 - In diseases of the stomach, the abdomen is swollen with pain of the cardia located
below the heart (cardialgia or gastralgia). The circulation of the energy at the level of the upper
limbs and hypochondria, diaphragm and esophagus is obstruct. One must needle Sanli (St 36) of
the stomach channel.
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PARAGRAPH 19

diseases of the small intestine are characterized by pains in the
lower abdomen with radiation to the lumbar region and spine to the
testicles. Sometimes the pains are sharp and followed by tenesmus.
145.
The sensation of heat in front of the ears, the sensation of cold or
of heat at the shoulders and between the little and ring fingers and the
weakening of the channel-vessel are the symptoms associated with
diseases of the Hand Taiyang (SI). One must needle Juxu Xianlian (St 39).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - diseases of the small intestine are due to disorders of the energy of this bowel.
The small intestine also has the name Chi Chang (red intestine). It has the role of
separating pure and impure (decantation). Therefore, its function basically consists of
controlling the formation of liquids and bringing purified water toward the bladder.
Consequently, the energy of the small intestine is closely linked to that of the bladder. Therefore,
pains in the lower abdomen always bring with it pain in the lumbar area, spine and testicles.
2 - These symptoms denote that the disease of the Hand Taiyang (SI) channel is the result
of that of the bowel. One must needle Juxu Xialian (St 39), he point of the small intestine.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph studies disease of the Hand Taiyang (SI) and its treatment.
1 - The small intestine is located in the lower abdomen and is bounded behind by the
lumbar area/spine; its energy is linked to that of the testicles. Also, in the event of disturbances,
intestinal pains radiate toward these regions. Sometimes, these pains present with a burning
sensation and desire to move the bowels.
2 - The small intestine channel starts at the external ungual angle of the little finger,
ascends to the wrist, passes through the forearm, reaches the elbow, runs along the posterior side
of the arm, goes up to the neck, reaches the cheek where it divides into 2 branches: one arrives in
front of the ear and the other at the internal canthus of the eye.
In this manner therefore, the sensation of heat in front of the ear, the sensation of cold or
heat of the shoulders, the sensation of heat at the 4th metacarpal space and the weakening of
certain spots on the trajectory of the small intestine channel are the signs of attack of the Hand
Taiyang (SI).
On the stomach channel, one finds Juxu Xialian (St 39), he point of the small intestine.
This is the specific point in the treatment of diseases of this bowel.
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PARAGRAPH 20 146.

In diseases of the sanjiao (SJ), the abdomen is bloated, the lower
belly is tense and urination is difficult. In serious cases, water
overflows and transforms into dropsy (edema) or ascites.
At the exterior, this syndrome has an influence on the Da luo
(great luo) of the Foot Taiyang (Bl); the Da luo of the sanjiao (SJ) is
located between taiyang (Bl) and shaoyang (GB).
One must needle weiyang (Bl 39).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - The sanjiao (SJ) adheres down below to the bladder. In the event of problems, the
energetic system is immobilized and loses its transformative functions, hence abdominal bloating
and oligo-anuria. water overflows and stagnates within the peritoneum, hence ascites.
2 - At the exterior, this syndrome can be detected by the visibility of Da luo (great luo) of
Foot Taiyang (Bl) and Da luo of Hand Shaoyang (SJ) located on the leg between the taiyang (Bl) and
shaoyang (GB).
Treatment consists of needling weiyang (Bl 39).
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns diseases of the sanjiao (SJ) and their acupuncture treatment.
1 - The Hand Shaoyang channel (SJ) penetrates into Quepen (St 12), spreads to Tanzhong
(CV 17), connects to the xinbao (XB), descends to the diaphragm and unites with the 3 exits/
outlets (sources: cores/nucleus) of the sanjiao (SJ): shangjiao (Upper Jiao), zhongjiao (middle
jiao) and xiajiao (Lower Jiao). In the event of problems, the abdomen is filled up with air and the
lower belly is tense and hard.
The sanjiao (SJ) is a unique apparatus responsible for the energetic metabolism of the
entire organism. In the event of disturbances, oligo-anuria is the rule. water stagnates in the
interior of the abdomen, hence ascites.
weiyang (Bl 39), located at the external border of the the popliteal crease between the 2
tendons, is the he point of the sanjiao (SJ). When the sanjiao (SJ) is affected, the vessel located at
this level is weakened.
PARAGRAPH 21

In diseases of the bladder, the lower abdomen is inflamed and
painful; palpation causes a false desire to urinate.
147.
The top of the shoulder is warm, and the vessel there is weakened.
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Furthermore, the subject feels a heat sensation at the external part of
the little toe and behind the external malleolus; if the vessel there is
weakened, one must needle weizhong (Bl 40).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The bladder is the palace of organic liquid. It is the last relay of energetic
transformation. When the palace is affected, the lower abdomen is tense and painful with
inability to urinate.
The top of the shoulder, external part of the little toe and posterior area of the external
malleolus are the sites of passage of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). A sensation of heat in these regions is
the sign revealing contamination of the channel (Bl) by disease of the bowel (Bl). Its treatment
consists of needling weizhong (Bl 40).
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns diseases of the bladder and their acupuncture treatment.
Inflammation and pain of the lower abdomen and desire to urinate when the abdomen is
palpated in this region are the signs revealing disease of the bladder.
The top of the shoulder is warm, and the channel-vessel which is found there is weakened
because this region is the site of passage of the dorsal trunk of the bladder channel on which is
found the following points: Dazhu (Bl 11), Fengmen (Bl 12).
The external edge of the little toe and region posterior to the external malleolus are
warm, and the channel which is found there is weakened because these regions belong to the Foot
Taiyang (Bl) on which the points zhiyin (Bl 67), Tongqu (Bl 66), shugu (Bl 65), jinggu (Bl 64),
jinmen (Bl 63), shenmai (Bl 62), Pushen (Bl 61), Kunlun (Bl 60), Fuyang (Bl 59), Feiyang
(Bl 58), etc. are found.
weizhong (Bl 40) is the he point of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). For this reason, one uses it to
treat diseases of the bladder.
PARAGRAPH 22

In diseases of the gallbladder, sighs are frequent, the mouth is
bitter and vomiting is sour; the subject has fear with the feeling of
being confined. Furthermore, laryngeal sounds and frequent
expectoration are often observed.
The root (Ben) and summit (Jiao) of the Foot Shaoyang (GB)
are simultaneously affected. One must observe the sites of weakening of
the channel-vessel in order to apply moxabustion there. In the event of
Cold-heat (fever-chills), one must needle Yanglingquan (GB 34).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 148.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - The gallbladder being affected, its energy cannot be directed toward the top, and the
individual has need to attract it toward the lungs, hence frequent sighs.
Bitter mouth and sour vomiting originate from the bile.
Fear and the feeling of being confined indicate emptiness of the energy of the gallbladder.
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Laryngeal sounds and frequent expectoration reveal that the channel-vessel (Foot
Shaoyang-GB) is affected.
2 - The root designates the lower part and summit, the cervico-dorsal region.
Moxabustion is applied to rectify the weakened parts (to tonify the emptiness).
The illness Cold-heat is associated with the intermediary (hinge) channel (mid-
external, mid-internal). This means to say that the energy of the gallbladder is sometimes
directed toward the exterior (taiyang), sometimes toward the interior (yangming).
Yanglingquan (GB 34) is the he point of the Foot Shaoyang (GB).
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns diseases of the gallbladder and their acupuncture treatment.
Frequent sighs, bitter mouth, sour vomiting, fear and the impression of being confined are
the signs of emptiness of the gallbladder energy.
Laryngeal sounds and frequent expectoration are due to the presence of perverse energy in
the gallbladder.
In practice, one must observe well the root and summit of Foot Shaoyang (GB). The
points and the beginning of the jingmai are the root, and the points and the end of the jingmai
are the summit.
Apply moxabustion to the weakened sites of the channel. In contrast, in the case of
Cold-heat illness (fever-chills), one must needle Yanglingquan (GB 34).
PARAGRAPH 23 149.

Huangdi :
What is the Dao (rule, law) of needling?
Qi Bo:
Needling must access the energy of the point of impact without
injuring the flesh. In reaching the energy of the point, the needle slips
into the opening without encountering any obstacle; reaching the
flesh, it provokes pain at the level of the skin.
Tonification and dispersion are utilized in spite of the rule
worsening the disease. If the needle injures the muscles, it provokes
laxity. Not being expelled, the perverse energy enters into conflict with
the Zhen qi (source energy); it works its way in and settles in the
i nt er i or .
Needling without judgment carries with it opposite reactions.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I- Zhang Shi explains:
The energy of the point of impact (qi Xue) originates from the bowels via the jingmai.
When the needle succeeds in contacting it, the point is penetrated with ease as if it slips into a
crack. Also, Chapter 37 of the Suwen (Dissertation on the energy and blood: qi Xue lun) has
stated: When the needle falls exactly into the crack, it does not encounter any obstacle.
Perverse energy of the bowel reaches the exterior via the jingmai and manifests at the
level of the points of impact. This process of propagation of the disease confirms the reactive
effects cited in the previous paragraphs:
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_Warm face is the indicator of disease of the Foot Yangming (St) (Paragraph 16),
_ Congestion of Yu luo indicates disease of Hand Yangming (LI) (Paragraph 16), etc.
These explanations demonstrate that the energy of the bowels exteriorizes at the skin via
the jingmai system.
The skin, flesh, muscles and bones... are the sites of distribution of the energy (precisely,
the jing: essence) located outside the channels. If the needle reaches the flesh (sites devoid of
points), it provokes pain in the skin; if it reaches the muscles, these become lax. In these two
cases, the perverse energy has not been excreted; to the contrary, it provokes disturbance of the
Zhen qi (source energy, vital or essential energy) and drives it into the organism. In other words,
an erroneous needling does not remove the perverse energy; it causes serious perturbations at the
level of the Zhen qi because the energy and blood circulating outside the jingmai reveals itself to
the channels without penetrating into the bowels, as has already been stated in Paragraph 16:
The firm and excavated pulse of the top of the foot (pedal pulse) heralds disease of the Foot
Yangming (St) and not that of the stomach bowel. 150.
This is the reason why, in the course of commentaries of Paragraph 16, I have attracted the
attention of physicians to the notions concerning the Beginning and Ending, entering and leaving,
of yin and yang, of blood and energyto which we must obey, never opposing it.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the rules of needling. Not observing them worsens the disease.
When needling, one must attain the point, site of gathering of the energy circulating in the
channel, without injuring the connective tissues. Because, when the needle reaches the energy of
the point of impact, it becomes freely engaged as if it penetrates into a crevice and unobstructs
the energy and the channel.
If one injures the flesh, one provokes pain. If one injures the muscles, one provokes laxity.
If, at the site of tonification, one disperses or vice versa, one worsens the disease. This is why the
non-evacuation of the perverse energy by a technical error is the origin of perturbation of the
Zhen qi (source energy).

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151.
CHAPTER V
Origin and Gathering
(Gen Jie)
Chapter 5 of the Lingshu is devoted to the therapeutic effects of the origin
points and gathering points. The origin points are the sites of departure of the
energy of the channels, and the gathering points are the sites of regrouping of
this energy.
The yin and yang channels are endowed with the function of opening (Gai),
closing (Za) and hinge (Zhu) permitting the establishment of the system of
connection of the interior and exterior. Disturbance of these functions are the origin
of diseases.
The localization and naming of the origin points and gathering points are well
defined in this chapter.
The origin points, gathering points and departure points of the 3 yang
channels of the foot and hand are also made the object of detailed study.
The excessive or insufficient number of beats of the pulse studied according to
the cyclic circulation of the channels of the human body (50 turns in 24 h) is also
presented with the aim of determining the state of energy in order to adopt
therapeutic rules: According to the constitution of the patient, needling is rapid or
slow, superficial or deep, and the sessions repeated or spaced out.
Briefly, this chapter concerns the study of the Beginning and Ending of the
jingmai with therapeutic aim, hence the title Origin and Gathering (Gen Jie).
This chapter comprises 7 paragraphs.
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PARAGRAPH 1 152.

Qi Bo says:
heaven and earth enter into symbiosis, the cold and the heat
turn. How does the Dao of yin and yang come to pass, and how are their
excess and insufficiency?
The Dao of yin responds to even numbers and that of yang to odd
numbers. In spring and summer, yin is weak and yang is excessive; the
branches and leaves wither and dry out; the rain and humidity return;
yin and yang follow these movements and enter into disequilibrium.
How then does one tonify or disperse?
When the curious perverse energy (qi Xie) leaves the channel,
one can longer count the diseases. If one breaks open the door (guan),
ignorant of the origin points (Gen points) and gathering points
(Jie points) of the 5 organs and 6 bowels, the hinge (Zhu) deteriorates,
the movements of opening (Gai) and closing (Za) no longer function; yin
and yang become totally disordered and irretrievable.
The profound meaning of the 9 Needles has its nodes and its
hinges in the chapter entitled Beginning and Ending (Chapter 9). This
is why ignoring the Beginning and Ending is to expose the Dao of
needling to errors.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph defines the movements of opening, closing and hinge of the 3 yin
and 3 yang energies. These movements are indiscernible; because of these movements, the energy
enters and exits within the entire body to unite with the channels which are discernible.
a - In man, yin and yang respond to the 6 energies of heaven; these unite with the 4
seasons.
Spring and summer are yang. In the course of these 2 seasons, yang energy is born and
grows while yin weakens and declines.
Autumn and winter are yin. In the course of these 2 seasons, yin energy is born and grows
while yang weakens and declines.
In man, the opening and closing movements of yin and yang function following the rhythm
of the 4 seasons. For this reason, in spring and summer, the renying pulse (left radial pulse) is
slightly changing (Da), and in autumn and winter the Cun Kou pulse (right radial pulse) is also
changing (Da). These pulses denote the good health of the individual.
b - The disordered perverse energy leaves the channel implies that, once in the channel, it
reaches the Dai luo (great secondary vessels) to trigger a significant number of individual
diseases. 153.
The origin and gathering designates the places called roots and summits where the
energy of the jingmai begin and end.
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Opening, closing and hinge define the movements of the 6 energies belonging to the organs
and bowels, to yin and yang.
Beginning and Ending implies the departure and termination of the circulation of the
jingmai, of the blood and energy.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph places emphasis on the significance of the 9 Needles (Ch. 1 of this
classic) whose node and root are found in Chapter 9.
1 - Symbiotically, heaven and earth create yin and yang.
The Dao of yin and that of yang basically reside in the alternation of their excess and
their insufficiency.
The Dao of yin is the even number and that of yang the odd number.
Via the intermediary of this yin and yang, man becomes united to heaven and earth.
2 - In diseases during the course of the 2 seasons of spring and summer, the yin energy is
insufficient and yang energy is excessive. yin and yang are then in disequilibrium, hence the
question: At the level of which channel must one tonify or disperse?
3 - The curious perverse energy is a type of disordered perverse energy.
Perverse energy leaves the channel implies that the perverse energy localized in a
channel passes to another channel.
The site of departure of the energy of the channel bears the name origin, and the site of
concentration of this energy, gathering.
Chapter 27 of the Suwen (Study on the Separation and Gathering of Mental energy and
Perverse energy) states:
taiyang is the opening.
yangming is the closing.
shaoyang is the hinge.
taiyin is the opening.
jueyin is the closing.
shaoyin is the hinge.
This assertion corresponds to the terms cited in this paragraph, except for guan (door)
because this word door is the necessary component of the movements of opening, closing and
hinge.
4 - Beginning and Ending is the title of Chapter 9 of this classic.
The acupuncturist who ignores the origin points (Gen) and the gathering points (Jie) is
responsible for phenomena of deterioration of thehinge with non-airtight opening and
closing, hence escape without hope of return. 154.
In the above-cited chapter (Ch. 1), the marvelous method of the 9 Needles and the notions of
node points and hinge points are clearly explained. In our time, some practitioners know it
and others do not, hence the two categories of physicians, good and less good.
III - N.V.N.:
The words origin and gathering designate the roots and nodes.
In practice, among the points utilized, some are considered root points, which is to say
the points of departure of the energy, and the others ligature points or node points or also
points of attachment of the energy, which is to say particularly sensitive and important points or
points of concentration of perverse energy.
a - guan mean: door.
shu: hinge
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Gai: opening
Za: closing
b - Door broken, hinge worn out... escape of the energy, illustrates the movements of the
energy of the 3 yin and 3 yang from an erroneous application of needling.
c - The exact sense of these aphorisms: taiyang is the opening; yangming is the closing;
the shaoyang is the hinge is the following:
_ taiyang is outside as in front of an open door.
_ yangming is inside as behind a closed door.
_ shaoyang is on the doorstep as the hinge turns towards the outside or towards the inside.
These imaged terms symbolize the complete or incomplete movements of entering and
exiting of the energy of the 3 yang channels.
d - In Chapter 9 of this classic, Qi Bo examines the diseases of the 6 yang channels at the
level of the renying pulse (left radial pulse) and the diseases of the 6 yin channels at the level of
the Cun Kou (right radial pulse). In the case of fullness of yang and emptiness of yin, one must
tonify yin and disperse yang, and, in the opposite case, one must disperse yin and tonify yang.
This method is considered prodigious.
e - In 1969, Chamfrault and ourselves, introduced for the first time in the Western world
this important study based on the movements of the 3 yin and 3 yang, impeccable study of this
classic. (1)
PARAGRAPH 2 155.

The origin of the taiyang channel is found at zhiyin (Bl 67) and its
gatheri ng, at Mingmen. Mingmen is located at the eyes (jingmen- Bl 1).
The origin of the yangming channel is found at Lidui (St 45) and its
gatheri ng, at Zang Da. Zang Da is located above and in front of the ear.
(Touwei- St 8).
The origin of the shaoyang channel is found at qiaoyin (GB 44) at its
gatheri ng, at Chuang Long. Chuang Long communicates with the interior of
the ear. (Tinggong- SI 19 whose branch deeply penetrates into the ear).
taiyang is the openi ng; yangming is the cl osi ng and shaoyang is
the hi nge.
When the opening is broken, the muscular fibers are crushed
and dilated and the illness spontaneously arises. It is why, in the
individual affected by this illness, one must needle the taiyang channel
and observe for the state of fullness or emptiness in order to disperse or
tonify. This sudden illness is characterized by skin desquamation and
general weakness.
When the closing is forced, the energy no longer has a place to
stop and the illness manifests as atrophic impotence (wei). One must
needle the yangming and observe for the state of fullness or emptiness
in order to disperse or tonify. The phrase the energy no longer has a place
to stop implies that the Zhen qi (energy source) is impeded resulting in
a concentration of perverse energy.

129 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
1. See Human energy and Energetic Pathology and Pathogenesis in Traditional Chinese Medicine, NVN Edition, 1969-
1971.
When the hinge is deteriorated, the bones are not maintained
and the feet can no longer be placed on the earth. One must needle the
shaoyang and observe for the state of fullness or emptiness in order to
disperse or tonify. Non-maintenance of the bones denotes joint laxity
with lack of flexion and extension. To treat this illness, one must
carefully examine its root.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - taiyang and taiyin constitute the system of opening; yangming and jueyin, the system
of closing, and shaoyin and shaoyang, the hinge system. Such are the characteristics of the energy
of the 3 yin and 3 yang.
2 - The word Tai implies the plethoric state of the energy. This is why taiyang and
taiyin open to the exterior (opening).
yangming designates the union of the 2 yang energies, factor activating the light, and
jueyin, the ending of the 2 yin energies. This is why they govern the interior (closing).
The word Shao designates the start of the activity of the birth energies. This is why
shaoyang and shaoyin govern the hinge. 156.
In the interior, these 6 yin and yang energies (taiyang, taiyin, yangming, jueyin, shaoyang
and shaoyin) unite with the organs and bowels, and, at the exterior, with the 6 channels whose
circulation is in harmony with the circumduction of the energy of si Tian and Taiquan (celestial
energies).
Once in man, this cosmic energy evolves according to the route of the 6 channels to trigger,
for example, the Shanhan diseases (evolutive diseases of Cold); sometimes, they become united
with the channels at the level of the origin points and gathering points.
Gen (origin) is the site of departure of the birth energy.
Jie (gathering) is the site of the union of the energy of the channel at the level of such
points as Mingmen, Chuang Long... by which the energy leaves the channel to reach the orifices.
taiyang designates water and fire, sources of life, and Mingmen (door of life), the eyes,
sites of entry and exit of the energy of the channel (It is the point jingming- Bl 1).
Zang Da is located in front of the superior auricular angle (It is the point Tou wei- St 8).
Chuang Long sends a vessel to the interior of the ear (It is the point Tinggong- SI 19).
The energy of the 3 yang follows the channels and gathers at these 3 points; then from
there, it reaches the cave of energy (qi Jie) and irrigates the corresponding territories,
developing, in this manner, the movements of opening-closing-hinge and of entering-exiting
at the level of the jingmai and of the organs and bowels.
Opening and closing are the words used to compare the movements of the energy to
those of the flap of a door, and hinge, to compare the movements of the energy to that of a hinge
by which the strap hinges turn.
Without the hinge, the door can neither be opened nor closed. Without the opening and
closing, the hinge does not function. In this manner, because of the movements of the 3 yin and
3 yang, the energy enters and exits at the level of the interior and exterior of the skin, the
jingmai and the organs-bowels.
The energy of taiyang governs the cutaneous system. For this reason, when the opening
and closing is fractured, the muscles are damaged.
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Tong qi (a priori or thoracic energy) directs the activity of yangming at the level of the
upper part of the body. This energy follows the respiratory route and spreads out at the level of
the 4 limbs. This is why, when the closing is worn out, the energy has no place to stop and the
disease is characterized by atrophic impotence (wei).
shaoyang manages the tendino-osseous system. This is why, when the hinge is damaged,
the joints become lax (functional disability).
157.
Chapter 6 (Study of the Separation and Union of yin and yang) of the Suwen states:
taiyang, whose origin (root) occurs at zhi yin (Bl 67), is called yang in yin.
yangming, whose origin (root) occurs at Lidui (St 45), also has the name yang in yin.
shaoyang, whose origin (root) is qiaoyin (GB 44), is also named yang in yin.
In summary, the 3 yin energies and that of the 3 yang come entirely from yin and go from
below upward. One must carefully examine their root.
Yu Shi states:
The energy of the 3 yang follow the routes of the channels and reach the caves of energy
(sinus) of the face to penetrate into the orifices.
The jing yang (yang essence) of the taiyang reaches the eyes to maintain the pupil; Bie qi
(distinct energy) of the shaoyang reaches the ears to maintain hearing; Tong qi (a priori or
thoracic energy) coming from the yangming reaches the nose to maintain the sense of smell.
Tong qi originates from shangjiao (Upper Jiao= cardia). At the top, it gathers in the thorax
to control respiration.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph is devoted to the origin points and gathering points of the 3 yang
channels of the foot.
1 - The origin point (root) of Foot Taiyang (Bl) is zhiyin (Bl 67), located at the external
edge of the little toe at a he leafs distance (about 2 mm) from the ungual angle. Needle depth
0.1 cun, left in during 5 expirations and moxa 3 times.
The gathering point of this channel is Mingmen. here, the word Mingmen designates the
eyes, that is to say jingmen (Bl 1) located 0.1 cun outside the internal canthus of the eye. Needle
depth 0.1 cun, left in for 6 expirations, moxa forbidden.
2 - The origin point of Foot Yangming (St) is Lidui (St 45), located at the tip of the second
toe near the external ungual angle about one he leaf width. Needle depth 0.1 cun, moxa 3 times.
The gathering point of this channel is Touwei (St 8) located at the angle of the forehead, in
the scalp line, 1.5 cm. from Benshen (GB 13) and 4.5 cm. from shenting (GV 24). Needle depth 0.3
cun, moxa forbidden.
3 - The origin point of Foot Shaoyang (GB) is qiaoyin (GB 44), located at the external
ungual angle of the 4th toe. Needle depth 0.1 cun, left in during 1 expiration, moxa 3 times.
The gathering point of this channel is Chuang Long, located within the ear, that is to say at
Tinggong (SI 19), located in front of the tragus in a crease which is formed when one opens the
mouth. Needle depth 0.3 cun.
III - N.V.N.: 158.
1 - In relation to Tinggong (SI 19), gathering point of Foot Shaoyang (GB), a number of
objections have been issued over the centuries.
According to us, Tinggong (SI 19) is indeed the gathering point of the energy of Foot
Shaoyang (GB). In effect, it is stated in Paragraph 3 (see below):
The gathering point of Foot Shaoyin (Ki) is Lingquan (CV 23) and that of Foot Jueyin (Li)
131 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
is Yuying (other name Yutang- CV 18).
Therefore, we can conclude that the energy of a channel is not forced to gather at the end
of the same channel. According to the characteristics of each channel, the energy can gather at the
level of another channel following the processes of opening-closing-hinge that is specific to it.
2 - The opening-closing-hinge movements of the 3 yin and 3 yang are of prime
importance in therapy.
In effect,
_ taiyang is the 3rd yang. It occurs at the most superficial level of the 3 yang. It therefore
governs the opening.
_ yangming is the 2nd yang. It occurs in the medial zone of the 3 yang and, therefore,
governs the closing.
_ shaoyang is the 1st yang. It is found in the deepest zone of the 3 yang and plays the role
of hinge. (Figure. 11)
In this way, when the opening is worn out, the muscles are squashed. One must needle
the taiyang (Bl) and evaluate for the excessive or insufficient state to disperse or tonify.
When the closing is broken open,the energy has no place to stop, hence, atrophic
impotence (wei). One must needle the Foot Yangming (St) and observe for the excessive or
insufficient state in order to disperse or tonify.
When the hinge is demolished, the bones are not maintained; one must needle the Foot
Shaoyang (GB) and observe for the excessive or insufficient state in order to disperse or tonify.
3 - The terms muscles are squashed, bones not maintained and absence of a place to stop
illustrate the clinical aspects resulting from these phenomena of door broken open, hinge
damaged, opening and closing without function. This is why, therapeutically, one must always
examine the root and summit of the disease.
4 - Do not confuse these movements with the superficial and deep circulation of the 3 yin
and 3 yang (notions we had presented in 1969 in our works).
159.



Figure 11
132 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
Opening-closing-hinge movements of the 3 yang.


Figure 12
Gathering points of the 3 yang of the foot.
PARAGRAPH 3

The origin of taiyin occurs at Yinbai (Sp 1) and its gathering at
Taishang (other name Zhongwan) (CV 12). 160.
The origin of shaoyin (Ki) occurs at Yongquan (Ki 1) and its
gathering at Lingquan (CV 23).
The origin of the jueyin (Li) occurs at Dadun (Li 1); its
gathering at Yuying (other name Yutang- CV 18) and its luo at
Tanchong (CV 17).
taiyin is the opening, jueyin is the closing and shaoyin is
the hinge. This is why,
_ when the opening is broken open, food metabolism is damaged
and the diaphragm is closed. In obstruction of the diaphragm, one must
needle the taiyin (Sp) and carefully observe for the excessive or
insufficient state in order to practice dispersion or tonification.
_ when the closing is worn out, the energy and blood are
annihilated, and the individual is open to illness. To treat the affliction,
one must needle the jueyin (Li) and observe for the excessive or
insufficient state in order to carry out dispersion or tonification.
_ when the hinge is demolished, certain places on the vessel are
obstructed. This is why in stases (obstructions), it is advised to needle
133 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
the shaoyin (Ki) and carefully observe for the excessive or insufficient
state in order to carry out dispersion or tonification.
recall that all of these obstructions or stases come from
i ns uf f i c i enc y.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1- Tai Shang (Taicang) designates the base of the tongue. The spleen is a metabolizing
organ of nutritive substances. Its vessel links to the base of the tongue and spreads into the
sublingual region because the base of the tongue is the site of gathering of the food bolus (2).
2 - Lianquan (CV 23) belonging to renmai (CV) is located at the middle of the neck above
the pharynx. renmai has its source in the kidney; this is why the energy of shaoyin (Ki) gathers
at Lingquan (CV 23).
Chapter 52 (Defensive energy) of this classic states: The summit of jueyin (Li) occurs
at the shu point of the back.... By that, Yuying (or Yutang- CV 18) must be located
on the back... .The luo (secondary branch) of jueyin occurs at Tanzhong (CV 17) because the
vessel of the liver crosses the diaphragm and passes by this point.
3 - The spleen is a food metabolizing organ. This is why when the opening is broken open,
the diaphragm is obstructed and the energy becomes insufficient. In Ge Rong (diaphragmatic
obstruction), at the top, foods cannot pass, and down below the intestines lose their tone, hence
post-prandial diarrhea.
161.
4 - jueyin is the site of termination of the 2 yin. At the culmination of yin is the birth of
yang. This is why when the closing is broken open, the vital energy becomes exhausted and the
individual tends to be distressed. The energy of the 1st yang comes from the kidney organ.
Because zhi (will) is not fulfilled in perfect fashion, the individual is prone to affliction.
5 - shaoyin controls the system of vessels. This is why when the hinge is broken open,
the vessels present with stases at certain places. In this way, in the case of stasis or obstruction,
one must needle shaoyin and observe for the excessive or insufficient state to disperse or tonify.
6 - The previous paragraph emphasized that all syndromes of accumulations or stases
must be considered syndromes of insufficiency. This means to say that the excess is due to the
accumulation of perverse energy and insufficiency is synonymous with deficiency of the essential
energy. To combat this accumulation of perverse energy, one must reinforce the potential of the
essential energy.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph studies the origin and gathering points of the 3 yin of the foot and their
techniques of use.
1 - The origin of Foot Taiyin (Sp) is at Yinbai (Sp 1), a he leaf width from the internal
ungual angle of the great toe. Needle depth 0.1 cun, left in for 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.
The gathering point of this channel is Tai Shang (Zhongwan- CV 12), belonging to the
renmai (CV), located 4 cun above the umbilicus. Needle depth 0.8 cun, moxa 7 times.
2 - The origin point of Foot Shaoyin (Ki) is Yongquan (Ki 1), located in the plantar crease.
Needle depth 0.3 cun, left in during 3 expirations, moxa 3 times.

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2. For Ma Shi and us, Tai Shang is another name for Zhongwan- See Art and Practice of
Acupuncture and Moxabustion, Vol. III- NVN Edition.
The gathering point of this channel is Lianquan (CV 23- other name Sheben), located on
the neck above the pharynx and below the chin. Needle depth 0.2 cun, left in for 7 expirations,
moxa 3 times.
3 - The origin point of jueyin (Li) is Dadun (Li 1), located behind the nail of the great toe,
1 cun from a he leaf, at the place of reunion of the three hairs; according to another argument,
at the internal ungual angle is Yinbai (Sp 1) and at the external angle is Dadun (Li 1). Needle
depth 0.3 cun, left in during 10 expirations, moxa 3 times.
The gathering point of this channel is Yuying (also Yutang- CV 18), belonging to the
renmai (CV), located 1.6 cun below Zigong (CV 19). Needle depth 0.3 cun, moxa 3 times.
The luo (branching vessel) is linked to Tanzhong (CV 17), located 1.6 cun below Yuying
(CV 18) in a crease at the midline joining the two breasts. Needling is forbidden, moxa 5 times.
162.
4 - The taiyin is the 3rd yin, located within the superficial layer of yin. Therefore, it
controls the opening of the door.
The jueyin is the 1st yin, located within the deep layer of yin. Therefore, it controls the
closing of the door.
The shaoyin is the 2nd yin, located within the middle layer of yin. Therefore, it controls
the hinge of the door.
In this way, when the opening has deteriorated, the spleen loses its function of food
assimilation, and the metabolizing organ function is altered, hence diaphragmatic obstruction and
post-prandial diarrhea. In this case, one must needle the Foot Taiyin (Sp) and carefully observe
for the excessive or insufficient state in order to perform dispersion or tonification (3).
When the closing has deteriorated, the liver energy is annihilated, and the subject has
the tendency to be afflicted. Also, in cases of destruction of the energy and affliction, one must
needle jueyin and carefully observe for emptiness or fullness in order to tonify or disperse.
When the hinge is torn down, the kidney vessel presents at certain sites
the phenomena of stasis with obstruction of xiajiao (Lower Jiao). In this manner, in the individual
suffering from signs of engorgement of xiajiao, it is strongly advised to needle Foot Shaoyin (Ki)
and carefully observe for the excessive or insufficient state in order to tonify or disperse.
In the reasoning of the mechanism of stasis or obstruction, one must not consider them,
thoughtlessly, as syndromes of fullness, but always as syndromes of insufficiency.
III - N.V.N.:
a - According to Yu Shi,
_ Hand Taiyin (Lu) and Hand Jueyin (XB) are controlled by Tong qi (ancestral, a priori or
thoracic energy).
_ shaoyin (Ki) and jueyin (Li) reach the skull and brain under the action of renmai (CV)
and Dumai (GV).
_ Lianquan (CV 23) and Yutang (CV 18) are points of liquid conduction toward the
sublingual region.
_ jing-liquid of the kidney organ follows, on the one hand, the route of the renmai (CV)
to reach Lingquan (CV 23) and the sublingual region, and, on the other hand, the spinal route to
penetrate into the brain.
_ jueyin (Li) and Dumai (GV) gather together at the top of the skull, then descend into the
sublingual region where the 2 curious points, Jixin-Yuye (PC 20), are found.
b - The gathering points of the 3 yin are diagrammed in Figure 13 below:
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3. These illnesses originate from the insufficiency of the energy of the spleen
163.
Figure 13
Gathering points of the 3 yin of the foot.
136 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 4

The Foot Taiyang (Bl), whose origin occurs at zhi yin (BL 67), flows
out towards jinggu (Bl 64), arrives at Kunlun (Bl 60) and gathers at Tianzhu
(Bl 10) and Feiyang (Bl 58).
The Foot Shaoyang (GB), whose origin occurs at qiaoyin (GB 44),
flows out towards qiuxu (GB 40), arrives at yangfu (GB 38) and gathers at
Tianrong (SI 17) and guanming (GB 37).
The Foot Yangming (St), whose origin occurs at Li dui (St 45), flows
out towards Chongyang (St 42), arrives at Xialing (Jiexi-St 41) and gathers
at renying (St 9) and Fenglong (St 40).
The Hand Taiyang (SI), whose origin occurs at Shaoze (SI 1), flows
toward Wangu (SI 4), arrives at yanggu (SI 5) and gathers at Tianchuang (SI
16) and zhizheng (SI 7).
The Hand Shaoyang (SJ), whose origin occurs at guanchong (SJ 1),
flows out towards yangchi (SJ 4), arrives at zhigou (SJ 6) and gathers at
Tianyou (SJ 16) and Waiguan (SJ 5).
The Hand Yangming (LI), whose origin is found at Shangyang(LI 1),
flows out towards hegu (LI 4), arrives at yangxi (LI 5) and gathers at Futu
(LI 18) and Pianli (LI 6).
164.
These movements are the origin of fullness of the luo of the
12 channels; one must needle them.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - The 3 yin and 3 yang, associated with the 6 channels and with the origin and
gathering points, are briefly studied in the two previous paragraphs.
Paragraph 4 concerns the penetration of the energy of the 3 yang into the different
channels of the foot and hand which all go to the cervico-nuchal region. This is why it is said:
These movements bring with them the fullness of the luomai; one must needle them. In effect,
when the energy arrives at the luo (system of luos), these go into fullness. One must disperse
them to aid the circulation of the energy of the 3 yang to pursue its normal path toward the top
and the exterior.
Feiyang (Bl 58), guanming (GB 37), Fenglong (St 40), zhizheng (SI 7), Waiguan (SJ 5) and
Pianli (LI 6) are the luo of the 6 channels of the foot and hand, all located between the jing-river
and he points.
Gathering at the he point implies that the blood and energy from the exterior (epidermo-
dermal layer) penetrate into the jing-well point and reach the elbow and the knee to unite with
the energy and blood of the channel. In this way, the energy of the 3 yang gather within the
channels at the jing-well point in order to be directed toward the top, up to the points: Tianzhu
(BL 10), Tianrong (SI 17), renying (St 9), Tianchuang (SI 16), Tianyou (SJ 16) and Futu (LI 18),
located in the cercvico-nuchal region; then from there it reaches the face and cranium (4).
This circulation of blood and energy differs from that which flows out towards the jing-
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4. This permits understanding why these points are called windows of heaven.
well point, arrives at the shu point, passes to the jing-river point and gathers at the luo point.
This is why the text cites the points Feiyang (BL 58), guanming (GB 37), Fenglong (St 40), etc. in
order to differentiate the circulation of the energy of the 3 yang from that of ying-Xue (nutritive
energy and blood). The first circulates from the exterior (epidermis and dermis) toward the
interior and the second from the interior (jingmai) toward the exterior (cephalic region).
2 - This paragraph describes the circulation of the energy of the 3 yang within the
channel (jingmai) and outside the channel (Luomai). Chapter 52 speaks on the Ying Qi (nutritive
energy) and Chapter 57 of this classic on the Tong qi (ancestral or innate energy).
The energy of the 3 yang and 3 yin, the nutritive energy (Ying Qi) and ancestral energy
(Tong qi) circulate together within the channels and throughout the entire body, at the exterior as
in the interior, following a circle without end. As a result, one often encounters similar
explanations, but their content is entirely different.
A synthetic study of these chapters proves to be necessary to better understand the
reactive phenomena of yin and yang, of energy and blood of the human being, being material or
immaterial, answering to the 5 movements and 6 energies of heaven and earth, to the cold and
heat, like the shadow and the body, echo and sound.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph defines the circulation of the 6 channels of the foot and hand beginning at
the jing point and gathering at the he point.
In effect,
_ the Foot Taiyang (Bl) starts at the jing-well (origin point) which is zhi yin (Bl 67), flows
out towards the yuan point which is jingqu (Bl 64), arrives at the jing-river point which is
Kunlun (Bl 60) and gathers at the nucha region at the point Tianzhu (Bl 10) located at the neck
and at the luo point which is Feiyang (Bl 58), located on the leg.
_ the Foot Shaoyang (GB) begins at the jing-well point which is qiao yin (GB 44), flows out
toward the yuan point which is qiuxu (GB 40), arrives at the jing-river point which is yangfu
(GB 38) and gathers at the nuchal region at the point Tianrong (SI 17) and on the leg at the luo
point which is guanming (GB 37).
_ the Foot Yangming (St) starts at the jing-well point which is Lidui (St 45), flows out
toward the yuan point which is Chongyang (St 42), arrives at the jing-river point which is Jiexi
(St 41) and gathers at renying (St 9) located at the neck and at Fenglong (St 40) on the leg.
_ the Hand Taiyang (SI) starts at the origin point called jing-well which is Shaoze (SI 1),
flows out toward the yuan point which is Wangu (SI 4), arrives at the jing-river point which is
yanggu (SI 5) and gathers at Tianchuang (SI 16) located on the neck and at the luo point which is
zhizheng (SI 7) located on the forearm.
_ the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) starts at the origin point called jing-well which is guanchong
(SJ 1), flows out toward the yuan point which is yangchi (SJ 4), arrives at the jing-river point
which is zhigou (SJ 6) and gathers at Tianyou (SJ 16) located on the neck and on the forearm at the
luo point Waiguan (SJ 5).
_ the Hand Yangming (LI) starts at the origin point called jing-well which is Shangyang (LI
1), flows out to the yuan point which is hegu (LI 4), arrives at the jing-river point which is yangxi
(LI 5) and penetrates into Futu (LI 18) located on the neck and into the luo point Pianli (LI 6)
located on the forearm.
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This circulation causes fullness of the luo; one must needle them.
III - N.V.N.:
The explanation and commentary of Zhang and Ma clarify the process of penetration of the
yang energy (here, yang = external), that is to say of the energy and blood, at the epidermo-dermal
layer into the jingluo system (principal channels and luo vessels) and the formation of the points
called windows of heaven 166.
In effect, this yang energy penetrates into the channel by the jing-well point located at the
tips of the fingers and toes, flows towards the yuan point and arrives at the jing-river point;
above, it penetrates into the window of heaven point located at the neck, and below into the luo
point of the leg and forearm.
Table of Origin-Passage and Arrival-Penetration points
Feiyang (Bl 58)
guanming (GB37)
Fenglong (ST 40)
zhizheng (SI 7)
Waiguan (SJ 5)
Pianli (LI 6)
Tianzu (Bl 10)
Tianrong (SI 17)*
renying (St 9)
Tianchuang(SI 16
Tianyou (SJ 16)
Futu (LI 18)
Kunlun (Bl 60)
yangfu (GB 38)
Jiexe (St 41)
yanggu (SI 5)
zhigou (SJ 6)
yangxi (LI 5)
jinggu (Bl 64)
Quiuxi (GB 40)
Chongyang (St42)
Wangu (SI 4)
yangchi (SJ 4)
hegu (LI 4)
zhiyin (Bl 67)
qiaoyin (GB 44)
Lidui (St 45)
Shaoze (SI 1)
guanchong (SJ 1)
Shangyang (LI 1)
Zu taiyang (Bl)
Zu shaoyang (GB)
Zu yangming (St)
Shoutaiying (SI)
Shoushaoyang
(SJ)
Shou yangming
(LI)
Penetration
luo points
points of
windowof heaven
Arrival point
(jing)
Passage point
(yuan)
Origin point
(JIng)
Name of Channel

139 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
Figure 14
Process of penetration of the energy and blood from the exterior
into the yang channel and formation of the window of heaven points.
PARAGRAPH 5 167.

In one day and one night (24 h), the energy of the jingmai
(channel vessels) carries out 50 ying (cycles) around the body in order
to activate the circulation of the jing (essence) energy of the 5 organs.
The number of lower cycles of this fixed number bears the name of
Kuang sheng (restless, degraded cycle).
In this way, to speak of 50 ying (cycles) is to evaluate the
energy perceived by the 5 organs. This appreciation can be verified at
Mai Kou (radial pulse) by exact count of the number of pulsations. In
this manner,
_ At the end of 50 beats, the absence of Da (changing pulse,
pulse which stops at regular intervals) is the indicator of the perfect
state of the 5 organs.
_ At the end of 40 beats, the presence of Da predicts the
insufficiency of the energy of one of the 5 organs.
_ At the end of 30 beats, the presence of Da indicates the
insufficiency of the energy of two of the 5 organs.
_ At the end of 20 beats, the presence of Da indicates the
insufficiency of the energy of three of the 5 organs.
_ At the end of 10 beats, the presence of Da denotes the
insufficiency of the energy of four of the 5 organs.
_ At less than 10 beats, the presence of Da predicts the
insufficiency of 5 organs.
Based on the moment of stoppage of the pulse, one can define the
short cycle of the energy whose node and ankle are explained in the
chapter Beginning and Ending (Chap. 9).
In total, to speak of the absence of stopping at the end of 50 beats
is to define the pulse in the healthy subject, therefore the cyclic
periods of the 5 organs.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph describes the energy of the 3 yin and 3 yang. At the exterior, it
circulates following the system of jingmai, and in the interior, it maintains the 5 organs.
140 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
The organs have a double function: receiving and distributing the jing (essence).
The 5 organs generate the 5 movements whose energy is divided into the 10 Celestial
Trunks possessing the property of uniting them and transforming them. In the healthy individual,
the energetic transformation is characterized by a regular rhythm of 50 beats.
The word one Da means a stoppage before 50 beats. The Da pulse is a changing pulse
with stoppage not designating a large pulse.
A pulse now less frequent, now rapid is a fatal pulse. 168.
The knot and ankle of Chapter 9 (Beginning and Ending) of this classic can be
epitomized with this aphorism: To live by the 6 energies and die by the 5 channels.
II - Ma Shi comments:
1 - This paragraph concerns the 50 beats of the radial pulse (Mai Kou). In the healthy
individual, its decrease in number is a sign of disease. Chapter 15 (The 50 Cycles - Wu Shi Yu)
of this classic was also mentioned.
The total length of the jingmai of the body is 12 sheng (5) and 2 Chinese meters, that is to
say 12 x 4 = 48 +2 = 50 Chinese meters (or 50 x 0.4 = 20 European meters).
Tong qi (a priori energy) located in the thorax controls respiration and the circulation of
the channels. With each expiration, the energy advances 3 cun , and with each inspiration, it
advances also 3 cun, that is to say 6 cun with each respiration.
During one day and one night, the energy accomplishes 50 cycles around the body and
13, 500 respirations, traveling therefore 810 sheng or 810 x 4 = 3,240 Chinese meters (or 3,240 x
0.4 = 1,296 European meters) in order to conduct the jing (essence) of the 5 organs.
2 - If the number attained is less than the fixed number, the phenomena has the name
Degraded Cycle (Kuang sheng). That infers that, with a lower number, survival is rare.
3 - The 50 cycles are the movements of attraction of the jing (essence) of the 5 organs
being able to be observed at Mai Kou (mouth of the vessels = radial pulse). As this is the site of
reunion of the energy of the 5 organs, one also gives it the name qi Kou (mouth of the energy). As a
matter of fact, because Taiyuan (Lu 9) is located 1 cun from Yuji (Lu 8), the Mai Kou also carries
the name Cun Kou (mouth of the inch).
4 - As for the pulsations, if, at the end of 50 beats, there is absence of stoppage (Da), this
indicates that the energy of the 5 organs is sufficient. The individual is in good health.
Chapter 17 of the Suwen (Study of the Subtleties of the Pulses; Mai Yao jing wei lun)
states: The changing pulse (Da) is the indicator of the insufficiency of the energy because there
is a stoppage after beating like a need to recover....
Therefore, the absence of stoppage after 50 beats allows assurance that the 5 organs are
sufficiently provided with energy. 169.
On the other hand,
_ at less than 50 beats, the presence of a stoppage indicates the absence of energy of 1 of
the 5 organs
_ at less than 40 beats, the presence of a stoppage indicates the absence of energy of 2 of
the 5 organs,
_ at less than 30 beats, the presence of a stoppage indicates the absence of energy of 3 of
the 5 organs,
_ at less than 20 beats, the presence of a stoppage indicates the absence of energy of 4 of
the 5 organs,
_ at less than 10 beats, the presence of a stoppage indicates the absence of energy of all 5
organs.
In this way, one can define the short cycle of energy whose explanation is found in
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Chapter 9 (Beginning and Ending) of this classic. In the same chapter, we note:

5. 1 sheng = 4 Chinese meters; 1 Chinese meter = 0.4 European meters.
The study of the Beginning and Ending is based on that of the Beginning and Ending of the
jingmai.
_ Palpation of Mai Kou (right radial pulse) and renying (left radial pulse) permits
specifying the excessive or insufficient state, harmonious or discordant state, of yin and yang.
_ In the healthy individual, Mai Kou and renying are concordant; the top and bottom
respond to and follow one another.
_ The pulses of the 6 channels are not fixed, etc.
All of this is perfectly explained.
In total, the absence of stoppage at the end of 50 pulsations denotes good health, and the
pulse whose beats are either spaced out or rapid is a changing (Da) pulse.
III - N.V.N.:
This paragraph, therefore, gives the definition of the short energetic cycle as a function of
the appearance of the Da pulse.
In this manner, the Da pulse that was translated as large pulse absolutely does not
conform to the text.
here, Da means stopping movement of the pulse, the result of a perturbation. The Da
pulse is, therefore, a changing pulse with stoppage.
The Short Cycle or shortening of the energy translates as a shortage of energy; the
shorter it is, the more the prognosis is unfortunate.
PARAGRAPH 6

Huangdi :
To speak of the normal and abnormal 5 morphological types is
to analyze:
_ the size of the bones and joints
_ the firmness or flaccidity of the muscles
_ the thickness or thinness of the skin and flesh
_ the purity or impurity of the blood
_ the slippery or rough state of the energy
_ the long or short pulse
_ the abundance or shortage of energy 170.
_ and, finally, the number of the jing (principal channels)
and luo (secondary channels).
One knows them. But it concerns the common people and not
princes and dukes, the favored or rich, whose skin is supple, blood and
energy abundant... . In these 2 categories of people, the method of
needling, slow or rapid, deep or superficial, repeated or spaced out, is it
i dent i cal ?
Qi Bo:
One eats choice foods, and the other vegetable products. As a
result, the treatment is different.
Because,
_ when the energy is sl i ppery, removal of the needle must be rapid,
_ when the energy is rough, removal of the needle must be slow,
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_ when the energy is sl i ppery, one must use the little needles and
needle superficially,
_ when the energy is rough, one must use the little needles and
needle deeply,
_ when the needling is deep, the needle must be left in place,
_ when needling is superficial, insertion of the needle is rapid.
Following these recommendations, needling of the common people
is necessarily deep and the needle must remain in place, and the
needling of nobility and favored ones, with the help of the little
needles, must be superficial and slow.
Such are the different techniques of needling according to the
weak, slippery, rough... states of the energy.

EXPLANATIONS ANS COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph defines the 3 yin and 3 yang originating from the 5 organs, the 5 animal
kingdoms, the 5 vegetable kingdoms and the 5 ranges of sapors like producer-agents of the
contrary and favorable movements and the 5 morphological types.
The 3 yin and 3 yang energies carry out the entering and exiting movements in relation to
the superficial and deep of the skin and to the interior and exterior of the jingmai. These
movements are animated by the direct or contrary impulses.
At the exterior of the vessel, if the skin is thin and pliable, these movements are rapid. In
contrast, if the skin is thick and rough, they are slow.
In the interior of the vessels, if the blood is clear and the vessels are short; these
movements are accelerated. In contrast, if the blood is disordered and the vessels are long, they
are slowed down. 171.
In this manner, the rapid and slow movements are studies according to the morphology of
the skin and blood vessels, which explains the slippery and rough nature of the energy.
Princes and the wealthy consume too much choice food; their bones and muscles are soft
and weak and their energy and blood are fluid and flow out rapidly. On the other hand, in
peasants and workers, who have only available thick and solid foods, their energy and blood are
different and flow out slowly.
Therefore, because rich and poor do not eat in the same fashion, their energy is different.
In acupuncture, one must take this into account.
Huangdi concludes: Subjects having a fine skin, supple muscles and well balanced energy
have appreciable longevity.
II - Ma Shi comments:
since there exists the rich and the poor, needling must be different.
The 5 morphological types cited in Chapter 64 of this classic (yin and yang and the
25 Types of Humans- yin yang Er Shi Wu ren) are defined by the physiognomy and appearance of
men classed into the 5 biotypes.
In ordinary and simple people, the bones and joints are large or small, the muscles are
hard or supple, the skin is thick or thin, the blood is clear or disordered, the energy slippery or
rough, the vessels long or short, the blood is in abundance or in shortage, etc. They possess the
configuration type of jingluo which are allocated in the same fashion.
In princes and nobleman, the body constitution and musculature are weak, the blood and
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energy are overflowing, rising, muddled....
The comparison of these 2 categories of men permit deduction of the rules of needling in
accordance with the slowness or rapidity, superficiality or deepness, of insertion. Such is the
object of the question posed by Huangdi.
here is Qi Bos reply:
In those who live on refined dishes and in those who eat vegetable products, the needling
is different. In effect,
_ removal of the needle is rapid in subjects with slippery energy.
_ removal of the needle is slow in subjects with rough energy.
_ the little needle is utilized in subject with slippery energy and needling must be
superficial.
_ the large needle is utilized in subjects with rough energy and needling must be deep.
_ the needle remains in place when the needling is deep.
_ removal of the needle is rapid when the needling is superficial.
As a result, in ordinary and simple subjects whose energy is rough, one must use the large
needles; needling must be deep and the duration of insertion must be long.
In noblemen and the rich, the energy is slippery; one must employ the little needles;
needling must be superficial and slow.
Such are the rules of needling in subjects with different energy.
PARAGRAPH 7 172.

Huangdi :
How are xing (form) and qi (energy) when they are associated
with the contrary (ni) phenomena?
Qi Bo:
In the insufficiency of xing and qi, if the illness is that of qi in
excess, that is to say if the perverse energy is victorious, one must
disperse urgently. On the other hand, in the insufficiency of xing and
of qi, if the illness is that of qi in insufficiency, one must tonify
ur gent l y.
In the insufficiency of xing and qi and the illness of
insufficiency of qi, yin and yang are also insufficient. Needling is then
advised against at the risk of worsening the insufficiency. The
accentuation of the insufficiency is the origin of the depletion of yin
and yang and the exhaustion of blood and energy responsible for the
emptiness of the 5 organs characterized by a drying up of the muscles
and thinning of the marrow. In that case, the very old die and the
young are restored with difficulty.
In the excess of xing and qi causing the illness of excess of qi, yin
and yang are in excess; one must disperse the perverse energy to
balance the emptiness and fullness. This is why it is said: Disperse excess
and tonify insufficiency.
To needle without discerning what is contrary and what is
favorable is to provoke the confrontation of essential energy and
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perverse energy.
To tonify the too full causes overflowing of yin and yang at the 4
si des with gastrointestinal swelling, hepato-pulmonary hypertrophy
and fusion of yin and yang.
To disperse the empty worsens the insufficiency of the jingmai
with gastrointestinal contracting, thinning of the skin and withering
of the body hair heralding the fatal period.
This is why it is said: The node and ankle of needling consists of
balancing yin and yang. After regulation, the jing energy (essence) becomes
luminous, the shen (mental) unites with qi (energy) and gathers in the interior.
It is also said: The great worker balances the energy, the average worker
perturbs the pulse and the little worker drains the energy and puts life in danger.
Therefore, the poor physician must be very attentive during the
observation of and alterations in the energy of the 5 organs. he must
carefully examine the response of the 5 pulses, the emptiness or
fullness of the jing and luo, before determining the points to needle.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains: 173.
1 - xing (form) and qi (energy) designate the configuration of the energy of the skin,
muscles and bones.
The illness of excess and insufficiency of qi implies affliction of the 3 yin and 3 yang
caused by the aggression of perverse energy, hence affliction caused by the emptiness and
fullness of yin and of yang, blood and energy.
The perverse energy being victorious, one must urgently disperse; the blood and energy
being in insufficiency, one must urgently tonify. These are the acupuncture techniques
consistenting of regularizing the yin and yang energies. In the case of depletion of the energy,
needling is strictly prohibited.
The blood and energy being exhausted at the exterior, the 5 organs are not necessarily in
a state of emptiness in the interior. This assertion stresses the importance of the notion of
interior-exterior. Clinically, one must carefully determine them by a precise examination of
the pulses.
Draining the muscles and depletion of the marrow, implies that the presence of perverse
energy necessarily causes signs of fullness. One must disperse it to correct the emptiness of the
essential energy and fullness of perverse energy because the perverse energy can infiltrate into
the organism due always to the emptiness of the essential energy. It is, therefore, imperative to
eliminate the perverse energy and harmonize the essential energy.
To tonify the too full is to provoke overflowing of yin and yang: gastrointestinal swelling
and hepato-pulmonary hypertrophy..., means: the overflowing manifests itself first in the
interior. On the other hand, when the overflowing is takes place in the interior as well as at the
exterior, yin and yang become intermingled.
2 - When blood and energy are in abundance, the skin is smooth and the flesh is firm and
well-warmed.
When only blood is in abundance, it permeates the skin and embellishes the
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dermoskeleton.
When the jingmai are in emptiness following an exhaustion of the blood and energy, the
stomach and intestines retract, the skin is flaccid... . The prognosis is gloomy.
3 - The regulation of yin and yang returns the vitality to the jing qi (pure energy:
energetic quintessential) and reestablishes the concordance of yin and yang with the energy
circulating in the channels.
At the time of the separation of xing (form) and qi (energy), the shen (mental) escapes to
the exterior. This is why the regulation of yin and yang is an excellent technique for
consolidation of the jing-shen (Mental essence) of the interior and improvement of the xing (form)
of the exterior.
4 - In summary, the appearance of the po (sensitive soul) at the pulse is the consequence
of disorder of the jing qi, caused either by cosmic external energy or by the ailments of the
organs. In order to treat it, the grand master meticulously observes the interior and exterior, the
emptiness and fullness, before applying adequate treatment.
174.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph defines tonification and dispersion and the necessity of recognizing what
is contrary and what is favorable. For that, one must understand the node and the ankle
in employing the needles.
1 - In the case of the person whose xing and qi are together insufficient, the clinical signs
are that of fullness because the perverse energy is victorious; one must disperse urgently.
2 - In the case of the person whose xing and qi are together in excess, the clinical
manifestations are those of insufficiency because the essential energy is weak; one must urgently
tonify.
3 - If the illness of qi and xing-qi (form and energy) are associated with insufficiency, it
is because the energy of the yin channels and yang channels are simultaneously insufficient. In
this case, needling is advised against at the risk of augmenting the insufficiency with depletion of
both the yin and yang energy, weakening the blood and energy of the 5 organs, drying out the
bones and marrow. Aged persons will die and young ones will be hard to restore.
4 - If the xing-qi and illness of the qi are associated with excess, it is because the energy
of the channels is in excess. In that case, one must, in the first place, urgently disperse in order
to evacuate the perverse energy; next, balance the emptiness or fullness of the essential energy.
These are the favorable techniques of dispersion in the event of excess and of tonification in the
event of insufficiency.
In contrast, tonification applied to excess and dispersion to insufficiency are
unfavorable or contrary techniques.
Consequently, to ignore the contrary and favorable is to expose the energy of the body
and the perverse energy to confrontation.
5 - In the case of fullness, tonification utilized in place of dispersion is causes
accentuation of the excess of perverse energy and the overflowing of the yin and yang energy with
dilation of the stomach and intestines and hypertrophy of the liver and lung.
6 - In the case of emptiness, dispersion utilized in place of tonification causes
accentuation of the insufficiency of the essential energy and of the jingmai with depletion of the
blood and energy, shrinkage of the stomach and intestines, falling out of the hair, wrinkles, etc.
The prognosis is fatal.
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7 - The node and ankle of needling reside in the regulation of yin and yang toward the
goal of polishing the energy, uniting xing and qi and maintaining the jing-shen in the interior.
Such is the method of balancing utilized by the good worker; the poor worker can only complicate
the pulse and dry up the energy.
Briefly, the physician must perfectly appreciate the evolutive state of the diseases of the
5 organs, the differentiation of the 5 types of pulses, the emptiness and fullness of the jingmai,
the fineness and firmness of the skin... in order to determine the points to needle.
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175.

CHAPTER VI
Longevity and Brevity
Hard and Soft
(Tu Yao Gang Ru)
Chapter 6 of the Lingshu is devoted to the differentiation of the yin and yang,
Hard and Soft, xing (bodily form) and qi (energy) of the human being which is
dependent upon
_ the speed of growth of bodily development
_ the potential of yuan qi (source energy)
_ the consistency of the skin
_ the length of the bones
_ the nature of pulsologic beats (strong and large, weak and small...).
The concordance and discordance of xing and qi, blood and energy, jing
(principal channels) and luo (secondary channels) are the two pathophysiologic
aspects from which are posed the problem of longevity and brevity of life and, in
particular, the therapeutic problem.
The objective of this chapter is to discuss the duration of life, its longevity and
brevity, hence its title: Longevity and Brevity - Hard and Soft (Tu Yao Gang Ru).
This chapter consists of 6 paragraphs.

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PARAGRAPH 1

Huangdi questions Shao Yu:
I have heard it said that man is born hard or soft, strong
or weak, short or long, yin or yang. In relation to this, I
would like to know the therapeutic implications.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 176.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
At birth, man receives the yin and yang of heaven and earth.
Within heaven is qi (energy) and within earth, xing (bodily form).
From the concordance of xing and qi result longevity, and from their discordance, brevity.
The Hard and the Soft are the Dao of yin and yang.
The yin and the yang are the Dao of heaven.
The Hard and the Soft are the Dao of earth.
This is why:
_ in yin, there is yang
_ in yang, there is yin
_ in the interior, there is yin and yang
_ at the exterior, there is also yin and yang.
Yu Xu has said: Strong and weak, short and long are like the cold and heat of the 4
seasons, or like day and night being able to be long or short... . This variation comes from xing
and from qi answering to yin and to yang and to the 4 seasons, hence the existence of the
phenomena of the Hard and Soft.
II - N.V.N:
Each individual acquires at birth natures that for him are appropriate:
_ hard and soft natures and feelings
_ strong or weak constitution
_ tall or short size,
all dependent on the anatomic and energetic evolution of the individual, that is to say on yin and
yang.
By these words, Huangdi contemplates a therapeutic by acupuncture and asks Shao Yu to
submit a report on this subject to him.
PARAGRAPH 2

Shao Yu replies:
In yin, there is yang; in yang, there is yin. According to the
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rules, one must carefully examine the yin and yang before needling.
Needling must be in agreement with the evolutive phase of the
disease and performed as a function of the etiology and climatic
variation of the 4 seasons.
In the interior, the disease answers to the 5 organs and 6 bowels,
and at the exterior, to the pilocutaneous and musculo-skeletal systems.
For this reason, at the exterior, there is the yin and the yang, and in
the interior, there is also the yin and the yang.
177.
In the interior, organs are yin and bowels are yang.
At the exterior, muscles and bones are yin and hair and skin are
y a ng .
This is why it is said:
1. In the disease located in the yin part belonging to the yin
channels, one must needle the ying and shu points of the yin channels.
In the disease located in the yang part belonging to the yang
channels, one must needle the he point of the yang channels.
In the disease located in the yin part belonging to the yang
channels, one must needle the jing-river point of the yin channels.
In the disease located in the yang part belonging to the yin
channels, one must needle the luo points of the yang channels.
2. The disease localized in the yang part is called Feng (wind), and
that localized in the yin part, called Bi (obst ruct i on):
When yin and yang are jointly affected, the disease bears the
name Feng Bi (obstruction caused by wind: painful paresthesias).
The disease manifesting only in xing (bodily form) without pain
belongs to the yang channels, and that not manifesting in xing with
pain belongs to the yin channels.
In the disease without form (xing) with pain, yang is intact and
yin is damaged. One must urgently treat yin without attacking yang.
In the disease having a form (xing) without pain, yin is intact and
yang is damaged. One must urgently treat the yang without attacking on
the yin.
When yin and yang are simultaneously affected, the disease
presents sometimes with a form (xing), sometimes without a form with
anxiety. This phenomenon is called Victory of yin over yang, manifesting
neither at the exterior nor in the interior; xing (form) cannot remain a
long time without changing.

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EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - yang is the energy of heaven; it controls the exterior.
yin is the energy of earth; it controls the interior. 178.
But the yin energy and yang energy of heaven and earth ascend and descend, enter and
exit, according to the principles Top-Bottom, interior-exterior... . This is why in the interior,
there is yin and yang; at the exterior, there is also yin and yang.
The skin and flesh, the 5 organs and 6 bowels, the interior and exterior unite and respond
to the 4 seasons; the 5 organs are yin and the 6 bowels are yang.
yin and yang cited in this paragraph applies to the exterior toward a therapeutic goal.
2 - Disease localized in the yin part belonging to the yin channels means: the disease
coming from the interior (5 organs) manifests in the yin part of the exterior. This is why one must
needle the ying (fire) and shu (earth) points of the yin channels of the organs.
3 - Disease localized in the yang part belonging to the yang channels implies: the
disease coming from the interior (6 bowels) manifests in the yang part of the exterior. This is why
one must needle the he (earth) point of the yang channels of the bowels.
4 - Disease localized in the yin part belonging to the yang channels means to say that
the disease occurs in the muscles and bones. This is why one must needle the channels belonging
to yin because the energy of the 5 organs unites at the exterior, with the musculo-skeletal system.
The treatment consists, therefore. of needling the jing (metal) point of the yin channels.
5 - Disease localized in the yang part belonging the yin channels means: the disease
occurs in the organs and manifests in the pilocutaneous system.One must needle the luo point of
the yang channels.
6 - Disease of the yang part is called Feng and that of the yin part, Bi because: Feng
(wind) is the yang energy belonging to heaven, and Bi (obstruction) is perverse yin also belonging
to heaven. When yin and yang are simultaneously affected, the disease then has the name Feng-
Bi. This is one of the reasons for the union of the interior and exterior.
7 - To speak of disease having xing (form) is to speak of disease of the skin, flesh,
muscles and bones... . To speak of disease devoid of xing, designates disease of the energy of the
5 organs and 6 bowels.
8 - Disease having form with absence of pain is that localized in the yang part, at the
level of the exterior. Disease having no form with pain is that caused by an attack of the energy.
9 - yin is intact... yang is intact means that yin and yang are not subject to alteration.
10 - heaven and earth are above and below the thousand beings. Movement and rest are the
rhythm of change as a function of time belonging to heaven and to earth. water and fire are the
symbols representing yin and yang.
The energy of heaven descends and floats on the surface of the earth; that of the earth
rises and ascends toward heaven. It is in this manner that the energy of heaven and that of earth
intersect. Within Li ( ), there is emptiness, and within Ken ( ) there is fullness. Such
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is the reason for water and fire.
yin and yang are disordered together and sometimes present a form, sometimes not, when
they are located neither in the interior nor at the exterior. 179.
The heart is yang; it controls fire. water is yin and is located down below. If the heart is
disordered, it is because yin has triumphed over yang. yin and yang of the interior and of the
exterior then lose their connection, and water and fire from the top and bottom oppose one
another. Such is the disharmony of the yin energy and yang energy of heaven and earth. In this
case, the bodily form cannot remain a long time without changing.
11 - Briefly, the techniques of needling essentially consist of balancing this disharmony.
The true meaning of the text of this classic must be explored from natural phenomena to
better understand the principles of acupuncture.
II - Ma Shi comments:
1 - This paragraph emphasizes the yin nature and yang nature of the illness. Needling
must be also differentiated into yin and yang, hence Huangdis question.
Man is classed as hard and soft, strong and weak, long and short... into yin
and yang. What then are the therapeutic methods which follow?
2 - Shao Yu replies:
a) yin and yang have one global meaning. But in yin, there is yin; and in yang there is
yang. Comprehension of this meaning permits the discovery of the therapeutic principles.
Because, at the starting phase of the illness, one must search for the cause in order to
explain the reason for the needling. After having found the cause, the needling must be performed
in accord with the 4 seasons.
b) The interior responds to the 5 organs and 6 bowels, themselves also classified into yin
and yang; the 5 organs are yin and 6 bowels are yang.
The exterior responds to the muscles and bones, to the skin and flesh, also classified into
yin and yang; the muscles and bones are yin compared to the skin and flesh which are yang.
For this reason, therapeutically:
_ In illness localized in the yin part belonging to the yin channels, that is to say in
ailments of the organs manifesting at the level of the muscles and bones, one must needle the ying
(Summer, fire) and shu (End of Summer, earth) points of the yin channels. Ex: Yuji (Lu 10) and
Taiyuang (Lu 9) of the Hand Taiyin (Lu).
_ Sometimes, in the illness localized in the yang part belonging to the yang channels, that
is to say in ailments of the bowels manifesting at the level of the skin and the flesh, one must
needle the he (earth, End of Summer) points of the yang channels. Ex: Quchi (LI 11) of the Hand
Yangming (LI).
_ Sometimes, in the illness localized in the yin part belonging to the yang channels, that
is to say the ailments of the bowels manifesting at the level of the muscles and bones, one must
needle the jing (Autumn, metal) of the yin channels. Ex: jinggu (Lu 8) of the Hand Taiyin (Lu).
_ Sometimes, in the illness localized in the yang part belonging to the yin channels, that
is to say in the ailments of the organs manifesting at the level of the skin and hair, one must
needle the luo point of the yang channels. Ex: Pianli (LI 6) of the Hand Yangming (LI).
180.
c) The illness localizing in the yang channels is called Feng (wind) and that localizing in
the yin channels, Bi (obstruction: pain and paresthesias).
When yin and yang channels are simultaneously affected, the illness bears the name
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Feng-Bi (pain and paresthesias caused by wind).
d) Illness having form (xing), without pain on pressure, belongs to the yang channels.
Illness without form (xing), with pain on pressure, belongs to the yin channels.
They are this way because:
_ in illness devoid of form with pain, the yang channels maintain their integrity and the
yin channels are damaged. One must urgently treat the yin without taking on the yang channels.
_ in the illness having form without pain, the yin channels maintain their integrity and
the yang channels are affected. One must urgently needle the yang without taking on the yin
channels.
_ in the simultaneous attack of the yin and yang channels, the illness is now without form,
now with form accompanied by the signs of anxiety (literally: anxiety of the heart). In this case,
attack of the yin channels is a great deal more serious; if one wishes to treat the yang, one
abandons/relinquishes the yin and vice versa. Treatment of this type of illness is therefore
difficult.
III - N.V.N.:
The explanation of Zhang and Ma is clear. Nevertheless, we emphasize the treatment of the
different layers of the body (skin, flesh, muscles and bones).
a) Skin and flesh (yang of yang)
The illness can be localized:
_ either in the yang part belonging to the yang channels. The he (End of Summer, earth)
points of the yang channels are specific. Ex: Quchi (LI 11) of the Hand Yangming (LI),
_ or in the yang part belonging to the yin channels. The luo points of the yang channels
are specific. Ex: Pianli (LI 6) of the Hand Yangming (LI).
b) Muscles and bones (yin of yang)
The illness can be localized:
_ either in the yin parts belonging to the yin channels. The ying (Summer, fire) points and
shu (End of Summer, earth) are specific. Ex: Yuji (Lu 10) and Taiyuan (Lu 9) of the Hand Taiyin
(Lu),
_ or in the yin part belonging to the yang channels, The jing (Autumn, metal) points are
specific. Ex: JInggu (Lu 8) of the Hand Taiyin (Lu).
181.
Localization and therapy of the different layers
ying-spring and shu points
of the yin channels

jing-river points
of the yin channels
yin Part
yin Channels

yin Part
yang Channels

Muscles and bones
(yin of yang)
he points
of the yang channels

luo points
of the yang channels
yang Part
yang Channels

yang Part
yin Channels

Skin and flesh
(yang of yang)
Therapy (specific points) Disease (localization) Layer of the Body
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PARAGRAPH 3

Huangdi questions Bai Gao:
I have heard something about the state of xing (bodily form) and
of qi (energy) before and after the illness. What are the connections
then between the interior and exterior?
Bai Gao:
wind-Cold injures xing; worries, fear, anger... injure qi.
Perturbed qi injures the organ; the illness is that of the organ.
Cold injures xing; the illness is that of xing.
wind injures the muscles and Mai (channel vessels); the illness is
that of the vessels and muscles.
In this way, xing and qi, interior and exterior communicate.
Huangdi :
How do you needle?
Bai Gao:
If the illness lasts 9 days, one must needle 3 times (sessions). If it
lasts 1 month, one must practice 10 sessions. The number of sessions
depends, therefore, on the chronicity of the illness.
In chronic Bi, one must examine Xue luo (blood capillaries) and
make them bleed..
Huangdi :
What are the difficulties of treating the illnesses located at the
exterior and in the interior?
Bai Gao: 182.
In the illness of xing (form) not yet having reached the organs,
the number of days (sessions) of needling is diminished by half. If the
organ is affected before the xing, the number of sessions must be
doubled. Such are the difficulties and ease of treatment of the illness
whose evolution does not exceed one month.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1. This paragraph studies the illnesses of exogenous origin, that is to say illness caused
by an infiltration of external cosmic energy, and the illnesses of endogenous origin, that is to say
illness caused by an internal perturbation. The causal factors are therefore from triggering
phenomena of the interactions of the xing (bodily form) and qi (energy), of the exterior and
interior.
2. wind-cold is an energy from the exterior which infiltrates into the organism and
injures the xing, while worries and fear, irritability and anger are the energies of the interior
that injure the organs.
154 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
3. exterior is yang; interior is yin. Illness which lasts 9 days is an ailment which
manifests at yang. This is why one uses the odd number (3) as the number of sessions of needling.
The illness which lasts 1 month (Lunar) is a ailment which manifests at yin. This is why
one uses the even number (10) as the number of sessions of needling.
In this manner, in acupuncture, the even number and odd number are utilized in order to
respond to yin and yang.
4. One practices the bleeding of the Xue luo (blood capillaries) in the goal of ventilating
the vessels.
5. xing is affected in the first place and the illness has not yet reached the interior,
means: The illness is at yang without reaching yin. In this case, 3 sessions of acupuncture suffice
to cure the illness.
6. The organ is affected in the first place, then goes to xing, implies: The illness of the
interior has reached the exterior. In that case, the number of sessions must be doubled.
7. The illness of yin with external evolution is easy to treat. If it lingers longer in the
interior, the illness is difficult to treat. This is why sometimes 10 sessions of acupuncture or
even double that, sometimes 2 sessions suffice... . Such are the difficulties of needling the
illnesses of less than one month.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph is devoted to the study of the reactive phenomena of the xing (bodily
form), of the qi (energy) and of illnesses whose therapy is sometimes easy, sometimes difficult.
1. Cold-wind injures xing This means to say when cold energy penetrates into the
xing, the reactive phenomena are external.
Worries and fear, discontent and anger injure qi. Perturbed, the qi injures the organs
and manifests at the level of the organs and bowels. The reactive phenomena are therefore
internal.
When wind injures the muscles and vessels, the reactive phenomena manifest just as easily
in the interior as at the exterior.
Such are the reciprocal reactions of xing and qi, of the illness located in the interior and
of the illness located at the exterior.
2. As for the methods of needling, the illness of 9 days is cured with 3 sessions of
acupuncture, or that of one month is cured at the end of 10 sessions. In this manner one takes into
account the seriousness and chronicity of the illness in order to deduce the number of sessions:
_ 1 session for an illness of 3 days
_ 2 sessions for an illness of 6 days
_ 10 sessions for an illness of one month
_ etc.
3. In chronic Bi (chronic painful paresthesias), if the individual cannot shift, one must
examine the Xue luo (blood capillaries) and make bleed without concern for the method called
3 days.
4. The illness localized in the interior or at the exterior is sometimes easy, sometimes
difficult to cure. Because:
a) In the illness of xing caused by wind-cold, if it has still not reached the organs, the
ailment is external, therefore slight. In this case, the number of sessions of acupuncture can be
reduced by half. So, for example:
_ in the illness dating 6 days, perform one session instead of two
_ in the illness dating 1 month, perform 5 sessions instead of 10
_ etc.
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b) In the illness of qi caused by worries and fear, discontent and anger... the organs are
affected with external perturbation; therefore, the exterior and interior are affected together. In
that case, the illness is deep and the number of sessions of acupuncture must be doubled:
_ 6 (3 x 2) sessions in the illness of 9 days
_ 20 (10 x 2) sessions in the illness of one month
_ etc.
Such is the case of illnesses of variable seriousness evolving over 1 month whose therapy
is more or less difficult.
III - N.V.N.: 184.
The acupuncture technique called one session every 3 days is clearly explained and
commented on by Zhang and Ma. We will particularly retain the ideas xing and qi and take
into account the number of sessions in the treatment of illnesses of exogenous origin (like Bi:
painful paresthesias) and illnesses of endogenous origin (like psycho-affective ailments).
PARAGRAPH 4

Huangdi questions Bai Gao:
I have understood it said
_ that the xing (bodily form) may be slowed down or speeded up
_ that the qi (energy) may be excessive or insufficient
_ that the bones may be large or small
_ that the muscles may be firm or soft
_ and that the skin may be thin or thick.
How can one determine longevity or brevity?
Bai Gao:
In harmony, xing and qi assure longevity. Their disharmony
brings about brevity.
In concordance, the muscles and bones assure longevity. Their
discordance brings about brevity.
Prevailing over xing, the blood and energy, jing (principal
channels) and luo (secondary channels) guarantee longevity. Their
defeat by xing leads to brevity.
Huangdi :
What does a slowed down or accelerated xing mean?
Bai Gao:
A supple and well developed xing with very firm and blossoming
skin predicts longevity. On the other hand, a supple and well developed
xing with sometimes wrinkled, sometimes lax skin indicates brevity.
A supple and well developed xing with strong and changing pulse
(Da) is favorable. On the other hand, a supple and well developed xing
with a small and weak pulse indicates an insufficiency of qi whose
prognosis is fatal.
A supple and well developed xing with slight protrusion of the
cheekbone indicates a small skeletal frame, therefore brevity.
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A supple and well developed xing with firm and well demarcated
musculature indicates longevity. On the other hand, a supple and well
developed xing with flaccid musculature without demarcation predicts
br evi t y. 185.
Such is the destiny of man founded on the principles of t he
creation of xing and determination of qi, factors of longevity and brevity.
One must, therefore, know these principles to be able to treat illnesses
and predict the duration of existence.
Huangdi :
On what basis does one evaluate longevity and brevity?
Bai Gao:
The orbital contour (Shang go) less raised than that of Di (chin)
indicates death before 30 years of age. If the individual presents with
another illness, he dies before 20 years.
Huangdi :
In the event of victory of xing or qi, is there longevity or
br e v i t y?
Bai Gao:
In the normal individual, victory of qi over xing is the sign of
longevity; and in the individual whose xing is indicated by muscular
escape (cachexia, emaciation), the victory of qi over xing or the victory
of xing over qi is the sign predicting death.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1. Man receives yin and yang from heaven and earth in order to produce qi (energy), and
this occurs in the face of the problem of longevity and brevity.
The life of the human being is represented by xing (bodily form, matter) and qi (energy).
This is why the concordance of xing and qi is life, and their discordance, death.
In man, skin and flesh respond to heaven (yang) and the muscles and bones, to earth (yin).
Their concordance and reciprocity are signs of longevity and their opposite is the sign of brevity.
2. xing encompasses together the skin and flesh, muscles and bones, blood and energy, the
jing (principal channels) and luo (secondary channels). It also responds to the jing shui (liquid
routes) and to the qi Mai (energy of the pulses) traveling the entire body. This is why, Victory of
qi over xing is synonymous with longevity, and Defeat of qi by xing, synonymous with brevity.
3. xing and qi are created from the yin and yang of heaven and earth.
The skin and hair are supple and radiant (literally, slowed down).This means to
say that they possess the source character (yuan xing) of the Celestial Dao. For this reason, the
suppleness and blossoming of the skin and hair are the marks of longevity, and their retraction
and laxity (literally, acceleration), the marks of brevity. 186.
4. Mai (pulse) designates the force of circulatory movements of jing Xue (blood routes).
The large and well developed xing with a strong and changing (Da) pulse is favorable. If
the pulse is small and weak, it indicates concomitant insufficiency of ying (nutritive energy),
wei (defensive energy) and Tong qi (a priori, innate or thoracic energy). The prognosis is fatal.
5. The kidney receives the yin and yang energy of the parents, called innate, a priori
energy, and controls the osseous system.
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The bone of the cheekbone constitutes the postero-external part of the kidney energy.
This is why slight protrusion of the cheekbones indicates a small skeletal frame, indicator of
brevity. This state is due to the insufficiency of the a priori energy.
6. The spleen corresponds to earth; it controls the flesh whose firmness assures longevity
and flaccidity, brevity. This state depends on the quality of the foundation of the wall, able to
be innately thin or thick.
7. In this way, human life can only exist thanks to the creation of xing and to the
determination of qi on which longevity or brevity depends. The physician must know the reason
to study the xing and qi before examing the patient in order to predict life or death.
8. It is stated in Chapter 54 (Celestial Age- Tian nian) of this classic:
The mother is the foundation, and the father, the shield. If man can live to 100 years,
it is thanks to the bone of his nose which is long and straight and to Shang go (orbital contour)
which is raised and square.
Shang go is low, less high than Di (designating the chin) implies: the orbital bone sags
and is flat following an insufficient reception of qi from the mother because xing (bodily form)
depends on principle of Kun ( ) (1).
9. It is also stated in this same chapter:
If man has lived to 30 years, it is because his 5 organs are in perfect ease. If he dies
before 30 years, it is because his 5 organs have not able to respond to the 5 movements of earth.
Sometimes, because of illnesses, he dies before 20 years, when he was not able to accomplish the
numbers of production of earth.
10. In normal man, the victory of qi over xing is the mark of longevity. This means to say
that his orbital contour is large and thick. qi must prevail over xing because the thousand beings
coming from heaven and earth envelop the earth.
In ill man with emaciated body, qi dominates xing. (here, qi designates perverse
energy). In the opposite case, when xing dominates qi, the essential energy escapes; it is death.

II - Ma Shi comments: 187.
1. This paragraph develops the theory called creation of xing and determination of qi
from which one can evaluate the duration of longevity.
Emperor Huangdi asks:
The xing (bodily form) is slowed (supple and well developed) or accelerated
(emaciated and retracted).
The qi is in abundance or insufficiency.
The bones are large or small.
The flesh and muscles are firm or flaccid.
The skin is thick or thin, etc.
Based on these 5 criteria, can one determine longevity or brevity?
Bai Gao replies:
Man has his xing and his qi. The development and suppleness of xing depends on the
state of the qi.
A supple and well developed xing in concordance with a plethoric qi indicates longevity.
A supple and well developed xing with a qi in shortage, or else, an emaciated and
retracted xing with insufficient qi, etc. are phenomena of discordance, signs of brevity.
2. In effect, a thick skin with firm and hard muscles indicates the achievement of bodily
transformation, indicator of longevity.
A thick skin with flaccid muscles, or else a thin skin with firm muscles, or even
a thin skin with flaccid muscles, indicates the lack of achievement of bodily transformation,
indicator of brevity.
3. Supplied with blood, the human body must have qi; and supplied with jing (principal
channels), it must have luo (secondary channels).
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1. This phrase indicates that It is earth (spleen) energy which creates xing (form). here, Kun = earth-spleen.
If these 4 factors (blood, qi, jing and luo) prevail over xing, the xing is slowed because
the energy and blood, the jing (principal channels) and luo (secondary channels) are in
abundance, essential to longevity. 188.
If these 4 factors cannot prevail over the xing, xing is also slowed, but the energy and
blood, jing and luo are in insufficiency, which causes brevity.
4. Accelerated xing and slowed xing: A well developed xing with thick and slowed
skin indicates longevity. In contrast, if the skin is thin and accelerated, it indicates brevity.
5. Excess and insufficient: A well developed xing with a strong and changing (Da) pulse
is favorable. The opposite, with a small and weak pulse, is unfavorable.
6. Large bones and small bones: A well developed xing with protruding cheekbones must
have large bones because the zygomatic bone is the sentinel of the entire skeletal system of the
human being. In other words, raised cheekbones with large bones indicates longevity and
protruding cheekbones with little bones are the indicators of brevity.
7. Firm muscles and flaccid muscles: In tall individuals with large, very muscular
buttocks, the musculature of the entire body if firm because the gluteal muscles are the sentinels
of the muscles whose firmness indicates longevity and whose flaccidity indicates brevity.
8. xing and qi From birth, man possess xing and qi thanks to which one can evaluate
longevity and brevity.
Chapter 49 (The Five Complexions) of this classic has related some principles of
evaluation of longevity and brevity:
a) Mingtang designates the nose
Jue, the space between the eyebrows
Ding, all the parts of the face
Fian, the 2 sides of the cheek
Ti, the 2 auricular holes .
b) The bones of Mingtang are raised and protruding, smooth and straight.
The 5 organs respond to the center (nose) and the 6 bowels to the 2 sides (of the nose).
The head and face allow determination of the pathophysiologic status of the 5 organs and 6
bowels.
c) At the level of the eyes, the circumference designates the walls whose foundation is
low. If it is lower than that of Mingtang, the individual will not live beyond 30 years. If he is
affected additionally by a disease, whether exogenous or endogenous, he will not live more than
20 years.
9. In the interrelationship between xing and qi, how do you determine longevity and
brevity?
since healthy individuals have xing and qi, they necessarily have their source energy
(yuan qi). Their longevity is due to the victory of qi over xing. When they are sick and when their
xing is found emaciated and they can no longer recover, their qi dominates their xing; it is death.
similarly, in patients whose xing is not yet completely exhausted, when the source energy
is found in a state of great insufficiency, xing dominates qi. This case is also fatal.
189.
III - N.V.N.:
We rediscover in this paragraph the dualism of xing and qi, first concepts of traditional
Chinese medicine.
Yet, this dualism occurs suprisingly in modern physical science in the Matter-energy
interaction.
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PARAGRAPH 5

Huangdi :
I have heard it said that the energy has 3 modifications. What
does that mean?
Bai Gao:
Sometimes one needles the ying (nutritive energy), sometimes the
wei (defensive energy) and sometimes the han Bi (obstruction caused by
cold at the level of the channels).
Huangdi :
The needling therefore has 3 modifications. How is that?
Bai Gao:
One needles the ying to make the blood leave, the wei to make the
energy leave and the han Bi to make the heat enter.
Huangdi :
What are the symptoms of the diseases of ying, wei and han Bi?
Bai Gao:
ying illness is characterized by signs of alternating cold and heat
(fever and chills) with weak ascent or weak descent of the blood and
e ne r g y.
wei illnesses are characterized by intermittent pains of energetic
or i g i n.
Cold-wind guest (Ke) can bring about a gastrointestinal
syndrome, while han Bi illnesses are characterized by pain of fixed
localization with cutaneous paresthesias.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES:
I - Zhang Shi explains: 190.
1. The xing is the site of residence of the qi. This is why qi returns to the xing as if it
goes back home.
The jing shui (essence of water) contained within Xiaojiao (Lower Jiao) and the ying and
wei originating from zhongjiao (middle jiao) have the property of heating up the flesh system,
disseminating to the skin system, permeating the musculo-skeletal system and facilitating
secretion. water follows the energy performing unceasing cyclic movements towards the exterior.
If the circulation of ying and wei is hindered, the water no longer circulates and xing and qi
become exhausted.
In this way, when one speaks of the 3 modifications, one means the transformations of
energetic movements.
2. ying-blood and wei-energy form from the routes of exit toward the exterior. This is
why, in the case of cold with pain (that is to say, in the case of Bi = algoparesthesias), one must
disseminate the heat energy located in the interior.
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Because, ying and wei, energy and blood control the movements of entering and exiting. If
they are disordered, these movements are worn out and provoke painful syndromes caused by the
cold and heat.
3. This paragraph distinguishes illnesses of ying, wei and han Bi which have their
internal, non-external origins.
The word Bi indicates obstruction. han Bi is an affliction caused by Cold-water.
The kidney controls the osseous system.
Superficially, skin and hair respond to yang, and deeply, the muscles and bones to yin.
The ailments associated with yin are called Bi whose fixed and intermittent pain is always
accompanied by cutaneous paresthesias.
Such is the Bi Syndrome caused by Cold-water of the kidney. This illness is, therefore, of
internal etiology.
4. Yu Xu teaches:
This paragraph studies, in the first place, the problem of determination of longevity and
brevity, then, in the second place, that of xing and qi, determining factors of longevity and
brevity. But the illnesses of qi are classified into 2 categories:
a) illnesses of qi caused by wind-Cold, a type of illness of qi prevailing over xing.
b) and illnesses caused by an obstruction of ying and wei. In this case, the liquid route is
stagnated. This is the type of illness of xing prevailing over qi.
II - Ma Shi comments:
The technique of needling essentially comprises 3 different modalities: 191.
1. Needling ying must be performed according to the technique of bleeding because the
blood comes from the ying energy.
In effect, in the excess of ying energy, yang cannot triumph over yin, and in the
insufficiency of ying energy, yin cannot triumph over yang, which provokes an alternation of cold
and heat and a great insufficiency of qi. The blood is then expelled by the yang energy and floods
the top (superficial) as well as the bottom (deep), The illness is, therefore, that of the blood which
one must treat by bleeding.
2. Needling wei must be done according to the technique of evacuation of the energy.
After Chapter 43 (Discourse on Obstructions- Bi lun) of the Suwen: wei energy
circulates in the skin and flesh. It rises up towards Huang Ma (yellow membrane: peritoneum) and
spreads into the thorax and abdomen. When the wei is disturbed, the illness is intermittent and
becomes localized either in the interior or exterior.
3. wind-Cold guest (Ke) localized in the stomach and intestines is an internal ailment of
energetic origin. Therefore, in these illnesses, one must evacuate the qi (perverse).
similarly, the han Bi diseases become localized in the channels; the needling must be
associated with the technique of revulsion (application of poultice or plaster patch) (2)in the goal
of heating up the deep layer because the pains are of fixed localization and are always
accompanied by cutaneous paresthesias.
III - N.V.N.:
This paragraph describes 3 types of energetic illnesses:
_ illnesses of ying (Rong)
_ illnesses of wei
_ and illnesses of han Bi
whose pathophysiologic process and treatment are clearly explained by Zhang and Ma.
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2. See Paragraph 6 below.
PARAGRAPH 6

Huangdi :
In the case of han Bi (painful paresthesias), how do you practice
the method called intromission of heat ?
Bai Gao:
In the common people, one uses heated needles, and in people of
high society, medicinal poultices after the needling.
Huangdi :
What are these poultices? 192.
Bai Gao:
These poultices are composed of the 4 following ingredients:
Alcohol of prime quality 20 jin (1/2 kilo)
Frutus Zanthoxyli (Huajiao) 1 jin
Rhizoma Zingiberis (Ganjiang) 1 jin
Ramulus Cinnamomi (Guizhi) 1 jin
These 4 ingredients are finely ground and macerated in alcohol.
Next, one uses:
Cotton 1 jin
silk cloth 4 sheng
soaked in the same alcohol.
The mixture is closed in a jar very tightly to prevent evaporation.
Then, one buries the jar in the middle of very hot ashes of horse
manur e.
After 5 days and 5 nights, one removes the cloth and the cotton
that one dries in the sun. The drying ended, one macerates them again
in the same alcohol. One repeats the same process once a day until
complete exhaustion of juice of the alcohol (contained in the jar).
At the end of the process, one uses the medicinal residue from the
cotton and the silk cloth. With the cloth, one produces several sacks
of 6 or 7 Chinese meters (3) in length in which one introduces the cotton
and the medicinal residue.
At the time of use, one heats up the sack of cloth above the ashes
of a blackberry bush, then one applies it to the area affected by han Bi,
after needling.
This process allows the introduction of heat into the painful area.
When the sack cools down, one uses another one warmed up and repeats
about thirty times the same actions.
Each procedure provokes sweating. It is necessary to carefully
wipe the body very clean before performing the next procedure.
After the session, the patient must stand up and do an exercise
walk around his entire room, avoiding becoming exposed to wind.
In this manner, after each needling, the application of medicinal
poultices permits activation of the cure of the han Bi illnesses.
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3. 1 Chinese meter = 0.40 European meters.
Such is the method of intromission of heat.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 193.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1. Bi is a painful syndrome of fixed localization without radiation toward the neighboring
areas.
xing Bi (erratic pains) is an ailment caused by cold coming from kidney-water.
2. Man receives the water energy and fire energy from the natural world and
transforms them into the 5 movements. The kidney receives the a priorijing qi (energetic essence)
to transmit it to the 5 organs. If water and fire are not in a synergistic state, the 5 organs lose
their connection and the han Bi syndromes lives on This is why one uses fire to aid water.
3. The lung is the master of the pilocutaneous system. The alcohol is directed first toward
the skin, then toward the luomai (secondary vessels). The medicinal formula cited in the previous
paragraph is, therefore, alcohol-based with the aim of restoring the relationship of the lung-
kidney system.
4. Frutus Zanthoxyli (Huajiao) is used to reinforce the communication of heart and kidney.
The spleen makes up part of zhi yin in yin. Rhizoma Zingiberis (Ganjiang) has the property
of treating ailments of the center (abdomen). The magistral formula cited in this paragraph uses
Ganjiang to reinforce the relation of spleen and kidney.
Cinnamomi (Guizhi) is a type of wood classified among the most precious. The magistral
formula cited in this paragraph uses Guizhi to consolidate the relationship of liver and kidney.
silkworms feed on the leaves of the blackberry bush to produce silk fibers.
Gui Xin, the blackberry bush and silk fibers, are therefore specific products to treat
illnesses of the lung.
5. 1 jin of cotton, 1 jin of silk fibers, 4 sheng of cloth... 30 applications, etc. implies: the
therapeutic action of the poultices permits the evacuation of perverse yin by the cutaneous route.
In other words, the heating action of the poultice favors the elimination of perverse energy
towards the exterior.
6. In this paragraph, Bai Gao has demonstrated the existence of the relationships of the
organs and bowels, of yin and yang, in the categories of man (rich and poor). The treatment is
based on the method of liberation of the exterior. Practitioners must delve deeply into the
subtleties of the specific therapeutic application in each case.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph explains the treatment of han Bi (painful paresthesias) by acupuncture
and by the method of intromission of heat with the aid of poultices. 194.
In the common people, the energy and blood are compact and impure. After needling, one
must use fire (moxabustion). In contrast, in the rich and noblemen, the energy and blood is
pure and slippery; after needling them, one must use poultices according to the method of
intromission of heat.
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195.

CHAPTER VII
Use of the Needles
(guan Zhen)
Chapter 7 of the Lingshu defines the use of the 9 Needles responding, not
only to the 9 methods of needling, but also to 12 other procedures based on the
localization and natures of the illness:
1 - Method of Ou Ci (double needling)
2 - Method of Bao Ci (needling painful points)
3 - Method of Hui Ci (needling-drilling)
4 - Method of Ti Ci (grouped needling)
5 - Method of yang Ci (light and superficial needling)
6 - Method of zhi Zhen Ci (subcutaneous needling)
7 - Method of shu Ci (needling energetic points)
8 - Method of Duan Ci (short needling)
9 - Method of Fu Ci (cutaneous needling)
10-Method of yin Ci (needling the yin part of the leg)
11-Method of Bang Ci (dispersive needling)
12-Method of Zan Ci (complementary needling).
Other methods are also cited to treat specific illnesses of the 5 organs localizing
in the interior and responding to the 5 energetic levels:
1 - Method of Ban Ci (semi-needling)
2 - Method of Bao Wen Ci (Leopard needling)
3 - Method of guan Ci (articular needling)
4 - Method of hegu Ci (needling evoking the image of hegu)
5 - Method of shu Ci (needling of the shu).
The object of this chapter is to determine the functions of the 9 Needles and
the different methods of needling in the goal of justifying the use of needles of
different size and length based on the localization and natures of the illness, hence
the title Use of the Needles (guan Zhen).
Ma Shi, in introducing this chapter, declares: 196.
The word guan means: Use. The use of needles implies the study of the
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different methods of employing needles. This chapter does not mention the name of
the speakers. But according to the style, the dissertation would come from Qi Bo.
This chapter consists of 7 paragraphs.
PARAGRAPH 1

The knot and ankle of needling reside in the choice of needles.
The 9 Needles each have their specific indication; long and
short, large and small, are utilized as a function of the location and
natures of the illness. Ignorance of these indications leads inescapably
to therapeutic failure.
Because,
_ in superficial illnesses, deep needling injures not only the
muscles, but causes cutaneous inflammation as well.
_ in deep illnesses, superficial needling does not expulse the
perverse energy, but also favors pyogenic formation.
_ in benign illnesses, large needles destroy not only the essential
energy, but puts the individual in danger.
_ in serious illnesses, little needles cannot expulse the perverse
energy, and can even worsen the illness.
Thus, by ignorance of the rules, large needles used in place of
little needles injures the essential energy, and little needles used in the
place of large needles are incapable of eliminating the perverse
energy. Such are the risks of using the needles erroneously.
The modes of choice of needles according to the natures and
localization of the illness are the following:
1 - In superficial illnesses (skin), on must use needles of the Chai
(1) type to puncture the effected sites. Nevertheless, if the skin of these
sites is too white, needling is prohibited.
2 - In illnesses of the flesh, it is necessary to use needles of the
yuan type in order to massage the painful points so to activate the
circulation of blood and energy.
197.
3 - In illness of the jingluo caused by chronic obstruction (Gu Bi),
one must use the needles of the Feng type in order to bleed the luo
ves s el s .
4 - In the insufficiencies of the energy of the vessels, one must
carry out the tonification method with the Ti type of needles to puncture
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the jing, ying, shu points... in the goal of tonifying and activating the
circulation of the blood and energy.
5 - In pyogenic illnesses, one must use the Fi type of needle to
incise the abscess and evacuate the pus.
6 - In sudden obstruction of the energy (Bi qi Lao Fa), one must
use the yuan Li type needle to treat enervating pains.
7 - In chronic obstructions (Chronic Bi), one must use the Hao type
of needles to treat the painful paresthesias.
8 - In deep illnesses, one must use the Chang type of needles to
expulse the perverse energy located deeply.
9 - In edemas not reaching the joint, one must use the Dai type of
needles to dissolve the liquid stasis.
10 - In illnesses of the 5 organs that are well localized, one must
also use the Feng type of needles to disperse the jing, ying, shu... points
according to the 4 seasons.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The word guan signifies process, method. Consequently, the procedures of acupuncture
are based on:
_ the diameter and length of the needle
_ the manipulation of the needle in view of tonification or dispersion
_ the depth of implantation
_ and, finally, the number (3, 5, 9, 10, etc.) of needles needed for a treatment.
These processes rigorously obey the rule according to which all needling must be
performed according to the nature and localization of the illness.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph demonstrates the choice of use of the 9 Needles.
1 - Superficial illnesses are needled superficially because deep needling injures the
muscles and provokes cutaneous abscess formation. 198.
Deep illnesses are needled deeply because superficial needling cannot disperse the
perverse energy deeply located, responsible for pyogenic formation.
Large needles used in the treatment of benign illnesses bring about too abundant a
depletion of essential energy.
Little needles used in the treatment of serious illnesses cannot eliminate perverse energy.
These needling processes are contrary to the rule and introduce technical errors.
2 - In skin ailments, one must use the Chan (Sam) type of needle to needle the places
affected, except in the case where the skin there is too white because the essential energy is not
very abundant.
In the ailments of the flesh (dermis), the painful sites are needled with Xiao (little)
type needles.
In the illnesses of the jingluo caused by Gu Bi (chronic painful paresthesias), one must
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use the Feng type of needles.
In insufficiency of the energy of the channel, Ti (De) type of needles are utilized to tonify
the jing, ying, shu, jing and he points.
In sudden obstructions of the energy (Bi qi Lao Fa), one must use yuan Li type needles.
In chronic obstructions with pain of fixed localization, one must use Hao type needles.
In illnesses of the middle layer (between muscle and flesh), one must use Chang type
needles.
In edemas, needling must not reach the joints. In this case, it is necessary to use the Da
(large) type of needle.
In obstructions of the 5 organs, needles of the Feng type are used to disperse the jing,
ying, shu... according to the principle of the 4 seasons.
III - N.V.N.:
This paragraph emphasizes the use of the 9 types of needles (see Chapter 1) according to
the natures and localization of the illness, and more particularly in the case Bi (obstruction).
Because, when perverse energy infiltrates into the sunluo and luo located in the epidermo-
dermal layer, it is the origin of pain (dermalgia) on the one hand, and on the other hand,
obstruction of the circulation at the level of the jing (principal channel) characterized by
paresthesias.
We witness then a phenomenon called painful paresthesias that can be diagrammed in the
following fashion:
199.

Figure 15:
Superficial Layer: yang (sunluo and luo). Deep Layer: yin (jing)
Infiltration of wind-cold into the superficial (yang) layer
and obstruction of the jing: phenomenon called algoparesthesias.
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Therefore, two types of needles are used:
a -Chai (Sam) type of needle: to superficially needle A Shi (painful) points according to
the technique of dispersion to evacuate the perverse energy.
b - Hao type of needle: to needle the corresponding principal channel points according
to the technique of tonification in the goal of ventilating the jing.
This process rigorously obeys the law known as yin-yang, Emptiness-Fullness.
PARAGRAPH 2

There exists 9 methods of needling responding to the 9 evolutive
forms of illness.
1 - Method of shu Ci: needling specific shu points: jing, ying, shu and
the back shu points of the 5 organs.
2 - Method of yuan Dao Ci: needling points located at the lower part of
the body in cases of illness located above. here, it is also a matter of
needling the shu points of the 6 yang channels belonging to the bowels.
200.
3 - Method of jing Ci: needling the luo points of the channels where
the Great luos leave from.
4 - Method of luo Ci: needling the little vessels located at the sunluo
(Little luos).
5 - Method of Fen Ci: needling the spaces of distribution of flesh.
6 - Method of Da Xie Ci: needling with the aid of Fi type of needles to
evacuate pus.
7 - Method of Mao Ci: needling cutaneous pains.
8 - Method of Ju Ci: needling on the opposite side. Needling performed
at the left when the illness is located on the right and vice versa.
9 - Method of Cui Ci: needling with the aid of heated needles to treat
painful Bi (painful paresthesias).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES

I - Zhang Shi explains:
The preceding paragraph defined needling performed according to the natures and
localization of the illness, while this one determines needling as a function of the evolutive forms
of the illness.
1 - The Method of shu Ci is used to treat illnesses located outside the channels by the shu
points of the 5 organs such as the jing, ying, shu, etc.
2 - The Method of yuan Dao Ci treats illnesses located above by the lower he points
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because the channels of the 3 yang of the foot and hand begin at the feet then arrive at the neck
and nucha.
3 - The Method of jing Ci permits the ventilation of the Dai luo (great secondary vessels).
Because, perverse energy first infiltrates into the sunluo (little secondary vessels), then it
stagnates in the inter-channel spaces in order to trigger illnesses called singular. Needling the
luo points of the principal channels has the power to dissolve this stasis, therefore, to ventilate
the Great luos.

4 - The Method of luo Ci consists of needling the Xiao luo (little luos) located in the skin.
5 - The Method of Fen Ci consists of needling the spaces of distribution of the flesh (1),
that is to say the sites where the 365 reunion points occur, at the time of the fixation of the
perverse energy in the flesh-muscle system.
6 - The Method of Da Xie Ci is utilized at the time of an obstruction caused by perverse
energy at the level of the pilocutaneous system. This is to say that the needling is very
superficial conforming to the saying Needling the body hairs must not injure the skin, and
needling the skin must not injure the flesh (2).
8 - The Method of Ju Ci is used when the perverse energy occurs at the level of the distinct
channels (Jing Bie). The illness being at the left, needling is performed at the right and vice
versa.
9 - The Method of Cui Ci consists of utilizing heated needles to treat Gan Bi (painful
paresthesias of the muscles and tendons: myalgias).
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph defines the 9 methods of needling.
1 - The Method of shu Ci consists of needling the jing, ying, shu... and the back shu points
such as Xinshu (Bl 15), Feishu (Bl 13), shenshu (Bl 23), Pishu (Bl 20), Ganshu (Bl 18), etc.
2 - The Method of yuan Dao Ci consists of needling the bottom while the illness is situated
above. Ex: needling points of the 3 yang channels of the foot.
3 - The Method of jing Ci consists of needling the luo points belonging to the principal
channels, points located between the jing and he points.
4 - The Method of luo Ci consists of needling the Little luos.
5 - The Method of Fen Ci consists of needling the Xi and Gu points (little valleys and
valleys) situated in the inter-channel spaces.
6 - The Method of Da Xie Ci consists of using the Fi type of needles to evacuate pus.
7 - The Method of Mao Ci consists of needling edemas and Bi (cutaneous pain).
8 - The Method of Ju Ci consists of needling the left side while the illness is localized at
the right and vice versa.

1. These spaces of distribution of the flesh have the names Xi (small valleys) and Gu (valleys) and are located in the
dermis.
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2. Translators note: #7 (The Method of Mao Ci) does not appear.
9 - The method of Cui Ci consists of using heated needles to treat Gan Bi (algoparesthesias
of the muscles and tendons).
III - N.V.N.:
Needling according to the 4 seasons is represented by needling the Wu shu points (5 shu-
Antique points) based on the seasonal movements described in Chapter 2 of this classic.
In this manner, for example:
_ in spring, needle the luo points
_ in summer, the shu points
_ in autumn, the he points
_ in winter, the jing-well points.
It is, therefore, a question of one of the methods of dispersion to evacuate perverse energy.
The 9 methods of needling cited in this paragraph are widely distributed in our time.
They make up part of the teaching programs of acupuncture in the West.
202.
PARAGRAPH 3

One distinguishes 12 methods of needling responding to the 12
c hanne l s .
1 - Method of Ou qi (double needling) to treat Xin Bi (obstruction of
the heart energy; cardialgia):
_ A hand placed on the heart and another on the opposite (dorsal)
region to determine the region affected.
_ Implant 2 needles, one in front and the other behind on the
painful area.
_ Oblique needlings.
2 - Method of Bao Ci (needling painful points) to treat pains without
fixed location:
_ Needle painful points without removing the needle,
_ With the left finger apply pressure near the point of impact,
_ Push the needle in again before removing it.
3 - Method of Hui Ci (needling-drilling) to treat Gan Bi (painful
paresthesias of muscles and tendons):
_ Needle vertically,
_ Lift the needle and execute movements of advancing and
r et r eat i ng.
4 - Method of Ti Ci (grouped needling) to treat han Bi (obstruction
caused by cold):
_ One needle placed vertically at the point of impact,
_ Two others implanted on the sides.
This method also has the name San Ci (3 punctures).
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5 - Method of yang Ci (yang needling) to treat syndromes of fixation
of cold energy in a sufficiently extended but superficial zone:
_ One needle at the center of the point of impact,
_ and 4 others around this center slightly raised up superficially.
6 - Method of zhi Zhen Ci (vertical, subcutaneous needling) to treat
superficial syndromes of cold:
_ Raise the skin up at the point of impact
_ and perform a perpendicular stick on the cutaneous plane
without injuring the dermis.
7 - Method of shu Ci (needling the shu points) to treat the fullness of
the energy with fever:
_ Deeply implant the needle and raise it up slightly toward the
s uper f i ci al ,
_ Implantation and removal of the needle are vertical and
relatively rapid. 203.
8 - Method of Duan Ci (short needling to treat Gu Bi (ostealgias):
_ Needle deeply up to the bone.
_ Transmit movements to the needle of advancement towards the
depth, followed by movements of rotation.
9 - Method of Fu Ci (cutaneous needling) to treat muscular cramps
due to cold:
_ Oblique needling with lifting up of the point of the needle.
10 - Method of yin Ci (yin needling) to treat syndromes of afflux of
cold (han Jue) and Zhonghan syndromes (direct attack by cold) with
af f l ux:
_ In the first case, needling is bilateral.
_ In the second, it is done behind the internal malleolus
(belonging to the shaoyin channel).
11 - Method of Bang Ci (lateral needling) to treat chronic Bi (painful
parest hesi as) :
_ A vertical needling applied to the center of the point of impact.
_ Another at the side of this point.
12 - Method of Zan Ci (dispersive needling) to reduce inflammation or
abscesses:
_ Needle vertically
_ remove vertically
_ During the process, perform several movements of retreat to
make it bleed.

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EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Needling has its 12 methods corresponding to the 12 channels:
1 - Double needling (Ou Ci):
_ A needling done on the thorax and another on the back, that is to say in front of and
behind, at yin and at yang.
_ The needling must be oblique to not injure the energy of the heart.
2 - Needling painful points (Bao Ci):
_ Needling painful points without fixed localization.
_ After removal of the needle, a new needling is done again at the same point.
3 - Needling-Drilling (Hui Ci):
_ Transmit to the needles advancing and retreating movements to widen the point of
impact.
_ This procedure is used in treatment of Gan Bi (painful paresthesias of the muscles and
tendons).
204.
4 - Grouped Needling (Ti Ci):
_ First needle vertically at the center of the point of impact, then needle obliquely at the
two sides to reinforce that of the center.
_ This process treats the deep syndrome of cold.
5 - yang Needling (yang Ci):
_ Plant a needle at the center of the point of impact and transmit to it rotatory movements
around this center.
_ This process treats the superficial syndrome of cold.
6 - Vertical subcutaneous Needling (zhi Zhen Ci):
_ The needling is only realized under the skin without touching the dermis (flesh). At the
arrival of the energy, the needle is straightened vertically.
_ This procedure treats the relatively superficial Bi caused by cold energy.
7 - Needling the shu points (shu Ci):
_ Needling vertically and withdraw vertically.
_ This procedure treats the syndrome of excess energy with hyperthermia.
8 - Short Needling (Duan Ci):
_ Use short needles and needle right up to the bone.
_ Perform advancing and retreating movements scraping the periosteum to treat Gu Bi
(bone pains).
9 - Cutaneous Needling (Fu Ci):
_ Oblique needling leaving the needle in place to treat muscular spasms due to cold.
10 - yin Needling (yin Ci):
_ Method used to treat the han Jue syndrome (afflux of cold) at the level of the shaoyin.
11 - Lateral Needling (Bang Ci):
_ First a vertical needling, then a lateral needling to treat chronic Bi.
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12 - Dispersive Needling (Zan Ci):
_ After implantation of the needle, perform several retreating movements to make the
blood leave in the treatment of inflammations and abscesses.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph defines the 12 methods of needling responding to the 12 channels:
1 - Double Needling (Ou Ci):
_ After having determined the symmetry of the cardiac and dorsal zones, needling is done
at the anterior zone and another at the posterior zone to treat Xin Bi (obstruction of the energy of
the heart; cardialgia)
_ Note, however, that the needling must be oblique at the risk of touching the heart able to
cause immediate death. 205.
2 - Needling painful points (Bao Ci):
_ This procedure treats pains without fixed location, being seated either at the top or at
the bottom of the body.
_ Needle vertically and leave it in place.
_ Massage the area near the point of impact before removing the needle.
_ After its removal, immediately repeat a needling at the same painful spot.
3 - Needling-Drilling (Hui Ci):
_ Vertical needling done on the side of the point of impact.
_ Transmit rotatory movements to the needle with those of advancing and retreating
(probing motions) to treat Gan Bi (painful tendino-muscular paresthesias: myalgias).
4 - Grouped Needling (Ti Ci):
_ Vertical needling done at the center of the point of impact, then 2 others at the 2 sides
to treat han Bi (obstructions caused by the cold) located in the deep regions.
_ Because of the number of needles, this process bears the name 3 punctures.
5 - yang Needling (yang Ci):
_ Vertical needling done at the center of point of impact and 4 others around this center.
_ Slightly lift the needles without removing them and execute movements of going and
coming to treat han Bi (afflux of cold) located in the superficial regions.
6 - Superficial and Subcutaneous Needling (Zi Zhen Ci):
_ With one hand lift the skin, and with the other implant the needle into the skin without
touching the dermis.
_ This procedure treats cold syndromes localized in the superficial zones.
7 - Needling of the shu (shu Ci):
_ Needle and remove vertically.
_ During needling, advancing movements are rapid and deep and the movements of slight
retreating to treat syndromes of excess of energy with fever.
8 - Short Needling (Duan Ci):
_ During needling, rotatory movements transmitted to the needle are associated with those
of advancing and retreating.
_ The needling is done very close to the bone to treat Gu Bi (ostealgias).
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9 - Superficial Needling (Fu Ci):
_ Oblique needling with the point of the needle oriented towards the point of impact and
slightly elevated towards the skin (superficial) to treat spasms caused by cold.
10 - yin Needling (yin Ci):
_ Bilateral needling to treat syndromes of han Jue (afflux of cold).
_ But in the case of Zhonghan (direct attack by cold) accompanied by afflux, one must
always needle the channels below (foot) because Jue (afflux) always starts at the bottom before
reaching the top.
_ This is why the choice of points to needle is that of the shaoyin (Ki), that is to say Taixi
(Ki 3) located behind the internal malleolus.
206.
11 - Lateral Needling (Bang Ci):
_ It concerns a vertical needling associated with lateral needling.
_ This procedure treats chronic Bi (chronic algoparesthesias).
12 - Dispersive Needling (Zan Ci):
_ Superficial implantation and removal of the needle relatively rapidly.
_ The goal of this needling is to bleed some drops of blood to treat inflammations and
abscesses.
III - N.V.N.:
This paragraph constitutes a study of great valor in the practice of acupuncture and
merits more detailed explanation as therapeutic success depends on it because the 12 procedures
of needling noted in this paragraph are done according to the nature and localization of the
disease.
1 - Ou Ci:
Ou: double, two
Ci: needling
hence, Ou Ci: double needling.
Methodology:
_ Two needles, one is implanted into the anterior, and the other into the posterior part of
the body.
_ It is a matter of the technique called yin-yang or shu-Mu.
_ The needling is necessarily oblique at the risk of injuring the organs.
Therapeutic effect:
This procedure treats ailments of the organs and bowels. Thus, for example, in gastralgia,
one chooses Zhongwen (CV 12) of the supra-abdominal region and weishu (Bl 21) of the dorsal
region.
2 - Bao Ci:
Bao means: reaction
Ci: needling
hence Bao Ci: needling the reactive or A Shi (painful) points.
Methodology:
_ Vertical, direct needling into the painful (A Shi) point without immediate removal of the
needle.
_ With the finger of the left hand, press slightly on the painful spot.
_ Before removing the needle, transmit to the needle some advancing movements.
Therapeutic effect: 207.
This procedure treats xing Bi (erratic pains).
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3 - Hui Ci:
Hui means: drilling, probing; to expand, to enlarge
Ci: needling
hence Hui Ci: needling-drilling (or large needling).
Methodology:
_ Needling performed at the side of a muscle or tendon, executing advancing and
regressive movements associated with rotation to enlarge the point of impact in the goal of making
the muscles dilate in the event of retraction.
Therapeutic effect:
This procedure treats muscular spasms.
4. Ti Ci:
Ti means: well ordered, well grouped
Ci: needling
hence Ti Ci: grouped needling.
Methodology:
_ Three punctures, one needle implanted at the center of the point of impact and two
others by the edges.
Therapeutic effect:
This technique treats Bi syndromes caused by cold localized in a relatively restricted
area, but deep.
5. yang Ci:
yang means: suppleness, lightness; superficial.
Ci: needling
hence yang Ci: light and superficial needling.
Methodology:
_ Superficially implant one needle at the center of the point of impact and 4 others at the
sides.
Therapeutic effect:
This technique treats Bi syndromes caused by cold localized in a relatively extended zone,
but superficial.
6 - zhi Zhen Ci:
zhi means: straight, direct; subcutaneous
Zhen: needle
Ci: needling
hence zhi Zhen Ci: vertical and subcutaneous needling.
Methodology:
_ First lift the skin at the point of impact, then insert the needle under the skin without
injuring the dermis.
Therapeutic effect: 208.
This process treats Bi (pains) caused by cold energy localized in superficial areas.
7 - shu Ci:
shu means: movement, displacement; ever-changing
Ci: needling
hence shu Ci: needling energetic (shu) points, implying the dispersion of perverse heat.
Methodology:
_ Advancing and retreating movements transmitted to the needle rapidly
_ Needling is deep.
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Therapeutic effect:
In a general way, this procedure treats febrile syndromes whose perverse heat is in an
evolutive phase.
8 - Duan Ci:
Duan means: short
Ci: needling
hence Duan Ci: short needling, implying the sense of slow needling and not using short needles
or needling deeply.
Methodology:
_ Slow, advancing and retreating movements with movements of agitation of the needle.
_ The point of the needle arrives right up to the bone.
Therapeutic effects:
This procedure treats joint inflammations.
9 - Fu Ci:
Fu means: superficial
Ci: needling
hence Fu Ci: superficial or cutaneous needling.
Methodology:
_ Oblique needling
_ The point of the needle is oriented towards the top (superficial) to not injure the dermis.
_ Same group of needling as Mao Ci and yang Ci.
Therapeutic effect:
This procedure treats muscular spasms of cold origin.
10 - yin Ci:
yin means: internal
Ci: needling
hence yin Ci: needling the internal surface of the leg.
Methodology: 209.
_ Bilateral needling
_ Needle the shaoyin (Ki) located at the internal side of the leg.
Therapeutic effect:
yin needling is a specific method of treatment of afflux of cold (han Jue).
han Jue always has a relationship with the Foot Shaoyin (Ki). This is why Taixi (Ki 3)
is the specific point of treatment of the syndromes of afflux of cold.
11 - Bang Zhen Ci:
Bang means: to the side, neighboring; lateral.
Zhen: needle
Ci: needling
hence Bang Zhen Ci: lateral needling.
Methodology:
_ Bilateral needling close to vertical needling.
Therapeutic effect:
This procedure treats chronic Bi.
12 - Zan Ci:
Zan means: to disperse, evacuate
Ci: needling
hence Zan Ci: dispersive needling.
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Methodology:
_ relatively rapid implantation and removal of the needle in the goal of making the blood
well up.
Therapeutic effect:
This procedure combats inflammation and dissolves abscesses.
PARAGRAPH 4

During needling of deep vessels, therefore imperceptible, the
needles are left in place permanently to await the arrival of the energy.
During needling of superficial vessels, one must first massage
them before needling them to prevent the jing (essence) from escaping
because the objective of the needling is to expel the perverse energy.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 210.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The jingmai (system of principal channels) are linked to the 5 movements of
transformation, of the interior and to the 6 energies of heaven, of the exterior. Practitioners
who utilize the needles nust understand these relationships.
Because, in the interior, the jingmai are linked to the organs and bowels, and at the
exterior to the 6 celestial energies.
a - In the interior, the 5 organs unite with the 5 movements responding to the
5 Transformations and control the entering and exiting movements of the energy; this is why
one names them 5 organ-motors.
At the exterior, the energy circulates following the movements of ascent and descent,
which is why one call it creative-energy.
The 6 energies of heaven respond to the jing shui (liquid routes). These follow the energy
in order to circulate towards the exterior, that is to say towards the skin.
b - The deep vessels of the energy are not perceptible because they are linked to the
5 organs. In this case, one must leave the needles in place permanently in the goal of awaiting the
arrival of the energy (daqi).
The jing shui follow the energy in order to exteriorize, and the vessels located at the skin
are superficial; therefore, one must not hasten to needle them. First, one must stroke (lightly
massage) them in order to push away the essence (jing) located at the level of the point of impact.
For this reason, during needling, one does not injure the jing because this process is one of
expelling the perverse energy and not the jing (essence).
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph defines the 2 groups of energetic vessels (jingmai and luomai), one deep
and the other superficial. As a consequence, their treatment is done entirely differently.
For the deep vessels, implantation of the needle must be soft and light and placed
permanently, much longer. here, it is necessary to know how await the arrival of the energy.
In contrast, for the superficial vessels located at the level of the skin, it is necessary,
before needling, to massage them lightly to push aside the jing shui (essence of water) because the
objective of this type of needling is to excrete only the perverse energy.
III - N.V.N.:
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This paragraph defines the needling technique of the jingmai (principal channels) and
luomai (secondary channels).
The commentaries and explanations of Zhang and Ma permit clarification of the following
notions:
_ the notion of the jing shui (river routes)
_ the notion of the 5 movements responding to the 5 Transformations
_ and the notion of ascent-descent of the energy.
211.
Figure 15:
Movements responding to the 5 Transformations and
movements of ascent and descent of the energy.
PARAGRAPH 5

As for the method called 3 Punctures (San Ci), it consists of
_ first pricking across the skin to expel the perverse energy.
_ then pushing the needle in deeper to excrete the perverse yin
_ finally driving the needle in well, still more deeply, up to the
muscles without penetrating them, to make the cereal energy return.
This is why it is said in the Methods of Needling: To needle first the
skin to gather the perverse energy in order to eliminate it in the goal of facilitating
the arrival of energy and blood; next, to slightly advance the needle deeper to make
the perverse yin come back out, and finally to make the needle advance still deeper
to attract the cereal energy.
Such is the meaning of the method called 3 Punctures (San Ci).

178 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 212.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph describes the 3 phases of needle implantation.
According to Chapter 9 (Beginning and Ending) of this classic:
Needling must successively touch the layers of the body to reach the cereal energy:
_ at the 1st layer, perverse yang exteriorizes
_ at the 2nd layer, perverse yin exteriorizes
_ at the 3rd layer, the cereal energy arrives.
The arrival of the cereal energy is determined by the process of tonification, which causes
it to be in a state of fullness, or by the process of dispersion, which conducts it into a state of
emptiness.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph has the same theme as the preceding one.
_ First, needling is cutaneous, superficial, to excrete perverse energy located in the wei
(defensive) layer.
_ Then, needling is slightly deeper, going past the skin, to expel the perverse energy
located in the ying (nutritive) layer.
_ Finally, at the 3rd stage, the needle enters into the flesh (dermis), that is to say into
the spaces of distribution of flesh where Xi (small valleys) and Gu (valleys) are found
to attract the cereal energy.
III - N.V.N.:
`In our era, the method of acupuncture called heaven-Man-earth is only a reflection of
that of the 3 Punctures (3 movements transmitted to the needle) mentioned in this paragraph:
Let us note, however, that:
a - Perverse yang designates the perverse energy localized in the wei (yang) layer.
b - Perverse yin, the perverse energy fixed in the ying (yin) layer.
c - The Cereal energy, the energy originating from the stomach after food metabolism.
here, these words imply reactive phenomena perceived during manipulation of the needle
(Da qi).
Figure 16:
Techniques of the 3 Punctures
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PARAGRAPH 6 213.

The use of needles without knowledge of the great reunions of
the year, the excess or insufficiency of the energy of the 5 movements,
and the causes of emptiness and fullness...is not worthy of the name
grand master.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - The explanation of Zhang Shi concerns not only this paragraph but also the previous one:
This paragraph describes the circulation of the 3 yin and 3 yang at the level of the
3 external layers of the body.
_ Cereal energy is a source energy originating from spleen-stomach. It controls the
sweat gland system.
_ Perverse yin and Perverse yang are perverse energies localized in the yin layer and
yang layer of the body.
_ To advance the needle still more deeply, etc. implies: in crossing the skin, the needle
is found in the flesh without touching the bones.
_ The energy of the 3 yin and 3 yang circulate from the interior towards the exterior (to
the skin) in order to respond to the 6 energies of heaven. This is why one must know the annual
movements (3) of the energy during implantation of the needle to determine the emptiness or
fullness of the disease; the great workers practice in this manner.
II - Ma Shi explains:
Treatment by acupuncture essentially consists of being based:
_ on the annual movements of the Great reunions of the energy,
_ on the fullness and emptiness of the energy of the 5 movements
_ and especially on the causes of this fullness or emptiness.
In effect, it is again said in Chapter 71 (Great Study on the Preparation and Cyclic
recording of the 6 Energetic Sources) of the Suwen: Each year consists of its excessive
movements and insufficient movements. The 1st energy... and center energy have their host
and their guest, their movements of victory and their movements of counter-attack, etc. (3)
All this is perfectly known by the grand masters.
III - N.V.N.: 214.
The great annual reunions of the energy constitute the principal rules of modification of
the 6 energies (wind, cold, heat, humidity, dryness and fire).
These periods of modification of the 6 energies are clearly explained in Chapter 66
(Great Essay on the Origin of the 60 Year Cycle) of the Suwen and in the chapters concerning the
5 movements and 6 energies of our work, Medecine Traditionelle Chinoise.

3. See the detailed study in Traditionelle Medicine Chinoise. NVN Edition, 1984.
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PARAGRAPH 7

There exists 5 types of needling responding to the 5 organs:
1 - Ban Ci (semi-puncture)
_ Needle superficially and withdraw rapidly without injuring the
flesh, recalling pulling out of a hair.
_ This process expels perverse energy localized in the skin. It
responds to the lung.
2 - Bao Wen Ci (needling recalling the image of spots on the skin of
the leopard):
_ Needling done indifferently at the left or right, in front or
behind, but falling right on the blood capillaries to make the jingluo
bl eed.
_ This process responds to the heart.
3 - guan Ci (joint needling):
_ Needling performed to the left or right, in front of or behind the
joint, particularly at the level of the tendons, to treat jin Bi (pains of
the muscles; myalgias)
_ The method of bleeding is strictly contra-indicated here because
this process responds to the liver.
4 - hegu Ci (needlings recalling the image of the angle where hegu-
LI 4 occurs):
_ 3 or 4 needles oriented toward the point of impact evoking the
image of the claw of a chicken. This type of needling must touch the
spaces of distribution of flesh (Xi and Gu: small valleys and valleys).
_ This process treats Gu Bi (pains of the flesh; dermalgias).
It responds to the spleen.
5 - shu Ci (needling the shu points):
_ Vertical needling to the bone and also vertical removal of the
needle to treat Gu Bi (pains of the bones; ostealgias).
_ This process responds to the kidney.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains: 215.
1 - This paragraph defines the energy of the 5 organs.
At the exterior, it unites with the skin, flesh, muscles and bones; in the interior, it
controls the internal parts of the body. For this reason, one needles the places called he
(reunion) located at the exterior in order to respond to the 5 organs.
2 - The blood makes up part of the shen qi (mental energy) group. This why the shen of
the 5 organs circulates in the blood vessels to respond to the transformations of the 5 movements.
3 - The energy of the 5 organs unites at the exterior, at the level of the skin, flesh,
muscles and bones in order to respond to the 4 seasons.
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II - Ma Shi explains:
1 - Ban Ci or semi-puncture:
_ Superficial needling with immediate removal of the needle is not a perfect method, hence
the name semi-puncture.
_ Deep needling risks injuring the flesh. This is why it must be superficial, as if one has
extracted a hair. The goal of this needling is to only touch the energy of the cutaneous zone.
_ As the skin unites with the energy of the lung, cutaneous needling (semi-puncture)
responds to the lung organ.
2 - Bao Wen Ci or Leopard Needling:
_ Numerous needlings done to the right and left, in front and behind. It is a matter of
lightly touching the blood capillaries to make the jingluo bleed.
_ As the energy of the heart controls the blood, this process responds to the heart organ.
3 - guan Ci or Articular Needling:
_ Vertical and bilateral needling of the 4 limbs done especially at the level of the tendons
and muscles, without bleeding, to treat jin Bi (myalgias, tendinitis).
_ As the energy of the liver controls the muscles and tendons, this process responds to the
liver organ.
4 - he Ci or reunion Needling:
_ To the left as to the right, needling made up of several needles directed so as to form a
claw of a chicken, to a depth not going past the spaces of distribution of flesh.
_ As the energy of the spleen controls the dermis (flesh), this process responds to the
spleen organ.
5 - shu Ci or shu Needling:
_ Vertical and deep needling right to the bone to treat Gu Bi (ostealgias).
_ As the kidney energy controls the bones, this process responds to the kidney organ.
III - N.V.N.:
The 5 types of needling cited in this paragraph concern the disturbances of the 5 organs at
the level of the exterior, that is to say at the level of the:
_ skin (responding to the lung)
_ little blood capillaries (responding to the heart) 216.
_ muscles and tendons (responding to the liver)
_ flesh (responding to the spleen)
_ bones (responding to the kidney).
1 - First type of needling: Ban Ci.
_ Needling only the epidermis, therefore not touching the dermis, hence semi-puncture.
_ Superficial implantation and immediate removal of the needle like plucking out a hair.
_ Technique of expulsion of perverse energy at the skin to treat cutaneous pain.
_ Technique provoking reactive phenomena of the lung energy because the lung organ
controls the pilocutaneous system.
2 - Second type of needling: Bao Wen Ci
_ Needling evoking the image of the spots of the leopards skin.
_ Numerous punctures at the sites of appearance of little blood capillaries, hence the
name leopard needling.
_ Technique of bleeding to evacuate blood stasis in order to ventilate the jingluo.
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_ Technique provoking reactive phenomena of the energy of the heart because the heart
organ controls the vascular system.
3 - Third type of needling: guan Ci
_ Needling close to the joint at the level of the muscles and tendons, hence the name
articular needling.
_ Needling without bleeding.
_ Specific technique in the treatment of jin Bi (myalgias and tendinitis).
_ Technique provoking reactive phenomena of the energy of the liver, because the liver
organ controls the musculo-tendinous system.
4 - Fourth type of needling: hegu Ci
_ hegu Ci does not designate the needling technique of the point hegu-LI 4.
_ After having implanted the needle to a determined depth, lift it up slightly and place
the needle into the dermis. With 3 needles, form the ideogram (fish) evoking the claw of
a chicken.
_ Specific technique for treatment of Bi of the flesh (dermalgias).
_ Technique provoking reactive phenomena of the energy of the spleen, because the spleen
organ controls the system of connective tissue (flesh).
5 - Fifth type of needling: shu Ci
_ shu implies the sense of harmonious movements of aeration and circulation. All
needlings are of the shu type. here, the needling must be deep in order to disperse the perverse
energy localized at the level of the articulation.
_ Rapid movements of advance and retreat transmitted to the needle.
_ Deep needling right to the bone to treat Gu Bi (ostealgias).
_ Technique provoking reactive phenomena of the energy of the kidney, because the kidney
organ controls the osteo-medullary system.
In conclusion, Chapter 7 of the Lingshu concerns the daily practice of acupuncture.
Failure to appreciate acupuncture techniques and imperfect manipulation of the needles are the
principal causes of therapeutic failure.

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217.
Book II
Book II comprises 3 chapters:
Chapter 8:
Origin of the Mental
(Ben shen)
Chapter 9:
Beginning and Ending
(Zhang shui)
Chapter 10:
Vessels-Channels
(jing Mai)
no 218 /219.
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CHAPTER VIII
Origin of the Mental
(Ben shen)
Chapter 8 of the Lingshu is devoted to the study of the origin of the mental
activities, such as jing (essence), shen (mental), po (sensitive soul), si (reflection),
zhi (intelligence) and lu (preoccupation).
These activities have an intimate relationship with eugenics and are
necessary for the maintenance of good health.
The 7 feelings (sadness, joy, fear, anger, fright, worry, anxiety) can modify
the mental activities and transform them into pathological factors. Also, during the
use of acupuncture and moxabustion, the mental state of the patient must be
evaluated, hence the title: Origin of the Mental (Ben shen).
This chapter comprises 9 paragraphs.
PARAGRAPH 1
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Huangdi questions Qi Bo:
All acts of needling must be based on the shen (mental), Xue
(blood), Mai (vessels), ying (nutritive energy), qi (energy) and jing shen
(mental essence) stored in the 5 organs. When debauchery divides them
from the organ,
_ jing is lost
_ hun and po (vegetative and sensitive souls) rise up
_ zhi and lu (intelligence and preoccupation) are missing.
What does that mean? Is it the punishment of heaven or the fault
of man? How do De (virtue) and qi (energy) produce jing (essence), shen
(mental), hun (vegetative soul), po (sensitive soul), Chi (will),
si (reflection, contemplation) and lu (preoccupation, worry)?
I would like to understand this process. 220.
Qi Bo replies:
In man, virtue (De) is created by heaven, and energy (qi ), by
earth. In this way, man is born with De and qi .
At birth, jing (essence; innate essence) occurs. The reunion of the
two jing bears the name shen (mental); the reason to serve/make use of
things is called Xin (heart); that which records and memorizes the heart
is called yi (thought); that which retains thought is called
Chi (will); that which follows from will by the judgment of exterior
manifestations is called lu (preoccupation); the arrangement of things
after preoccupation is called zhi (i nt el l i gence).
This is why zhi (intelligence) maintains life, and life must
necessarily be in accord with the 4 seasons and adapt to heat and cold,
harmonize joy and anger, conserve yin and yang and balance Hard and
Soft... . In this way, disequilibrium of the energy cannot ensue and one
can live a long time.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - This paragraph defines De (virtue) and qi (energy) of man, two innate elements that
originate from heaven and earth, origins of the production of jing (essence, vital essence), qi
(energy), hun (vegetative soul), po (sensitive soul), Chi (volition), yi (thought), zhi (intelligence)
and lu (preoccupation). This is why the man of will can maintains his shen-Chi (mental-will) in
perfect harmony with the jing of heaven and earth conforming to the Dao of eugenics.
2 - De (virtue) depends in part on heaven; it is sacred and clear-sighted, never confused,
always full of reason in order to respond to all problems and adapt to all circumstances.
3 - The eyes and vision, ears and hearing, nose and smell, mouth and taste, limbs and
gestures are none other than the xing (bodily form) and qi (energy) created by the earth.
4 - All must start by the beginning and wise building and development for the future. It is
the union of De and qi which creates the beginning. In Chapter 30 (Fundamental Characteristics
of the energy) of the Lingshu, it is said: That which creates before form is called jing. That
means that the creation of form is the result of the impregnation of celestial jing. For this reason,
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it is said: The origin of life is jing.
It is also stated in Chapter 32 (Normal Man Faced With a Shortage of Cereals) of the same
classic: shen comes from the union of celestial (innate) jing and cereal (acquired) jing. The text
therefore states: The union of the 2 jing forms the shen.
221.
5 - The jing of fire is shen (mental) and the jing of water is jing (essence, vital essence).
The liver is a yang organ receiving the hun (vegetative soul); the lung is a yin organ
conserving the po (sensitive soul). This is why the hun follows the shen (mental) in order to go
and come, and the po (sensitive soul) follows the jing in order to enter and leave.
The heart is a sovereign organ, site of manifestation of shen Ming (mental, clarity,
genius). All beings and all things of the universe are harnessed and controlled by the heart (Xin).
That which the heart records and memorizes is called yi (thought); that which the will brings
about is called si (reflection); that which reflection permits or regrets is called lu
(preoccupation); that which preoccupation organizes is called zhi (intelligence)... . All these
activities originate from Xin-shen (heart-mental: Morals). This is why the man of will obeys the
nature of heaven and earth and knows eugenics.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph studies the meaning of De (virtue) and qi (energy). After profound
analysis of these words, Qi Bo certifies that only the man of will knows the method of eugenics.
1 - heaven is not without energy (si) if one takes reasoning as basic element. This is why
the virtue (De) of man is that of heaven.
earth is not without virtue (De) if one takes energy as motor-component/driving force.
This is why the energy (qi) of man is that of earth.
In this way, man is created thanks to the fusion of De (Virtue) and qi (energy).
2 - At birth, man has yin, that is to say ying (nutritive energy), and yang, that is to say
wei (defensive energy). When ying and wei fuse, shen appears.
hun (vegetative soul), although yang, must follow the shen in order to go and come. po
(sensitive, etheric soul), although yin, must follow the jing (essence, vital essence) in order to
enter and leave. If one compares jing with shen, jing is yin and shen is yang. For this reason, the
hun belongs to shen, and the po, to jing.
The heart (mental heart), yi (thought), Chi (will), si (reflection), zhi (intelligence) and
lu (preoccupation) uniquely originate from the heart (organ). Therefore, the answer or reason for
using these things is dependent exclusively on the heart. What the heart records and memorizes
is called yi (thought),... etc.
Without the 13 resolutions cited above, the ignorant will never succeed; only the wise
know the principles of eugenics: above, it will conform to celestial time (4 seasons); below, it will
be in accord with human affairs; it will conserve yin and yang, will harmonize the Hard and the
Soft and will avoid deviations of the heart. In this way, he will be able to live and see long
times.
III - N.V.N.: 222.
1 - This paragraph is fundamental to the practice of acupuncture and moxabustion because
it emphasizes the importance of studying the psycho-affective terrain, the basis of all therapy,
modern or ancient.
2 - heaven bequeaths to us De (virtue) and earth, qi (energy).
The energy of heaven and earth, of yin and yang, of top and bottom, intersects and fuses to
create the succession of life and death in all beings and things. This is why the origin of life is
immaterial; it is the result of the principles of crossbreeding of two energies, yin and yang. This
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immaterial substance is called jing. The reunion of the 2 jing produces the vital force called
shen (mental).
The force of activity concerning the going and coming movements which follow the shen
qi (mental energy) and represents the jing shen (mental essence: morals), and yi Cheng (thought-
knowledge: consciousness) is called hun (vegetative soul).
The force of activity concerning the entering and exiting movements which is close to
the jing energy and maintains qi guan (energetic barriers; the points) is called po (sensitive
soul).
The force of activity responsible for the realization of vital manifestations is called Xin
(heart).
The force of preparation of work at the level of the heart is called yi (thought).
The mental disposition, which tends toward being expressed by an effective decision
matched with intention, is called Chi (will).
The state of the mind which is absorbed by an object as far as moral suffering is called
lu (preoccupation).
The ability of a individual to adapt to new situations (between reflection and
preoccupation) is called zhi (intelligence).
3 - These mental forces are developed according to the laws of the 5 movements (Fig. 17).
Figure 17
The mental forces and the laws of the 5 movements 223.
4- Eugenics practiced by man basically consists of following the movements of the
4 seasons, responding to cold and heat, not excessively letting go to joy or anger, limiting the
ascending force of yin and yang and, at the same time, harmonizing the Hard and Soft (see Ch. 6)
in the goal of attaining the equilibrium of the exact milieu.
In summary, Eugenics is a method capable of safeguarding health, therefore maintaining
life, in order to avoid infiltrations of perverse energy, causal factors of disease.
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PARAGRAPH 2

This is why,
_ fear, reflection and preoccupation injure the shen (mental) and
perturbed shen creates a permanent state of panic.
_ sadness and grief disturb the interior and causes loss of the joy
of life.
_ excessive joy disperses the shen which is no longer conserved.
_ worries and affection block the circulation of the energy.
_ excessive anger causes blind, embarrassing and uncontrollable
ges t ur es .
_ fright brings the s hen to a state of wandering without possibility
of retaining it.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph completes the preceding one.
si (meditation, reflection), lu (preoccupation, obsession), Chi (will) and yi (thought) are
directly controlled by the shen (mental). This is why mental activities such as reflection,
preoccupation, sadness, joy, anger, anxiety, fear, fright... injure the shen.
II - The explanations of Ma Shi are found in Paragraph 8 (see pg. 230-31).
III - N.V.N.:
This paragraph explains the consequences of excess of disturbance of the psyche. Because,
_ fright and worries injures the shen. The shen being injured, daily life is in a permanent
state of fear,
_ intense compassion injures the organs. The blood and energy are then in a state of
exhaustion and their depletion is synonymous with death,
_ extreme joy makes the shen qi (mental energy) ramble which can no longer return.
_ immoderate sadness injures the lung, and the energetic system of shangjiao (upper jiao)
is obstructed,
_ unbridled anger also injures the shen (mental) rendering it dazed and terrified without
possibility of mastering oneself,
_ exaggerated worries also disperse the shen qi without possibility of retaining it.
PARAGRAPH 3

Fear, reflection and preoccupation injure the shen. The injured
shen causes panic and loss of the notion of I; the muscles grow weak
and complexion and form (xing) wither.
Death occurs in winter.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
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This paragraph and the following ones concern the study of the 7 feelings susceptible
to injuring the shen-Chi(mental-will) of the 5 organs.
Fear, reflection and preoccupation injure the shen of the heart organ. The shen being
injured, self-mastery is absent, hence panic and disappearance of the notion of self.
The spleen answers to earth and controls the flesh system, and the lung answers to the
energy and controls the pilocutaneous system.
The muscles originate from the xing (bodily form, material) of earth; body hair, skin and
complexion originate from the qi (energy) of heaven.
If the muscles become lax and if the complexion fades, thesource of life obtained from
heaven and earth dry up and death follows in winter.
This death is due to the energy of the 5 movements according to victory-inhibition of the
4 seasons.
II - The commentaries of Ma Shi can be found in Paragraph 8 (see pg. 230-31)
III - N.V.N.: 225.
The heart receives the shen. Fear and excessive worries injure the shen. Because the shen
is injured, a state of panic appears and self-mastery disappears.
In the chronic state, the muscles and tendons of the neck become swollen and those of the
knee and buttock collapse; the muscles of the body atrophy; the body hair and head hair fall out,
the skin dries up and complexion tarnishes.
One says that death follows in winter because the heart-shen answers to fire and winter to
water. water invades fire, therefore death takes place in winter (Figure 18).

Figure 18
Invasive action of water on fire in disease of the shen.
PARAGRAPH 4

Sadness and unreleased grief act on the spleen and injure the
yi (thought). Perturbed thought brings with it disorder, the limbs are
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heavy and blocked, the xing (bodily form) and complexion wither.
Death occurs in spring.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Anguish and grief are the feelings of the spleen. If anguish and grief are not released,
they injure the yi (thought). The injured yi creates disturbance and the limbs cannot be lifted
because anguish and chagrin, originating from the heart and spleen, control the 4 limbs.
II - See the explanation of Ma Shi in Paragraph 8 (pg. 231).
226.
III -N.V.N.:
The spleen receives yi (thought). Excessive, prolonged and unresolved sadness injure yi.
The disturbed yi causes thoracic oppression coupled with anguish and grief; the limbs are
weak. In serious cases one notes falling out of hair, dryness of skin and tarnished complexion.
Death follows in spring because spleen-thought responds to earth and spring, to wood.
wood invades earth, therefore death takes place in spring (Figure 19).

Figure 19
Invasive action of wood on earth in disease of thought.
PARAGRAPH 5

Sadness and lamentations act on the liver and perturb the hun
(vegetative soul).
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The injured hun causes amnesia and a loss of jing (essence). The
loss of jing is the origin of manic-depressive psychosis. The illness
presents other signs such as retraction of the genitals, muscular spasms
and hypochondralgia preventing movement of the body.
The xing (bodily form) and complexion wither, and death occurs in
aut umn.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 227.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Sadness and lamentations are the feelings of the lung.
In the interior, they injure the liver and perturb the hun (vegetative soul). The disordered
hun provokes forgetfulness and loss of jing.
The liver is an organ which fills the function of general; all strategies follow from it.
The liver being damaged, commands become hesitant and judgment is not clear.
The gallbladder is a loyal and honest bowel. It is has the power to make decisions.
When the liver energy is disturbed, the bowel (gallbladder) is hindered during its
decisions.
The liver controls the muscles, and its channel-vessel becomes attached to the energy of
the genital organs. This is why disturbance of the liver energy is the origin of penile retraction
and muscular contraction with hypochondralgia... . Such are the repercussions of the disorder of
feelings on xing (bodily form).
II - See the explanation of Ma Shi in Paragraph 8 (pg. 195).
III - N.V.N.:
The liver receives the hun (vegetative soul). An excess of sadness and lamentation acts
upon the internal organs and injures the hun.
The injured hun brings with it madness (yin and yang), delirium and mental confusion.
One notes in addition penile retraction, muscular contraction with hypochondralgia, and, in
serious cases, loss of hair, dryness of skin and faded complexion.
Death occurs in autumn because:
_ liver = hun responds to wood
_ and in autumn, to metal. (Figure 20)
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Figure 20
Invasive action of metal on wood during disease of the hun.
PARAGRAPH 6 228.

The excess of joy acts on the lung and injures po (sensitive soul).
The injured po causes Kuang (yang madness) and, in the presence
of Kuang, yi (thought) disappears; the skin dries out and desquamates.
Death occurs in summer.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Joy is the feeling of the heart. In the interior, it injures the lung and disturbs the po.
The injured po causes Kuang. Kuang drives the yi out and the yi becomes manifest thanks
to the Xin (heart). This is why excessive joy disintegrates the shen.
From the fact that the lung controls the pilocutaneous system; the skin becomes dry and
desquamates.
II - See the commentary of Ma Shi in Paragraph 8 (p.230-31).
III - N.V.N.:
The lung receives the po. An excess of joy injures the po, and the injured po provokes yin
madness and yang madness (Dian Kuang) with loss of the notion of others and withering of the
skin; and in serious cases, falling out of the hair and faded complexion.
Death follows in summer because:
_ lung-po responds to metal
_ and summer, to fire (Figure 21).
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Figure 21:
Invasive action of fire on metal during the illness of po.
PARAGRAPH 7 229.

Excess anger acts on the kidney and injures the Chi (wi l l ).
The injured Chi causes forgetfulness and lumbar and spinal pains
with inability to flex and stand. The xing (bodily form) and complexion
wi t he r .
Death follows at the end of summer.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Zhang Shi comments:
Anger if the feeling of the liver.
Excess anger injures the Chi (will) of the kidney organ and the injured Chi brings with it
loss of memory, the limbs and spine are painful preventing flexion and extension movements.
The energy of the spleen gathers at the heart; that of the lung, at the spleen; that of the
liver, at the kidney... . They are the gathering phenomena of the energy of son at the level of
mother.
The energy of the lung gathers at the liver; that of the heart, at the lung. These gatherings
are the inhibitory phenomena carried out on the organs inhibited.
The Bing Mai states:
The encroachment of water on fire and that of metal on wood are phenomena of submission
(subjection). In contrast, the encroachment of water on metal and that of fire on wood are
phenomena of constraint (antimonarchic).
This means: the encroachment of mother on son is favorable, and that of son on
mother is contrary. In other words, the reciprocity of stimulation is beneficial and that of
inhibition is harmful.
II - See explanation of Ma Shi in Paragraph 8 (see pg. 230-31).
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III - N.V.N.:
The kidney receives the Chi (will).
Excess anger injures the Chi and perturbation of the Chi is the origin of the diminution of
the ability to preserve and recall states of past consciousness, in particular, expressed language;
it also is the cause of lumbalgia with radiation to the spine.
In serious cases, one notes in addition loss of hair, dryness of skin and faded complexion.
Death occurs at the end of summer because:
_ liver-anger responds to wood
_ wood in fullness revolts against its mother
_ the kidney being in insufficiency, the disease is worsened and death follows at the end
of summer, under the action of spleen-earth (Figure 22).

230.
Figure 22
Invading action of earth on water in disease of the Chi.
PARAGRAPH 8

Unreleased fright damages the jing (essence) and the perturbation
of jing is the origin of ostealgias, atrophic impotence
(wei Jue) and intermittent spermatorrhea.
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The 5 organs receive the j i ng. One must never injure the jing
because this lesion spontaneously causes the emptiness of yin expressed
as a deprivation of energy; the prognosis is fatal.
As a result, those who utilize needles must carefully study the state
of the patient to determine the presence or absence of j ing, shen, hun, po,
yi . If these 5 components are absent, treatment by acupuncture is
advised against.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - Fright injures the kidney. Untreated, fright and fear disturb the jing of the kidney
organ.
The kidney controls the bones. This is why injured jing brings with it latent pains in the
bones which, in a chronic state, ends up in the syndrome called atrophic impotence
(wei Jue) with intermittent spermatorrhea which is difficult to treat because:
_ the jing of fire is the shen
_ and the jing of water is the Chi. 231.
2 - While the previous paragraph explains the treatment of Chi (will) of the kidney, this
one defines the treatment of the jing of the same organ.
The hun, po and Chi originate from heart-kidney and from the jing-shen (jing-Mental);
this is why Paragraph 2 of this chapter states: Fear, reflection (si) and preoccupation (Lu) injure
the shen. The shen is produced by the jing, and the jing returns to the shen.
3 - When the cereals penetrate into the stomach, they are transformed into liquid
substances and into the 5 sapors circulating according to the appropriate direction:
_ sour sapor goes to the liver
_ bitter sapor, to the heart
_ sweet sapor, to the spleen
_ spicy sapor, to the lung
_ salty sapor, to the kidney.
It is in this way that the 5 organs receive the jing of the cereals.
4 - The shen energy is created by the jing. For this reason, the jing of the 5 organs must
not be injured at the risk of causing a syndrome of Emptiness of yin (yin Xie) responsible for the
exhaustion of the shen whose prognosis is extremely serious. In this way, Those who utilize the
needles must study the state of the patient to determine the presence of jing, shen, hun, po, yi...
because acupuncture is strictly prohibited in their absence.
`5 - Wu Shi declared: Uncontrolled fright injures jing. here, the word jing designates the
innate, a priori jing. In contrast, the jing conserved in the 5 organs is the jing coming from the
cereals (acquired).
shen comes from jing. This is why the text specifies: Emptiness of yin is synonymous
with the absence of shen energy.
II - Ma Shi comments:
1 - This paragraph concerns the Wu shen (5 mental energies):
_ jing-shen (essence/Mental)
_ hun (vegetative soul)
_ po (sensitive soul)
_ yi (thought)
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_ Chi (will).
Disturbance of the Wu shen causes that of the 5 organs; the disease is extremely serious,
and the prognosis is fatal.
The Wu shen of the 5 organs are:
_ the mental (shen) received by the heart
_ thought (yi), by the spleen
_ the vegetative soul (hun), by the liver
_ the sensitive soul (po), by the lung
_ jing and will (jing Chi), by the kidney.
This is why the text states: Fear, reflection and worry (Zhu yi si lu) injure the shen of
the heart organ. The injured shen causes emptiness of the heart. The heart being in emptiness, the
kidney invades it and oppresses it. (Figure 23)
232.
Figure 23
Wu shen (5 mental energies) and Wu xing (5 movements).
Disorders of the Chi of the kidney provoke fright and increasing growth of fright is the
origin of muscular melting (hypotony and laxity), hence the change in xing (bodily form) and
complexion. By what manner? By the action of the kidney (water) which destroys fire (shen).
2 - Unchecked anxiety and grief blocks the circulation of the spleen and injures the yi
(thought) and injured yi is the origin of disorders of movement of the limbs (inability to lift
them). In the chronic state, the xing (bodily form) and complexion become altered.
Death occurs in the spring.
By what manner? By the destructive action of wood on earth.
3 - Sadness and lamentations injure the hun (vegetative soul) of the liver organ. Perturbed
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hun is the origin of insanity, easy forgetfulness and spermatorrhea; spatial orientation is
incorrect (vertigo) and the patient presents moreover with retraction of the genitals, muscular
spasms and bilateral hypochondralgia preventing the movement of the body, and, if long enough, a
total loss of the vital source with alteration of xing (bodily form) and complexion.
Death occurs in autumn.
By what manner? By the destructive action of metal on wood.
4 - Excess joy injures the po (sensitive soul) of the lung organ. When po is injured, the
shen disintegrates without recourse, inducing the appearance of Kuang (yang madness) and, as a
result of the latter, yi (thought) becomes lost.
The loss of yi comes, therefore, from the insufficient energy of the mother (heart-shen);
the skin becomes dried out and desquamates with change in xing (bodily form) and complexion.
Death occurs in summer.
By what manner? By the destructive action of fire on metal. 233.
5 - Excessive and repeated anger injures the Chi (will) of the kidney organ. When Chi is
injured, the subject is in a dazed state with mental apathy and aphasia (1) and complains
moreover of lumbalgia and spinal pain preventing flexion and extension.
Likewise, uncontrolled fright dislocates the shen and injures the jing. Injured jing is the
origin of bone pain or atrophic impotence (wei Jue) or spermatorrhea. In the long run, the xing
(bodily form) and complexion become altered.
Death occurs at the end of summer.
By what manner? By the destructive action of earth on water.
6 - The 5 organs have their own energy and their own jing (essence), and all are equipped
with the ability to store their jing. If they are injured, the yin energy is found in a state of
emptiness because the 5 organs being yin and in emptiness are devoid of energy.
This is why the acupuncturist must carefully examine the state of the patient to determine
the energetic potential of the jing and shen, hun and po, and Chi and yi. If disturbance of the Chi
(will) of the 5 organs becomes expressed by an alteration of xing (bodily form) and complexion,
death is near and acupuncture is ineffective.
It is stated in Chapter 11 (Special Study on the 5 Organs) of the Suwen: Do not treat
incurable diseases since the treatment is ineffective. For our part, we think that when
acupuncture is inadvisable, phytotherapy must be wisely employed.
III - N.V.N.:
1 - In the chronic state, fright injures the jing (essence). The injured jing is the origin of
latent arthralgias with weakness of the limbs and spermatorrhea.
The 5 organs receive jing qi (energy of the vital essence). Their function must not be
disturbed.
jing is yin. It is the material basis of the yang energy originating from the activities of the
5 organs. In the event of disturbances, the jing energy becomes lost and can no longer

1. According to the original text: forgetfulness of language.
defend the interior, hence the emptiness of yin.
Loss of jing and emptiness of yin are two provocative factors of deficiency of nutritive
matter, that is to say of the degradation of energetic metabolism. This is while the problem of the
change in xing (bodily form) and complexion comes up, ending in death.
2 - This paragraph underscores the importance of the notion: The 5 organs are the
5 receivers of the jing, namely:
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_ the liver receives Xue (blood)
_ the heart, Mai (vessels)
_ the spleen, ying (nutritive energy)
_ the lung, qi (energy) 234.
_ the kidney, jing (essences).
The jing (essence) of the 5 organs creates the shen (mental), and the shen of the 5 organs
are:
_ shen (mental)
_ hun (vegetative soul)
_ po (sensitive soul)
_ yi (thought)
_ Chi (will)
which include all mental activities of energetic mutation (metabolism).
In all, jing (essence) is a material, nutritive substance. Man has need of this substance
for his physical and mental activities. Such is the theory according to which: The posterior
(acquired) data maintain the anterior (innate) data. But the nutritive substance (jing) requires
the support of the energetic metabolism to subsist; this is the theory according to which The
anterior (innate) data maintain the posterior (acquired) data.
These theories are fundamental to the complete comprehension of the mechanism of human
physiology in Oriental medicine.
In this paragraph, Qi Bo emphasizes the protection of the jing because its loss is the
origin of emptiness of yin , meaning the disappearance of the energy, and the disappearance of
the energy is death. This phrase stresses the importance of the reciprocal relationship of the jing
(essence) and qi (energy).
3 - As a consequence, the acupuncturist must carefully examine and analyze the mental
activities of the patient, that is to say, the jing-shen (essence and mental) and hun-po (vegetative
and sensitive souls), in the goal of evaluating the manifestations of the 5 organs in relation to the
psycho-affective states. When these states are jointly perturbed, the disease is extremely serious.
PARAGRAPH 9

The liver receives Xue (blood). The blood is the dwelling place of
the hun (vegetative soul). Emptiness of the energy of the liver expresses
as fear, and fullness, as anger.
The spleen receives ying (nutritive energy). ying is the abode of
the yi (thought). Emptiness of the energy of the spleen causes disorders
of movement of the 4 limbs and perturbs the 5 organs, and fullness
causes abdominal bloating and hinders the urinary routes.
The heart receives Mai (vessels). The blood within the blood
vessels is the dwelling place of the shen (mental). Emptiness of the heart
energy provokes compassion, and fullness, groundless l aughi ng.
The lung receives qi (energy). qi is the abode of the po (sensitive
soul). Emptiness of the lung energy is the origin of nasal obstruction
and the insufficiency of energy; fullness causes panting breathing and
thoracic discomfort obliging the patient to lift the face up to breathe.
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The kidney receives the jing (essence). jing is the dwelling place
of the Chi (will). Emptiness of the kidney energy expresses as ice-cold
limbs, and fullness, as abdominal bloating.
235.
In disorders of the 5 organs, one must carefully examine the
patient to determine emptiness and fullness in light of applying the
method of regulation.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1 - The energy of the 5 organs can be in emptiness or fullness; their symptomatology is,
therefore, different.
The 5 organs each have a specific energy to store, and the Wu Chi (5 wills) each have a
dwelling place which is appropriate to them. When the 5 Chi are disordered, the disease belongs
to the 5 Chi; and when the energy of the 5 organs is in imbalanced, the clinical signs belong to
the disease of the energy of the organs.
In this way, a scrupulous examination of the pathological signs of the 5 organs is
necessary to determine the emptiness or fullness of the energy.
2 - The liver is an organ whose functions are similar to that of a general. For this
reason, emptiness of the liver energy causes fear, and fullness, anger.
3 - The spleen controls the 4 limbs. Emptiness of spleen energy becomes expressed as a
weakness of the limbs.
earth-spleen maintains the other 4 organs. In the event of emptiness of its energy, the
5 organs are affected.
The abdomen, fortress of spleen-earth, is bloated, and the urinary routes are blocked
when the energy of spleen is full.
4 - Compassion is the Chi (will) of the heart; the emptiness of heart energy augments the
compassion, and fullness, incessant and unmotivated laughter.
5 - The lung controls the energy and regulates respiration. As a result, emptiness of the
energy of the lung is the origin of nasal obstruction and energetic deficiency. In the event of
fullness, respiration is gasping, with thoraco-abdominal discomfort impeding lying on the back.
6 - The kidney is the source organ of the vital energy (sheng qi). In the event of emptiness
of the energy of the kidney, the feet and hands are ice-cold.
The kidney is also called the door to the stomach. In the event of fullness, the door
(passage) functions poorly, which induces diseases.
In total, in the event of disorders of the 5 organs, one must always examine the state of the
qi (energy) before treating.
236.
II - Ma Shi comments:
1 - The organs have an emptiness and a fullness which are specific to them. As a result,
their diseases are diverse.
2 - The blood received within the liver is the dwelling place of the hun (vegetative soul).
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Fear originates from the emptiness of energy of the liver, and anger, from fullness.
3 - ying (nutritive) energy received within the spleen is the dwelling place of yi
(thought). Paralyzed limbs and disorders of the 5 organs are the signs of emptiness of the spleen.
In contrast, abdominal bloating and dysuria are caused by fullness.
4 - The Mai (blood vessels) received within the heart are the dwelling places of the shen
(mental). Grief and compassion are caused by the emptiness of the heart, and incessant and
groundless laughter are the signs are fullness.
5 - qi (energy) received within the lung is the dwelling place of po (sensitive soul). When
the energy of the lung is in emptiness, the nose is obstructed and the energy is found in a state of
insufficiency. When it is in fullness, respiration is labored and thoraco-abdominal obstruction
prevents the supine position.
6 - jing (essences) received in the kidney are the dwelling places of the Chi (will). When
the energy of the kidney is in emptiness, the limbs are ice cold, and when in fullness, the belly is
bloated because the vessel (channel) of the kidney passes by the lower abdomen.
Such are the pathological forms of the 5 organs. One must, therefore, carefully evaluate the
state of emptiness and fullness of the qi (energy) before choosing an adequate therapeutic method.
Acupuncture and phytotherapy must be used with much discernment.
III - N.V.N.:
The activities of each organ are double, somatic activity and psychological activity, and
their energy can be in a state of emptiness or in a state of fullness.
Because,
1 - The liver has the power to store the blood and maintain the equilibrium of the blood
volume. Its psychological activity, representing the shen (mental), Chi (will) and yi (thought), is
the hun (vegetative soul), and the hun dwells within the blood.
The emptiness of the energy of the liver causes diminution of the blood volume, factor
responsible for fear and anxiety. In contrast, its fullness provokes anger.
2 - The spleen has the function of receiving the ying (Rong, nutritive energy). Its
psychological activity is called yi (thought), and yi dwells within the ying.
When the energy of the spleen is in emptiness, the circulation of organic liquids and of
jing (essence) is impeded and cannot reach the 4 limbs, hence disorder of motility and
disharmony of the energy of the 5 organs.
In the event of fullness, the energy of the spleen stagnates, provoking abdominal fullness
and problems with diuresis.
237.
3 - The heart is the sovereign organ of the liquid blood circulating in the vessels (Mai). Its
psychological activity representing thought (yi), and consciousness/awareness (zhi) is called
shen (mental); and the shen dwells within the blood of the vessels.
Emptiness of the energy of the heart causes sadness and grief; and its fullness, incessant
laughter with opened throat (2) (unmotivated).
4 - The lung contains the source energy (3). The movements of ascent and descent of the
energy-source are controlled by the po (sensitive soul) which is the representative of the qi guan
(energetic doors: points) and which dwell in the source energy.
Emptiness of the lung energy expresses as nasal obstruction, dyspnea and deficiency of
energy, and its fullness as thoracic fullness forcing the patient to throw back his head to breathe.
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5 - The kidney contains the jing qi (jing energy) (4) of the 5 organs.
Emptiness of energy of the kidney and insufficiency of yuan yang (yang source) (5) is the
origin of ice-cold limbs. In diseases of the kidney, perverse energy in fullness is the cause of
abdominal bloating.
In summary, in practice, it is necessary to study well the syndromes of the 5 organs and to
search for the signs of emptiness and fullness of their energy in order to apply an adequate
therapy because the results depend on this.

2. Laugh like a hunchback.
3. The source energy (Zhan qi) is also designated by the name yuan qi (original energy or essential energy).
4. here, the word jing has 2 meanings: jing, pure energy of the 5 organs received by the kidney and sexual jing
(spermatozoa or ova)
5. kidney yang.
no 238/239.

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CHAPTER IX
Beginning and Ending
(Zhong shui)
Chapter 9 of the Lingshu is devoted to the presentation of:
_ the 3 yin channels and 3 yang channels
_ the pulsology and classification of renying and Cun Kou
_ emptiness and fullness, able to be regulated by tonification and dispersion
_ the utilization of a small or significant number of points
_ and the duration of the interval between acupuncture sessions.
The techniques of needling are also noted:
_ local needling or needling at a distance, based on the existence of the
circulatory pathways of the energy
_ the depth of needling as a function of yin and yang nature, the
seasonal nature of the illness, the constitution of the subject and, above
all, the area of implantation of the needle.
At the end of this chapter, the 12 contraindications of acupuncture and the
different phases of starting and ending of the illness of the energy of the 12
channels are greatly studied.
In summary, the key aspect of Chapter 9 is to present the different
physiologic, pathologic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the formation and
disappearance of the disease. Each form possesses an etiology, specific natures and
specific reactions. Knowledge of the mechanism of the evolution of the disease, from
its appearance to its end, is, therefore, necessary in order to practice acupuncture
methods. For this reason, this chapter is entitled: Beginning and Ending.
240.
According to Zhang Shi:
ending and beginning is the name of a book of antiquity retrieved by Qi Bo.
In Chapter 5 (Origin and Gathering) of this classic, we note this phrase: The
mystery of the9 Needles and their knot and ankle are found in the chapter
Beginning and Ending.
Chapter 9 begins with the same phrase. Therefore, this chapter is clearly
taken from a classic book of our masters of long ago.

This chapter comprises 27 paragraphs.
PARAGRAPH 1
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All methods of acupuncture are demonstrated in the chapter
Beginning and Ending. To delve deeply into this chapter is to consider the
5 organs as basic principles, and yin and yang will be, in this manner,
det ermi ned.
yin answers to the organs, and yang, to the bowels.
yang receives the energy at the level of the limbs, and yin, the
energy at the level of the 5 organs. This is why, during dispersion, one
must go in opposition, and during tonification, go in pursuit.
In this way, to the know the method to go in opposition and the
method to go in pursuit is to know how to balance the energy.
The principle of balancing the energy resides in the ventilation
and harmonization of yin and yang.
The 5 organs are yin, and the 6 bowels are yang. This notion must
be transmitted to posterity by an oath made in blood. In revering it, one
becomes skillful; in disdaining it, one becomes clumsy and tactless; in
opposition to the Dao and by only ones personal reasoning, one surely
ends up in calamity.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The organs and bowels (Zang and Fu), yin and yang, jing and Mai (channels and vessels),
qi and Xue (energy and blood) created by heaven (respiration) and earth (diet) have their
beginning (shui) and their ending (Zhong).
1. wind, cold, heat, humidity, dryness and fire are the 6 energies of heaven.
wood, fire, earth, metal and water are the 5 movements of earth.
heaven maintains living beings with its 6 energies, and earth with its 5 sapors.
2. The 6 energies of heaven transmute and create the 5 sapors, and the 5 movements
of earth are intended to create the 5 organs.
241.
3. In the interior, the 5 organs are linked to the 6 bowels in order to respond to the
5 movements of earth. At the exterior, they are linked to the 6 channels in order to respond to
the 6 energies of heaven. This is why it is said: To go very deeply into the chapter Beginning
and Ending is to grasp the 5 organs as foundational principles. Therefore, it is stated that the 5
organs originate from the transmutation of the energy of the 5 movements.
4. The meaning of the words ending and beginning is clearly explained. One must
take the jingmai (principal channels) as fundamental rules; their conformity or non-conformity to
the celestial Dao permits solution of all physiological and pathological problems. Because, at the
ending,
_ the taiyang manifests by wide open eyes and curved back
_ the taiyin is characterized by abdominal swelling and difficult respiration.
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In this manner, in man, the yin and the yang, the blood and the energy begin via the action
of the 5 movements of earth and of the 6 energies of heaven and end at the level of the
6 bowels, sites of reunion of yin and yang.
5. yang receives the energy at the level of the 4 limbs means: yang absorbs the celestial
energy coming from the exterior.
yin receives the energy at the level of the 5 organs means: yin absorbs the terrestrial
energy coming from the interior.
This is why, in order to utilize the method of dispersion, One must go against it (go in
opposition to it). This means to say that one must go in front of the energy which goes from the
interior to the exterior. To utilize the method of tonification, One must go in pursuit of it (chase
after it); meaning that one must go in front of the yang energy which goes from the exterior
toward the interior.
In total, to balance the energy, one must clearly know the meaning of yin and yang.
II - Ma Shi comments:
All acupuncture methods are based on the idea of the ending and beginning cited in this
chapter.
Because,
_ the organs are yin and the bowels are yang
_ yang located at the exterior receives the energy of the 4 limbs and yin located in the
interior receives the energy of the 5 organs.
This is why:
_ when the energy comes to arrive, one must immediately go against it. This process has
the name dispersion,
_ and when the energy comes to depart, one must immediately go in its pursuit. This
process is called tonification.
These two methods permit regulating and harmonizing the energy of the 3 yin and 3 yang
channels.
242.
III - N.V.N.:
Perfect practice of acupuncture demands knowledge of the ideas of the Beginning and
Ending of the 3 yang and 3 yin channels.
In effect,
_ the 3 yin channels of the foot and hand are linked together to the 5 organs, and the 3
yang channels of the hand and foot, to the 6 bowels.
_ the yang channels receive the energy located at the end of the 4 limbs, and the yin
channels, the energy at the level of the 5 organs.
For this reason, the method of dispersion consists of going against/in opposition to it in
order to rob/eliminate. This means to say: To orient and manipulate the needle in the direction
opposite to the circulation of the energy. In contrast, in the method of tonification, one must
orient and manipulate the needle in the direction of the circulation of the energy. (Figure 24)
This method called to go against and that called to go in pursuit permit the
modulation, regulation and, therefore, the harmonizing of the energy and blood.
But these 2 methods of regulation of the blood and energy are necessarily linked to the
comprehension of the rules of yin and yang: The organs are yin and the bowels are yang....
Clinicians must carefully examine and study this argument in also a strong and
solemn/formal way that the text declares: an oath made in blood because therapeutic successes
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depend on it.
Not respecting the rules of yin-yang and an entirely personal, whimsical and
unpredictable attitude, in fact, leads to specious reasoning and a dangerous practice of
acupuncture.


Figure 24
a) Technique of dispersion - b) Technique of tonification
PARAGRAPH 2 243.

In accordance with the celestial Dao, I would like to address the
true meaning of Zhong (ending) and shui (begi nni ng).
The ending and beginning have as basic examples the jingmai
(principal channels) . Pressure of the fingers at renying (left radial
pulse) permits evaluation of the excess or insufficiency of yin and
yang, equilibrium or disequilibrium. It is in this manner that one
perceives the state of the celestial Dao at this level.
One says that well balanced man is man without illness. Because,
in the non-ill man, Cun Kou (right radial pulse) and renying (left
radial pulse) respond to the 4 seasons, top and bottom adapt in their
circulation, the pulse of the 6 channels does not stop; the cold and mild
heat (Wen) of the root and summit are mutually regulated without error.
In other words, form and flesh, blood and energy are in equilibrium in
man in good health.
If the energy is not very abundant, Cun Kou and renying are
weak; the inch pulse and foot pulse and yin and yang are in
insufficiency and treatment consists of prescribing sweet-flavored
medicines. Medicines in tablet form are prohibited and moxabustion is
also advised against. Inadequate utilization of the method of dispersion
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is responsible for the perturbation of the energy of the 5 organs.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1. The phrase: In accordance with the Celestial Dao, I would like to address the true
meaning of Zhong (ending) and shui (beginning) means to say that Huangdi wishes to speak of the
3 yin channels and 3 yang channels responding to the 6 energies of heaven.
2. The blood and vessels are created by the 5 organs and 5 movements. At the exterior,
they unite with the 6 energies of yin and yang and exist from birth until death. This is why
Huangdi begins his expose with these words: The ending and beginning have as basic examples
the jingmai (principal channels).
Pressure of the fingers at Mai Kou (right radial pulse) and at renying (left radial pulse)
(1) permit the determination of excess and insufficiency of yin and yang. This means to say:
Examination of the pulses permits the evaluation of the state of circulation of the energy
responding to the 4 seasons. In this manner, for example, the energy of spring and of summer
circulate from left to right and that of autumn and winter, from right to left (2).
This is why, in the course of the 2 seasons, spring and summer, the renying pulse 244.
is slightly larger, and in the course of the 2 seasons, autumn and winter, the qi Kou pulse (right
radial pulse) is slightly larger.
These 2 pulses are normal in the balanced individual.
3. Top and bottom adapt means: the energy above and below respond to the
6 energies of heaven and circulate without interruption; the pulsologic movements of the 6
channels (3 yin and 3 yang) are in accord with the circulation of the energy.
Root and summit designate the entering and exiting movements of the Jiao (branches)
and Ben (trunk).
Cold (han) and Mild heat (Wen) respond to the energy of heaven. When cold begins to
leave, warmth arrives. These movements of departure and arrival are immutably carried out.
4. Form amd flesh, energy and blood imply the sense of concordance of blood and energy
located at the exterior of the vessels and of blood and energy located in the interior of the
6 channels.
5. Mai Kou (right radial pulse) and renying (left radial pulse) are intended for
exploring the energetic and blood state of the 3 yin and 3 yang. As a result, the insufficiency of
the energy brings about an insufficiency of Mai Kou and renying.

1. Right Cun Kou (radial pulse) also has the name Mai Kou (mouth of the energetic vessels) and qi Kou (mouths of
the energy). This pulse is yang (energy, right side) in relation to renying (blood, left side).
2. Spring (liver) and Summer (heart) = blood (whose circulation of blood goes from left to right). Autumn (Lung) and
Winter (kidney) = energy (whose circulation of energy goes from right to left). See Mai jing (Classic of Pulses of Wang shu he),
N.V.N. Edition.
The foot pulse (Chi) is intended to explore the energetic state of yin, and the inch
pulse (Cun), to explore the energetic state of yang.
6. The phrase ...non-conforming of inch and foot pulses explains the state of
emptiness of yin energy and yang energy perceived at the level of the pulse wave of foot and
inch.
7. Sweet-flavored medicines make up part of the group of medicines having the power to
regulate the functions of the stomach.
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The energy of the 3 yin and that of the 3 yang comes from zhongjiao (middle jiao) of the
stomach. For this reason, one must tonify the source of production of the energy and activate the
circulation. It is, therefore, prohibited to prescribe them in tablet form, whose sapor (flavor) is
very concentrated, at the risk of slowing the therapeutic action.
Moxabustion is also advised against because it is a matter of an insufficiency of yin and
yang energy at the level of the exterior and not of an accumulation of the energy at the level of the
jingmai (principal channels).
similarly, the method of dispersion utilized in this case can cause a perturbation of the
energy of the 5 organs.
245.
II - Ma Shi comments:
1. The examination of Cun Kou (mouth of the inch, right radial pulse) and of renying
(human reception, left radial pulse) allows differentiation of the balanced from ill man.
2 - The true meaning of the chapter Beginning and Ending is none other than the
consideration of the jingmai as the foundational rules.
The inch (Cun) pulse of the right wrist is called Mai Kou (pulse of the vessels, also Cun
Kou or qi Kou), and that of the left wrist, renying. The examination of the pulse of these two sites
allows determining the emptiness or fullness, equilibrium or disequilibrium of yin and yang.
3. Is called well balanced man: the non-ill man whose renying pulse is slightly
changing (Da) during spring and summer and Mai Kou pulse also changing in autumn and winter.
These pulse respond to the 4 seasons and belong to the Chi (foot) and Cun (inch) pulse.
At the foot and hand, the 6 channels (3 yin and 3 yang) are found. The knotted pulse and
restless pulse are absent there. This is why it is necessary to know well the root and
summit and carefully examine the cold (han) and mild heat (Wen) of the 4 seasons.
4. The agreement of form and flesh, of blood and energy is the essential condition to
define the balanced man.
5. The insufficiency of the essential energy causing that of Mai Kou and the Chi (foot)
pulse is often encountered in individuals whose yin channels are in emptiness.
similarly, the insufficiency of the essential energy causing that of renying and the Cun
(inch) pulse is often encountered in individuals whose yang channels are in emptiness.
In these cases, dispersion of the yang channels is the origin of the depletion of the energy
of the yin channels, and dispersion of the yin channels is the cause of the escape of the energy of
the yang channels. This is why acupuncture is prohibited; only the medicines of sweet flavor
aimed at tonifying or dispersing are advised. Moxabustion is also prohibited because it risks
worsening disorders of the energy of the 5 organs.
III - N.V.N.:
Generally, medical research exactly copies the rules of manifestation of the natural world.
1. In acupuncture, ending and beginning have a very precise meaning. Because, in the
human being, the blood and energy circulate until the end, then they return to their starting
point to reform and start the cycle again. This cyclic circulation can be illustrated by that of the
12 jingmai. 246.
2. Mai Kou (right radial pulse) is the site of exploration of the yin part of the 5 organs,
and renying (left radial pulse) that of the yang part of the 6 bowels; from them, the state of
emptiness or the state of fullness of yin and of yang can be appreciated in the goal of determining
their equilibrium or disequilibrium. The evaluation of this state is, therefore, determined by the
208 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
rules of manifestation of the natural world.
3. Balanced man is the non-ill man. In him,
_ Mai Kou and renying respond to excess or insufficiency of yin or yang of the 4 seasons.
_ the energy of the pulse ascends and descends, goes and comes back without
discontinuity.
_ the pulsations of the 6 channels (3 yin and 3 yang) are undulating, being neither
knotted nor rough or missing. They are neither rapid nor excessive.
_ in the interior, these pulsations respond to the root (source organ), and at the exterior
to the summit (skin and flesh).
_ their activities are conserved despite cold or heat.
These are the conditions generally encountered in the man without illness. (3)
4. In the case of the sick man, the essential energy (yuan qi) is in emptiness, renying and
Mai Kou are weak and without force, the foot (Chi) and inch (Cun) pulses lose their
concordance and yin and yang are in insufficiency.
In this case, tonification of yang energy rapidly brings about the depletion of the energy
of the 5 organs, and dispersion, the emptiness-escape of the energy of the 6 bowels.
Faced with these types of illnesses, only the sweet-flavored medicines and well-aimed
harmonization are used. In contrast, very stimulating or dispersing medicines are ill-advised.
In these illnesses, individuals are extremely weak from the disorders of yin caused by
fire, and moxabustion is strictly forbidden.
If the patient is not on a road to cure, utilization of the method of dispersion can gravely
affect the functions of the 5 organs.
This paragraph proves to be fundamental to the practice of acupuncture and moxabustion.

3. Described in the Mai jing de Wang shu he - N.V.N. Edition.
PARAGRAPH 3

The renying pulse more excessive than Cun Kou indicates illness
of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). If it is one time more excessive and agitated,
the illness is at the Hand Shaoyang (SJ). 247.
The renying pulse 2 times more excessive than Cun Kou indicates
illness of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). If it is 2 times more excessive and
209 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
agitated, the illness is at the Hand Taiyang (SI).
The renying pulse 3 times more excessive than Cun Kou indicates
illness of the Foot Yangming (St). If it is 3 times more excessive and
agitated, the illness is at the Hand Yangming (LI).
The renying pulse 4 times more excessive than Cun Kou, and at
once changing (Da) and rough, is called yi yang (overflowing of yang).
yi yang indicates the syndrome Wai Ge (external separation).
The Mai Kou pulse more excessive than renying indicates illness
of the Foot Jueyin (Li). If it is one time more excessive and agitated, the
illness is at the Hand Jueyin (XB).
The Mai Kou pulse 2 times more excessive than renying indicates
illness of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki). If it is 2 times more excessive and
agitated, the illness is at the Hand Shaoyin (He).
The Mai Kou pulse 3 times more excessive than renying indicates
illness of the Foot Taiyin (Sp). If it is 3 times more excessive and
agitated, the illness is at the Hand Taiyin (Lu).
The Mai Kou pulse 4 times more excessive than renying, and at
once changing (Da) and rough, is called yi yin (overflowing of yin).
yi yin indicates the syndrome of Nei guan (internal barrier). This syndrome
is fatal.
renying and Mai Kou of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) 4 times more
excessive than normal, or even more, indicates the syndrome of guan Ge
(separation of the barrier). This syndrome is also fatal.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The left pulse is renying and the right pulse qi Kou (also: Mai Kou, Cun Kou). These
pulses are intended to explore the energy of the 3 yin and 3 yang.
1. The sage looks South. he has in front of him guang Ming (Clarity/Insight) and behind
him, Taichong (great energetic elevation); the East is to the left and the West is to the right. The
celestial path goes towards the right and the terrestrial path to the left. This is why one takes the
left in order to examine the yang (male) and the right to exam the yin (female).
2. Agitated designates the state of the energetic movement into yin.
Because the 6 energies originate from yin and leave from earth, they only become united
with the 6 channels of the foot (Zu). Sometimes, their movements are agitated at the level of the
hand to unite with the 6 organs/6 bowels and with the 12 jingmai. 248.
since the 12 jingmai are intended to respond to the energy of the 3 yin and 3 yang, they
are not the 6 energies that divide into the energy of the foot and the energy of the hand.
3. Wai Ge (external separation) is a syndrome of fullness of yang located at the exterior,
in a state of disharmony with yin energy.
Nei guan (internal barrier) is a syndrome of fullness of yin located in the interior without
the presence of yang energy to balance it.
210 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
guan Ge (separation of the barriers) is a syndrome of the yin barrier located in the
interior associated with that of the yang Ge (separation of yang) of the exterior.
4. Ge Shi clarifies: Mai Kou belongs to taiyin and renying, to yangming. As the energy of
the organs cannot reach from itself to the Hand Taiyin (Lu), its displacement can only be effected
under the action of the stomach. As a result, the left and right belong to the taiyin and are
endowed with the energy of yangming (St).
Because the yang energy takes off from left to right, and the yin energy from right to left,
the left is intended to explore the 3 yang, and the right to explore the 3 yin. This does not mean to
say that the pulse of the left side is yang and that the pulse of the right side is yin.
Within yin, there is yang, and within yang, there is yin. These phenomena take place in
the balanced individual. If the left is only yang and if the right is only yin, the pulse is called
separation of the barrier (guan Ge); this is death.
II - Ma Shi comments:
The comparative study of the excessive state of the energy of Mai Kou and renying
permits determination of the illness located at the level of the channels.
1. If the renying pulse is 1 time more excessive than Mai Kou, the illness is at the
Foot Shaoyang (GB). If it is more excessive and agitated, it heralds illness associated with the Foot
Shaoyang/Hand Shaoyang (GB/SJ).
If the renying pulse is 2 times more excessive than Mai Kou, the illness is at the Foot
taiyang (Bl). If it is 2 times more excessive and agitated, it heralds illness associated with the
Foot Taiyang/Hand Taiyang (Bl/SI).
If the renying pulse is 3 times more excessive than Mai Kou, the illness is at the Foot
Yangming (St). If it is 3 times more excessive and agitated, it heralds illness associated with the
Foot Yangming/Hand Yangming (St/LI).
Because renying controls the exterior, illnesses of the 6 yang channels of the foot and
hand are detectable at the level of these pulses.
If the renying pulse is 4 times more excessive than Mai Kou, and at the same time
changing (Da) and rough, the energy of the 6 yang channels overflows at the exterior and
prevents those of the 6 yin channels from exteriorizing, hence the name Wai Ge (separation of the
exterior); the illness is fatal.
2. If the Mai Kou pulse is more excessive than renying, the illness is at the Foot Jueyin
(Li). If it is 1 time more excessive and agitated, it heralds illness associated with Foot
Jueyin/Hand Jueyin (Li/XB).
If the Mai Kou pulse is 2 times more excessive than renying, the illness is at the
Foot Shaoyin (Ki). If it is 2 times more excessive and agitated, it heralds illness associated with
Foot Shaoyin/Hand Shaoyin (Ki/he). 249.
If the Mai Kou pulse is 3 times more excessive than renying, the illness is at the
Foot Taiyin (Sp). If it is 3 times more excessive and agitated, it heralds illness associated with
Foot Taiyin/Hand Taiyin (Sp/lu).
If the Mai Kou pulse is 4 times more excessive than renying, and at the same time
changing (Da) and rough, the energy of the 6 yin channels overflows and obstructs the
interior, preventing the energy of the 6 yang channels from interiorizing, hence the name Nei
guan (internal barrier). The obstruction of Nei guan is fatal.
If the Mai Kou pulse is 4 times more excessive than renying, the illness carries the name
guan Ge (separation of the barriers), and the prognosis is fatal.
III - N.V.N.:
The study of renying and Mai Kou pulses is fundamental in the determination of the
211 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
illnesses of the jingmai.
The explanation of Zhang and Ma is unequivocal. Nevertheless, we emphasize certain
terminologies of the energetic pathology so as to better understand the pulsology:
_ yi yang: overflowing of the energy of the 6 yang channels at the exterior. It is the cause
of the syndrome of Wai Ge (external separation).
_ yi yin : overflowing of the energy of the 6 yin channels in the interior. It is the cause of
the syndrome of Nei guan (internal barrier).
When the overflow is maximal, the illness has the name guan Ge (separation of barriers). It
is a fatal ailment.
Therefore, a gross error has been committed in the last centuries and, more particularly,
in our era by translators of classic books who have defined guan Ge as simply dysphagia or
difficulty swallowing.
PARAGRAPH 4

1, When renying is more rapid than Mai Kou, one must disperse
Foot Shaoyang (GB) and tonify Foot Jueyin (Li).
The dispersion is double, and the tonification is simple.
Needling is done daily.
It is necessary to control the reaction of the pulses.
One stops needling when the blood is not very abundant and when
the energy is regulated.
2. When renying is 2 times more rapid than Mai Kou, one must
disperse Foot Taiyang (Bl) and tonify Foot Shaoyin (Ki).
The dispersion is double, and the tonification is simple. One
needles once every 2 days. 250.
It is necessary to control the reaction of the pulses.
One stops needling when the blood is not very abundant and when
the energy is regulated.
3. When renying is 3 times more rapid than Mai Kou, one must
disperse Foot Yangming (St) and tonify Foot Taiyin (Sp).
The dispersion is double and the tonification simple.
One needles 2 times per day.
It is necessary to control the reaction of the pulses.
One stops needling when the blood is not very abundant and when
the energy is regulated.
4. When Mai Kou is more rapid than renying, one must disperse
Foot Jueyin (Li) and tonify Foot Shaoyang (GB).
The tonification is double and the needling is simple.
One needles once a day.
It is necessary to control the reaction of the pulses.
One stops the needling when the pulse is not very abundant and
when the energy is regulated.
5. When Mai Kou is 2 times more rapid than renying, one must
disperse Foot Shaoyin (Ki) and tonify Foot Taiyang (Bl).
The tonification is double and the needling is simple.
212 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
One needles 2 times per day.
It is necessary to control the reaction of the pulses.
One stops the needling when the pulse is not very abundant and
when the energy is regulated.
6. When Mai Kou is 3 times more rapid than renying, one must
disperse Foot Taiyin (Sp) and tonify Foot Yangming (St).
The tonification is double and the needling is simple.
One needles 2 times per day.
It is necessary to control the reaction of the pulses.
One stops the needling when the pulse is not very abundant and
the energy is regulated.
7. One needles two times per day because yangming governs the
stomach, and the stomach is in great need of the cereal energy.
8. If renying and Mai Kou together are 3 times more rapid (or even
more) than normal, the phenomenon carries the name
simultaneous Overflowing of yin and yang (yin yang gou Jia). It hinders
the circulation and obstructs the blood and vessels; the energy, unable
to circulate, floods the interior; the 5 organs are then damaged. In this
case, the application of moxabustion results in complications.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1. Tonification and dispersion are the 2 methods of regulation intended to rebalance
the yin and yang energy in cases of disorder. 251.
One disperses the yang 2 times and tonifies the yin one time because yang is often in
excess and yin is often insufficient.
Tonification of yang is double and tonification of yin is simple because one is interested
in stimulating yang and not yin.
2. One must control the reaction of the pulse means: One must examine renying and
qi Kou in order to evaluate the state of the energy of the 3 yin and 3 yang.
yangming governs the stomach which is very rich in cereal energy. This is why one must
needle 2 times per day because the energy of the 3 yin and 3 yang originates from the cereal
energy of yangming.
3. renying and Mai Kou are together rapid and the phenomena is called simultaneous
Overflow of yin and yang because:
_ yin is in fullness in the interior
_ yang is in fullness at the exterior.
For this reason, if one does not use acupuncture to aid the circulation, the blood and
energy will be obstructed; these overflow towards the interior and injure the 5 organs.
Of course, one disperses in case of fullness, and one tonifies in case of emptiness, and one
applies moxas in case of stagnation. But here, the yin energy and yang energy are together
victorious and imbalanced. It is, therefore, not a question of the phenomena of stagnation; for this
reason, moxabustion is prohibited at the risk of provoking other illnesses.
II - See commentaries of Ma Shi in the following paragraph.
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III - N.V.N.:
This paragraph is devoted to the comparative study of the states of renying (left radial
pulse) and Mai Kou (right radial pulse) in determining the emptiness and fullness of the3 yin and
3 yang to therapeutic ends, while the preceding paragraph is centered on the comparative study of
these 2 pulses in the goal of determining the ailments localizing at the6 yin channels.
These studies are then fundamental to the practice of acupuncture.
The translation and interpretation of this paragraph are extremely delicate both from the
point of view of energetic pathophysiology and the knowledge of the function of the points.
In this manner, for example, the phrases: Tonify 2 and disperse 1 and Disperse 2 and
tonify 1 do not wish to say that each channel has 2 points of tonification or 2 points of
dispersion; they simply stress the importance of dispersion performed at the yang channel and
the importance of tonification performed at the level of the yin channel.
252.
PARAGRAPH 5

According to the rules, one must stop needling when the
regulation of the energy is obtained.
Tonification of yin and dispersion of yang permits rendering the
voice clearer, hearing and vision finer. In case of contrary actions, the
energy and the blood no longer circulate.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang shu explains:
1. The energy of the 3 yin and that of the 3 yang are created by the 5 organs.
According to the rules, one must stop needling when the regulation of the energy is
obtained implies: during the simultaneous fullness of the yin and yang energy, one must needle
up to the point that they are in equilibrium. For that, one must tonify yin and disperse yang.
Tonify yin is to tonify the yin part of the interior belonging to the 5 organs, and
Disperse yang is to direct the 6 energies (perverse) located in the interior toward the exterior.
2. After tonification of the organs, the energy of these latter, particularly that of the
heart, lung and spleen, are balanced and the voice is clearer.
The liver energy exteriorizes at the eyes, and that of the kidney, at the ears. When these
energies are in a state of plethora, the ears and eyes are keener.
After tonification of the organs and after conduction of the energy towards the exterior,
the energy of the 3 yin and that of the 3 yang are spontaneously balanced.
3. yin and yang, blood and energy originate from the stomach bowel and the 5 organs.
The stomach is the sea of the water of the Cereals (shui-Gu) and of blood (Xue) and
energy (qi).
This energy and blood circulates following the paths of the jing shui; the jing shui are
none other than the Great luos (Da luo) belonging to the 5 organs and 6 bowels. This is why, in
case of disturbances, if one does not tonify yin and if one does not disperse yang, the energy and
blood no longer circulate.
II - Ma Shi comments:
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In this paragraph and the previous one, Qi Bo bases his judgment on renying and Mai Kou
to define the rules of tonification and dispersion. 253.
1. When renying is one time more rapid than Mai Kou, the illness is at Foot Shaoyang (GB).
Because the gallbladder and liver constitute one indissociable yin-yang, interior-
exterior system, the fullness of the gallbladder automatically causes the emptiness of the liver.
One must then disperse Foot Shaoyang (GB) and tonify Foot Jueyin (Li). One ceases the procedure
when the energy is regulated.
If renying is not only one time more rapid but also more agitated than Mai Kou, the illness
is at the Hand Shaoyang (SJ). It is then advised to disperse the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) and tonify the
Hand Jueyin (XB).
2. When renying is two times more rapid than Mai Kou, the illness is at Foot Taiyang (Bl).
Because the bladder and kidney constitute one inseparable yin-yang, interior-exterior
energetic system, the fullness of Foot Taiyang (Bl) automatically causes the emptiness of Foot
Shaoyin (Ki).
Treatment consists then of dispersing Foot Taiyang (Bl) and tonifying Foot Shaoyin (Ki).
In contrast, when renying is not only two times more rapid, but also more agitated than
Mai Kou, the illness is at the Hand Taiyang (SI). It is advised to disperse the Hand Taiyang (SI)
and tonify the Hand Shaoyin (He).
3. When renying is three times more rapid than Mai Kou, the illness is at the Foot
Yangming (St).
Because the stomach and spleen constitute the inseparable yin-yang, interior-exterior
energetic system, the fullness of Foot Yangming (St) automatically causes the emptiness of the
Foot Taiyin (Sp).
Treatment consists then of dispersing Foot Yangming (St) and tonifying Foot Taiyin (Sp).
In contrast, when renying is not only three times more rapid, but also more agitated than
Mai Kou, the illness is at the Hand Yangming (LI). It is advised to disperse Hand Yangming (LI)
and tonify Hand Taiyin (Lu).
4. When Mai Kou is one time more rapid than renying, the illness is at Foot Jueyin (Li).
Because the liver and gallbladder constitute one indissociable yin-yang, interior-
exterior energetic system, the fullness of Foot Jueyin (Li) automatically causes the emptiness of
Foot shaoyang (GB). The treatment consists of dispersing Foot Jueyin (Li) and tonifying Foot
shaoyang (GB).
In contrast, if Mai Kou is not only one time more rapid, but also more agitated than
renying, the illness is at the Hand Jueyin (XB). It is advised then to disperse the Hand Jueyin
(XB) and tonify the Hand Shaoyang (SJ).
254.
5. When Mai Kou is 2 times more rapid than renying, the illness is at Foot Shaoyin (Ki).
Because the kidney and bladder constitute one inseparable yin-yang, interior-exterior
energetic system, the fullness of Foot Shaoyin (Ki) automatically causes the emptiness of Foot
taiyang (Bl). In this case, one must disperse Foot Shaoyin (Ki) and tonify Foot taiyang (Bl).
In contrast, if Mai Kou is not only more rapid but also more agitated than renying, the illness is
at the Hand Shaoyin (He), It is then advised to disperse Hand Shaoyin (He) and tonify Hand
Taiyang (SI).
6. When Mai Kou is 3 times more rapid than renying, the illness is at Foot Taiyin (Sp).
Because the spleen and stomach constitute one inseparable yin-yang, interior-exterior
energetic system, the fullness of Foot Taiyin (Sp) automatically causes the emptiness of Foot
Yangming (St). In this case, one must disperse Foot Taiyin (Sp) and tonify Foot Yangming (St).
In contrast, is Mai Kou is not only 3 times more rapid but also more agitated than renying,
215 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
the illness is at the Hand Taiyin (Lu). It is then advised to disperse Hand Taiyin (Lu) and tonify
Hand Yangming (LI).
7. The text proposes to needle once a day in the case of attack of the liver-Gallbladder
system, and once every 2 days in the case of attack of the kidney-Bladder system, except in the
case of attack of the spleen-stomach system when one needles it 2 times per day.
One needles the yangming 2 times per day because the stomach is very rich in cereal.
8. When renying and Mai Kou are 4 or more times more rapid, they bear the name
Overflowing of yin and yang, responsible for the syndrome called guan Ge (Separation of the
Barriers). In this case, if one does not employ acupuncture, the blood and energy will not
circulate and obstruction, created in this manner, is the origin of disturbances at the level of the
5 organs. And, if moxabustion is used in place of acupuncture, the illness complicates and
becomes incurable.
As a result, moxabustion is not as effective as acupuncture. Some physicians wait until
the illness becomes serious to apply moxabustion, but it already too late. This is why, in order to
use acupuncture, one must know how to examine the state of the illness and know how to await the
arrival of the energy which indicates regulation before ceasing the acupuncture act. Therefore,
either after having tonified the yin channel in order to disperse the yang channel, or after having
dispersed the yin channel in order to tonify the yang channel (according to the general rules of
needling), the voice becomes pure and hearing and vision become acute. In the opposite action, the
energy and blood does not circulate and the patient slowly rejoins the world of the dead.
The same author adds:
This paragraph shows the necessity of examining renying and Mai Kou to determine the
emptiness and fullness of the illness in the goal of applying the method of dispersion of yin in
order to tonify yang or the method of dispersion of yang in order to tonify yin. Such are the basic
therapeutic principles of the application not only of acupuncture but also of phytotherapy.
III - N.V.N.: 255.
The treatment of the syndromes of the 3 yin and 3 yang is specified in Paragraphs 4 and 5
of this chapter. The basic diagnostic and therapeutic principles are:
1. The fullness of yang always causes the emptiness of yin and vice versa.
2. The examination of renying and Mai Kou permit determination of the evolutive state
of the illness (retreat or progression).
3. Needling can be performed one time per day, one time every 2 days, or even 2 times per
day according to the potential in ying (nutritive) energy at the level of the channels
concerned.
4. The points of tonification and dispersion are always more or less distant from the
diseased area.
5. Awaiting the arrival of the energy (Da qi) is obligatory in the determination of the
regulation of the emptiness and fullness.
6. removal of the needles is performed only when the arrival of the energy is assured.
7. In the treatment of the syndromes of the 3 yin and 3 yang, one must observe the fullness
and emptiness in order to apply the method of dispersion and tonification according to
the rules of yin-yang.
In this manner, for example:
In the fullness of Foot Yangming (St), Foot Taiyin (Sp) is in emptiness. Asa result, the
treatment consists of needling
_ St 45 (Lidui), the point of dispersion of the stomach,
_ and Sp2 (Dadu), the tonification point of the spleen.
216 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
This therapy, widespread in the West, has been taught in nearly all acupuncture schools
for over 2 decades.
PARAGRAPH 6

Concerning the technique of needling, the arrival of the energy
is the indicator of effectiveness.
After dispersion, the pulse must be empty, and in the state of
emptiness, the pulse must not be strong. In contrast, if the patient
declares that he is relieved in spite of the persistence of a strong pulse,
the illness is not yet cured.
After tonification, the pulse must be full; and being full, the pulse
must be strong. In contrast, if the patient declares that he is relieved
despite the absence of a strong pulse, the illness is not yet cured.
This is why, after tonification, the pulse must be full, and after
dispersion, the pulse must be empty; after removal of the needle, the
patient is not immediately cured, but is ameliorated.
256.
Therefore, it is necessary to understand the process of activation
of the illness at the level of the 12 channels in order to grasp the
meaning of the chapter ending and beginning. In this way, there is no
error in the distinction of yin and yang; there is no confusion in the
appreciation of emptiness and fullness; it is necessary that the needle
be right on the channel.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph completes the preceding one.
During tonification and dispersion, one must await the arrival of the energy.
This arrival of the energy is the indicator of effectiveness because, after dispersion, the
appearance of the phenomenon of emptiness is imperative, and, after tonification, the appearance
of the phenomenon of fullness is mandatory.
In this manner,
_ after dispersion, the pulse must be found in a state of emptiness; that is to say, upon the
application of the fingers, one feels the weakness of the pulse beats. Therefore, after dispersion,
the persistence of a strong and full pulse is indication of the non-amelioration of the illness.
_ after tonification, the pulse must be found in a full (plethoric) state, that is to say upon
applying the fingers, one perceives the reinforcement of the pulse beats. Therefore, after
tonification, persistence of a weak and empty pulse is the sign of non-amelioraton of the illness.
In total, the strong or weak nature of the pulse represents the aspect of fullness or
emptiness of the energy. This is why:
_ after tonification, following the appearance of a phenomenon of fullness, the pulse must
be strong.
_ after dispersion, following the appearance of a phenomenon of emptiness, the pulse must
be weak.
217 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
_ and after removal of the needle, the illness is not immediately cured, but strongly
ameliorated.
In order to disseminate the great meaning of the ending and beginning of this chapter,
acupuncturists must delve deeply into the syndromes of the 12 jingmai (principal channels) in
order to scrutinize the signs of emptiness and fullness in the application of the processes of
tonification or dispersion. These syndromes, without evolutive nature but fixed at the yin or yang
channels, can be treated not only according to their emptiness or fullness, but also according to
the weak or strong nature of the pulse.
II - N.V.N.:
This paragraph places accent on
_ the reactive phenomena of needling, the signs of effectiveness, able to be perceived at
the level of the pulses, 257.
_ the effect of tonification and dispersion. The first potentiates the essential energy, and
the second eliminates the perverse energy
_ and the existence of the 12 jingmai and their pathophysiologic processes in order to
define the notion of ending and beginning cited in this chapter.
In the preface of the Mai jing (Classic of Pulses), Wang shu he (210-285 A.D.) stated
clearly:
Pulsology is very subtle. The natures and aspects of the pulses are
difficult to discern. In this manner, the tense, hurried, superficial,
dicrotic characters... define the undulating aspects of the pulse which
are mentally accessible but delicate to define when they are under the
fingers. If the deep pulse is taken for a hidden pulse, the therapy is
definitely wrong; if the late pulse is taken for a slow pulse, danger is
not a long time in coming; accordingly, there exist clinical signs
appearing simultaneously and different illnesses having the same pulsology.
PARAGRAPH 7

In order to await the arrival of the cereal energy (Gu qi),
needling is distinguished into 3 phases.
Because the morbid state originates from
_ the fusion of perverse energy and essential energy
_ the modification of yin and yang
_ the consequence of concordance and discordance
_ the reversal of the immersing state and emerging state
_ and from the failure to adapt to the 4 seasons,
creating, in this way, blockage and overflowing of blood and energy.
This is why acupuncture is used to eliminate these morbid states, with
the following steps:
_ the 1st phase eliminates perverse yang
_ the 2nd phase secretes perverse yin
_ and the 3rd phase is called the cereal energy.
Upon the arrival of the cereal energy, one must cease needling.
One speaks of the arrival of the cereal energy (deqi) when one is in the
presence of fullness after tonification or of emptiness after dispersion.
In the case where the perverse energy is only eliminated with
persistence of the disharmony of yin and yang, the illness can be cured.
218 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
Also, it has already been stated above that tonification brings about fullness
(of the bodily energy), and dispersion, emptiness (of perverse energy); if the illness
cannot be cured upon removal of the needle, it is certain that it is ameliorated.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 258.
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph completes the previous one.
The amelioration of the illness results from three methods of needling whose goal is to
make the cereal energy return.
At the start of the illness, the perverse energy concentrated in the epidermo-dermal layer
infiltrates into the principal channels. The yin and yang channels seem to change role regarding
internal-external; the direction of the energetic circulation seems reversed; the pulses
sometimes seems deep... . This appears anarchical. This state must be pacified by acupuncture.
The 1st phase of needling eliminates the perverse energy localized in the yang
(superficial) and the 2nd phase evacuates the energy fixed in the yin (deep). In the 3rd phase, the
arrival of the cereal energy is perceived at the level of the pulse which becomes full after
tonification and empty after dispersion.
The perverse energy eliminated in this manner, even if the yin and yang channels are still
not in perfect balance, cure is near.
II - N.V.N.:
The 3 techniques of needling according to depth permit the provoking of reactive
phenomena at the level of the cereal energy in the goal of tonification and dispersion.
The presence of perverse energy in the organism causes circulatory disturbances of the
blood and energy. The yang energy, instead of remaining at the exterior, reaches the depth, and
the yin energy, instead of remaining in the interior, reaches the superficial. The energy of the
pulse no longer responds to the movements of ascent and descent. The perverse energy reaches the
organs and bowels and provokes illnesses. Acupuncture is then utilized to resolve this morbid
problem whose results depend on the 3 phases of the needling:
_ the superficial, cutaneous phase can evacuate the perverse energy of the yang part of the
body,
_ the deep, dermal phase can evacuate the perverse energy from the yin part of the body,
_ the still deeper phase of the yin part can provoke reactive phenomena of the part of the
cereal energy (see Figure 25).
During the course of the last phase, one must wait for the arrival of the energy and leave
the needle in place until obtaining the reactive phenomena before removing it.
The term arrival of the energy (deqi) designates either the use of the method of
tonification (the essential energy originally in a state of emptiness returns to the state of
fullness, reinforcing its potential) or the use of the method of dispersion (the perverse energy
originally in a state of fullness is found in a state of emptiness, attesting to its elimination).
During the implantation of the needle, reactive phenomena appear in spontaneous fashion,
and the perverse energy immediately regresses, but the energy and blood in the yin-yang space
are not yet completely reestablished; this is why it is said: Cure is near.
259.
219 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
Figure 25
Different phases of needling to activate the daqi.
(reactive phenomena provoked by the essential energy).
PARAGRAPH 8

yin being in fullness and yang being in emptiness, one must first
tonify yang, then disperse yin to reestablish balance.
yin being in emptiness and yang being in fullness, one must first
tonify yin then disperse yang to reestablish balance.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph completes the previous ones.
The methods of tonification and dispersion of yin and yang channels must be performed
following a determined order.
In this manner, for example:
1. Mai Kou (right radial pulse) of rapid nature following attack of the 6 yin channels:
_ The yin channels are in fullness, and yang channels, in emptiness.
_ One must first tonify yang, then disperse yin, to reestablish their equilibrium.
2. renying (left radial pulse) of rapid nature following attack of the 6 yang channels:
_ The yang channels are in fullness, and yin, in emptiness. 260.
_ One must first tonify yin, then disperse the yang channels, to reestablish their
equilibrium.
Why does one act in this manner?
Because, if it is necessary to eliminate the perverse energy, it is also necessary to
maintain the essential energy.
II - N.V.N.:
1. Mai Kou (right radial pulse) greater than that of renying (left radial pulse) is the
indicator of the fullness of perverse energy located in the yin channels and of the emptiness of
the essential energy at the level of the yang channels. One must first tonify the essential energy
220 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
of the yang channels, then disperse the perverse energy of the yin channels.
In this way, one tends towards the equilibrium of yin-yang by moderation of the excess of
yin and the insufficiency of yang.
2. renying (left radial pulse) greater than that of Mai Kou is the sign revealing emptiness
of the essential energy at the level of the yin channels and fullness of the perverse energy at the
level of the yang channels. One must first tonify the essential energy of the yin channels, then
disperse the perverse energy of the yang channels.
In this way, parallel to the first case, one tends towards the equilibrium of yin-yang by
counterattack, this time with the excess of yang and insufficiency of yin.
3. The comparative study of the two pulses, Mai Kou and renying, is the method of choice
for determining the state of emptiness of the essential energy and fullness of the perverse energy
(see table below).
Mai Kou renying
(right radial pulse, yang) (left radial pulse, yin)

Fullness of yin channels Emptiness of yin channels
Emptiness of yang channels Fullness of yang channels
Notes:
a) The pulse is divided into qi Kou (= Mai Kou or Cun Kou) and renying, whose meaning is
the same as that cited in Chapter 48 (Prohibition and Submission- Gan Fu).
Hua Ba ren (1304-1386 A.D.) states:
In antiquity, the right side of the glottis had the name qi Kou, and the left side, the
name renying. Much later on, Wang She he gave these names to the radial pulse, left and right.
b) See the definition and location of these two pulses in the commentaries of Zhang Shi
(Paragraph 3 of this chapter).
261.
c) Do not confuse the point renying (St 9) with the pulse renying (left radial pulse).
_ renying pulse located on the left (yin) is intended to explore the state of emptiness or
fullness of the yang channels.
_ Mai Kou or qi Kou pulse located on the right (yang) allows exploration of the state of
emptiness or fullness of the yin channels.
PARAGRAPH 9

The 3 current-vessels (channels) can be disturbed in the area of
the great toe.
If one disperses the emptiness, one has double emptiness
(juxtaposition of emptiness) and the illness worsens.
To treat this condition, it is advised to examine the pulse of these
3 vessels by pressure of the fingers. If it is full and rapid, dispersion
221 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
must be done immediately; if it is empty and slow, one must tonify. The
opposite treatment worsens the illness.
During examination, the pulse of yangming (St) is found above,
that of Jueyin (Li) in the center and that of shaoyin (Ki) down below.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph speaks on the treatment of the 3 channels of the foot. One must examine
well the emptiness or fullness in order to apply the method of tonification or dispersion.
The 3 channel-vessels located near the great toe are:
1. The vessel of the Foot Yangming (St), found between the 2nd and 3rd toes. The points
Lidui (St 45), Xiangu (St 43), Chongyang (St 42), Jiexi (St 41) are all situated on the top of the
foot.
2. The vessel of the Foot jueyin (Li), found between the great and 2nd toes. The points
Dadun (Li 1), Xingjian (Li 2), Taichong (Li 3), Zhongfeng (Li 4) are all situated at the top of the
foot.
3. The vessel of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki), which is found within the sole of the foot. The point
Yongquan (Ki 1) is located underneath the foot.
To treat the diseases of the 3 channel-vessels, one must carefully observe the emptiness or
fullness because dispersion done in the event of emptiness causes the phenomenon Zhong Xu
(double emptiness or juxtaposition of emptiness) that aggravates the disease. 262.
In this manner, before needling, the finger must press on the artery (pedal) to examine the
pulse. If the pulse is full and rapid, dispersion must be done on the field, and if it is empty and
slow, it is tonification which one must apply. In contrast, if one disperses the emptiness or
tonifies the fullness, the illness worsens.
In all cases, one must locate the site of this pedal artery:
_ that of yangming (St) is found at the top of the foot
_ that of the Foot Jueyin (Li), between the 2 channels, yangming and taiyin
_ that of the shaoyin (Ki), within the sole of the foot.
II. N.V.N.:
This paragraph studies the emptiness and fullness of the 3 channels of the foot: yangming
(St), jueyin (Li) and shaoyin (Ki) in order to establish adequate treatment.
These channels have their vessels spread in the vicinity of the great toe.
a) In the event of emptiness or fullness, dispersion or tonification done in error worsens
the illness. This is why, in a general way, before treatment by acupuncture, it is advised to press
the finger on the pedal artery and study the state of its pulse:
_ if the pulse is full and rapid, dispersion is used and implantation of the needle is rapid.
_ if the pulse is empty and slow, tonification is indicated and implantation of the needle
is slow.
If one erroneously applies the opposite methods, that is to say tonification used in the
case of fullness and dispersion used in the case of emptiness, the disease worsens.
b) As for the localization of the pulse of the channels,
_ the pulse of Foot Yangming (St) is found at the point Chongyang (St 42) on the top of the
foot, next to the pedal artery.
_ the pulse of the Foot Jueyin (Li) is found at the point Taichong (Li 3) in the crease
222 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
located in front of the junction point between the 1st and 2nd metatarsals on the pedal artery.
_ the pulse of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) is found at the point Taixi (Ki 3) behind the internal
malleolus, above the calcaneus, on the posterior tibial artery.
We indicate, however, that according to Ma Shi, the pulse of shaoyin (Ki) is found at the
point Tongquan (Ki 1), therefore below the pedal artery and not at the point Taixi (Ki 3) on the
posterior tibial artery.
PARAGRAPH 10

When needling the ying shu (points of the upper part of the
thorax), one must attain them properly. 263.
When needling the Bu shu (dorsal shu), one must also attain them
pr oper l y.
These point are found in concave spots.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Ma Shi explains:
The localization of points must be precise.
In this way, in the upper part of the thorax (ying), such points as:
_ qihu (St 13), Kufeng (St 14), Wuyi (St 15), yingchuang (St 16)... belong to the stomach
channel,
_ Yuzhong (Ki 26), shencang (Ki 25), Lingxu (Ki 24), shenfeng (Ki 23)... belong to the
kidney channel.
Needling must exactly touch these points.
Likewise, on the dorsal part, the points belong to Du Mai (GV) and Foot Taiyang (Bl).
Needling must reach them well.
In order to precisely locate these points, one must look for them in creases which are soft
to the touch.
II. N.V.N.:
The result of needling depends on the exact localization of points, in particular the
ying shu (points located at the upper thorax) belonging to the yin channels and the Bu shu
(Back shu points) belonging to the yang channels.
Because, the yin channels located at the upper part of the thorax (ying) treat the yin
illnesses. one must needle the ying shu points such as: Zhongfu (Lu 1), Yunmen (Lu 2) of the Hand
Taiyin (Lu) and Tianchi (XB 1) of the Hand Jueyin (XB), etc.
The yang channels located on the back treat the yang illnesses. One must needle the Bu
shu points (Back shu points) such as Jianchio (SJ 14), Tianlao (SJ 15)... belonging to the Hand
Shaoyang (SJ) and Tianzong (SI 11), Quyuan (SI 13), Jianwaishu (SI 14) belonging to the Hand
Taiyang (SI).
On the other hand, paresthesias of the scapulo-humeral area is a syndrome of emptiness.
This ailment can be treated by points located on the thorax and back because these points are
linked to the channels located on the upper limbs.
223 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 11

In lingual edema (Zhong Zi: double tongue), one must needle the
foot of the tongue with the Pi needle.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 264.
Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph is devoted to the technique of needling of double tongue (lingual edema)
with needle #5 (see Chapter 1: 9 Needles and 12 yuan- Jiu Zhen Shi Er yuan) of this classic).
Needling must be performed at the level of the foot (frenulum) of the tongue, and
one bleeds a few drops of blood.
PARAGRAPH 12

Spasms of the arm preventing extension originate from illness of
the tendons.
Extension preventing flexion is due to illness of the bones.
In the illness of the bones, one must needle the bones, and in the
illness of the tendon, one must needle the tendons.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Zhang Shi comments:
1. This paragraph completes the preceding ones concerning the energy of the
5 movements which leaves from the foot to reach the top. In cases of emptiness, one has interest
in intercepting this energy which evolves from the interior towards the exterior.
2. The points of the stomach are found at the middle of ying (upper part of the thorax).
_ spleen points, at the lateral part of ying
_ lung points, at the shoulder and back
_ the orifice of the heart, at the tongue
_ the energy of the liver, at the muscles and tendons
_ the energy of the kidney, at the bones.
As a result, in cases of disturbances of the energy of the 5 organs, it is advised to
locate and needle these points well.
II. Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph studies the phenomena of contraction and extension to determine the
origin of their illness located at the tendons or bones for therapeutic purpose.
Normal flexion and difficult extension are of tendinous origin. Treatment consists of only
needling the tendons and not the bones.
Normal extension and difficult flexion are due to bony attack. Treatment consists of only
needling the bones and not the tendons.
224 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 13 265.

During use of the technique of tonification, one must aim for the
moment of fullness of yang to apply a deep needling, then perform a
light pressure on the point of impact to evacuate the perverse energy.
In contrast, at the moment of emptiness of yang, needling must be
superficial to preserve the energy of the vessels; then, with the finger,
one obstructs the point of impact to avoid penetration of the perverse
e ne r g y.
When the perverse energy arrives, it is expressed as a feeling of
grabbi ng at the level of the needle, and when the cereal energy
arrives, its movements are slow and harmonious.
When the pulse is full, one must needle deeply to facilitate the
evacuation of the perverse energy, and when the pulse is empty, one
must needle superficially to prevent the escape of the jing qi (energetic
essence), to preserve the energy of the vessels (channels) and to
evacuate only the perverse energy.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Ma Shi explains:
The technique of tonification and dispersion consists of eliminating the perverse energy
and vitalizing the essential energy.
When one tonifies, one must wait for the moment of fullness of yang to perform dispersion.
Needling must be deep and the point of impact must remain open to facilitate the evacuation of the
perverse energy.
If the moment of the emptiness of yang occurs, needling must be superficial to maintain
the essential energy located in the interior of the channels, and the point of impact must be
closed to not allow the perverse energy to penetrate.
Arrival of perverse energy at the level of the point of the needle is recognized by the
rapid movements of grabbing, and arrival of the cereal energy, by slow and harmonious
movements. One deduces by experience that the disease is in emptiness or fullness in order to
perform superficial or deep needling to evacuate the perverse energy and maintain the essential
energy.
II. N.V.N.:
Tonification and dispersion are based on the emptiness and fullness of the energy at the
level of the pulses.
a) When the pulse energy is in fullness, it is advised to use the technique of deep
needling. After removal of the needle, one must press on the point of impact lightly to facilitate
the excretion of the perverse energy. 266.
b) When the pulse energy is in emptiness, it is expressly advised to use the technique
of superficial needling to maintain the energy of the vessels (channels). After the needle is
removed, press with the finger on the point of impact to close it to avoid a new intrusion of
perverse energy.
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c) When the perverse energy arrives, one has the impression of having painful tension at
the level of the needling, and when the cereal energy arrives, this sensation is replaced by slow
and harmonious pulsations.
In total, this paragraph defines the techniques of superficial needling and deep needling
during tonification and dispersion.
PARAGRAPH 14

In the treatment of pain, all vessels (channels) are in fullness.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph completes the previous one and emphasizes the method of dispersion in
cases of fullness.
Pain is a sign of fullness, and dispersion is then expressly advised.
II. N.V.N.:
In all types of pain, except in the case of moral pain, one must always use the technique
of dispersion because the corresponding vessels-channels are all in fullness.
PARAGRAPH 15

This is why it is said: The region above the lumbars belongs to the
Hand Taiyin (Lu) and Hand Yangming (LI), and that below, to the
Foot Taiyin (Sp) and Foot Yangming (St).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Ma Shi explains:
All diseases are dependent on the channels.
a) Above the lumbar region to the top is the domain of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and Hand
Yangming (LI) because
_ the lung channel starts at the thorax and is directed to the hand
_ and that of the large intestine starts at the hand and reaches the head. 267.
b) Below the lumbar region to the bottom is the domain of the Foot Taiyin (Sp) and Foot
Yangming (St) because
_ the spleen channel goes from the foot to the thorax
_ and that of the stomach from the face to the foot.
c) These 4 channels each have a specific territory that one must know to localize the
points well.
II. N.V.N.:
According to the principle of choice of the points as a function of the channels and that of
as a function of needling nearby, illnesses localized at the upper half of the body (from the
lumbar region to the top) belong to the therapeutic domain of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and Hand
226 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
yangming (LI), and illnesses localized to the lower half of the body (from the lumbar region down
to the bottom) belong to the therapeutic domain of the Foot Taiyin (Sp) and Foot Yangming (St).
In our time, this technique is practiced daily by seasoned acupuncturists.
PARAGRAPH 16

To treat illnesses of the upper part of the body, one must choose
points on the lower part, and to treat illnesses of the lower part of the
body, one chooses points on the upper part.
To treat illnesses of the cranium, one must choose points located
on the foot, and to treat illnesses of the lumbar region, one must choose
points located at the popliteal creases.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Zhang Shi explains:
The top and bottom of the body respond to qijiao (exchange energy) of heaven and earth.
One chooses points located on the foot to treat ailments of the cranium because the head
and feet respond to heaven and earth, and points located at the popliteal crease to treat lumbar
ailments because the water energy of kidney and bladder responds to the laws of si Tian and
Taiquan.
II. Ma Shi:
Needling at a distance is a technique often employed because, if the illness is above, the
channel communicates with the bottom, and if the illness is at below, the channel communicates
with the top. This is why, in ailments of the cranium, one chooses points located at the foot, and in
lumbar ailments, one chooses points located at the popliteal crease. 268.
These techniques comply with the principle according to which illness localized above,
needling must be performed below and vice versa.
III. N.V.N.:
This paragraph defines the method of needling at a distance according to the principles of
the channels, techniques much employed in our era. For example:
a) Anal ptosis (Prolapse) is treated by moxabustion applied to the point Baihui (GV 20).
b) lumbalgia is relieved by needling the point weizhong (Bl 40).
PARAGRAPH 17

In ailments of the cranium, the head is heavy. In ailments of the
arm, the arm is heavy. In ailments of the foot, the foot is heavy. In
therapy, needling must be done first at the place where the illness
mani f es t s .

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Ma Shi explains:
Treatment by acupuncture encompasses yet another technique of the choice of points.
227 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
In effect, when the illness begins on the head, the head is heavy; treatment consists of
first choosing points on the head.
If the illness begins on the arm, the arm is heavy, and if the illness starts on the foot, the
foot is heavy; the same method must always be used, that is to say, one must first choose points
located on the arm and foot. Such is the meaning of the aphorism: To treat the illness, one must
look for the root (Ben).
II. N.V.N.:
This passage defines the choice of points in the treatment called the root (Ben).
PARAGRAPH 18

In spring, the energy is found in the hair spaces. In summer, the
energy is found in the skin. In fall, the energy is found in the flesh. In
winter, the energy is found in the muscles and bones. 269.
Treatment of these illnesses is adapted to the seasons. This is why
in fat (stout) individuals, one must take fall and winter as normal, and
in the case of thin individuals, one must take spring and summer as
normal.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph defines the depth of insertion of the needle as a function of time, season
and the build of the individual.
a) In spring, the perverse energy is found in the hair space.
In summer, the perverse energy is found in the cutaneous space.
In autumn, the perverse energy is found in the space of distribution of the flesh.
In winter, the perverse energy is found in the musculo-skeletal space.
When one treats these 4 types of illnesses,
_ in spring and summer, needle insertion is slightly superficial, in the cutaneous space.
_ in fall and winter, needle insertion is slightly deep, in the space of the distribution of
the flesh ... .
Such is the method of needling following the seasons in order to limit the depth of
implantation of the needle.
b) In very stout individuals, the illness is deep; also one must take as normal the 2
seasons autumn-winter, and in thin subjects the 2 seasons spring-summer.
Such is the method of treatment according to the constitution of the individual and the
location of the illness.
II. N.V.N.:
This paragraph emphasizes the importance of the method of needling the different layers
of the body called needling according to the 4 seasons.
The energy of spring is warm. It manages production/birth. The illness of perverse
energy generally manifests at the level of the external part of the pilocutaneous.
The energy of summer is hot and stifling. yang energy is in fullness; the illness of
perverse energy generally becomes manifest in the superficial part of the epidermal system.
228 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
The energy of autumn is fresh; it manages collection/harvesting. The illness of perverse
energy generally infiltrates into the dermal layer.
The energy of winter is cold; it commands closure/conservation. The illness of perverse
energy can penetrate deeply into the musculo-skeletal system. 270.
Treatment of these illnesses is linked to the climatic phenomena of the 4 seasons;
the depth of the needle is based on the movement time-climate and on the deep or superficial
localization of the illness in order to apply adequate treatment.
But the depth of needling differs in each individual. In very stout individuals, needling
must be deep like that applied in autumn or winter, and in thin individuals, it must not exceed
the layer belonging to spring and summer.
270.


Figure 26
Technique of needling according to the 4 seasons.
PARAGRAPH 19

Illness characterized by pain is yin.
Upon pressure of the fingers, if this pain does not become
displaced, that is to say, if the localization of the pain cannot be
determined as in the case of erratic pain, it is yin and needling must be
deep.
Illness localized at the top (superficial) is yang, and that localized
at the bottom (deep) is yin. Pruritis is yang; as a result, needling must
be superficial.

229 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 271.
I. Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph divides illness into yin and yang. Therefore, needling is distinguished
also into deep (yin) needling and superficial (yang) needling.
_ The yin channel is yin and the yang channel is yang.
_ Pruritis is yang and pain is yin.
_ Superficial (top) is yang and deep (bottom) is yin.
_ The illness localizing in yin, needling is deep, and illness localizing in yang, needling
is superficial.
II. N.V.N.:
This passage defines the yin and yang of the illness and the yin and yang of needling.
Because, some illnesses characterized by pain, like those of perverse cold infiltrating
deeply into the musculo-skeletal system, are of yin nature. In other words, pain not felt upon
manual pressure is the sign revealing the deep localization of the illness of perverse energy.
This pain is of yin nature; consequently, needling must be deep.
Illnesses localizing in the upper half of the body are yang because yang governs ascent,
and those localizing in the lower half are yin because yin governs descent.
Pruritis manifests at the skin. It is a yang illness, and needling must be superficial.
Depth of needling depends then on the yin and yang nature of the illness (localization).
PARAGRAPH 20

In the illness that starts in yin, one must treat, in the first place,
yin, then yang.
In the illness that starts in yang, one must treat, in the first
place, yang, then yin.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Ma Shi notes:
This passage has the same meaning as that of Paragraph 17.
272.
II. N.V.N.:
This paragraph is centered on the two key notions of energetic therapy: treatment of the
root and summit (4).
Because, pathological manifestations sometimes start at the level of the yin channel; it is
necessary to treat, in the first place, the yin channel (that is to say the root), then, in the
second place, the yang channel (that is to say, the summit).
In contrast, if these pathological manifestations start at the level of the yang channel, it is
necessary to treat first the yang channel (that is to say the root), then the yin channel (that is
to say the summit).
230 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
In summary, deep knowledge of the notions of Root and Summit allow differentiating
the essential from the secondary, establishing a hierarchy of morbid symptoms, detecting the
mechanisms that drive the cause of the symptoms and applying, as a result, a rational therapy.
PARAGRAPH 21

In the treatment of the illness re Jue (afflux of heat), the needle
left in place transforms the heat into cold, and in the treatment of the
illness han Ju (afflux of cold), the needle left in place transforms the
cold into heat.
The treatment of re Jue is based on 2 yin and 1 yang, and the
treatment of han Jue, on 2 yang and 1 yin.
When one says 2 yin that means to say one needles the yin
channel two times; and when one says 1 yang that means that one
needles the yang once.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph defines the treatment of Jue (afflux) illnesses.
In re Jue (afflux of heat), the needle left in place for a long time has the ability to
transform the heat into cold, and heat is susceptible to being eliminated on its own.
In han Jue (afflux of cold), the needle left in place for a long time has the ability to
transform the cold into heat, and cold is susceptible to being eliminated on its own.
In re Jue, one tonifies the yin channel twice and disperses the yang channel once because
yin in fullness can cause the emptiness of yang and the perverse heat is then eliminated by
itself..
In han Jue, one tonifies the yang twice and the yin once because yang in fullness can cause
the emptiness of yin and the perverse cold is then eliminated by itself.
The words 2 times yin designates 2 yin channels, and 1 time yang, 1 yang channel.

4. See details in M.T.C.- N.V.N Edition.
II. N.V.N.:
The treatment of Jue illnesses (energetic afflux), re Jue and han Jue, is shown in this
paragraph.
The treatment of re Jue (afflux of heat) consists of using the method of the needle left in
place, which permits transforming the heat into cold in the goal of provoking the regression of the
perverse heat; inversely, the treatment of han Jue (afflux of cold) consists of using the needle left
in place, which permits transforming the cold into heat in the goal of driving out the perverse
cold.
In re Jue, the therapeutic technique consists of tonifying 2 times the yin channel and
dispersing 1 time the yang channel; and in han Jue, the therapeutic technique consists of
tonifying 2 times the yang channel and dispersing 1 time the yin channel.
In practice, in the course of the same treatment session for re Jue, for example, one
tonifies 2 yin channels and disperses 1 yang channel, and not the same yin channel 2 times (see
explanations of Ma Shi above).
231 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
PARAGRAPH 22

In chronic diseases, the perverse energy localizing deeply,
needling is deep and must be performed once every 2 days; the needle is
left in place for a long time. First, one must harmonize the left and
right in eliminating the blood stases.
This technique is considered sufficient and complete.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Ma Shi explains:
wei energy (defensive energy) circulates during the day in yang and during the night in
yin, in agreement with the Celestial Dao which occurs day and night on earth.
In chronic diseases, the infiltration of the perverse energy is deep; its attack against the
essential energy obliges it to remain for a long time in the yin part of the body; it only returns to
the yang part of the body once every 2 days. This is the reason why the needling must be done at
one day intervals, that is to say, on the day of the return of perverse energy into the yang part.
Left and right are the circulatory routes of yin and yang.
The jingmai (principal channels) are the circulatory routes of the blood and energy which
permeate yin and yang.
This chapter studies the Dao of ending and beginning according to the 5 movements and
6 energies:
_ The 5 movements respond to the mechanisms of entry and exit, 274.
_ and the 6 energies, to the Celestial Dao.
The physician who practices the methods of needling in accordance with the Top-Bottom
movements and regulation of Jian qi (energy-exchange: qijiao, p.267) of the left and right to
eliminate the stains lodged within the channel-vessels is an acupuncturist who sufficiently
knows the techniques of acupuncture.
II. N.V.N.:
This paragraph defines the Dao of needling of chronic diseases:
_ needle deeply once every two days
_ leave the needle in place a long time
_ regulate the energy of the jingmai (left and right)
_ eliminate blood stases contained in the channel-vessels.
PARAGRAPH 23

All acupuncture methods necessitate a complete examination of
xing (bodily form) and qi (energy).
When the form (flesh) is not yet divergent and the energy is
deficient with agitated pulse, the illness is that of Zao Jue (agitation/
afflux); one must use the method of needling on the opposite side (Miu),
which allows gathering the energy that is in a state of dissemination
and dissolving the energy that is in a state of obstruction.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
232 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
I. Ma Shi explains:
This passage studies the case of emptiness of the energy with full pulse treated by the
method of needling on the opposite side (Miu).
This method consists of needling the luo point of the right side when the illness is found
at the left, and the luo point of the left when the illness is found at the right. This technique
permits concentrating the energy that is in a scattered state and dissolving the energy that is in a
state of accumulation.
II. N.V.N.:
This paragraph explains the use of the method needling on the opposite side of the luo
point in the event of emptiness of the energy with full pulse.
275.
PARAGRAPH 24

The practice of acupuncture is performed in a calm place in order
to observe the movements of the shen (mental). Doors and windows are
closed and cracks filled in so that the hun (vegetative soul) and po
(sensitive soul) do not become scattered.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
Ma Shi does not comment on this paragraph. The explanations of Zhang Shi concern not
only this paragraph, but also the previous one.
I. Zhang Shi:
In acupuncture, one must examine the xing (Soma) and qi (energy) of the illness and
study its jing-shen (essence-mental) before placing the needle.
1. Form-flesh is not yet divergent means that xing and qi are still in harmony.
2. The energy is in insufficiency, the energy is concentrated in the lower part (deeply).
3. Agitated pulse (Zao) originates from the yin movements.
4. Illness of Zao Jue (agitation/afflux) is due to a disequilibrium of blood and energy
which manifests in the top part (superficial).
5. Needle on the opposite side, a technique which consists of needling the left side when
the illness is found at the right, and vice versa, in the goal of harmonizing the energy and blood,
yin and yang, and facilitating the gathering of the energy of the jingmai that is in a disseminated
state and the dissolution of the energy which accumulates in the lower part (deep).
6. The practice of acupuncture is performed in a calm place, to maintain the energy.
7. Door closed and cracks filled in, so the energy does not disperse to the exterior.
8. hun and po do not become scattered implies that the jing shen is maintained in the
interior.
This technique of treatment must be well known by the patient in order to calm his mind
before acupuncture.
II. N.V.N.:
This passage teaches us the behavior of the physician during the acupunctural act.
276.
PARAGRAPH 25
233 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only

The patient must concentrate his yi Chi (thought and will), in
particular his jing shen (essence and mental), on the needling without
being preoccupied with what occurs at the exterior.
Superficial needling and the needle allowed to remain in place or
light and superficial needling are acts intended to mobilize the jing
shen of the patient. When the energy arrives, one stops needling.
Man responds to the exterior, and woman, to the interior. In the
first case, one must bring the energy back to the interior, and in the
second case, one must bring the energy back to the exterior; this is
what one calls deqi (obtaining the energy).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I. Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph defines the behavior of the patient during needling. he must watch over
his jing shen in order to concentrate his yi Chi on the place of needling.
The kidney conserves jing (essence) which exteriorizes towards the ear. This is why, to
maintain the jing in place, the patient must not listen to voices coming from the exterior.
Superficial needling and the needle left in place permanently or light and superficial
needling are the acts intended to mobilize the jing shen of the patient. When the energy arrives,
one stops the needling. This amounts to saying that the physician looks to associate his jing shen
with that of the patient.
Man responds to yang, and woman, to yin. yang is located at the exterior, which is why it
is necessary to make it enter into the interior. yin is located in the interior which is why it is
necessary to make it leave to the exterior. Such is the method of harmonization of yin energy and
yang energy, of interior and exterior.
In all, one must carefully observe the essential energy to not allow it to leave and the
perverse energy to prevent it from entering. To do so in this manner is to obtain the phenomenon
called deqi.
II. N.V.N.:
In individuals who are treated for the first time by acupuncture or are afraid of needles,
superficial needling and allowing the needle to remain in place are advised.
If the patient experiences a sensation of pain, one must transmit some rotation movements
to the needle and slightly elevate it toward the skin. This method tends to calm the mind of the
patient.
Patience and prudence are the two qualities of the acupuncturist. This is why one must
know how to wait for the deqi (obtaining the energy) because the results depend on it.
In relation to yin and yang, interior and exterior, Man and Woman, a recent, rather well-
known, translation, totally distorts this passage. This urges us to maintain a critical mind faced
with modern versions of the Chinese classics, at times quite whimsical, because of the difficulty
of interpretation.
277.

PARAGRAPH 26

The contraindications of needling are:
234 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
_ do not needle individuals after sexual relations. similarly, after
needling, avoid sexual relations.
_ do not needle the individual in a drunken state. similarly, after
needling, avoid alcohol.
_ do not needle individuals after anger. similarly, after needling,
avoid anger.
_ do not needle individuals after fatigue. similarly, after needling,
avoid exertion.
_ do not needle individuals after a meal. similarly, after needling,
avoid satiety.
_ do not needle individuals when they are hungry. similarly, after
needling, do not let the hunger go on.
_ do not needle individuals when they are thirsty. similarly, after
needling, do not let the thirst go on.
_ If the subject arrives fearful, calm him before needling.
_ If the subject arrives by carriage, before needling let him rest
the time a meal lasts (30).
_ If the subject arrives on foot, before needling let him rest the
time of traveling 10 leagues (about 30).
Such are the 12 contraindications to needling.
In the above-mentioned cases, the pulse is disordered and the
energy dispersed, ying and wei circulate in the wrong way, the energy
of the channels is disorganized... . Untimely needling provokes the
overflowing of the illness from yang towards yin and the overflowing
of the illness from yin towards yang, and the perverse energy becomes
ampl i f i ed.
The poor physician who ignores these reasons injures the body.
Then the form (soma) becomes exhausted, brain and marrow become
empty, organic liquid is not produced and the 5 sapors escape. This is
the loss of the energy (vital).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 278.
I. Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph underscores the problem of the contraindications of needling.
After sexual relations, jing (essence: sperm) becomes exhausted.
Alcohol, although originating from cereals, is a very potent energetic substance. This is
why, in an intoxicated state, the energy is incoherent.
The liver conserves the blood. Anger makes the energy of the liver ascend and provokes an
anarchical circulation of the blood.
Fatigue is the origin of the gathering of the shen (mental) energy at the exterior and the
weakening of jing (essence) energy in the interior.
Chapter 17 (Subtleties of Pulse Examination) of the Su Wen states: Before a meal, the
jingmai are not yet in fullness, the luos function regularly, the blood and energy are not
disturbed. This is the moment to examine the pulse of the patient. For this reason, one must not
235 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
needle the individual after a meal.
Chapter 18 (Energetic Aspects of the Pulse of Man in good health) specifies: Foods
enter the stomach, the yang channels help them circulate, the liquid substances penetrate into the
channels and contribute to the formation of blood. This is why one must not needle the hungry
and thirsty individual.
Anger injures the shen, and fear, the jing. This is why it is advised to needle when the individual
is calm. By precaution, one must maintain the jing and shen stable before needling.
The prolonged seated position injures the flesh. This is why one must let the patient who
comes by carriage rest before needling.
A long walk injures the muscles. This is why the patient who comes from a long way off
must also rest before needling.
If one does not obey these principles, the energy becomes dispersed, ying and wei
circulate in the opposite direction and the energy of the channels is disordered... . In these cases,
inopportune needling causes the overflowing of the illness from the yin into the yang and vice
versa, which increases the production of perverse energy, injurious factor to the human body
which weakens the form.
The brain is the sea of the marrow. The organic liquid is a nutritive substance that is very
useful to the brain and marrow; it permeates and humidifies the skin, maintains and softens the
muscles and bones. When one does not take into account these contraindications, the organic
liquid does not become transformed and the brain and marrow become exhausted.
The 5 sapors that one absorbs by mouth are conserved in the stomach to maintain the
5 energies. In a state of balance, the energy produces the organic liquid, jing (essence) and shen
(mental). In summary, acupuncture is a technique which essentially consists of safeguarding the
shen and maintaining the transformation of the energy. If one breaks the above-cited
contraindications, one provokes the escaping of jing and shen produced by the 5 sapors. This
phenomenon bears the name loss of the energy.
279.
II. N.V.N.:
The explanation of Zhang Shi is clear.
Note, however, that besides these contra-indications, other are cited and classified in the
Zhen Jiu Da Cheng de yang Chi Chou (5); there are also contraindications according to:
1. the depth of the needling.
2. the needling technique.
3. the state of the subject.

5. See Art and Practice of Acupuncture and Moxabustion, Volume 1 - N.V.N. Edition.
PARAGRAPH 27

Exhaustion of the taiyang (Bl) is characterized by the following
signs: ocular contortion/eyes rolled upward, dorsal stiffness and aching
all over and whitish complexion. With the appearance of droplets of
sticky sweat, it is death.
Exhaustion of the shaoyang (GB) is characterized by such as signs:
deafness, articular laxity and blindness. With the appearance of a
whitish complexion, death follows in 1 1/2 days.
Exhaustion of the yangming (St) is characterized by the following
signs: labial and ocular agitation, fright, contempt for speech and
236 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
yellow complexion. With the appearance of fullness and cessation of the
circulation of the channels as much at the top as at the bottom, it is
deat h.
Exhaustion of the shaoyin (Ki) is characterized by the following
signs: blackish complexion, elongated and tartarous teeth, bloating and
obstruction. With the disappearance of the relationship of top and
bottom, it is death.
Exhaustion of the taiyin (Sp) is characterized by the following
signs: bloating and obstruction, frequent eructation and vomiting with
flow in the wrong way marked by redness of the face. The top and
bottom are no longer assured, the color of the face is blackish and the
skin desquamates; this is death.
Exhaustion of the jueyin (Li) is characterized by the following
signs: sensation of heat in the interior, dryness of the throat, frequent
urination and anxiousness In the grave state: lingual and testicular
retraction; this is death.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 280.
I. Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph describes the signs of exhaustion of the 6 channels of the foot ending up
in death. In effect,
1. The Foot Taiyang (Bl) channel starts at the internal canthus of the eye, ascends the
forehead, is directed towards the top of the cranium, penetrates into the brain; then from the
brain, it descends towards the nucha, passes the shoulder and reaches the muscles of the arm.
Also, from the nucha, it goes down the back, runs laterally along the length the vertebral column
to the lumbar belt; first, it penetrates into the gluteal muscles before linking up with the kidney.
This channel belongs to the bladder. This is why, at the time of death, the eyes are rolled
upward/distorted, the back is in ophisthotonus and the limbs tremble. The pale white complexion
indicates the abandonment of the energy of the lung. With the appearance of droplets of sticky
sweat, it is death.
2. The Foot Shaoyang (GB) channel starts at the external canthus of the eye, passes the
temporal region and penetrates into the ear; then it comes back out in front of the ear... . This is
why, at the moment of death, the joints are lax and the patient can no longer see. The greenish
white complexion results from the action of repression of metal on wood.
3. The Foot Yangming (St) channel starts in the nose, ascends to the middle of the forehead,
then descends toward the side of the nose to penetrate into the teeth, goes around the gums and
comes back out below the lips at the point Chengjiang (CV 24). Another branch passes the
supraclavicular region (Quepen- St 12), arrives at the stomach and links up with the spleen... .
This is why, at the moment of death, the mouth and eyes become agitated, the patient panics and
rambles. This is due to the fullness of perverse energy seated in yangming (St). The yellow
complexion is the color of earth (Sp) which becomes exteriorized. All the channels of the top and
bottom are in fullness and become stagnant following the exhaustion of the spleen energy.
4. The Foot Shaoyin (Ki) channel commands the liquid system. This is why its color is
black. The kidney also controls the bony system which make up part of the teeth. The kidney
237 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
channel is directed toward the interior of the abdomen where it opens two routes: the intestinal
route and urinary route. At the moment of death, the complexion is grayish black, the teeth
elongated and tartarous, the belly is bloated and obstructed.
5. The Foot Jueyin (Li) channel, from the groin, passes the genitals, reaches the lower
abdomen, crosses the diaphragm, becomes attached to the ribs, ascends to the laryngo-pharyngeal
apparatus. At the moment of death, the interior of the abdomen is warm and the throat becomes
dry; urinary micturition is frequent and the patient presents with an upset stomach; at a higher
degree, the tongue is retracted and testicles are withdrawn into the belly (ectopia).
6. The Foot Taiyin (Sp) channel starts at the great toe, passes to the internal side of the
calf, reaches the thigh, penetrates into the abdomen, ascends to the diaphragm and arrives at the
laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus and links up to the base of and below the tongue; this is why, at the
moment of death, the abdomen is bloated and obstructed with inability to vomit but with frequent
eructations and nausea. The top and bottom lose their relationship, the complexion is blackish
and the skin becomes dry and desquamates.
II. N.V.N.:
The explanation of Ma Shi aids us in demonstrating that the diagrams of the channels
presented in our era are inadequate because the description of the internal vessels is barely
addressed, hence the difficulty of appreciating the process of triggering certain pathological
signs.
no 282/283.


CHAPTER X
Vessels-Channels
(Jing Mai)
Chapter 10 of the Lingshu is devoted:
_ to the trajectories of the jingmai (principal channels) from their point of
departure to their point of termination,
238 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
_ to their circulation/distribution throughout the entire body
_ and to their syndromes of exogenous origin (caused by perverse energy) and
endogenous origin (caused by perturbation of the energy at the level of the organ or
bowel).
The emptiness and fullness of each channel are perceived at the level of the
pulses.
The signs of attack of each channel are treated according to therapeutic rules
which are suitable to them.
The topography and symptomatology of the luomai (secondary channels),
called luo bie (distinct luos) (1), are also well studied and classified.
In total, this chapter defines the action of the jingmai in the determination of
the pathophysiology of the human body and the regulation of the emptiness and
fullness. This is why this chapter is entitled Vessels-Channels (Jing Mai).
Ma Shi states: It is absolutely necessary to thoroughly learn this chapter in
order to practice medicine correctly because clinical results depend on it.
Also, it must be pointed out to future generation that ignorance of the jingmai
creates error as soon as one discourses on medicine or participates in clinical work.
We will be like damned fools listening to the thunder. What a pity! 284.
The study of the 14 channels cited by Hua Ba Ren (1304-1336 A.D.), like that of
other books of acupuncture and moxabustion such as the Zhen Jui Fa yi Jing de
Huang Fu Mi (259 A.D.), are all based on this chapter of the Lingshu, but in a much
less explicit fashion.

1. In 1969, we translated them as longitudinal luos due to their very specific circulation.
This chapter includes 38 paragraphs.

PARAGRAPH 1

Leigong questions Huangdi:
The concepts of the Gan Mai (Forbidden Vessels) (2) and of the
needling methods essentially rests on the jingmai (principal channels),
the circulatory paths of ying (nutritive energy) of different energetic
and blood potentials. In the interior, the jingmai respond to the 5
organs, and at the exterior, to the 6 bowels. Please explain all of this to
me.
Huangdi :
In the beginning, man (fetus) is formed from jing (essence) (3).
In forming, jing produces the brain and marrow. The bones constitute
Gan (like the trunk of the tree). Mai (vessels) conduct ying (blood
circulating throughout the entire body). jin (tendons and muscles) are
the webbing (attached to the trunks). Rou (flesh) is the wall (containing
blood and energy). The skin is firm, the body and head hair is long.
The cereals penetrate into the stomach, the vessels are permeable,
energy and blood circulate... .
L e i g ong :
I would like to know how to utilize the jingmai.
239 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
Huangdi :
With the jingmai, one can determine life and death, treat the
100 diseases and regulate the emptiness and fullness. One must learn
them very well.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph defines the birth and beginning, exiting and entering of the 12 jingmai.
ying/blood circulates within the interior of the vessels, and the 6 energies unite at the
exterior of the vessels. ying/blood begins to circulate from the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and ends at the
Foot Jueyin (Li); then it starts the cycle again, in a circle without end, in perpetual motion. 285.
In the beginning, man (fetus) is formed from jing... implies that jing qi (ovum and sperm,
water/fire, yin/yang) of the procreators produces, in the first place, the two kidneys. The brain is
the sea of jing (essence) of the marrow. In forming, the kidneys pour out their jing into the
brain; it is in this manner that the brain is the sea of the marrow.
Bones constitute Gan (tree trunk) implying that the bones are created from the water
organ (kidney) like a trunk of a tree.
ying is defined as a barracks able to contain blood and energy.

2. This is an error in transcription. One must read Gan Fu (forbidden prescriptions) which is the title of Chapter 48
(Prohibition and Submission- Gan Fu) of this classic.
3. Sexual jing originating from the kidney.
jin (tendons and muscles) are the webbing attached to the trunk means that the tendons
and muscles are tough and resistant.
Rou (flesh) is the wall expresses that the flesh is produced by earth like a wall of
protection.
The skin is firm; the body and head hair is long defines the plethoric state of the blood
and energy.
In total, the skin, vessels, flesh, tendons, muscles, bones... are external reunions whose
origin comes from the jing energy of the procreators, a priori (innate) jing.
Cereals (foods) penetrate into the stomach... explains that ying and wei, blood and
energy, are created from Cereal jing, a posteriori (acquired) jing.
II - N.V.N.:
This paragraph emphasizes the fundamental importance of the existence of the jingmai in
the human organism.
The jingmai allow not only explanation of the physiologic functions and pathologic
processes of the human being, but also the diagnosis of diseases in order to regulate the
emptiness and fullness, two primary criteria of the practice of energetic medicine.
PARAGRAPH 2

The Hand Taiyin-lung vessel starts at the zhongjiao (MJ), descends and
links up with the large intestine, reascends to the orifices of the
stomach and penetrates into the lung.
From the lung, it reaches the axilla, descends the arm and passes
in front of the Hand Jueyin (XB), penetrates into Cun Kou (radial pulse),
240 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
ascends to the thenar eminence and exits by the tip of the thumb.
Another branch departs behind the wrist, runs along the external
side (energetic description) of the index finger and arrives at the tip of
this finger 286.
1. Shi Dong (disorders of external origin) manifest by the following
s i gns :
_ thoracic swelling and fullness
_ dyspnea and cough
_ pain of Quepen (supraclavicular fossa)
In the serious case:
_ crossed arms and closed eyes.
These signs constitute the syndrome called Bi-Jue (obstruction/afflux).
2. Ci sheng (disorders of internal origin) of this vessel are
characterized by signs such as:
_ cough and energetic afflux
_ dyspnea
_ thirst
_ upset stomach
_ abdominal bloating
_ pain of the internal part of the arm
_ sensation of heat in the palms of the hands.
In the case of fullness of the perverse energy:
_ scapulo-brachialgia (following attack of wind-Cold) (Fenghan).
_ sweating resulting from a direct attack of wind (Zhongfeng).
_ pyuria
_ gnawing pains of the shoulder
In the case of emptiness of the essential energy:
_ pain and sensation of cold of the shoulders and arms
_ hypopnea (4)
_ change in color of the urine.
3. In the diseases cited above, treatment consists of:
_ dispersing in the event of fullness and tonifying in the event of
empt i ness,
_ rapidly removing the needle in the event of heat and letting the
needle remain in place in the event of cold,
_ applying moxabustion in the event of weakening of the vessel
_ and needling the channel affected in the event of absence of
emptiness and fullness.
4. The word fullness designates the Cun Kou pulse (right radial
pulse) 3 times larger than the renying pulse (left radial pulse), and the
word empti ness, the Cun Kou pulse 3 times smaller than the renying
pul se.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains: 287.
To speak of the lung-Vessel is to speak of the lung organ. As for taiyin, according to
the Maijing (Classic of Pulses of Wang shu he, 3rd century A.D.), it designates one of the
241 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
6 energies which is invisible and immaterial.
Mai (vessels) and Xue (blood) located in the interior originate from the organs and bowels;
at the exterior, they respond to the 6 energies.
When one studies the energy of the pulses, the diseases of the 6 energies manifest at
renying (left radial pulse) and Cun Kou (right radial pulse). As a result, these diseases belong
the energy and not to the pulses, and the diseases of the organs and bowels are those of the
interior manifesting at the Chi (foot) pulse and Cun (inch) pulse.
In summary, in the interior Zang (organs) and Fu (bowels), jing (channels) and Mai
(vessels) unite with the 5 movements, and at the exterior, with the 6 energies (taiyang, shaoyang,
yangming, taiyin, jueyin, shaoyin). This is why, when one speaks of the Hand Taiyin-lung
vessel, one includes the yin and yang energy of the organ and bowel.
This chapter speaks of ying/Xue (nutritive energy/blood): ying circulates within the
vessels (channels) beginning with the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and ending with the Foot Jueyin (Li).
From the abdomen, it is directed toward the hand, from the hand toward the head, from the head
toward the feet, from the feet toward the abdomen, forming a circle without end, in perpetual
motion.
The vessels (channels) coming from the 6 organs link up with the bowels and those coming
from the 6 bowels attach to the organs; yin and yang communicate; first Shi Dong (disorders of
external origin) become manifest, then Ci sheng (disorders of internal origin).
Shi Dong perturb the 3 yin and 3 yang. The agitation of renying and Cun Kou indicate
disease at the level of the qi (energy) and not at the level of the jing (channel). This is why it is
said: Disperse in the case of fullness and tonify in the case of emptiness; follow the channels
affected in order to choose the points in the case of absence of emptiness and fullness. This

4. Breathing that is shallower, slower, or both than normal.
implies that when yin and yang energy move towards fullness, the needling is superficial. It must,
therefore, only penetrate the epidermis in order to disseminate the perverse energy in a state of
fullness. One leaves the needle in place permanently to await the arrival of the cereal energy with
the purpose of tonifying the emptiness of yang and yin. Also, in our humble opinion, since the
perverse energy is found in the superficial region, needling must be done at the energetic part of
the skin without touching the channel (jing). In the case where the energy of yin and that of yang
are neither in fullness nor in emptiness, with disharmony of the jingmai, one must treat at the
level of the channel involved.
The Ci sheng designate problems at the level of the organs and bowels manifesting at the
level of the jing (channels).
After reflection, here is our conclusion:
1 - Shi Dong are the diseases manifesting from the exterior. 288.
2 - Ci sheng are the diseases manifesting from the interior.
3 - In general, the cause of diseases is either external or internal. Sometimes their cause
is first external, then it reaches deeply to the interior and vice versa... at other times, their cause
is external and internal at the same time.
This paragraph speaks of Zang (organs) and Fu (bowels), jing (channels) and qi (energy).
This is why the text addresses the Hand Taiyin-lung vessel before Shi Dong and Ci sheng. But in
practice, physicians classify clinical signs according to their external and internal nature and
not into Shi Dong, then into Ci sheng.
II - Ma Shi comments:
1 - This paragraph describes the trajectory of the energetic vessel of the lung, first
circulatory path of the jingmai (vessels-channels).
Each time one uses the word Shou(hand), one implies the jing, ying, shu, jing and he
points starting at the level of the hand, and each time one uses the term Zu (Foot), one implies
242 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
these same points coming from the foot (i.e. the shu-antique points).
The phrase ...starts at zhongjiao (MJ) implies that food, once within the stomach, is
transformed into cereal energy under the action of the zhongjiao (MJ). This starts therefore at the
zhongjiao, then it descends and goes into relation with the large intestine because the lung and
large intestine represent one of the 6 yin-yang, interior-exterior systems of the organism. From
there, this cereal energy ascends to the upper mouth of the stomach (cardia) and reaches the lung
which it horizontally crosses to the axillary region, that is to say, to the points Zhongfu
(Lu 1) and Yunmen (Lu 2), located on the 4th thoracic line (5), then redescends to the axilla and
goes around the arm. At the arm, it joins Tianfu (Lu 3) and Xiabai (Lu 4) and arrives in front of
the two channels, Hand Shaoyin (He) and Hand Jueyin (XB); it reaches the elbow and passes the
forearm traversing the points Kongzui (Lu 6) and Lieque (Lu 7) and arrives at the points jingqu
(Lu 8) and Taiyuan (Lu 9), located in the region of Cun Kou (radial pulse); then reaches the thenar
eminence at Yuji (Lu 10) and emerges at the internal side (energetic description) of the thumb, at
the point Shaoshang (Lu 11).
Another vessel leaves from Lieque (Lu 7), goes around the wrist, passes the Hand
Yangming channel to the points hegu (LI 4), Sanjian (LI 3) and Erjian (LI 2), to end up at the
point Shaoshang (Lu 11), then it follows the large intestine channel to reach the shoulder.
_ at the 4th line is found the lung channel (taiyin).
2 - During the verification of the energetic points affected (Dong Xue) by perverse energy,
the syndrome of fullness of the lung manifests by the following signs:
_ thoracic oppression

5. In the past, one divided the thorax into 4 separate zones by 4 vertical lines:
_ at the medial (1st) line is found the renmai (CV)
_ at the 2nd line is found the kidney channel (shaoyin)
_ at the 3rd line is found the stomach channel (yangming)
_ pain in the supraclavicular fossa
_ rapid respiration and cough
and in serious cases: 289.
_ thoracic constriction with crossed arms (to ease the pain)
This syndrome carries the name Bi qi jue ni (obstruction and flow of energy in the wrong
way/afflux) which is due to an attack of the lung channel.
Other syndromes can be caused either by perturbation of the energy of the channel
(without perverse energy) or by an association of diseases of several channels. Clinical signs are:
_ sensation of rising of the energy (afflux)
_ dyspnea
_ thirst
_ anxiousness
_ thoracic fullness
_ brachialgia
_ a sensation of heat in the palms of the hand.
In the case of fullness of the perverse energy:
_ pain in the shoulder blade due to attack of wind-Cold
_ sweating following an infiltration of wind
_ frequent urination and shoulder tightness (the mother passes her disease to the son).
In the case of insufficiency of essential energy:
_ scapulo-brachialgia
_ or hypopnea (sign of illness of the channel)
_ or change in the color of urine (perverse energy reaches the son).
3 - In the ailments cited above, one must:
_ disperse in the case of fullness and tonify in the case of emptiness
_ rapidly remove the needle in the case of heat and leave the needle in permanently in the
243 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
case of cold,
_ apply moxabustion in the case of blockage/weakening (accumulation) of the vessel-
channel,
_ and treat only the channel affected (Lung), without having recourse to the Hand
Yangming (LI), in the case of absence of signs of emptiness or fullness.
Emptiness and fullness are observed at the level of Cun Kou (right radial pulse) and
renying (left radial pulse).
III - N.V.N.:
Historic documentation on the lung and its energetic vessel (Hand Taiyin) allows better
practice of energetic medicine.
1 - According to the Nanjing of Bian Que (500 A.D.): The lung weighs 3 jin and 3 liang
(about 1.90 kilo) (6) and possesses 6 leaves and 2 auricles, that is to say, in all, 8 hanging leaves
evoking the image of an umbrella hanging from the 3rd thoracic vertebrae. It is also composed of
24 conducting orifices which bring the energy toward the organs.
The throat comprises 2 parts: the anterior part called larynx, communicating with the
5 organs, and the posterior part called pharynx, controlling the passage of foods.

6. The unit of weight used in the Far East from the time of the Neijing to our times is jin which weighs 0.6018 kilo. The
submeasures of jin are:
_ Liang: 1/16 of a jin or 37.77 gr
_ Dong: 1/10 of a Liang or 3.77 gr
_ Fen: 1/10 of a Dong or 0.377 gr
_ Li: 1/10 of a Fen or 0.0377 gr
_ Lei: 1/10 of a Li or 0.00377 gr.
One also notes Yen which weighs 10 jin, being 6.018 kilo.
The larynx weighs 12 liang and consists of 9 ring-like segments 2 cun in diameter and
12 cun in length.
The pharynx also weighs 12 liang and its diameter is 3 1/2 cun. Its length measured to the
cardia is 16 cun.
2 - According to the Dacheng of yang Chi Chou (1522-1620 A.D.) (7)
a - The lungs have functions comparable to that of an officer:
_ regulators of secretory function
_ generators of energy
_ receivers of po (sensitive soul, the jing shen of the lung)
_ distributors of coolness to the pilocutaneous system and elasticity to the cutaneous
surfaces.
b - The lungs are the sites of storage of functional energy. Their disorders manifest at the
back. They respond:
_ to spicy in the area of sapors 291....
_ to metal in the cycle of the 5 movements
_ to the horse in the animal kingdom
_ to wheat in the vegetable kingdom
_ to autumn in the cycle of seasons
_ to Venus (Tai Bai) in the area of astrology
_ to the note Shang in music
_ to the odor of fish in the gamut of odors
_ to nasal mucous in the area of secretions.
c - The Hand Taiyin (Lu) channel contains more energy than blood. At the yin hour,
(3h-5h), the energetic and blood flow reaches its maximal volume.
290....
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7. The Dacheng has been translated under the title Art and Practice of Acupuncture and Moxabustion (According to
Zhen Jui Dacheng of yang Chi Chou) - NVN Edition.
245 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only


Figure 27
Hand Taiyin (Lu). From 1 to 13: direction of energy circulation.
PARAGRAPH 3 291...

1 - The Hand Yangming-large intestine vessel starts at the tip of the
index finger, runs alongside the internal side of this finger (energetic
description), arrives at hegu (LI 4) located in the angle formed by the
first and second metacarpals, reaches the space formed by 2 tendons
(anatomical snuffbox), runs alongside the superior part of the bone
of the forearm (radius) up to the external side of the elbow. From the
elbow, it goes up on the external side of the arm, arrives at the shoulder
in front of the acromion then posteriorly to the 7th cervical vertebrae,
descends into the supra-clavicular fossa, penetrates into the thorax,
links up with the lung, crosses the diaphragm and arrives at the large
i nt es t i ne.
Another branch leaves from the supra-clavicular fossa, goes up to
the neck, crosses the lower maxilla, inserts into the lower gums,
encircles the mouth and arrives at renzhong (GV 26). The left branch is
directed to the right and that of the right to the left, to reach the side of
the 2 nostrils.
2 - Attack of this vessel by perverse energy manifests by:
_ odontalgia
_ inflammation of the neck
The signs of yangming governing the organic liquid are:
_ yellow sclera
_ dryness of the mouth
_ epistaxis
_ tonsillitis
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_ pain in the anterior part of the shoulder
_ brachialgia
_ and immobility of the thumb and index finger.
In case of fullness of perverse energy, the energetic path of this
vessel is overheated and inflamed, and in case of emptiness, the subject
feels a sensation of cold with shivers despite exposure to heat.
292.
3 - In the diseases cited above, one must:
_ disperse in case of fullness and tonify in case of emptiness.
_ remove the needle rapidly in case of heat and leave it in
permanently in case of cold.
_ apply moxabustion in case of blockage/weakening
(accumulation) of the affected vessel
_ and needle the concerned channel in case of absence of
emptiness and fullness.
4 - The word fullness used in this paragraph designates renying
pulse 3 times larger than that of Cun Kou, and empti ness, renying 3 times
smaller than that of Cun Kou.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Absence of commentary by Zhang Shi.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph describes the trajectory of the energetic vessel of the large intestine,
second circulatory route of the system of 12 jingmai (vessels-channels).
1 - The Hand Yangming channel, belonging to the large intestine, is the continuation of
the energetic current of the Hand Taiyin-lung vessel. It starts at the tip of the index finger and
runs alongside the internal side of this digit, successively passing by the points Shangyang
(LI 1), Erjian (LI 2) and Sanjian (LI 3),
_ arrives at the points hegu (LI 4) and yangxi (LI 5)
_ traverses the points Pianli (LI 6), Wenliu (LI 7), Xialian (LI 8) and Sanli (LI 10) on the
external side of the forearm
_ arrives at Quchi (LI 11) of the external part of the elbow.
_ passes to the points Zhouliao (LI 12), Wuli (LI 13) and Binao (LI 14) located on the arm,
_ ascends to the shoulder to the point Jianyu (LI 15)
_ passes to the acromion at the point Jugu (LI 16)
_ reaches the 7th cervical vertebrae and unites with the point Dazhui (GV 14)
_ redescends to the supraclavicular area to go in relationship with the Foot Yangming (St),
at the point Quepen (St 12)
_ penetrates into the thorax and connects with the lung
_ crosses the diaphragm
_ arrives outside of Tianshu (St 25)
_ and unites with the large intestine.
Another vessel departs at Pianli (LI 6) and arrives at Quepen (St 12) located in the supra-
clavicular area.
_ ascends to the neck and passes the points Tianding (LI 17) and Futu (LI 18) 293.
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_ passes at the upper maxilla and penetrates into the dental interstitium
_ emerges at the mouth and arrives at renzhong (GV 26). The left vessel passes to the right
and the right vessel to the left, thus encircling the nose, to arrive at the points heliao (LI 19) and
ying Xiang (LI 20).
2 - During the verification of energetic points affected by perverse energy, the fullness of
Hand Yangming (LI) is indicated by
_ odontalgia
_ and cervical inflammation.
The Hand Yangming governs ailments caused by disorders of the organic liquids. These
illnesses are due to either a perturbation of the energy of the channel itself or perturbation of
that of several channels. The clinical signs are:
_ yellow sclera
_ dryness of the mouth
_ epistaxis
_ tonsillitis
_ pain in the anterior part of the shoulder
_ and stiffness of the thumb and index finger because these digits are the sites where the
movements of the jing, ying and shu points become transmitted.
In case of fullness of perverse energy, the corresponding energetic path is overheated and
inflamed, and in case of emptiness, the individual feels a strong sensation of cold with difficulty
having the heat return.
3 - Treatment consists of:
_ dispersing fullness and tonifying emptiness
_ rapidly removing the needle in the case of heat, and leaving the needle in place in the
case of cold
_ applying moxabustion in the case of blockage and weakening of the vessel
_ only treating the concerned channel (LI) without recourse to the Hand Taiyin (Lu) in
case of the absence of signs of emptiness and fullness.
III - N.V.N.:
Documentation on the large intestine and its energetic vessel, the Hand Yangming (LI):
1 - According to Ben Cao:
The large intestine is 4 cun in circumference, 1 1/2 cun diameter and 2 shang long. It can
contain 4 dou of food and 7 1/2 shang of water.
2 - After the Nanjing:
The large intestine weighs 2 jin 12 sheng.
3 - After the Dacheng:
The large intestine is an organ of transit, transformation, secretion and excretion. The
activity of the large intestine is limited to the white sphere (sphere of action of the lung).
The large intestine channel has much blood and energy. At the Mao hour (5h-7h), the flow
of energy and blood reaches its maximum volume. (Figure 28)
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294....
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Figure 28
Hand Yangming (LI). From 1 to 16: direction of energy circulation.
PARAGRAPH 4 294....

1 - The Foot Yangming-stomach vessel starts at the side of the ala of
the nose, is directed laterally to the taiyang channel, reaches the base
of the nose, penetrates into the teeth, comes back out from the mouth,
goes around the lips in crossing Chengjiang (CV 24), crosses below
Daying (St 5), follows the lower maxilla, ascends to the front of the ear,
crosses the point Ke Zhu ren (GB 3), ascends to the root of the hair and
arrives at the forehead.
A branch leaving from Daying (St 5) descends to the point renying
(St 9), encircles the larynx, enters into Quepen (supraclavicular region-
where the point of the same name (St 12) is found), descends to the
diaphragm, arrives at the stomach and links up with the spleen.
A vertical branch emanating from Quepen (St 12) descends toward
interior of the breast, hugs the umbilicus tightly and penetrates into
qixie (other name qichong-St 30).
A branch leaving from the orifice of the stomach descends into
the abdomen, rejoins qixie (qichong- St 30) to descend to the point Biguan
(St 31), arrives at Futu (St 32), reaches the knee, runs alongside the
external side of the tibia, arrives at the dorsal surface of the foot and
penetrates into the space between the 2nd and 3rd toes.
A branch leaves from the region located 3 cun from Xialian (St 39)
and arrives at the external ungual angle of the 3rd toe.
Another branch detaches from the top of the foot, penetrates into
the space associated with the great toe and terminates at the tip of this
toe at the point Yinbai (Sp 1).
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2 - Attack of this vessel by perverse energy manifests by the
following signs:
_ cold sensitivity and shivers
_ moaning and frequent tightness and pulling of the shoulders
_ grayish black complexion
_ fear of fire and fear of people
_ jumpiness and fright at the sound of wood
_ cardiac palpitations
_ desire to remain alone in a closed room.
In the serious case,
_ desire to reach a height to sing or take off his clothes to run
_ boborygmi and abdominal bloating.
These signs constitute the syndrome called han Jie (afflux of cold).
signs of perturbation of this vessel (without being affected by
perverse energy) are:
_ fits of madness
_ fever and cold sensitivity
_ Wen illness (mild heat)
_ sweating
_ epistaxis
_ deformity of the mouth
_ inflammation of the lips
_ swelling of the neck
_ pharyngitis
_ edema of the epigastric region
_ swelling and pain of the knee
_ swelling and pain of the anus to the region of Futu (St 32)
_ immobility of the 3rd toe.
In case of fullness of perverse energy, the vessels traveling the
anterior part of the body are overheated. When the perverse energy in
a state of fullness reaches the stomach, it activates digestion and gives
rise to hunger and red urine.
In case of emptiness of the essential energy, the anterior part
of the body is ice cold. If the stomach is cold, it expresses as obstruction
with swelling.
296.
3 - In the illnesses cited above, one must:
_ disperse in case of fullness and tonify in case of emptiness
_ rapidly remove the needle in case of heat and let the needle
remain in place in case of cold
_ apply moxabustion in case of blockage/weakening
_ needle the concerned channel in case of absence of emptiness
and fullness
4 - The word fullness used in this paragraph designates renying
(left radial pulse) 3 times larger than Cun Kou (right radial pulse), and
empti ness, renying 3 times smaller than Cun Kou.

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EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph concerns the energetic current of the stomach vessel, that is to say, the
3rd of the jingmai.
1 - The Foot Yangming (St) vessel starts at the side of the nostril at the point
yingxiang (LI 20),
_ ascends to the base of the nose where it crosses that of the opposite side and passes to
the point jingming (Bl 1)
_ descends towards the external side of the nose to the points Changqi (St 1), si Bai (St 2)
and Juliao (St 3),
_ penetrates into the upper maxilla and returns to the external corner of the mouth to the
point Dicang (St 4),
_ arrives below the lower lip where it intersects the opposite yangming vessel to the point
Chengjiang (CV 24)
_ returns to the base of the cheek at the point Daying (St 5) and passes to the point
Jiache (St 6)
_ reascends in front of the ear at the point Xiaguan (St 7) and passes to the point
Ke Zhu ren (also called Shangguan- GB 3)
_ reaches the root of the scalp at the points Xuanli (GB 6), hanyan (GB 4) and passes to the
point Touwei (St 8),
_ then it unites with the point shending (GV 24) located on the forehead.
A branch leaving from Daying (St 5) descends to the point renying (St 9), penetrates
into the pharynx and arrives at the points shuitu (St 10), qishe (St 11) and Quepen (St 12),
_ passes to the exterior of the point shufu (Ki 27)
_ penetrates into the thorax
_ crosses the diaphragm
_ and arrives in the space between the 2 point Shangwan (CV 13) and Zhongwan (CV 12) to
enter into the stomach before reaching the spleen.
A vertical branch leaves from Quepen (St 12) and descends to the breast,
_ passes to the points qihu (St 13), Kufang (St 14), Wuyi (St 15), yinchuang (St 16),
Ruzhong (St 17), Rugen (St 18), Burong (St 19), Chengmen (St 20), Liangmen (St 21),
guanmen (St 22), Taiyi (St 23) and Huaroumen (St 24), 297.
_ arrives at the side of the umbilicus and crosses the points Tianshu (St 25),
Wailing (St 26), Daiju (St 27), shuidao (St 28) and Guilai (St 29) to penetrate into qixie (qichong-
St 30).
Another branch emanating from the stomach, leaves the pylorus and vertically descends
the length of the inner wall of the abdomen between the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) on the inside and the
Foot Yangming (St) on the outside,
_ arrives at the point qixie (qichong- St 30) and unites with the previous branch
_ descends to the points Biguan (St 31) and Futu (St 32)
_ traverses the points yinshi (St 33) and Liangqiu (St 34) and arrives at the knee
_ passes to the point Dubi (St 35) and descends to the points Chongyang (St 42) and
Xiangu (St 43)
_ arrives at the point Neiting (St 44), located at the union of the 2nd and 3rd toe and ends
at the point Lidui (St 45).
A luo vessel (8) leaves from the region located 5 cun below the knee at the external side
of the point Sanli (St 36).
_ traverses the points Shanglian (St 37), Tiaokou (St 38), Xialian (St 39), Fenglong (St 40),
Jiexi (St 41), Chongyang (St 42), Xiangu (St 43) and unites with the points Neiting (St 44) and
Lidui (St 45).
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Another branch leaves from the point Chongyang (St 42), located at the top of the foot,
and is directed towards the great toe, outside the point Xingjian (Li 2) of the Foot Jueyin (Li),
_ follows the internal border of the first metatarsal up to the tip of the great toe to unite
with the Foot Taiyin (Sp) at the point Yinbai (Sp 1).
2 - During examination of the energetic points, emptiness of Foot Yangming (St) is
indicated by the following signs:
_ cold sensitivity and shivers
_ groaning
_ frequent stretching of the shoulders
_ grayish black complexion
At the phase of state:
_ anthrophobia
_ photophobia
_ igniphobia
_ claustrophobia
_ quivering and terror caused by sounds of wood
_ cardiac palpitations.
In the serious case:
_ desire to climb on the wall to sing or undress to run
_ meteorism (9) 298.

8. here, the term luo designates a secondary branch and not the longitudinal luo (Luo Bie) or transversal luo (regulator
luo).
9. Also tympanites: swelling of the abdomen from gas in the intestinal or abdominal cavity.
These latter signs come from the fire of yangming in battle against the water element,
causing abdominal bloating and distaste to hear the human voice. Due to the afflux of blood and
energy, the leg from the knee down is ice cold. This ailment is due disorder of the blood part
caused by the yangming.
Other illnesses can be caused by the Foot Yangming itself or by an association of this
channel with other channels, such as yang Madness, Nu illness (fever and cold sensitivity),
Wen-re illness (warmth-heat), excessive sweating, epistaxis,, deviation of the mouth, state of
lethargy/apathy, laryngo-pharyngeal inflammation, ascites, pain of the gonads and pain from the
leg to the foot.
* In case of fullness of perverse energy, the front of the body is hot. The presence of this
heat in the stomach activates digestion with hunger sensation and red urine.
* In case of emptiness of essential energy, the front of the body is cold. The presence of
this cold in the stomach is the cause of abdominal bloating.
3 - In the preceding illnesses, one must:
_ disperse fullness of perverse energy and tonify emptiness of the essential energy,
_ apply moxabustion in case of blockage and weakening of the vessel (channel)
_ only treat the channel effected in the absence of signs of emptiness and fullness without
resorting to the Foot Taiyin (Sp).
III - N.V.N.:
Documentation on the stomach and its energetic vessel, the Foot Yangming (St):
1 - According to Ben Cao:
The stomach is 1 meter 5 cun (10) in height, 5 cun in diameter and 2 meters 6 cun in
circumference. Its capacity is 5 dou, 5 sheng (11). reasonably, the stomach can contain 2 dou of
food and 1 dou 5 sheng of liquid.
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2 - The Nanjing states:
The stomach weighs 2 jin 1 liang. Along with the spleen, it constitutes a system of
storage/depot and food metabolism.
3 - After the Dacheng:
a - The stomach is the sea of foods; it governs digestion.
Because, the stomach stores foods, transports them downward and transforms them into
nutritive energy (ying) so that the spleen can then distribute them throughout the entire body. In
other words, the spleen and stomach are indispensable to the maintainence of health. Thus, if the
stomach is exhausted or if Cun Kou (radial pulse) no longer contains the energy of the stomach, it
is death.
b - The stomach channel has much blood and energy. At the Chen hour (7h-9h), the flow of
blood and energy reaches it maximum. (Figure 29)
299.

10. 1 chinese meter = 0.40 European meters; 1 cun = 2 1/2 centimeters
11. Dou = measure of capacity.
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Figure 29
Foot Yangming (St). From 1 to 26: circulatory direction of energy.
PARAGRAPH 5

1 - The Foot Taiyin-spleen vessel begins at the internal ungual angle
of the large toe, runs alongside the internal edge of the foot at the level
of the white flesh, arrives behind the cuboid bone, ascends in front of
the internal malleolus, reaches the internal side of the tibia, unites
with the Foot Jueyin (Li) vessel, goes up to the knee, passes the inner
thigh, reaches the abdomen, penetrates into the spleen, branches to the
stomach, crosses the diaphragm, rises to the pharynx and inserts at the
lower side of the tongue.
A branch leaves from the stomach and inserts into the heart.
2 - Disorders of this vessel caused by perverse energy are
indicated by the following signs:
_ stiffness of the base of the tongue
_ post-prandial vomiting
_ gastralgia 300.
_ abdominal bloating
_ frequent eructations
_ sensation of relief after defecating and urinating.
Ailments caused by the spleen are characterized by such clinical
manifestations as:
_ pain at the base of the tongue
_ limited rotation of the body
_ trouble swallowing
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_ anxiety
_ pain under the heart
_ difficult micturition
_ icterus
_ inability to stretch out/lie down
_ forced standing position (caused by painful knee inflammation)
or a sensation of cold at the knee
_ immobility of the great toe.
3 - In the illnesses cited above, one must:
_ disperse in case of fullness and tonify in case of emptiness,
_ rapidly remove the needle in case of heat and leave the needle in
permanently in case of cold
_ apply moxabustion in case of blockage/weakening of the vessel
_ needle the affected channel in case of absence of emptiness and
f ul l nes s .
4 - The word fullness used in this paragraph designates Cun Kou
(right radial pulse) 3 times larger than renying (left radial pulse), and
empti ness, Cun Kou 3 times smaller then renying.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph describes the energetic vessel of the spleen , that is to say the fourth
channel of the jingmai system.
1 - The Foot Taiyin-spleen starts at the point Yinbai (Sp 1) at the tip of the great toe,
_ runs alongside the internal border of the foot at the level of the white flesh where the
points Dadun (Sp 2), Taibai (Sp 3), gongsun (Sp 4) and Sangqiu (Sp 5) are found,
_ passes in front of the internal malleolus
_ reaches the calf at the point Sanyinjiao (Sp 6)
_ arrives at Lougu (Sp 7) on the tibia
_ 2 cun from this point, it passes in front of the Foot Jueyin (Li) and reaches the points
Diji (Sp 8) and yinling (Sp 9)
_ goes up the inner thigh and arrives at Xuehai (Sp 10), Jimen (Sp 11) and Chongmen
(Sp 12),
_ reaches the abdomen and passes the points Fushi (Sp 13), Zhongji (CV 3) and
guanyuan (CV 4)
_ rejoins the points Fujie (Sp 14) and Daheng (Sp 15) 301.
_ unites with Xiawan (CV 10)
_ passes to Fuai (Sp 16)
_ crosses the points Riyue (GB 24) and qimen (Li 14)
_ returns inside the channel of origin and passes to Zhongwan (CV 12) to penetrate into
the spleen and branch to the stomach.
From the point Fuai (Sp 16), it goes back up to the diaphragm,
_ arrives at Shidou (Sp 17), Tianxi (Sp 18), Xiongxiang (Sp 19) and Zhurong (Sp 20)
_ and goes back down to the point Dabao (Sp 21).
From Dabao (Sp 21) it goes back up to Zhongfu (Lu 1),
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_ passes to renying (St 9)
_ crosses the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus
_ and arrives at the tongue where it branches to its base.
Another branch also leaves from the point Fuai (Sp 16)
_ reaches Zhongwan (CV 12) of the stomach
_ goes up toward the diaphragm
_ projects into Tanzhong (CV 17)
_ and is directed below toward the heart to link up with the Hand Shaoyin (He).
2 - Attack of this vessel by perverse energy manifests by the following signs:
_ stiffness at the base of the tongue
_ post-prandial vomiting
_ gastralgia
_ abdominal bloating
_ frequent eructations
_ sensation of relief after defecating and urinating
_ sensation of heaviness of the body.
Other illnesses of internal origin can be caused either by perturbation of the vessel of
origin or by the attack of several vessels. The clinical signs are:
_ pain at the base of the tongue
_ difficulty rotating the body
_ disorders of swallowing
_ anxiousness and pain under the heart
_ liquid stools
_ icterus
_ inability to stretch out/lie down due to painful swelling of the thigh and knee
_ cold in the extremities
_ immobility of the great toe.
3 - In preceding illnesses, one must:
_ disperse in case of fullness of perverse energy and tonify in case of emptiness of the
essential energy 302...
_ perform a rapid needling in case of heat and leave the needle in place in case of cold
_ apply moxabustion in the case of obstruction and weakening of the vessel
_ treat the vessel of origin without resorting to the Foot Yangming (St) in case of absence
of signs of emptiness and fullness.
III - N.V.N.:
Detailed description of the trajectory of this vessel allows us to better understand the
pathological process of the spleen organ.
Documentation concerning the spleen and its energetic vessel, the Foot Taiyin, are the
following:
1 - According to the Nanjing:
The spleen weighs 2 jin 3 liang. Its body is flat, 3 cun wide, 5 cun long and surrounded
by 1/2 jin of fat. It has the function of encapsulating the blood and warming the 5 organs.
2 - After the Dacheng: 303.
The spleen is the organ which assumes the role of critic in the organism. It is
considered the seat of intelligence. It is the energetic granary, source of ying (nutritive
energy). It confers freshness/coolness to the lips, skin and flesh. It makes up part of the taiyin
communicating with the energy of earth. Like earth, the spleen is found at the center to humidify
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the four cardinal points (4 organs). The spleen governs the four limbs and contributes, along with
the stomach, to the distribution of organic liquid within the organism.
_ The spleen constitutes one of the sites of storage of reserve jing energy (essence). It
communicates its energy to the mouth. This is why disorders of spleen energy often manifest at
the base of the tongue and are recognizable by the state of the flesh and skin.
The energy of the spleen answers to:
_ sweet in the gamut of sapors
_ the earth in the cycle of the 5 movements
_ the buffalo in the animal kingdom
_ rice in the vegetable kingdom
_ the 4 seasons in the seasonal cycle
_ the planet Chan (Saturn) in the star constellations
_ the note gong in music
_ the number 5 in the numeric system
_ sweet or bland in the gamut of odors
_ saliva in the area of secretions.
The spleen channel has more energy than blood. At the si hour (9h-11h), the blood and
energetic flow reaches its maximum degree.
302...
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Figure 30
Foot Taiyin (Sp). From 1 to 12: circulatory direction of energy
PARAGRAPH 6

1 - The Hand Shaoyin-heart vessel starts at the interior of the heart,
leaves the cardiac system, descends to the diaphragm and connects with
the small intestine.
A branch leaves the cardiac system, goes back up to the laryngo-
pharyngeal apparatus and projects into the ocular system.
A vertical branch also leaves the cardiac system, goes up to the
lung, comes back out at the sub-axillary region, follows the internal
surface of the arm, passes behind the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and Hand Jueyin
(XB), descends to the internal side of the elbow, arrives at the tip of the
apophysis of the ulna, reaches the palm of the hand by the external side
(energetic description) and is directed to the tip of the little finger.
2 - Disorders of this vessel caused by perverse energy manifest by
the following signs:
_ dryness of the throat 304.
_ pain in the heart
_ thirst and desire to drink.
It is a matter of the syndromes called Jue Bi (affl ux/obstructi on).
diseases of the heart of internal origin manifest by such signs as:
_ yellow facies
_ costal pain
_ pain and cold sensation at the internal surface of the arm
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_ pain and heat sensation in the palm of the hand.
3 - In the preceding diseases, one must
_ disperse in case of fullness and tonify in case of emptiness
_ remove the needle in case of heat and leave the needle in
permanently in case of cold
_ apply moxabustion in obstruction/weakening of the vessel
_ needle the channel of origin in the absence of emptiness and
f ul l nes s .
4 - The word fullness cited in this paragraph designates Cun Kou
(right radial pulse) 2 times larger than renying (left radial pulse), and
empti ness, Cun Kou 2 times smaller than renying.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph describes the energetic vessel of the heart, the fifth channel of the
system of the 12 jingmai.
1 - The Hand Shaoyin-heart leaves from the middle of the heart,
_ follows the renmai (CV)
_ descends to the diaphragm
_ arrives 2 cun from the umbilicus
_ and enters into liason with the small intestine.
A branch leaves the cardiac complex,
_ reaches the side of the renmai (CV)
_ is directed towards the laryngo-pharyngeal system
_ and projects into the ocular system to go into relationship with the brain.
A vertical branch also leaves the cardiac complex,
_ is directed near the space located between heart and lung,
_ appears at the axillary crease at the point Jiquan (he 1)
_ follows the internal side of the arm, making its way behind the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and
Hand Jueyin (XB)
_ arrives at the point qingliang (he 2)
_ reaches the internal side of the elbow where the point Shaohai (he 3) occurs 305.
_ runs along the internal side of the forearm
_ crosses the points Lingdao (he 4) and Tongli (he 5)
_ arrives at the points yinxi (he 6) and shenmen (he 7)
_ passes the hypothenar eminence where the point Shaofu (he 8) is found
_ and ends at the tip of the little finger at Shaochang (he 9) to link up with the Hand
Taiyang (SI).
2 - Attack of this vessel by perverse energy is indicated by the following signs:
_ dryness of the throat
_ cardialgia
_ thirst with desire to drink
This syndrome is due to obstruction (Bi) with afflux (Jue) of the energy.
Other ailments can be caused either by an internal perturbation of the channel of origin
or by an association of several channels. The clinical signs are:
_ yellow facies
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_ costal pains
_ brachialgia
_ pain and sensation of heat in the palms.
3 - The treatment consists of:
_ dispersing in case of fullness of perverse energy and tonifying in case of emptiness of
the essential energy
_ applying a rapid needling in case of heat and leaving the needle in place in case of cold
_ applying moxabustion in case of stagnation/weakening of the energy
_ and treating the channel effected without resorting to the Hand Taiyang (SI) in case of
absence of fullness and emptiness.
4 - How do you recognize the fullness of this vessel? When Cun Kou is 2 times larger and
more agitated than renying.
How do you recognize the emptiness of this vessel? When Cun Kou is 2 times smaller,
without agitation, than renying.
II - N.V.N.:
Documentation on the heart and its energetic vessel, the Hand Shaoyin:
1 - According to the Nanjing:
The heart weighs 12 liang and is attached to the 5th dorsal vertebra. It is seated under
the left lung and on the diaphragm and possesses 7 orifices and 3 hairs. Its role is to conserve
the psychologic jing and house the shen.
2 - After the Dacheng:
The heart is sovereign organ. It is the seat of the mind. The heart is the source of life; it
governs mental activities and provides coolness to the face and suppleness to the blood vessels.
It is the shaoyin (He) in yin, in communication with the energy of summer. It answers:
_ to bitter in the gamut of sapors
_ to fire in the cycle of the 5 movements
_ to the goat in the animal kingdom
_ to sticky rice in the vegetable kingdom
_ to summer in the cycle of seasons
_ to the planet yin Hua (Mars) in the star constellations
_ to the note Zhui in music
_ to the number 7 in the numeric system
_ to burnt in the gamut of odors
_ to sweat in the area of secretions.
The Hand Shaoyin (He) has more blood than energy. At the Wou hour (11h-13h), the
energetic and blood flow reaches its maximum level. The movement of the energy of the heart
corresponds to the movement Ding-Feu (4th Celestial Trunk). (Figure 31).
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Figure 31
Hand Shaoyin (He). From 1 to 11: circulatory direction of energy.
PARAGRAPH 7 307.

1 - The Hand Taiyang-small intestine vessel starts at the tip of the little
finger, runs along the internal border of the hand to the wrist, follows
the internal border of the forearm, passes between the 2 tendons of the
internal side of the elbow, follows the posterior side of the arm, arrives
at the posterior part of the shoulder joint, encircles the scapula and
falls into the Dumai (GV) at the level of the 7th dorsal vertebra to unite
with the opposite vessel, descends to the supraclavicular fossa (Quepen),
penetrates into the thorax, goes in liason with the heart, goes back up
to the pharynx, redescends to the diaphragm and reaches the stomach to
enter into the small intestine to which it is allocated.
A branch leaving from Quepen (supraclavicular fossa) goes back
up to the neck, arrives behind the lower maxillary angle where it
divides into 2 branches: the first reaches the external canthus of the
eye and penetrates into the ear, and the second is directed towards the
internal canthus of the eye and descends to the lower border of the
zygomatic arch.
2 - Disorders of this vessel caused by perverse energy manifest by
the following signs:
_ pain in the pharynx
_ submental inflammation
_ torticollis
_ scapulo-brachialgia with sensation of a break.
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Illnesses due to an internal perturbation of the energy of the
small intestine are characterized by such signs as:
_ deafness
_ yellow sclera
_ inflammation of the maxillary angle
_ cervi co-brachi al gi a
_ pain of the mentum, elbow and forearm
3 - In the preceding illnesses, one must:
_ disperse in case of fullness and tonify in case of emptiness
_ rapidly remove the needle in case of heat and leave the needle in
permanently in case of cold
_ apply moxabustion in the case of blockage and weakening
_ only needle the channel involved in case of absence of
emptiness and fullness.
4 - The word fullness cited in the paragraph designates the renying
pulse 2 times smaller than that of Cun Kou.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph concerns the energetic vessel of the small intestine, the sixth channel of
the system of the 12 jingmai. 308.
1 - The Hand Taiyang-small intestine begins at the tip of the little finger, at the point
Shaoze (SI 1), place of arrival of the Hand Shaoyin (He),
_ reaches the points qiangu (SI 2), Houxi (SI 3), Wangu (SI 4), yanggu (SI 5), yanglao (SI 6)
_ ascends directly to zhizheng (SI 7) on the ulnar side of the forearm
_ arrives between the two tendons of the internal part of the elbow
_ traverses the point Xiaohai (SI 8)
_ passes the internal part of the arm outside Hand Yangming (LI) and Hand Shaoyang (SJ)
_ arrives at the points Jianzhen (SI 9), Naoshu (SI 10), Tianzong (SI 11), Bingfeng (SI 12),
Quyan (SI 13), Jianwaishu (SI 14) and Jianzhongshu (SI 15)
_ inserts into the Dumai (GV) at the point Dazhui (GV 14) to unite with the opposite vessel
_ from this point, it descends to the supraclavicular fossa
_ reaches the axilla
_ reaches Tanzhong (CV 17), where it branches
_ goes back up to the pharynx
_ redescends to the diaphragm
_ crosses the point Shangwan (CV 12)
_ arrives at the stomach
_ passes to the side of the renmai (CV), approximately 2 cun above the umbilicus
_ and penetrates into the small intestine.
A branch leaves from the supraclavicular region (Quepen St 12),
_ reaches the neck
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_ passes to the points Tianchuang (SI 16) and Tianrong (SI 17)
_ goes back up to the cheekbone to the point Quanliao (SI 18)
_ arrives at the external canthus of the eye at the point Tonqziliao (GB 1)
_ and ends at the point Tinggong (SI 19), where it penetrates deeply into the ear.
Another branch leaves from the zygomatic region from Quanliao (SI 18)
_ crosses the malar bone
_ arrives at the internal canthus of the eye
_ and unites with the Foot Taiyang (Bl).
2 - The search for energetic points to determine the illnesses caused by the perverse
energy permits discovery of the following clinical manifestations:
_ pharyngitis
_ submental inflammation with radiation to the neck
_ scapulalgia with the feeling of fracture
_ brachialgia with the sensation of a break. 309.
These ailments originate from the insufficiency of organic liquid (12).
Other illnesses of the Hand Taiyang (SI) can be caused either by an internal perturbation
of the channel concerned or by that of an association of several channels. The clinical signs are:
_ temporary deafness
_ yellow sclera
_ swelling of the cheek
_ pain of the chin
_ cervico-brachialgia
_ pain in the neck and forearm.

12. The taiyang is a channel which carries/conducts the water of the organism.
3 - The treatment consists of:
_ dispersing in case of fullness of perverse energy and tonifying in case of emptiness of
the essential energy
_ rapid needling in case of heat and leaving the needle in place in case of cold
_ applying moxabustion in case of blockage and weakening of the concerned channel
_ and treating only the channel affected without recourse to the Hand Shaoyin (He) in case
of absence of emptiness and fullness.
II - N.V.N.:
Documentation on the small intestine and its energetic vessel, the Hand Taiyang:
1 - After Chapter 32 (Normal Man Faced With a Shortage of Cereals) of this classic:
The small intestine is 2 1/2 cun wide. Its diameter is 8 1/2 fen. Its length is 2 chang
2 Chinese meters. It can hold 2 dou 4 sheng of food and 6 sheng 3.5 he of liquid.
2 - According to Chapter 31(Intestines and stomach) of this same classic:
In back, the small intestine adheres to the left side of the spine in multiple loops. It
holds the alimentary products lending to evacuation by the large intestine.
In front, it adheres to the umbilical region in 16 sections. It is 2 1/2 cun large wide; its
diameter is 8 1/2 fen and its length is 3 chang 3 Chinese meters.
3 - The Dacheng states:
The small intestine is the receiving organ. It also has an important role in digestion and
transformation of nutritive substances.
The activity of the small intestine is confined to the red sphere (sphere of action of the
heart which corresponds to the color red).
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The work of dividing up and reducing of food, which is already realized in the stomach,
continues in the small intestine.
The small intestine channel has more blood than energy. At the wei hour (13h-15h), the
energetic-blood flow reaches its maximum level. (Figure 32)

310.
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Figure 32
Hand Taiyang (SI). From 1 to 20: energetic direction of circulation.
PARAGRAPH 8

1 - The Foot Taiyang-Bladder vessel starts at the internal canthus of
the eye, ascends to the forehead and arrives at the top of the cranium.
A branch leaves from the top of the cranium and is directed
towards the vestibulo-cochlear region.
Another branch also leaves from the cranium, enters the brain,
emerges at the nucha, goes around the supero-internal part of the
shoulder, follows the spine in parallel to the lumbar region, penetrates
into the pelvis, links up with the kidney and passes to the bladder.
A branch leaves from the lumbar region, follows the spine,
crosses the gluteal region and descends to the popliteal crease. 311.
Another branch also leaves from the neck, also traverses the
supero-internal part of the shoulder (but to the exterior of the previous
one), descends the length of the vertebral column, traverses the
external side of the buttock, arrives at the thigh, crosses the previous
branch and is directed towards the center of the popliteal crease where
it unites with the previous branch. Then, together, they descend toward
the calf, reach behind the external malleolus, arrive at jinggu (great
bone) at the external side of the foot and terminate at the external side
of the little toe.
2 - Attack of this vessel by perverse energy is indicated by the
following signs:
_ headache
_ sensation of bulging eyes
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_ neck pain of the torsion type
_ pain in the spine
_ back pain of the broken type
_ difficulty rising up of the compression type
_ calf pain of the torn type
These signs constitute the syndrome Gua Jue (afflux of the malleolus).
The illnesses of the bladder are:
_ hemorrhoids
_ fever and sensitivity to cold
_ madness (demented state)
_ frontal headache
_ neck pain
_ yellow tearing
_ epistaxis
_ nuchalgia
_ dorsalgia
_ lumbalgia
_ pain in the coccyx
_ pain of the calf and foot
_ immobility of the little toe.
3 - In the illnesses cited above, one must
_ disperse in case of fullness and tonify in case of emptiness
_ remove the needle rapidly in case of heat and allow the needle to
remain in permanently in case of blockage and weakening
_ needle the concerned channel in case of absence of emptiness
and fullness
4 - When one says ful l ness, it designates renying 2 times larger
than that of Cun Kou, and when one says empti ness, it designates renying
2 times smaller than that of Cun Kou.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph describes the energetic vessel of the Foot Taiyang (Bl), the seventh
channel of the system of the 12 jingmai. 312.
1 - The Foot Taiyang-Bladder begins at the point jingming (Bl 1) at the internal canthus of
the eye, following after the Hand Taiyang (SI),
_ ascends to the forehead
_ successively passes to the points Zanshu (Bl 2) and shenting (GV 24)
_ reaches the points Maichong (Bl 3), Quchai (BL 4), Wuchu (Bl 5), Chengguang (Bl 6) and
Tongtian (Bl 7).
From Tongtian (Bl 7), it bears off to the left and right and unites with Baihui (GV 20) at the top of
the cranium.
* A branch leaves from Baihui (GV 20), arrives at the region above the ear, crosses the
points shuaigu (GB 8), Fubai (GB 10) and qiaoyin (GB 11) to spread and moisten the muscular
fibers (Gan Mai).
* Vertical branches penetrate into the brain from the points Tongtian (Bl 7), luoque (Bl 8)
and Yuzhen (Bl 9) and come back out at the nucha and arrive at the point Tianzhu (Bl 10).
* From Tianzhu (BL 10), a vessel descends to Taodao (GV 13),
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_ is directed towards the region located between the internal border of the scapula and the
vertebral column, 1 1/2 cun from the latter,
_ reaches the points Dazhu (Bl 11), Fengmen (Bl 12), Feishu (Bl 13), jueyinshu (Bl 14),
Xinshu (Bl 15), Geshu (Bl 17), Ganshu (Bl 18), Danshu (Bl 19), Pishu (Bl 20), weishu (Bl 21),
sanjiaoshu (Bl 22), shenshu (Bl 23), Dachangshu (Bl 27), Pangguanshu (Bl 28), Zhonglushu (Bl 29)
and Baihuanshu (Bl 30),
_ goes back up to the superior region of the sacral bone in passing the points
Shangliao (Bl 31), Ciliao (Bl 32), Zhongliao (Bl 33), Xialiao (Bl 34) and Huiyang (Bl 35),
_ redescends to the gluteal region and arrives at the points Chengfu (Bl 36), Fuxi (Bl 38)
and weiyang (Bl 39),
_ then it penetrates into the point weizhong (Bl 40) at the popliteal crease.
* Another branch also leaves from Tianzhu (Bl 10),
_ descends towards the internal border of the scapula
_ runs along the spine from which it is separated by 3 cun
_ passes the points Fufen (Bl 41), Phu (Bl 42), Gaohuang (Bl 43), shentang (Bl 44),
yixi (Bl 45), Gueguan (Bl 46), hunmen (Bl 47), yanggang (Bl 48), yishe (Bl 49), weicang (Bl 50),
Huangmen (Bl 51), zhishi (Bl 52), Baohuang (Bl 53) and zhibian (Bl 54)
_ arrives at the ischium, 1 1/2 cun from the point Chengfu (Bl 36)
_ descends towards the popliteal crease to unite with the previous branch
_ arrives at the point heyang (Bl 55)
_ traverses the calf
_ passes the points Chengjin (Bl 56), Chengshan (Bl 57), Feiyang (Bl 58), Fuyang (Bl 59)
_ reaches the postero-external area of the external malleolus at the point Kunlun (Bl 60)
_ is directed towards the points Pushen (Bl 61), shenmai (Bl 62), jinmen (Bl 63),
jinggu (Bl 64), shugu (Bl 65) and Tonggu (Bl 66)
_ and arrives at the point zhiyin (Bl 67), located at the external side of the tip of the little
toe, to unite with the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).
2 - The search for energetic points disturbed by perverse energy in the determination of
the illness permits discovery of the following ailments:
_ headache due to an ascension of perverse energy 313.
_ sensation of bulging eyes
_ neck pain of a disarrayed type
_ spinal pain of a broken type
_ inability to lift the thigh
_ the feeling of the popliteal crease being knotted
_ sensation of a torn calf.
All these signs manifest the length of the vessel and are caused by jue ni (afflux: flow in
the wrong direction).
Other illnesses can arise from either a perturbation of the channel of origin or from that
of an association of several channels. The clinical manifestations are:
_ hemorrhoids
_ fever and cold sensitivity
_ yin Madnesses and yang Madnesses
_ frontal or occipital headache
_ yellow sclera
_ epistaxis
_ dorsal back pain
_ lumbar back pain
_ pain in the coccyx
_ knee pain
_ calf pain, etc... .
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3 - Treatment of these illnesses consists of:
_ dispersing in case of fullness of perverse energy and tonifying in case of emptiness of
the essential energy,
_ making a rapid needling in case of heat and leaving the needle in place in case of cold,
_ applying moxabustion in the case of blockage and weakening of the vessel
_ and treating only the concerned channel without recourse to the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) in
cases of absence of the signs of emptiness and fullness.
II - Zhang Shi comments:
After the Shanghan lun (13), in disease of the taiyang, the pulse is superficial, the head
and neck are stiff and painful, the individual is discontented... the headache of taiyang origin
is cured at the end of the 7th day because the perverse energy ends its crossing of the channel.
But, in diseases of the Shanghanlun (Evolutive diseases of Cold), the perverse energy also
evolves according to the 6 channels (3 yin and 3 yang), then it returns to the taiyang. For this
reason, these diseases are due only to an attack on the energy of the 3 yin and 3 yang without
organic lesion. 314.
The study of the signs of stiffness and pain of the head and neck show that the illness
originates from the disorder of the channel. As a result, the perverse qi must always be
eliminated from the xing (bodily form). Consequently, when the vital qi is affected, it always
causes disease at the level of the xing.

13. Evolutive diseases of 3 yin and 3 yang according to the Shanghan lun. NVN Edition.
III - N.V.N.:
Documentation on the bladder and its energetic vessel, the Foot Taiyang:
1 - According to the Nanjing:
The bladder weighs 9.2 liang; its length measures 9 cun.
It is located below the kidneys and can hold 9 sheng 2 he of urine. Because of a very
specific pathway, the inferior mouth of the small intestine is the superior mouth of the
bladder, by which the liquid substance arrives.
315.
2 - According to the Dacheng:
a - The bladder is like a frontier post where the organic liquid gathers. It is the last
relay of energetic transformation.
The activity of the bladder is limited to the black sphere (sphere of action of the kidney
which corresponds to the color black).
The bladder possesses 2 meatuses: the inferior, which excretes the urine, and the
superior, which receives the components of organic water after purification at the level of the
kidney and intestine. These meatuses are dependent on the essential energy. If this energy is in a
hypotonic state, it provokes various disorders according to the section effected.
At the level of the superior meatus, it causes an overflowing of organic liquid and its
reflux into the large intestine, hence diarrhea.
At the level of the inferior meatus, it provokes an accumulation of liquid in the bladder,
hence urinary retention.
b - The bladder channel has more blood than energy. At the Chen hour (15h-17h), the
energetic-blood flow reaches its maximum level. (Figure 33)
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Figure 33
Foot Taiyang (Bl). From 1 to 21: energetic direction of energy.
PARAGRAPH 9

1 - The Foot Shaoyin-kidney vessel begins at the tip of the little toe,
crosses the sole of the foot, arrives at the point Rangu (Ki 2), reaches
behind the internal malleolus to the middle of the calcaneus to ascend to
the calf, is directed towards the internal side of the popliteal crease,
ascends to the postero-internal surface of the thigh, goes directly to the
antero-internal surface of the vertebral column, penetrates into the
kidney and links up to the bladder.
A branch leaves the kidney, crosses the liver and diaphragm,
penetrates into the lung, runs alongside the laryngo-pharyngeal
apparatus and is directed towards the root of the tongue.
Another branch leaves the lung, encircles the heart and inserts
into the middle of the thorax.
2 - Attack of this vessel by perverse energy is characterized by
the following signs:
_ sensation of hunger but refuses to eat
_ dry face like dried wood
_ blood-streaked expectoration
_ dyspnea
_ desire to stand up while in the seated position
_ diminution of visual acuity
_ upset stomach
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_ insufficient energy and fright (the subject has the feeling that
one has confined him)
_ cardiac palpitations.
These signs constitute the syndrome Gu Jue (afflux of the energy of
bone) .
Perturbation of internal origin of the kidney energy is
characterized by the following clinical manifestations:
_ sensation of heat in the mouth 316.
_ dryness of the tongue
_ inflammation of the throat
_ sensation of energetic fullness
_ dryness and pain of the throat
_ anxiety
_ heart pain
_ icterus
_ diarrhea
_ spinal pain and pain of the inner thigh
_ impotence and cold limbs
_ clinomania (14)
_ pain and sensation of heat in the soles of the feet.
3 - In the illnesses cited above, one must
_ disperse in case of fullness and tonify in case of emptiness
_ rapidly remove the needle in case of heat and leave the needle in
permanently in case of cold

14. Excessive desire to stay in bed.
_ apply moxabustion in case of blockage and weakening
_ needle only the concerned channel in case of absence of
emptiness and fullness.
After moxabustion, it is advised to consume raw meat, loosen the
belt, undo the bun, lean on a cane, put ones shoes on and walk a
hundred footsteps.
4 - The word fullness designates the Cun Kou pulse 2 times larger
than renying, and the word empti ness, Cun Kou 2 times smaller than that
of renying.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph defines the energetic vessel of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki), the eighth channel
of the system of 12 jingmai.
1 - The Foot Shaoyin-kidney starts under the little toe,
_ is directed towards the sole of the foot to the point Yongquan (Ki 1)
_ passes in front of the internal malleolus, under the scaphoid tuberosity, to Rangu (Ki 2)
_ arrives behind the internal malleolus to the point Taixi (Ki 3)
_ redescends below and behind the internal malleolus, in front of the Achilles tendon, to
the points Dazhong (Ki 4), Shaohai (Ki 6) and shuiquan (Ki 5) (15)
_ then from the external part of Dazhong (Ki 4), it reascends again to the internal
malleolus
_ passes behind the 2 vessels, taiyin (Sp) and jueyin (Li), and crosses the 2 points
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Fuliu (Ki 7) and Jiaoxin (Ki 8)
_ reaches Sanyinjiao (Sp 6) belonging to the taiyin (Sp) vessel
_ runs alongside the internal surface of the calf 317.
_ crosses the point Zhubin (Ki 9)
_ arrives at the internal side of the popliteal crease, to the point yingu (Ki 10)
_ runs alongside the postero-internal surface of the thigh
_ reaches the spine and unites with Changqiang (GV 1)
_ is directed to the front, to the pubis, and crosses the points henggu (Ki 11),
qixue (Ki 13), Dahe (Ki 12) (16), simen (Ki 14), Zhongzhui (Ki 15) and Huangshu (Ki 16)
_ from Huangshu (Ki 16), that is to say, on both sides of the umbilicus belonging to the
kidney, it passes to the umbilicus
_ and is directed toward the points guanyuan (CV 4) and Zhongli (CV 3) of the renmai (CV)
in order to reach the bladder where it terminates (17).
A vessels leaves from Huangshu (Ki 16),
_ penetrates into the kidney
_ ascends directly to Shanggu (Ki 17), Shiquan (Ki 18), yindu (Ki 19), Tonggu (Ki 20),
_ crosses the liver
_ passes to the point Youman (Ki 21)
_ crosses the diaphragm
_ reaches the point Bulang (Ki 22) in order to penetrate into the lung
_ comes back out at the points shenfeng (Ki 23), Lingxu (Ki 24), shentang (Ki 25),
Yuzhong (Ki 26) and shufu (Ki 27)

15. According to Ma Shi, Shaohai (Ki 6) must be in front of shuiquan (Ki 5).
16. Ma Shi had placed Dahe (Ki 12) after qixie (Ki 13). Certainly, it is a matter of an error during printing.
17. This important study permits better understanding of the true energetic trajectories of the kidney at the level of the
Dan Dian (sub-umbilical region).
_ reaches the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus
_ inserts into the point renying (St 9)
_ and terminates at the base of the tongue.
Another branch leaves from shengtang (Ki 25)
_ encircles the heart
_ inserts into the point Tanzhong (CV 17), at the interior of the thorax, to unite with the
Hand Jueyin (XB) vessel.
2 - The search for energetic points in determination of the attack of this vessel by
perverse energy permits discovery of the following clinical signs:
_ hunger sensation but refuses to eat (18)
_ weight loss and dryness of the body (19)
_ blood-tinged expectoration
_ shortness of breath (sterterous respiration)
_ desire to get up while in the seated position
_ visual trouble
_ restlessness and fright (from insufficiency of energy)
_ fear and anxiety (as if one wanted to confine him).
`All these signs come from disorders of the energy of the kidney which commands the bones. This
is why they constitute the syndrome Ge Jue (afflux of the energy of bone). Other complications
have, for the most part, the same origin.
318.
3 - Treatment of these ailments consists of:
_ dispersing in case of fullness of perverse energy and tonifying in case of emptiness of
the essential energy
_ practicing rapid needling to disperse heat and leaving the needle in permanently to
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tonify in case of cold
_ applying moxabustion in case of obstruction/compression of the energy of the channel
_ treating only the concerned channel without recourse to the Foot Taiyang (Bl) in case of
the absence of signs of emptiness and fullness.
After the moxabustion, it is wise for the patient to consume much raw meat, relax his belt,
undo his hair, grasp a cane and put ones shoes on in order to make a hundred steps and, above all,
avoid fatigue to not aggravate the illness because the kidney energy is already in a state of
insufficiency.
II - N.V.N.:
a) Diet and advice to engage in walking after moxabustion are no longer mentioned in
relation to this vessel to the exclusion of others because the kidney, governing water, is the root
of the human body. The text has emphasized this point because the patient often neglects these
precautions.
b) Documentation on the kidney and its energy, the Foot Shaoyin:
According to the Nanjing:
The kidneys are two in number and each weigh 1 jin 2 liang. They have an ovoid shape and
attach to the 14th (2nd lumbar) vertebrae, from which they are separated by 1 1/2 cun.
According to the Dacheng:
The kidney is the generator (source) organ of the total potential energy of the organism.
It confers power to the body and sharpness to the mind.

18. This is due to the fullness of Emptiness-fire.
19. Because the kidney governs the bones.
The kidney also collects and stores the surplus jing (essence) of all 5 organs. It is
therefore the site of concentration of all jing of the organism: anatomic jing, sexual jing, sensorial
jing and mentational (psychological) jing. It gives vitality to the hair and insures maintenance of
the bones.
It represents taiyin in yin and communicates with the energy of winter. It is in
relationship with the North and the color black. It corresponds to:
_ salty in the gamut of sapors
_ water in the cycle of the 5 movements
_ the sow in the animal kingdom
_ the bean in the vegetable kingdom
_ winter in the seasonal cycle
_ the planet sheng (Mercury) in the star constellations
_ the note Yu in music
_ the number 6 in the numeric system
_ stench in the gamut of odors
_ urine in the area of secretions.
The kidney channel contains more energy than blood. At the You hour (17h-19h), the
energetic and blood flow reaches its maximum level. (Figure 34)
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319.
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Figure 34
Foot Shaoyin (Ki). From 1 to 15: circulatory direction of the energy.
PARAGRAPH 10

1 - The Hand Jueyin-xin bao luo (XB) vessel starts in the middle of the
thorax, links up with the xinbao (XB), descends to the diaphragm and
branches to the sanjiao (SJ).
A branch leaves from the middle of the thorax, comes back out by
the ribs, descends 3 cun from the axillary fold, ascends to the axilla,
goes around the arm between the 2 tendons, reaches the palm of the
hand and arrives at the tip of the middle finger.
Another branch leaves from the palm of the hand and reaches the
tip of the ring finger.
2 - Disorders of this vessel caused by perverse energy manifest by
the following signs:
_ sensation of heat in the palm of the hand
_ brachialgia
_ elbow pain
_ axillary inflammation. 320.
In serious cases:
_ thoracic fullness and oppression
_ anxiety
_ cardiac palpitations
_ red facies
_ yellow sclera
_ groundless, incessant laughter.
Disorders of this vessel caused by an internal perturbation is
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indicated by the following clinical signs:
_ anxiety
_ heart pain
_ sensation of heat in the palm of the hand.
3 - In the illnesses cited above, one must:
_ disperse in case of fullness and tonify in case of emptiness
_ rapidly remove the needle in case of heat and leave the needle in
permanently in case of cold
_ apply moxabustion in case of blockage/accumulation
_ needle only the affected channel in case of absence of emptiness
and fullness.
4 - The word fullness designates the Cun Kou pulse larger than the
renying, and the word emptiness , the Cun Kou smaller than the renying.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph describes the energetic vessel of the xin bao luo (XB), the ninth channel
of the system of the 12 jingmai.
1 - The Hand Jueyin-xin bao luo (XB) arises in the middle of the thorax,
_ passes to the xinbao below the heart to go in relationship with the Foot Shaoyin (Ki)
_ arrives at Tanzhong (CV 17)
_ descends to the diaphragm
_ reaches the points Zhongwan (CV 12) and yinjiao (CV 7), responding to the sanjiao (SJ).
A branch leaves from the xin bao luo,
_ follows the inner thoracic wall
_ comes back out at the ribs
_ arrives at the point Tianchi (XB 1), 3 cun below the axilla
_ goes back up towards the axilla and goes around the shoulder
_ arrives at the point Tianquan (XB 2) of the arm
_ circulates between the 2 vessels, Hand Taiyin (Lu) and Hand Shaoyin (He)
_ and penetrates into the elbow at the point Quze (XB 3).
From the elbow, it descends toward the forearm,
_ circulates between the two tendon and crosses the points Ximen (XB 4), Jianchi (XB 5),
Neiguan (XB 6) and Daling (XB 7)
_ arrives at the point Laogong (XB 8) of the palm of the hand 321.
_ and directly rejoins the tip of the middle finger at the point Zhongchong (XB 9).
A branch leaves from the palm of the hand and arrives at the tip of the ring finger to
connect with the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) vessel.
2 - The search for energetic points affected by perverse energy in determination of the
illness permits discovery of the following clinical manifestations:
_ sensation of heat in the palm of the hand
_ thoracic and costal fullness and oppression
_ anxiety.
These signs belong to the energetic vessel of the xin bao luo (XB).
3 - Treatment consists of:
_ dispersion in case of fullness of perverse energy and tonification in case of emptiness of
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essential energy
_ practicing rapid needling to disperse in case of heat and leaving the needle in
permanently to tonify in case of cold
_ applying moxabustion to dissolve accumulation and activate the circulation of energy
_ treating only the channel concerned without recourse to the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) in case
of the absence of signs of emptiness and fullness.
4 - How do you recognize the fullness?
When Cun Kou is larger and more agitated than renying. In this case, the xin bao luo is in
fullness and one must disperse the Hand Jueyin (XB) on the one hand, and, on the other hand,
tonify the Hand Shaoyang (SJ).
How do you recognize the emptiness?
When Cun Kou is smaller than renying, without agitation. In this case, the xin bao luo is
in emptiness; one must tonify the Hand Jueyin (XB) on the one hand, and, on the other hand,
disperse the Hand Shaoyang (SJ).
II - N.V.N.:
Documentation on the xin bao luo and its energetic vessel, the Hand Jueyin (XB):
1 - According to the Nanjing:
This vessel has name and form. Its external trajectory begins at the point Tianchi (XB 1)
below the axilla and ends at the point Zhongchong (XB 9) at the tip of the middle finger. Its organ
is located below the heart in the form of an yellow fatty mass which envelopes the heart. Its pulse
waves are found at the foot pulse (Chi) of the right radial groove.
2 - According to the Dacheng:
The jueyin of the hand substitutes for Ministerial fire in order to carry out the orderly
movements of Imperial fire (heart). It therefore bears the name Master of heart (Xin Zu). But
envisioned as a circuit or energetic pathway, it bears the name xin bao luo (vessel-envelope of the
heart). 322.
In summary, jueyin of the hand has two names: but in reality, there is only one energy,
Ministerial fire, which circulates there.
The Hand Jueyin (XB) contains more blood than energy. At the Xu hour (19h-21h), the
energetic and blood flow attains it maximum level.
It constitutes the site of conservation of Ministerial fire (organic heat). It forms a very
dense energetic layer enveloping the heart whose purpose is to establish a system of efficient
defense around the heart organ, considered to be the center of life.
3 - Ma Shi concludes:
The xin bao luo is found underneath the heart, between the diaphragm and pleura. It
adheres to the diaphragm by a substance resembling a mass of yellow fat which envelops the
heart. This substance has a number of very fine ramifications which attach to the lung and heart.
Lack of knowledge of this vessel by future generations will be harmful and truly
reprehensible. (Figure 35)
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Figure 35
Hand Jueyin (xinbao: XB). From 1 to 12: energetic direction of energy.
PARAGRAPH 11 323.

1 - The Hand Shaoyang-sanjiao (SJ) vessel starts at the tip of the ring
finger, is directed towards the interdigital space, arrives at the wrist,
reaches the interosseous space of the forearm, passes to the elbow,
ascends to the arm and shoulder, passes behind the Foot Shaoyang (GB)
vessel, enters into Quepen (supraclavicular region), spreads to the point
Tanzhong (CV 17), connects to the xin bao luo (XB), descends to the
diaphragm and penetrates into the sanjiao (SJ).
A branch leaves from Tanzhong (CV 17), ascends to Quepen, reaches
the neck, arrives behind the ear, ascends again to the region above the
ear, descends and goes around the maxillary angle and comes back out at
the cheekbone (in front of the ear).
Another branch leaves from behind the ear, penetrates into the
ear, comes back out in front of the ear, passes Kezhuren (GB 3), descends
and crosses the previous branch at the level of the maxillary angle and
terminates at the external canthus of the eye.
2 - Attack of this vessel by perverse energy results in the
following signs:
_ hypoacusia and tinnitus
_ pharyngitis
_ throat pain.
Perturbation of the energy of the sanjiao is manifest by such
signs as:
_ excessive sweating
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_ pain of the external canthus of the eye
_ maxillary inflammation
_ pain in front of the ear and of the arm, elbow and forearm
_ inability to move the ring or little fingers.
3 - In the illnesses cited above, one must:
_ disperse in case of fullness and tonify in case of emptiness
_ rapidly remove the needle in case of heat and leave the needle in
permanently in case of cold
_ apply moxabustion in case of blockage and weakening
_ only needle the concerned channel in case of absence of
emptiness and fullness.
4 - The word fullness designates renying 2 times larger than Cun
Kou, and the word empti ness, renying 2 times smaller than that of Cun
Kou.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains: 324.
This paragraph describes the energetic vessel of the sanjiao (SJ), the tenth channel of the
system of 12 jingmai.
1 - Hand Shaoyang-sanjiao (SJ) starts at the point guanchong (SJ 1) at the tip of the ring
finger,
_ reaches the points Yemen (SJ 2) and Zhongzhu (SJ 3)
_ arrives at yangchi (SJ 4), located at the wrist between the 2 bones of the forearm
_ passes to the point Tianjing (SJ 10)
_ goes up again to the posterior part of the arm
_ arrives at the 2 points qinglengyuan (SJ 11) and Xiaolu (SJ 12)
_ passes between the Hand Taiyang (SI) and Hand Yangming (LI)
_ goes up to the shoulder
_ arrives at the points Naohui (SJ 13), Jianliao (SJ 14) and Tianjiao (SJ 15)
_ passes behind the Foot Shaoyang (GB)
_ crosses the points Bingfeng (SI 12) and Jianjing (GB 21)
_ goes down to Quepen and arrives outside the Foot Yangming (St)
_ unites with the shangjiao (Upper Jiao) at the point Tanzhong (CV 17)
_ then spreads around the xin bao luo (XB)
_ redescends to the diaphragm
_ branches to the bladder
_ tightly grabs the xiajiao (Lower Jiao)
_ and gathers at the upper part of the kidney.
A branch leaves from Tanzhong (CV 17),
_ ascends towards the external side of Quepen (supraclavicular region)
_ arrives at the nucha
_ passes to the point Dazhui (GV 14)
_ reaches the point Tianyou (SJ 16)
_ is directed behind the ear
_ crosses the points yifeng (SJ 17), qimai (SJ 18) and Jiaosun (SJ 20)
_ directly rejoins the points Xuanli (GB 6) and Linqi (GB 15)
_ arrives at the points yangbai (GB 14) and jingming (Bl 1)
_ goes back down to the maxillary bone
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_ then reascends to the zygomatic bone, to unite with the point Quanliao (SI 18).
Another branch leaves from the point yifeng (SJ 17)
_ penetrates into the ear
_ comes back out at the point Tinggong (SI 19)
_ arrives at Erman (SJ 21) and Erheliao (SJ 22) to be directed to the external canthus of
the eye
_ unites with the point Tongziliao (GB 1)
_ then goes back up to the point sizhukong (SJ 23).
2 - The search for energetic points disturbed by perverse energy in determination of the
illness is indicated by the following clinical manifestations:
_ temporary deafness
_ tinnitus, etc...
which are due to the attack of the energetic part of the sanjiao (SJ).
Other ailments can be caused either by a perturbation (endogenous origin) of the channel
concerned or by that of an association of several channels. The clinical signs are:
_ sweating 325.
_ pain of the external canthus of the eye
_ pain of the ring finger
_ inability to move the little finger.
3 - To treat the illnesses cited above, it is advised to:
_ disperse in case of fullness of perverse energy and tonify in case of emptiness of the
essential energy
_ practice rapid needling to disperse in case of heat and allow the needle to remain in
permanently to tonify in case of cold
_ apply moxabustion in case of blockage and weakening of the energy
_ and only needle the points of the channel concerned without resorting to the Hand
Jueyin (XB) in case of the absence of signs of emptiness and fullness.
II - N.V.N.:
Documentation on the sanjiao (SJ) and its energetic vessel, the Hand Shaoyang (SJ):
According to the Dacheng:
The Hand Shaoyang (SJ) has not only name, but also form. It starts at the point guanchong
(SJ 1), located at the tip of the 4th finger, and ends at the point sizhukong (SJ 23). Its bowel joins
the right kidney.
Some authors think that this vessel has only name without anatomic form. This error has
as as its origin qiu Yue ren (alias Bian Que, 500 B.C.) and has been perpetuated by Wang shu he
(210-285 A.D.) up to our times.
Its pulse manifests at the Foot pulse of the right wrist, like that of the xin bao luo (XB).
With the xin bao luo (XB), it constitutes the yin-yang, interior-exterior system.
sanjiao (SJ) is responsible for the energetic metabolism of the entire organism. In other
words, organic activities, such as the distribution of energy, blood and organic liquid, depend on
the energetic effects of the sanjiao (SJ).
In this manner, the functions of the sanjiao (SJ) tend to become generalized to include,
therefore, the totality of the energetic systems of the body divided into 3 distinct parts: shangjiao
(Upper Jiao: cardia), zhongjiao (middle jiao: fundus) and Xiaojiao (Lower Jiao: pylorus).
The Hand Shaoyang (SJ) has more energy than blood. At the Hai hour (21h-23h), the
energetic and blood flow reach its maximal level.
The vessel of the sanjiao (SJ) receives the Hand Jueyin (XB) vessel. It is a loyal bowel
that coordinates yin and yang and unblocks congestions. (Figure 36)
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326.
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Figure 36
Foot Shaoyang (sanjiao: SJ). From 1 to 19: circulatory direction of energy.
PARAGRAPH 12

1- The Foot Shaoyang-Gallbladder vessel begins at the external canthus
of the eye, reaches the temporal region, descends behind the ear,
arrives at the neck, passes in front of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ), arrives
at the shoulder, is directed behind the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) and
penetrates into Quepen (supraclavicular region).
A branch leaves from behind the ear, penetrates into the ear,
comes back out in front of the ear and arrives at the external canthus of
the eye.
A branch leaves from the external canthus of the eye, descends to
the point Daying (St 5), unites with the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) vessel, 327.
arrives under the malar bone, above the point Jiache (St 6), descends to
the neck, unites with the previous branch at Quepen to penetrate into
the thorax, crosses the diaphragm, penetrates into the liver, links up
with the gallbladder, descends again to the hypochondria, comes back
out at the point qixie (qichong- St 30), encircles the pubis and penetrates
into the coxo-femoral (hip) joint.
A vertical branch also leaves from Quepen, descends to the front
of the axilla, runs alongside the thorax, is directed towards the internal
surface of the buttock, unites with the previous branch at the level of
the coxo-femoral joint and descends the length of the external surface
of the thigh, arrives at the external surface of the knee joint, descends
towards the front of the fibula, runs alongside the external surface of
the leg, to the point Juegu (Xuanzhong- GB 39), arrives in front of the
external malleolus, crosses the top of the foot and ends at the tip of the
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4th toe.
A branch leaves from the top of the foot, is directed towards the
1st intermetatarsal space and returns by the nail in crossing it to unite
at the site called three hairs, located in front of the metatarso-
phalangeal joint.
2 - Attack of this vessel by perverse energy is characterized by
the following signs:
_ bitter mouth
_ frequent sighing
_ intercostal pains
_ difficulty turning over.
In serious cases,
_ dusty complexion
_ dryness of the skin
_ sensation of heat at the external part of the foot.
These signs constitute the syndrome yang Jue (afflux of yang).
Internal disorder of the gallbladder manifests by such signs as:
_ headache
_ submaxillary pain
_ pain at the external canthus of the eye
_ painful inflammation of the supraclavicular fossa (Quepen)
_ hypochondralgia
_ anthrax, lymphadenitis
_ sweating
_ Nue illness (fever and cold sensitivity)
_ thoraco-abdominal and coxo-femoral pain
_ thigh pain and knee pain to Juegu (GB 39- Xuanzhong)
_ pain in front of the external malleolus
_ and inability to move the 4th and 5th toes.
3 - In the ailments cited above, one must:
_ disperse in case of fullness and tonify in case of emptiness
_ rapidly remove the needle in case of heat and leave the needle in
permanently in case of cold
_ apply moxabustion in case of blockage and weakening 328.
_ only needle the concerned channel in case of the absence of
emptiness and fullness.
4 - The word fullness designates the renying pulse 2 times larger
than Cun Kou, and the word empti ness, the renying pulse 2 times smaller
than Cun Kou.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph concerns the energetic vessel of the gallbladder, the eleventh channel of
the system of 12 jingmai.
1 - The Foot Shaoyang (GB) begins at the point Tongziliao (GB 1), located at the external
canthus of the eye,
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_ passes to the points Tinghui (GB 2) and Kezhuren (Shangguan- GB 3)
_ goes up to the angle of the forehead and reaches the point hanyan (GB 4)
_ descends to the points Xuanlu (GB 5) and Xuanli (GB 6)
_ reascends above the ear at the level of the scalp line and arrives at the points
Qubin (GB 7) and shuaigu (GB 8).
From shuaigu (GB 8), it goes back down, encircling the ear,
_ crosses the points Tianchong (GB 9), Fubai (GB 10), qiaoyin (GB 11) and Wangu (GB 12).
From Wangu (GB 12), it goes back over the front of the cranium, to the point
yangbai (GB 14) to link up to the point jingming (Bl 1).
From jingming (Bl 1), it goes up again to the cranium,
_ passes Lingqi (GB 15), Muchuang (GB 16), Zhenying (GB 17), Chengling (GB 18),
Nao Kong (GB 19) and Fengchi (GB 20),
_ descends to the neck and crosses the point Tianyou (SJ 16)
_ is directed toward the front of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) and arrives at the shoulder
_ passes to the point Jiangjing (GB 21)
_ radiates to the left and right behind the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) vessel
_ is directed towards the points Dazhui (GV 14), Dazhu (Bl 11) and Bingfeng (SI 12)
_ and arrives at the external side of Quepen (supraclavicular fossa).
A branch leaving from the point Neiru (Nao Kong-GB 19), located behind the ear,
_ passes to the point yifeng (SJ 17) and penetrates into the ear
_ comes back out at the point Tinggong (SI 19) and goes back up towards the external
canthus of the eye, to the point Tongziliao (GB 1).
A branch leaves from Tongziliao (GB 1),
_ descends to the point Daying (St 5)
_ unites with the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) vessel in the space where Quanliao (SI 18) is found
_ passes to the point Jianche (St 6) and redescends to Quepen uniting with the previous
branch,
_ penetrates into the thorax 329.
_ reaches the external side of the point Tianchi (Tianhui- XB 1),
_ crosses the diaphragm and arrives at the point qimen (Li 14) and links up with the
gallbladder
_ passes to the point Riyue (GB 24)
_ runs along the inner wall of the abdomen
_ arrives at the points Zhangmen (Li 13) and qichong (St 30)
_ goes around the pubis and is directed towards the coxo-femoral (hip) joint, where the
point Huantiao (GB 30) occurs.
A vertical branch leaves from Quepen,
_ descends towards the axilla
_ runs alongside the thorax
_ crosses the points Yuanye (Bl 22), Zheyin (GB 23), Riyue (GB 24), jingmen (GB 25),
Daimai (GB 26), Wushu (GB 27), weidao (GB 28) and Juliao (GB 29)
_ passes the sacral region and penetrates into Shangliao (Bl 31) and Zhongliao (Bl 32) to
unite with the Foot Taiyang (Bl)
_ reaches the points Zhongdu (GB 32) and yangguan (GB 33)
_ arrives in front of and behind the head of the fibula, to Yanglingquan (GB 34)
_ descends the length of the fibula
_ passes to yangjiao (GB 35), guanming (GB 37) and Quegu (Xuanzhong- GB 39)
_ arrives in front of the external malleolus
_ reaches Linqi (GB 41) and Xiaxi (GB 43), located in the dorsal region of the foot
_ and passes to the tip of the 4th toe, where the point qiaoyin (GB 44) is found.
A vessel arises from the point Linqi (GB 41),
_ reaches the tip of the great toe
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_ and returns towards the toenail, crossing it, to end behind it at the reunion of the three
hairs, to link up to the Foot Jueyin (Li).
2 - The search for energetic points perturbed by perverse energy in the determination of
the illness permits demonstrating such clinical signs as bitter mouth, frequent sighing, etc...
which are all due to the movements of reflux (contrary afflux) of the energy.
Other ailments of the gallbladder can be caused either by an internal perturbation of the
concerned channel or by that of an association of several channels whose clinical signs are
generally headaches, submental pain, etc... .
As for the syndrome called intermittent fever and cold sensitivity, the explanation is as
follows: shaoyang is the 1st yang. It occurs in the internal area (yin) of the external layer (yang)
whose interior is the location of the 3 yin. Therefore, shaoyang is the mid-external (yang)
channels and mid-internal (yin) channel. This is why attack of shaoyang manifests by
intermittent signs of fever (yang) and chills (yin).
330...
3 - Treatment of the illnesses of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) consist of:
_dispersing in case of fullness of perverse energy and tonifying in case of emptiness of
the essential energy
_ performing rapid needling to disperse in case of heat and leaving the needle in
permanently to tonify in case of cold
_ apply moxabustion in case of blockage/weakening of the energy of the concerned channel
_ and treating only the channel affected without recourse to the Foot Jueyin (Li) in case of
the absence of signs of emptiness and fullness.
II - N.V.N.:
Documentation on the gallbladder and its energetic vessel, the Foot Shaoyang:
1 - According to the Nanjing:
The gallbladder weighs 3.3 liang. Its length is 3 cun. It is located in the interior of the
short lobe of the liver and contains 3 he of liquid jing (bile).
The gallbladder is a bowel devoted to the cause of equity and loyalty. It is that which has
power over decisions.
The gallbladder gives verdict on the energetic states of the 5 organs and 6 bowels.
331.
2 - According to the Dacheng:
The activity of the gallbladder is limited to the green sphere (sphere of action of the
liver). It is a peaceful and silent bowel.
With the exception of the gallbadder. the other bowels allow passage of the impure
elements in transit. This is why one gives it the name pure and silent bowel.
The Foot Shaoyang (GB) channel has more energy than blood. At the Zi hour (23h-1h),
the energetic and blood flow reach its maximal volume. (Figure 37)
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330.

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Figure 37
Foot Shaoyang (GB). From 1 to 32: circulatory direction of the energy.
PARAGRAPH 13

1 - The Foot Jueyin-liver vessel begins at the place called 3 hairs on
top of the great toe, ascends to the top of the foot, arrives 1 cun in front
of the internal malleolus and passes 8 cun above it, intersects the taiyin
(Sp) vessel, reaches the internal part of the popliteal crease and inner
thigh to penetrate into the pubic hair, encircles the genital organs (yin
qi), ascends again to the lower abdomen, contacts the Foot Yangming
(St), penetrates into the liver, branches to the gallbladder, crosses the
diaphragm, distributes to the lateral side of the thorax, runs alongside
the internal border of the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus up to the
nasopharynx, enters into liason with the ocular apparatus, reaches the
forehead and meets the Dumai (GV) at the vertex.
A branch leaves from the ocular apparatus, descends by the cheek
and encircles the lips.
A branch leaves the liver, crosses the diaphragm and inserts into
the lung.
2 - Attack of this vessel by perverse energy is characterized by
the following signs:
_ lumbalgia with difficult flexion and extension
_ in men: hernia
_ in women: pelvic inflammation
_ in serious cases: dryness of the throat and disturbed vision.
Perturbation (endogenous) of the energy of the liver manifests by
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such signs as:
_ thoracic oppression
_ vomiting
_ diarrhea
_ orchitis
_ dysuria
_ cystitis. 332.
3 - In the diseases cited above, one must:
_ disperse in case of fullness and tonify in case of emptiness
_ remove the needle rapidly in case of heat and leave the needle in
permanently in case of cold
_ apply moxabustion in case of blockage and weakening
_ needle only the concerned channel in case of the absence of
emptiness and fullness.
4 - The word fullness designates Cun Kou larger than renying, and
the word empti ness, Cun Kou smaller than renying.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph concerns the energetic vessel of the liver (Foot Jueyin), the last (twelfth)
channel of the system of the 12 jingmai.
1 - Foot Jueyin-liver begins at the point Dadun (Li 1), located at the tip of the great toe,
_ reaches the top of the foot and arrives at the points Xingjian (Li 2) and Taichong (Li 3)
_ passes to the point Zhongfeng (Li 4) 1 cun in front of the internal malleolus
_ ascends to the point Sanyinjiao (Sp 6)
_ traverses the points Ligou (Li 5) and Zhongdu (Li 6)
_ 1 cun higher, it intersects the taiyin (Sp) vessel and reaches the internal side of the
popliteal crease, passing the points Xiguan (Li 7) and Quguan (Li 8)
_ reaches the points yinbao (Li 9), Wuli (Li 10) and yinlian (Li 11) on the inner surface of
the thigh, inside the taiyin (Sp) vessel
_ penetrates into the pubic pilosity
_ encircles yinqi (external genital organs)
_ arrives at the lower abdomen
_ unites to the points Qugu (CV 2), Zhongji (CV 3) and guanyuan (CV 4)
_ traverses the points Changmen (Li 13) and arrives at the point qimen (Li 14)
_ enters into liason with the stomach
_ penetrates into the liver
_ passes to the point Riyue (GB 24) and branches to the gallbladder.
A vessel leaves from qimen (Li 14),
_ crosses the diaphragm
_ passes outside the point Shidou (Sp 17) and inside the point dabao (Sp21) and branches
to Xieluo (ribcage) up to the place where the points Yunmen (Lu 2) and Yuanye (GB 22) occur
_ reaches the outside of the point renying (St 9) and arrives at the posterior border of the
laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus
_ penetrates into the nasopharynx
_ passes to the outside of the points Daying (St 5), Dicang (St 4) and sibai (St 2) to link up
with the ocular system
_ goes up to the forehead and reaches the point yangbai (GB 14) 333.
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_ arrives at the cranium and passes inside the point Linqi (GB 15), to unite with the
Dumai (GV) at the point Baihui (GV 20), located at the vertex.
Another vessel leaves from the ocular organ,
_ goes back down outside the renmai (CV)
_ arrives to the inside the concerned channel
_ reaches the maxilla
_ and goes around the interior of the lips.
Another vessel also leaves from qimen (Li 14),
_ penetrates into the liver
_ goes back up, crossing the diaphragm
_ passes outside the point Shidou (Sp 17)and inside the channel of origin
_ inserts into the lung
_ arrives at zhongjiao (middle jiao)
_ redescends toward the point Zhongwan (CV 12) to go into liason with Hand Taiyin (Lu).
2 - The search for energetic points disturbed by perverse energy in the determination of
the illness permits showing such signs as:
_ back pain with inability fo flex the body and get up
_ hernia in men
_ pelvic inflammation in women.
These signs all result from an attack of the concerned channel.
Other pathological manifestations such as vomiting, diarrhea, etc... are due either to an
internal perturbation of the channel of origin or to that of an association of several channels.
3 - Treatment consists of:
_ dispersing fullness of perverse energy and tonifying emptiness of the essential energy
_ performing the method of rapid removal of the needle to disperse in case of heat and the
method of leaving the needle in permanently to tonify in case of cold
_ applying moxabustion in case of blockage and weakening of the energy
_ and treating only the channel concerned without resorting to the Foot Shaoyang (GB) in
case of the absence of signs of emptiness and fullness.
II - N.V.N.:
Study documenting the liver organ and its energetic vessel, the Foot Jueyin (Li):
1 - According to the Nanjing:
The liver weighs 4 jin 3 liang. This organ possesses 3 leaflets on the left and
4 leaflets on the right, for a total of 7 leaflets which are attached to the 9th dorsal vertebra.
Chapter 52 (Discourse on the Contraindications of Acupuncture) of the Suwen reveals
The energetic liver is located below and to the left (of the diaphragm) and physicians of the era
added that the anatomic organ is found to the right. This preciseness is indeed accurate.
334...
2 - According to the Dacheng:
The liver is the palace organ of wind-wood. It is the site of Ministerial fire. It likes
moderation and relaxation; its role is to conserve blood.
The liver fills the function of general. This is the strategy of the organism. It plays a
prime role in the battle against fatigue. It gives vitality to the nails and firmness to the muscles.
It is also the producer organ of blood and energy.
The Foot Jueyin (Li) vessel has more blood than energy. At the Chou hour (1h-3h), the
energetic and blood flow reaches its maximal.
The energy of the liver answers to:
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_ sour in the gamut of sapors
_ wood in the cycle of the 5 movements
_ chicken in the animal kingdom
_ millet in the vegetable kingdom
_ Jupiter (Xue jing) in the star constellations 335...
_ the note Jiao in music
_ the number 8 in the numeric system
_ to stench in the gamut of odors
_ tears in the domain of secretions.
The pathology of the liver is complex. One most often will find conformity to 4 problems:
_ compression of the energy
_ tension and fullness of the fire of the liver
_ disturbances of liver yang
_ agitation of internal wind (organic fire).
Other than its essential roles in energetic metabolism, blood formation and excretory
function, the liver also possesses 2 other important functions:
_ transformation of nutritional energy into organic heat
_ maintenance of mental equilibrium of the individual. (Figure 38)
334.
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Figure 38
Foot Jueyin (Li). From 1 to 17: circulatory direction of the energy
PARAGRAPH 14 335.

Exhaustion of the energy of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) is characterized by
dryness of the skin and dermoskeleton.
taiyin is a conducting system of the energy toward the exterior
that warms up the pilocutaneous system. This is why when the energy is
in insufficiency, the skin and dermoskeleton become dry.
Dryness of the skin and dermoskeleton denotes the absence of
organic liquid in the cutaneous layer. This absence indicates dryness of
the nails and falling out of the body hair.
The falling out of body hair indicates that the death of the hair
occurred in the first place. The disease is made worse on the Bing day
(3rd Celestial Trunk), and death follows on the Ding day (4th Celestial
Trunk), following the destructive action of fire on metal.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The energies of yin and yang originate from the 5 movements of the organs/bowels.
The death of the energy occurs, in the first place, at the exterior, then comes that of the
organs and bowels in the interior.
The energy of Hand Taiyin (Lu) governs the pilocutaneous system. This is why the 336.
exhaustion of the taiyin energy is the cause of dryness of the skin and dermoskeleton.
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The organic liquid follows the sanjiao (SJ) and reaches the exterior in order to heat and
render perfect the epidermo-dermal system and to make the articular system supple. For this
reason, when the energy becomes exhausted, the liquid of the interior cannot reach the
pilocutaneous system, hence dryness of nails and body hair.
This falling out of the body hair indicates that the skin is dead in the first place. This
means to say that the energy of Hand Taiyin (Lu) is exhausted in the first place at the exterior.
On the Bing day (3rd Celestial Trunk) the disease worsens, and death occurs on the
Ding day. This indicates that the energy of the lung organ dies in the interior.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph describes the syndrome of exhaustion of the lung energy and its fatal
prognosis.
The energetic vessels of the lung unite with the pilocutaneous system, and lung organ,
being master of the energy, has the function of making this energy circulate to heat up the skin
and dermoskeleton.
Dryness of the skin and dermoskeleton result, therefore, from the exhaustion of the
energy and that of the nails and falling out of the body hair from the depletion of the liquid
substance at the level of the epidermal system.
When the disease is at the stage of body hair loss, that is to say at the period of death of
the body hairs, death inevitably follows on the day when the fire movement destroys metal.
PARAGRAPH 15

Exhaustion of the energy of Hand Shaoyin (He) expresses as an
obstruction of the vessels causing a stoppage of blood circulation.
When the blood does not circulate, the head hair loses its
brilliance and the color of the face becomes black like lacquer and dry
like a stick of wood. It is the death of blood which occurs first.
The disease worsens on the ren day (9th Celestial trunk) and death
occurs on the Gui day (10th Celestial Trunk), following the victorious
action of water over fire.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The heart governs the blood. When the energy of the Hand Shaoyin (He) becomes
exhausted, the vessels are blocked because it is the energy which directs the blood.
The heart unites with the vessels and manifests by the complexion. 337.
The head hairs are created by blood and energy. When the blood does not circulate,
the head hair and complexion lose their freshness and brilliance and the facies is black like
lacquer and dry like a stick of wood. This originates from the exhaustion of the energy of the
Hand Shaoyin (He), explaining the death of blood.
The disease becomes aggravated on the ren day (9th Celestial Trunk), following the
destruction of the fire energy of the heart organ by water.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the exhaustion syndrome of the heart energy and its fatal
prognosis. The heart governs the vessels and produces the blood. When its energy becomes
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exhausted, the blood dries out and the specific signs are cited in the text.
since the blood is dead in the first place, the fatal day is inevitable on the day of
destruction of fire by water.
PARAGRAPH 16

Exhaustion of the energy of Foot Taiyin (Sp) causes undernourishing at
the level of the flesh (dermal) system.
The lips and tongue are sites called root of the flesh. This is
why, when the Foot Taiyin (Sp) vessel no longer maintains the flesh
system, it softens and becomes transformed into the illness Rou wei
(atrophic impotence of the flesh) (19), renzhong (nasolabial groove,
where the point of the same name occurs) thickens and the lips are
evert ed.
Evert ed lips indicate the flesh is dead in the first place. On the
Jia day (1st Celestial trunk), the illness worsens, and death occurs on
the yi day (2nd Celestial Trunk), that is to say, on the day when wood
triumphs over earth.


20. See Chapter 44 (Study on Atrophic Impotence) of the Huangdi Neijing Suwen,,Vol. III, pg. 189, NVN Edition.
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The energy of Foot Taiyin (Sp) is produced at the level of the spleen organ whose role is
to conserve ying (nutritive energy) and maintain the dermal (flesh) system.
When the energy of the spleen becomes exhausted, the vessel can no longer reach the flesh.
The lips and tongue constitute the root of the flesh system. When the vessel no longer
permeates the flesh, it transforms into Rou wei with everted lips, denoting the exhaustion of the
energy of taiyin at the exterior level. 338.
On the Jia day, the disease worsens, and death occurs on the yi day indicating the
exhaustion of the energy of the spleen organ located in the interior.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph explains the fatal prognosis of the syndrome of exhaustion of the spleen
energy.
In effect, the spleen controls the system of connective tissues (flesh-dermis) whose root
occurs at the lips and tongue. When the spleen energy no longer humidifies the flesh, it loses its
consistency and transforms into Rou wei; the lips are then everted and renzhong becomes thick.
This is the sign of exhaustion of the flesh; on the day when wood suppresses earth, death is
inevitable.
PARAGRAPH 17

Exhaustion of the energy of Foot Shaoyin (Ki) causes drying of the bones.
Foot Shaoyin (Ki) is a vessel responding to winter. It is concealed in the
interior in order to permeate the osteomedullary system. When the
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bones and marrow are no longer humidified, the flesh is without
adherence and softens, teeth decalcify and tartar, hair is no longer
s hi ny.
Loss of brilliance of the hair indicates the bones are dead in the first
place. On the Wu day (5th Celestial Trunk), the disease worsens, and
death occurs on the Ji day (6th Celestial Trunk), that is to say on the day
earth triumphs over water.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The energy of Foot Shaoyin (Ki) controls the osseous system. This is why the exhaustion
of kidney energy has as a corollary drying of the bones.
shaoyin is a vessel responding to winter, implies that the energetic vessels of the
5 organs unite with the 4 seasons to permeate the skin and flesh, muscles and bones. When the
bones are malnourished, the flesh no longer adheres to the bones.
This loss of adherence of the flesh and bones indicates escape of the energy of the bones to
the exterior, and the loss of brilliance of the hair explains the exhaustion of jing energy (essence)
of the kidney organ. In other words, death of the bones occurs before that of the kidney organ
located in the interior.
339.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the fatal prognosis of the syndrome of exhaustion of the energy
of Foot Shaoyin (Ki).
The energy of the kidney governs the bones. Its vessel circulates according to the climatic
movement of winter to moisten the bones and marrow.
Exhaustion of the bones manifests by the syndrome described in the text. During this
exhaustion, death is inevitable on the day when water is suppressed by earth.
PARAGRAPH 18

Exhaustion of the energy of Foot Jueyin (Li) causes that of the muscles.
jueyin is a vessel belonging to the liver whose energy unites with
the muscles and gathers together at yin qi (external genitalia).
Furthermore, this vessel is linked to the base of the tongue. This is why
the deficiency of this vessel expresses as muscular spasm with pain
radiating to the tongue and testicles, responsible for lip cyanosis
(literally, blue lips), lingual retraction, etc... denoting the death of
the muscles in the first place (before that of the kidney organ).
On the Keng day (7th Celestial Trunk), the disease worsens and
death occurs on the Xin day (8th Celestial Trunk), that is to say on the
day when metal suppresses wood.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The energy of Foot Jueyin (Li) governs the muscles. This is why exhaustion of this energy
causes that of the muscles with the signs of muscular spasm, protracted tongue, etc... .
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Deficiency of the energy of jueyin is, therefore, an essential factor which drives, in the
first place, the muscles to death. On the Keng day, the disease worsens, and death occurs on the
Xin day because the Xin day is the day when metal carries out its destructive action on wood, the
day of total depletion of wood energy of the liver organ.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the fatal prognosis of the syndrome of exhaustion of the energy
of the liver.
The liver energy unites with the muscles and the muscles gather down below at yin qi
(external genitalia), and above, at the tongue. 340.
In the depletion of the liver energy, the muscles become tense, the tongue and testicles
retract. This is why, on the Keng day, the day when metal destroys wood, death is inevitable.
PARAGRAPH 19

simultaneous exhaustion of the energies of the 5 yin channels
causes revulsion and oscillation of the eyes, indicating annihilation of
zhi (will).
zhi is dead first; then the fatal day occurs in 1 1/2 days.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
Globally, the energy of the 5 organs and 5 movements originates a priori from water and
fire.
The cardiovascular system is linked above to the ocular system. Therefore, exhaustion of
the energy of the heart causes the revulsion and oscillation of the eyes.
The jing (essence) of fire is the shen (mental) and the jing of water is the zhi (will);
the shen originates from the jing and fire comes from water. This is why death of the zhi causes,
in the first place, the exhaustion of the shen... in accordance with the saying To live and die
together.
II - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph explains the fatal prognosis of the syndrome of simultaneous exhaustion
of the yin channels of the foot and hand.
The 5 yin channels are:
_ Hand Shaoyin (He)
_ Foot Jueyin (Li)
_ Foot Taiyin (Sp)
_ Hand Taiyin (Lu)
_ Foot Shaoyin (Ki).
The text does not mention the Hand Jueyin (XB) because it is already included in the Hand
Shaoyin (He).
The ocular system is composed of the jing (essence) of the 5 organs. This is why the
exhaustion of the energy of the 5 organs is responsible for rolling back and oscillation of the
eyes, indicating annihilation of zhi (will); then death occurs after a 1 1/2 day delay.
341.
PARAGRAPH 20
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The exhaustion of the energies of the 6 yang channels causes the
separation of yin and yang characterized by excretion and sweating.
This is why the disease manifests in the morning, and death occurs in
the evening.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the exhaustion of the energy of the 3 yang (taiyang- SI and Bl,
shaoyang- SJ and GB, yangming- LI and St) of the 6 bowels.
The energy of the 3 yang takes its source from yin and manifests in yang. In the course
of exhaustion of the 6 yang channels, yin and yang become uncoupled and, during this separation,
the yang energy escapes to the exterior. Cou Li (sweat glands) open up and sweating is excessive.
The energy of the 3 yang respond to heaven. This is why, when the disease appears in
morning, death occurs in the evening and vice versa.
II - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph concerns the syndrome of exhaustion of the energies of the 6 yang
channels of the foot and hand, with deduction of the occurrence of death.
The 6 yang channels are:
_ Foot Shaoyang (GB)
_ Foot Yangming (St)
_ Hand Yangming (LI)
_ Hand Taiyang (SI)
_ Foot Taiyang (Bl)
_ Hand Shaoyang (SJ).
When the energy of the 6 yang channels becomes exhausted, the yin channels become
separated for good from the yang channels, sweat appears in the form of droplets and death occurs
very rapidly.

PARAGRAPH 21 342.

The 12 jingmai circulate deeply in the space of distribution of the
flesh (dermis). They are invisible, except for the portion of the Foot
Taiyin (Sp) located above the internal malleolus (21). As for the other
emerging and visible vessels, they all belong to the group of luomai
(secondary vessels) (22).
The luo vessels of the 6 jing (3 yin and 3 yang channels), in
particular the great luo of the Hand Yangming (LI) and Hand Shaoyang
(SJ), all begin in the region located between the wrist and elbow.
In alcoholics, the wei energy becomes mobilized in the first place
towards the skin and causes a fullness at the level of the luomai; the wei
energy is in abundance, ying is overflowing and the jingmai are very
f l our i s hi ng.
The suddenness of fullness of these vessels results from the
infiltration of perverse energy (alcohol) which becomes fixed either at
the root or at the summit. The absence of change (of the principal
channels) becomes expressed by heat (released by the alcohol) and the
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absence of closing (of the luo vessels), by emptiness and stagnation,
which permits differentiation of the jingmai from the luomai.
Leigong asks:
How do you recognize the jingmai from the luomai?
Huangdi replies:
The jingmai are not visible. Their emptiness and their fullness
are perceived at Cun Kou (radial pulse). As for the detectable vessels,
they are all the luomai.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
The system of 12 channels begins at the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and ends with the Foot Jueyin
(Li), then the cycle begins again... . This concerns the circulation of ying-Xue (ying-blood) in the

21. In French and German translations, Foot Taiyin (Sp) located above the internal malleolus is replaced by the lung
channel located at the wrist. This error of interpretation comes from modern version published in Shanghai.
22. In 1954/69, Chamfrault and ourselves introduced the luomai system (secondary vessels) into the current practice of
acupuncture in Europe (see The Energetic Human, Angouleme Edition, 1969) and a new nomenclature of points with numbering
according to the classical circulation of the channels.
vessels-channels.
As for the energy of the 12 jingmai manifesting at the jing point, arriving at the ying
point, crossing the jing point, gathering at the he point, etc... it concerns qi Xue (energy/blood)
coming from the pilocutaneous system in order to unite with qi Xue of the jingmai at the level of
the elbow and knee.
The effect of ethyl alcohol is a good example to explain the movement of wei energy
towards the cutaneous system where the luomai are situated. These latter then go into an 343.
excessive state, the energy is at ease, qi Xue (energy/blood) overflows and the jingmai are very
flourishing... . This explanation concerns qi Xue outside the channels, which follows the jing Sui
(satisfying channels- which carry out the concerned function with satisfaction) in order to
reach the sunluo (little branches at the level of the skin) of the one hand, and on the other hand,
the routes of the sanjiao (SJ) to warm up the epidermo-dermal system. In summary, the energy and
blood consist of 2 paths of exit towards the skin and the flesh. (Figure 39)
For the movements of penetration of qi Xue (energy/blood) in the vessels (principal and
secondary channels), there also exists two paths:
_ path of penetration into the jingmai (principal channels) via the jing points in order to
arrive at the ying, shu, jing and he points....
_ and path of penetration into the luomai (secondary channels) (Figure 40).
These paths of penetration and of exiting of the jingluo (principal and secondary
channels) agree with the movements of heaven-earth, yin-yang (5 circumductions and
6 energies) (23). We must memorize this notion because it concerns the fundamental rudiments of
energetic medicine.

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Figure 39
Routes of exit of qi Xue (blood/energy) towards the exterior (epidermo-dermal system).


23. These are the spatio-temporal movements.
344.


Figure 40
Routes of penetration of qi Xue (energy/blood) into the luomai and jingmai.
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II - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph emphasizes the invisibility of the jingmai, such as the principal channel
of the lung departing from Zhongfu (Lu 1) to Shaochang (Lu 11) and the visibility of the luomai
emanating from the point Lieque (Lu 7), Pianli (LI 6)... . In other words, the jingmai circulating
deeply, at the level of the distribution of the flesh, are invisible except for the portion of the
spleen channel located above the internal malleolus. In contrast, the emerging and detectable
vessels are all the luomai.
In individuals who indulge in alcoholic drinks, wei energy becomes mobilized to the skin
and provokes, in the first place, a fullness at the level of the luomai, then that of the ying
(nutritive energy), hence the excess of wei energy and fullness of the jingmai. It is at this
occasion that the jingmai are no longer detectable.
If the pulse is agitated, it is a matter of Fullness-heat. If the pulse is not firm, it is a
matter of Empty-Cold.
In conclusion,
_ in alcoholics, the pulse is necessarily agitated and firm, and during the absorption of
alcohol one can detect the disturbed channel which begins at the level of the digits.
_ the emptiness and fullness of the jingmai are detectable at the level of Cun Kou (radial
pulse), while the emptiness and fullness of the luomai are detectable visually without resorting to
the examination of the pulse.
PARAGRAPH 22 345.

L e i g ong :
Your humble disciple still has not grasped well the meaning of
this distinction.
Huangdi :
The luomai do not traverse the large articulations. One must know
their Dao of entering and exiting. They insert into the skin, and their
site of reunion is perfectly detectable at the exterior.
This is why during the needling of the luo, it is imperative to
implant the needle at the sites of their congested reunion (nodes)
even if these sites are not visible. The needling is urgent and bleeding
of these nodes is necessary to evacuate the perverse energy at the
risk of causing Bi syndrome (obstruction/paresthesias).
During the examination of the luomai:
_ the blue color indicates a syndrome of cold with pain, and the
red color, a syndrome of heat,
_ blue color at the thenar eminence indicates a syndrome of cold
of the stomach, and the red color a syndrome of heat of the stomach,
_ the sudden appearance of black color at the thenar eminence
heralds the chronicity of the Bi disease, and simultaneous appearance
of black, red and blue, the illness of Cold-heat (fever and chills).
To treat the disease of Cold-heat, one must first needle the luo
points to make them bleed, once every 2 days, then regulate the
emptiness and fullness. Throughout the session, the brief appearance of
a bluish complexion indicates a loss of energy which, in serious cases,
can bring about suffocation and even fainting. In this type of
suffocation, one must sit the patient down very urgently.

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EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
This paragraph, based on acupuncture technique, stresses the existence of Birth/
beginning and Entering/Exiting of qi Xue (energy/blood).
The following chapter (Ch. 11- Distinct Channels) states: First evaluate the length and
size of the bone, then determine the width of the vessels.... since the 12 jingmai follow the bones
and cross the articulations, one can deduce the length of the channels. As for the Da luo (Great
luos- luobie or longitudinal luo), they do not pass the large articulations and must borrow the
cutaneous path to affect their movements of Entry/Exit (see Figure. 41). 346.
blood and energy originate from the stomach bowel and are conducted by the Distinct
Channels (Jing Bie), which take them along with the luomai in order to unite at the skin in the
form of nodes (reunions) appearing at the cutaneous surface. This is why, in order to treat the
luomai, one must needle the places where these nodes occur. One must make these points of
reunion bleed, whether saturated with blood or not, to evacuate the perverse energy because the
fixation and stagnation of perverse energy into the skin favors its encroachment on the flesh,
muscles and bones to trigger Bi disease (obstruction/paresthesias). This ailment is entirely
different from that cited in the previous paragraph.
II - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph concerns the acupuncture method of the luomai, which basically consists
of making the points of reunion (Luo points) bleed and the method of examination of the luomai,
which resides in the observation of the complexion.
Unlike the jingmai, the luomai do not cross the large joints. They are obliged to follow a
path called distinct path (Luo Bie or longitudinal luo) which unites with the skin (cutaneous
path). The sites of reunion called luo points are visible. In order to needle the luomai, one must
always make the luo points bleed, whether they are engorged with blood or not, with the purpose
of evacuating perverse energy to protect against the Bi disease.
Examination of the color of the luomai permits detection with precision of certain diseases
cited in the text. In this manner, in the syndrome of cold or of heat, the technique of bleeding the
reunion points is compulsory. In contrast, the brief blue color of the luomai, located at the thenar
eminence, indicates an insufficiency of essential energy; for this reason, it is strictly ill-advised
to use the dispersion method, in particular the bleeding method, at the risk of provoking
fainting.
III - N.V.N.:
Paragraph 22 and the following ones of this chapter broach the explanatory study of the
existence of the luobie (longitudinal luo)
The treatment of these vessels necessarily consists of utilizing the technique of bleeding,
except in the case of the emptiness of the essential energy.
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Figure 41
Circulatory path of the jingmai and luomai.
PARAGRAPH 23

The luobie (Longitudinal or distinct luo) of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) is
called Lieque (Lu 7). It starts above the wrist, runs alongside the
principal route (channel) of the taiyin (Lu), penetrates into the palm of
the hand and branches to the thenar eminence.
The fullness of this vessel is characterized by a sensation of heat at
the radial apophysis and in the palm of the hand, and empti ness, by
frequent yawning, stretching out of the shoulders and frequent
ur i nat i on.
It is advised to needle the point Lieque (Lu 7), located 1 1/2 cun
above the wrist.
From this point, another vessel (transversal luo or luo yin) (24)
also leaves that goes toward the Hand Yangming (LI).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
The luobie (longitudinal luo or distinct luo) are the great secondary vessels (Da luo)
belonging to the 5 organs and 6 bowels.
In this way, for example:
_ the luobie of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) is a large vessel leaving from the point Lieque (Lu 7)
_ the luobie of Hand Shaoyin (He) is a large vessel leaving from the point Tongli (he 5)
_ the luobie of Foot Taiyang (Bl) is a large vessel leaving from the point Faiyang (Bl 58)...
These luobie vessels have no relation to the shu antique points (jing, ying, shu, jing, he).
It begins above the wrist..., means that the principal channel of the Hand Taiyin (Lu)
and its luobie separate at this site. 348.
Fullness of this vessel is characterized by frequent yawning..., a phenomenon of the
manifestation of the energy in a state of insufficiency in the interior.
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From the fact that the blood and energy are disordered at the level of the cutaneous layer
where the luomai are found, needling must be performed at the site located 1 1/2 cun above the
wrist, at the point Lieque (Lu 7).
... where a vessel also leaves from that goes toward the Hand Yangming means that the
luo-yin, leaving from this site, is directed toward the Hand Yangming (LI).
II - Ma Shi comments:
This Paragraph 23 and the following ones concern the 12 luo points whose first study is
that of the lung channel.
The vessel emanating from the luo point does not bear the name luo, but that of luobie
(distinct luo or longitudinal luo) because it follows a trajectory parallel to that of the principal
channel involved.
1 - The luobie of Hand Taiyin (Lu) is called Lieque (Lu 7) because it leaves from the point
of the same name, located 1 1/2 cun from the wrist (needle depth 0.2 cun, left in during
3 expirations, disperse during 5 inspirations and apply 5 moxas).
From the point Lieque (Lu 7), it runs alongside the principal channel,
_ passes directly towards the palm of the hand
_ enters into liason with the Hand Yangming (LI) at the index finger, where the point

24. Chamfrault and ourselves have given the name transversal luo to all the luo-yin leaving from the luo point of the yin
channel toward a yang channel, and vice versa.
Shangyang (LI 1) is found
_ and spreads to the thenar eminence.
2 - The fullness of this vessel caused by perverse energy basically manifests by a
sensation of heat at the radial apophysis and in the palm of the hand.
The emptiness of this vessel caused by an insufficiency of essential energy is indicated
by frequent urination.
3 - Treatment consists of needling Lieque (Lu 7), where a vessel also leaves from towards
the Hand Yangming (LI) because the lung channel and that of the large intestine constitute a
yin-yang - interior-exterior system of liason.
III - N.V.N.:
See the detailed study of the longitudinal luo (Luo Bie) and transversal luos and their
method of use in Medecine Traditionelle Chinoise (Classical Chinese Medicine) (N.V.N.
Edition, 1971) and The Energetic Human (Angouleme Edition, 1969).
PARAGRAPH 24

The luobie of the Hand Shaoyin (He) is called Tongli because this
vessel arises from the point of the same name (he 5), located at 1 1/2
cun ( 25). It ascends the length of the principal channel involved,
penetrates into the heart organ, links up with the tongue and enters
into liason with the eyes.
In the event of fullness caused by perverse energy, this vessel
manifests by a sensation of the separation of the diaphragm (thoraco-
abdominal oppression), and in the event of emptiness following an
insufficiency of essential energy, by anarthria.
It is advised to needle Tongli (he 5), from which another vessel

also
leaves which bifurcates toward the Hand Taiyang (SI).
303 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
The luobie of the Hand Shaoyin (He) bears the name Tongli because the point
Tongli (he 5) is its site of departure.
This vessel follows the principal channel (heart),
_ reaches the heart
_ links up to the base of the tongue
_ and adheres to the eyes.
Fullness of this vessel is characterized by an obstruction of the diaphragm, and emptiness
by dysphasia because the luobie of the heart is attached to the base of the tongue.
II - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph concerns the luo point of the heart channel called Tongli. From this point,
a vessel departs which directly reaches the heart, then links up to the base of the tongue and to
the eyes (26).

25. One must read it as 1 cun. It is a probably a matter of an error in printing.
26. The principal channel of the heart and its luobie together reach the throat and eyes because the second follows the
parallel path of the first (principal channel).
The point Tongli (he 5) is located 1 cun behind the wrist. In the event of disorders of this
vessel, treatment consists of needling Tongli to 0.3 cun depth and apply 3 moxas there.
From this point Tongli (he 5) also arises another vessel (transversal luo) which flows
directly to the Hand Taiyang (SI) (27) because the heart and small intestine constitute a yin-
yang, interior-exterior system of liason.
PARAGRAPH 25 350.

The luobie of the Hand Jueyin (XB) is called Neiguan because this
vessel arises from the point of the same name (XB 6), located 2 cun
behind the wrist between 2 tendons.
This vessel ascends the length of the principal channel and links
up to the xin bao luo (energetic envelope of the heart).
Fullness of the heart system (28) expresses as heart pains, and
emptiness by cervical stiffness. It is advised to needle the point located
between the 2 tendons (Neiguan- XB 6), where a vessel also departs
towards Hand Shaoyang (SJ).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments:
The luobie of the Hand Jueyin (XB) and its principal channel (XB) are in liason with the
point Neiguan (XB 6), located 2 cun above the wrist.
This luobie separates from the principal channel,
_ circulates in the space of the 2 tendons
_ goes back up the length of the principal channel
_ penetrates into the xin bao luo (XB), etc....
304 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
II - Ma Shi explains:
This paragraph concerns the luo point of the Hand Jueyin (XB).
The Hand Jueyin also bears the name Master of heart because it replaces the heart
channel in order to fulfill certain well-determined functions.
The heart is sovereign organ belonging to the 5 organs and 6 bowels. When perverse energy
attacks the heart, it remains in the xin bao luo (XB).
From the point Neiguan (XB 6) a vessel departs which is directed towards the yuan point
(yangchi- SJ 4) of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) because the channel of the xin bao luo and that of the
sanjiao (SJ) constitute a yin-yang, interior-exterior system of liason.
PARAGRAPH 26

The luobie of the Hand Taiyang (SI) is called Shizheng because this
vessel departs from the point of the same name (SI 7), located 5 cun
above the wrist.

27. That is to say, to the yuan point (Wangu- SI 4)
28. heart-xinbao system.
This luobie ascends to the elbow and reaches the shoulder at the
point Jianyu (SI 15).
Fullness of this vessel provokes laxity of the elbow joint with
disorders of motility, and emptiness by the formation of warts, and in
benign cases, interdigital eczema.
It is advised to needle Shizheng (SI 7). From this point a vessel

also
departs towards the Hand Shaoyin (He).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Five cun from the wrist the point zhizheng (SI 7) occurs, from where is issued two
vessels, one directed to the Hand Shaoyin (He) (29) and the other ascends to the elbow and
branches to the point Jianyu (SI 15).
The Hand Taiyang (SI) controls the organic liquid. When its luobie is in fullness, the
organic liquid stagnates and cannot permeate the articulations, hence joint laxity and elbow
immobility; and when it is in emptiness, the essential energy accumulates, with formation of
warts or pruritis with eczema of the fingers, etc....
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the luo point of the small intestine channel, Shizheng (SI 7)
(needle depth 0.3 cun and apply 3 moxas).
Other than the luobie, another vessel emanates from this point which flows down into the
Hand Shaoyin (He) at the yuan point (shenmen- he 7) because the small intestine channel and that
of the heart constitute a yin-yang, interior-exterior system of liason.
PARAGRAPH 27

305 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
The luobie of the Hand Yangming (LI) is called Pianli because this
vessel arises from the point of the same name (LI 6), located 3 cun above
the wrist.
From this point Pianli two vessels depart:
_ one directed towards the Hand Taiyin (Lu)
_ and the other reascends the arm up to the shoulder at the point
Jianyu (SI 15), reaching the maxillary angle, distributing into the teeth
and penetrating into the ear to unite with the auricular Sun Mai (little
energetic intra-auricular branches).
Fullness of this luobie causes pain in the teeth and deafness, and
emptiness, a sensation of cold in the teeth and diaphragmatic
obstruction (Ge Bi).
It is advised to needle the point of the luobie, Pianli (LI 6).

352.

29. It involves the transversal luo vessel of the small intestine channel.
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The fullness of the luobie of Hand Yangming (LI) causes a stagnation of the energy at the
level of the teeth and ears, hence dental caries and temporary deafness.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the luo point of the large intestine channel. Pianli (LI 6) is
located 3 cun above the wrist. From this point two vessels arise:
_ one reaches the lung channel because the Hand Yangming (LI) and Hand Taiyin (Lu)
constitute the yin-yang, interior-exterior system
_ the other runs alongside the principal channel and is directed towards the shoulder to
the point Jianyu (SI 15) located at the level of the antero-inferior region of the acromion; then
from there, it carries itself to the maxillary angle to distribute to the teeth and anastomose to the
Sun Mai of the ear.
PARAGRAPH 28

The luobie of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) is called Wai guan. It begins
2 cun above the wrist, encircles the arm and flows down into the thorax.
From Waiguan (SJ 5) another vessel reaches the xin bao luo (XB).
Fullness of this luobie is indicated by spasm of the elbow, and
emptiness, by laxity.
It is advised to needle Waiguan (SJ 5).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The point Waiguan (SJ 5) is located 2 cun above the wrist. It is the site of departure of
306 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
the luobie of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ). This vessel encircles the arm and inserts into the thorax to
unite with the luobie of the Hand Jueyin (xin bao luo).
Fullness of this vessel causes spasms, and its emptiness, laxity because the shaoyang
(SJ and GB) and jueyin (Li and XB) control the muscular system.
II -Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the luo point of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ). Waiguan (SJ 5) occurs 2
cun above the wrist. The luobie departs from this point which goes around the arm and falls into
the thorax in order to communicate with that of the Hand Jueyin (XB) because the sanjiao (SJ) and
the xinbao (XB) constitute one of the 6 systems of yin-yang, interior-exterior of the organism.
353.
PARAGRAPH 29

The luobie of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) is called Feiyang (Bl 58), located 7
cun above the external malleoli. It follows the principal channel in
direction to the cranium, reaches the face and goes into relationship
with the nose and mouth.
Fullness of this vessel is indicated by nasal obstruction, headache
and dorso-lumbar pain, and emptiness, by epistaxis.
It is advised to needle the luo point (Feiyang-Bl 58), where a vessel
also departs from which is directed towards the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Seven cun above the malleoli the point Feiyang (Bl 58) occurs where two vessels depart
from: the luobie and Transversal Vessel which unite with the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).
Fullness of the luobie is characterized by such signs as nasal obstruction, headache and
back pain, and its emptiness, by epistaxis because the luobie accompany the principal channel to
reach the back and head.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the luo point of the Foot Taiyang (Bl).
From Feiyang (Bl 58), located 7 cun above the external malleolus, a vessel emanates which
is directed towards the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) because the kidney channel and that of the bladder
constitute one of the 6 systems of yin-yang, interior-exterior liason.
III - N.V.N.:
Ma Shi omitted commentary on the trajectory of the luobie of the Foot Taiyang (Bl).
PARAGRAPH 30

The luobie of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) is called guanming (GB 37).
From this point, located 5 cun above the external malleolus, a vessel
emanates toward the jueyin (Li) and another toward the foot. 354.
Fullness of this luobie is indicated by ice cold feet, and emptiness, by
trouble walking and inability to stand up after sitting down.
307 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
It is advised to needle guanming (GB 37).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Five cun above the external malleolus the point guanming (GB 37) of the Foot Shaoyang
(GB) is found.
The luobie of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) is linked to the principal channel and distributes to
the dorsal surface of the foot.
The shaoyang is the first energy. Fullness of its luobie hinders the ascending movement of
the energy and provokes an energetic stasis at the lower part of the body, hence cold feet, and its
emptiness causes disturbance of walking with difficulty standing up after a seated position.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the luo point of the gallbladder. The point guanming (GB 37),
located 5 cun above the external malleolus, gives rise to two vessels:
_one reaches to the Foot Jueyin (Li) because the gallbladder and liver constitute one of the
6 systems of yin-yang, interior-exterior liason of the organism
_ and the other spreads to the dorsal surface of the foot where the points Xiaxi (GB 43),
Diwuhui (GB 42), Linqi (GB 41)... are found.
Fullness of this luobie is indicated by ni Jue (contrary afflux, responsible for cold feet),
because the liver vessel is located at the lower part of the body (feet), and its emptiness, by the
syndrome wei Bi (disturbance in walking, inability to get up) because the liver governs the
muscles.
It is advised to needle guanming (GB 37), luo point of the gallbladder.
PARAGRAPH 31

The luobie of the Foot Yangming (St) is called Fenlong (St 40). From
this point, located 8 cun above the external malleolus, two vessels
emanat e:
_ one is directed toward the Foot Taiyin (Sp)
_ and another goes back up the length of the principal channel
(St), outside the spine, reaches the neck and head, anastomoses to the
energy of the other channels and redescends to the laryngo-pharyngeal
apparat us. 355.
The illness jue ni (contrary afflux) of the energy is characterized
by painful blockage of the throat and sudden aphasia.
Fullness of this luobie is characterized by yin madness and yang
madness (Dian-Kuang), and emptiness, by paralysis of the lower limbs
and atrophy of the leg.
It is advised to needle Fenlong (St 40), the luo point of the Foot
Yangming (St).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
308 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
The blood and energy of the 15 Da luo (Luo Bie or longitudinal luo) come from shui Gu
(water of the cereals) of the stomach. This is why the luobie of the Foot Yangming (St) reascends to
the cranium to anastomose with the energy of the yang channels (at the point Bahui- GV 20).
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the luo point of the stomach channel. From Fenlong (St 40),
located 8 cun above the external malleolus, two vessels emanate:
_ one which is directed towards the Foot Taiyin (Sp) because the stomach and spleen
constitute one of the 6 yin-yang, interior-exterior systems of liason of the organism
_ and another which follows the external surface of the leg, reaching the vertex to
anastomose with the energy of the other channels because the stomach is the sea of the 5 organs
and 6 bowels.
Painful blockage of the pharynx resulting from a contrary flow (afflux- jue ni) of the
energy of the stomach is due to the disorders of the vessels which branch to the throat.
In the ailments due to fullness and emptiness of this luobie, it is advised to needle
Fenlong (St 40) because it is the luo point of the Foot Yangming (St).
PARAGRAPH 32

The luobie of the Foot Taiyin (Sp) is called gongsun (Sp 4). From this
point, located 1 cun behind the first metatarso-phalangeal joint,
emanat es:
_ a vessel towards the yangming (St)
_ and another which is directed toward the intestines and stomach.
The contrary afflux (jue ni) of the energy is characterized by
gastrointestinal disturbances (Huo luan). 356.
Fullness of this luobie is indicated by sharp, colicky abdominal
pains, and emptiness, by abdominal swelling (belly tense like a drum).
It is advised to needle gongsun (Sp 4), luo point of the spleen.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
One cun behind the metatarso-phalangeal joint of the great toe the point gongsun (Sp 4) is
found from where emanates:
_ a vessel towards the Foot Yangming (St)
_ and another which goes to the stomach and intestines.
The afflux of the energy causes gastrointestinal disturbances. Fullness causes violent
abdominal pains, and emptiness abdominal bloating.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the luo point of the Foot Taiyin (Sp). From the point
gongsun (Sp 4), located 1 cun behind the first metatarso-phalangeal joint, emanates two vessels:
_ one directed toward the stomach channel because spleen and stomach constitute one of
the 6 yin-yang, interior-exterior systems of liason of the organism.
309 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
_ another directly reaches the intestines and stomach because the luobie is the shortest
path to go from exterior (from the luo point) to the interior (bowels: stomach and intestines).
PARAGRAPH 33

The luobie of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) is called Dazhong (Ki 4). From
this point, located behind the internal malleolus, two vessels emanate:
_ one encircles the calcaneus and arrives at the Foot Taiyang (Bl)
_ and the other follows the principal channel, ascends to the xin
bao luo(XB) and passes to the back and vertebral column.
The contrary afflux (jue ni) of the energy provokes anxiety.
Fullness of this luobie causes urinary retention, and emptiness,
l umbal gi a.
It is advised to needle Dazhong (Ki 4), luo point of Foot Shaoyin (Ki).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 357.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The luobie of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) and the kidney channel unite at the point
Dazhong (Ki 4). From this point two vessels detach:
_ one directed towards Foot Taiyang (Bl)
_ and the other follows the principal channel of the kidney and ascends to the region
below the xin bao luo (XB) (30), then emerges at the lumbar region.
The contrary afflux (jue ni) of the energy provokes anxiety because the heart energy is
insulted by water energy.
Fullness of the luobie of kidney causes urinary retention because the vessel which arrives
at the Foot Taiyang (Bl) prevents the energy from being metabolized.
Emptiness of the luobie of kidney causes back pains because the lumbar vertebrae are the
palaces of the kidney.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the luo point of the kidney channel.
From the point Dazhong (Ki 4), located behind the internal malleolus, a vessel emanates
which encircles the calcaneus and inserts into the Foot Taiyang (Bl) because the kidney and
bladder constitute one if the 6 yin-yang, interior-exterior systems of liason of the organism.
Another vessel, also emanating from the point Dazhong (Ki 4), follows the principal
channel of the kidney, goes back up toward the region below the xin bao luo (XB) and emerges at
the dorso-lumbar region; this is why the contrary afflux of the energy provokes anxiety.
PARAGRAPH 34

The luobie of the Foot Jueyin (Li) is called Ligou (Li 5). From this
point, located 5 cun above the internal malleolus, two vessels emanate:
_ one directed toward the Foot Shaoyang (GB)
310 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
_ and the other passes by the tibia, ascends to the testicles and
attaches to the penis.
The contrary afflux of the energy provokes inflammation of the
testicles (orchitis); fullness causes lengthening of the penis ( 31) , and
emptiness, genital pruritis.
It is advised to needle Ligou (Li 5), luo point of the liver.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 358.
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Five cun above the internal malleolus the point Ligou (Li 5) is found.
The luobie of the Foot Jueyin (Li) follows the principal channel of the liver; as for the
other vessel, it passes to the Foot Shaoyang (GB). It is necessary to needle the luo point of the
liver because this obeys the therapeutic principles according to which Illnesses located at the

30. The energy of Hand Shaoyang (SJ) and that of Hand Jueyin (XB) come from the kidney organ; this is why their luo
follow the parallel route of the kidney channel to arrive at the region located below the xin bao luo (XB).
31. The translation of Ma Shi is persistent erection (priapism).
yang must be treated at the yin (32).
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the luo point of the liver channel.
Ligou (Li 5) is located in a crease 5 cun above the internal malleolus.
The Foot Jueyin (Li) possesses, besides a luobie, another vessel which goes directly to the
Foot Shaoyang (GB) because the liver and gallbladder constitute one the 6 yin-yang, interior-
exterior systems of liason.
The illnesses cited in this paragraph belong to the luobie; treatment consists of needling
Ligou (Li 5), luo point of the liver.
PARAGRAPH 35

The luobie of renmai (CV) is called weiji (other name Jiuwei- CV 15).
This vessel distributes to the abdomen.
Fullness provokes cutaneous abdominal pain, and emptiness,
intolerable pruritis. It is advised to needle Jiuwei (CV 15).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains: 359.
The renmai (CV) begins at the bottom, below Zhongji (CV 3), goes back up to the pubic
hair, submerges into the abdomen and reappears at the point Quanyuan (CV 4), reaches the lips,
passes to the cheek and penetrates into the eye.
weiji is the name of the point located at the top (superficial), above Jiuwei (CV 15) which
is below (deep). The luobie of renmai (CV) starts at Jiuwei (CV 15), first reaches the superficial
(top), then redescends (bottom) to its site of origin to distribute to the abdomen.
311 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the luobie of renmai (CV), which begins at Jiuwei (CV 15),
emerges at weiji, then redescends to its point of departure to distribute to the abdomen. This is
why, fullness of perverse energy causes cutaneous abdominal pain, and emptiness of the essential
energy, ferocious itching. It is advised to needle Jiuwei (CV 15), luo point of the renmai.
III - N.V.N.:
The teachings of Zhang and Ma permit understanding that the point Jiuwei (CV 15) is deep
and that the needling must also be deep without crossing the peritoneum.
According to the Da Cheng, needling this point is reserved for experienced acupuncturists
because too significant a loss of energy can be bring about death (33).

32. Some translators, mistaking the exact meaning of the term yin-yang used in this wording, had deleted this phrase
which is fundamental to the practice of acupuncture.
Illness located at the yang means that it occurs at the secondary channel (yang), and must be treated at the yin
implies that treatment must be done at the principal channel because the luobie (longitudinal luo) make up part of the group of
secondary channels (yang, superficial) and the luo points belong to the principal channels (yin, deep). (see Medecine
Traditionnelle Chinoise - NVN Edition)
33. See Art and Practice of Acupuncture and Moxabustion (According to the Zhen Jiu Dacheng), Vol. III - NVN Edition.
PARAGRAPH 36

The luobie of the Dumai (GV) is called Changqiang (GV 1). This luo
runs alongside the paravertebral muscles on either side of the spine,
arrives at the neck, redescends to the shoulder blades, arrives at the
taiyang (Bl) and inserts into the paravertebral muscles.
Fullness causes pains of the spine, and emptiness, a sensation of
heaviness of the head. It is advised to needle Changqiang (GV 1), luo point
of the Dumai (GV).

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
The luobie of the Dumai (GV) starts at the point Changqiang (GV 1), runs alongside both
sides of the spine, ascends to the cranium and spreads to the head.
Other secondary routes of the Dumai come back out from the head and neck and redescend
to the shoulders.
II - Ma Shi comments: 360.
This paragraph concerns the luobie of the Dumai (GV), which starts at the point
Changqiang (GV 1), runs alongside the spine, goes back up to the neck, branches to the head and
below the cranium, and spreads to the shoulders.
Other vessels reach the taiyang (Bl) and penetrate deeply into the paravertebral muscles.
The fullness of perverse energy provokes stiffness of the spine, and emptiness of the
essential energy, a sensation of heaviness of the head with repetitive shaking movements and
restlessness of the neck. These ailments all are of spinal origin and must be treated at
Changqiang (GV 1), luo point of the Dumai (GV).
PARAGRAPH 37
312 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only

The Da luo (great luo) of the spleen is called Dabao (Sp 21), located
3 cun below the point Yuanye (GB 22). This vessel spreads to the thorax.
Fullness is indicated by generalized pains, and emptiness, by
muscular laxity.
This vessel spreads within the thorax like the mesh of a net
spattered with blood.
It is necessary to needle Dabao (Sp 21) of the spleen.

EXPLANATION AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
Dabao is the name of a point belonging to the spleen channel, located 3 cun below the
point Yuanye (GB 22). A number of small vessels departing from this point diffuse at the level of
the inner wall of the thorax as easily in the interior as at the exterior.
Fullness of perverse energy causes generalized pains, and emptiness, laxity of the joints.
... spreads like the mesh of a net spattered with blood implies that the energy and blood
of the Da luo spread to the sunluo (energetic branches) of the skin and that the Da luo controls all
the secondary vessels (secondary channels). This is why the disorders of the Da luo manifest by
generalized pains (case of fullness) or by joint laxity (case of emptiness).
The luobie (longitudinal luo) of the Foot Taiyin (Sp) follows the principal channel; its
blood and its energy only spread into the region to which it is associated (see above). For this
reason, the spleen channel possesses two luo vessels: the luobie and Dabao.
II - Ma Shi comments: 361.
This paragraph concerns the Dabao, great luo of the spleen, which distributes to the
inner thoracic walls like the mesh of a belt spattered with blood. In the event of generalized pains
or joint laxity, one must needle Dabao (Sp 21). (34).
PARAGRAPH 38

The 15 luo cited above are detectable in cases of fullness, and in
case of emptiness, they are deeply hidden, therefore invisible. One must
detect them by the top and bottom of the channel because the jingmai,
as well as the luomai, differ in individuals.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
When the 15 luo are sufficient enough in blood and energy, they spread into the sunluo
(Little luos) of the skin. This is why they are visible in the case of fullness and invisible in the
case of emptiness (because they become weakened in the interior).
One must detect them by the top and bottom means that the luomai intersect at the top
(superficial) and at the bottom (deep), within yang and within yin. When the illness occurs in the
yang (superficial) part, one must detect it at the bottom (yin, deep) and vice versa, and when it is
at the yin, one must treat the yang and vice versa. (35)
The 15 great luo are in direct liason with the jingmai and open to the four sides.
Their energy does not have a fixed location. They interlace the principal channels (jingmai)
313 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
without penetrating them; this is why they neither gather at the jingmai nor at the other groups of
secondary (tendinomuscular, distinct and curious) channels.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the method of utilization of the luo points which number 15:
_ 12 luo of the 12 jingmai
_ 2 luo of the 2 curious vessels: renmai (CV) and Dumai (GV)
_ and Dabao (Sp 21), great luo of the spleen.
These luo points are detectable when the perverse energy is in fullness there; they weaken
and become invisible when the essential energy is in emptiness there. In the latter case, one must
detect the luo points not weakened located at the top (superficial) and at the bottom (deep) in
order to determine the point sought.
III - N.V.N.: 362.
This paragraph emphasizes the importance of the 15 luo and does not address the great luo
(Da luo) of the stomach.

34. This definition permits us to understand that the human being possesses two belts: one abdominal (Daimai) and
the other thoracic (Dabao).
35. See Principles of treatment according to the yin-yang localization of the illness in Paragraph 34) & footnote 31).
In Chapter 18 (Energetic Aspects of the Pulse of Man in good health) of the Suwen, we
read:
The Da luo of the stomach is called Xu Li. It begins at the stomach and crosses the
diaphragm to link up with the lung and emerge below the left breast, at the point Rugen (St 18).
These movements can be transmitted through the clothes and allow, in this way, examination of
Tongqi (original or a priori energy).
If these movements are very strong, rapid and gasping (as in dyspnea) and are interrupted
by a stoppage, this is the sign of attack of the Tanzhong (middle of the thorax).
If these movements assume the aspect of the knotted pulse (slow pulse presenting with
pauses) whose energetic current becomes wider in the intercostal space, it is the sign of
accumulation of the energy.
The absence of beating and movements indicates death.
Sometimes, the beatings of Xu Li are so intense, entirely bursting, that they show through
under the clothes; this is the sign of the liberation of Tongqi; it is also death.
In total, the energetic system of the body is comprised, among the luomai, of 16 luobie, of
which one, internal, comes from the stomach bowel.


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363.
Book III

Book 3 contains 11 chapters:
Chapter 11: Distinct Channels
(Jing Bie)
Chapter 12: River Ways
(Jing Shui)
Chapter 13: Tendinomuscular Channels
(Jing Jin)
315 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only
Chapter 14: Measurement of the Bones
(Gu Duo)
Chapter 15: Fifty Rong (ying)
(Wu Shi Rong)
Chapter 16: Nutritive Energy
(Ying Qi)
Chapter 17: Measurement of the Vessels
(Mai Duo)
Chapter 18: Production and Reunion of Ying and Wei 364.
(Ying Wei Sheng Hui)
Chapter 19: Energies of the 4 Seasons
(Si She Qi)
Chapter 20: Five Perverse
(Wu Xie)
Chapter 21: Diseases of Cold and Heat
(Han Re Bing)
365.


CHAPTER XI
Distinct Channels
(Jing Bie)
Chapter 11 of the Lingshu is devoted to the study of the 12 Jing Bie.
The Jing Bie constitute a particular system of secondary pathways of the
12 jingmai (principal channels). Their trajectories are long and deep and form an
original system of 6 unions .
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In this manner, the 12 jingmai establish not only a direct, interrelated system
of yin-yang, interior-exterior at the level of the organs/bowels and of the
hands/feet, but also a system of union with the other parts of the body via the
intermediary of the 12 Jing Bie. This is why this chapter is entitled: Jing Bie or
Distinct Channels .
This chapter consists of 7 paragraphs.
PARAGRAPH 1

Huangdi :
I have understood it is said that man is in harmony with the
Celestial Dao. In the interior, he is endowed with 5 organs in order to
respond to the 5 sounds, 5 colors, 5 seasons, 5 flavors, 5 directions... .
At the exterior, he has at his disposal 6 bowels to respond to the
6 laws. These 6 laws create the yin channels and yang channels to
coincide with the 12 months, 12 stars, 12 divisions, 12 jing shui (rivers),
12 hours, 12 jingmai (1)... . The 5 organs and 6 bowels are then in
accord with the Celestial Dao.
The concept of the 12 jingmai constitute the foundation of the
notions of health, illness, treatment, cure... . Future doctors begin their
study in this way and practitioners integrate it perfectly. The poor
doctor neglects it and the good doctor finds it arduous. Please tell me of
their separation and their union.
Qi Bo, bowing his head respectfully, replies:
Your question is profoundly worthy. It is quite true that the poor
doctor neglects them and the good doctor seeks to study them
at t ent i vel y.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I- Zhang Shi explains:
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Besides the 12 luobie (longitudinal luo) (2), the jingmai (principal channels) also are
composed of 12 Jing Bie (Distinct Channels).
The 5 directions designate the 5 cardinal points (North, South, East, West and Center), and
the phrase the 6 laws create the yin and yang channels implies that these channels are the
12 jingmai, 12 luobie and 12 Jing Bie.
These 6 laws are grouped together into yin and yang to respond to the 12 months,
12 branches, 12 hours of heaven, 12 water courses (jing shui: rivers) of the earth and to the
12 jingmai of man. It is in this way that the 5 organs and 6 bowels respond to the Celestial Dao.
The 6 vessels of the 6 organs are linked to the bowels and those of the 6 bowels to the
organs. Such is the principal of the circulation of ying-Xue (nutritive energy-blood) within the
12 jingmai. But besides the 12 jingmai, there exists also the Da luo (great luo) and there exists
also the Jing Bie (Distinct Channels). For this reason, the poor doctor finds these notions easy and
the conscientious doctor regards them as difficult.
The separation and union designate the three yang channels detaching from their vessels
of origin to unite with the 3 yin channels, and the 3 yin channels detaching from their vessels of
origin to unite with the 3 yang channels. Explanation of these notions is found in Chapter 64
(Discourse on Contrary and Favorable Needling of the 4 Seasons) of the Suwen: The great
needling, or Cu Ji, is reserved for the jing (principal channels). Because, when the left radial
pulse is in fullness, the illness is necessarily on the right and vice versa. In this case, the great
needling must be used and performed at the jing (principal channels) and not at the luomai
(secondary channels).

1. See the explanation of all these elements in M.T.C.- N.V.N.
2. See Chapter 10 (Vessels-Channels) of this classic.
In the previous chapter (Ch. 10 Vessels-Channels)) , the word Bie (distinct)
encompasses, besides the 12 jingmai (principal channels), the 12 luobie (secondary channels). In
contrast, in this Chapter 11, the word Bie designates the Jing Bie (Distinct Channels). 367.
The system of jingmai and luobie (Longitudinal or distinct luo) constitutes the source
(genesis) of the human being. blood and energy, yin and yang can present disturbances and,
therefore, initiate illnesses perceived at the level of the pulses; the singular (3) illnesses are
provoked at the level of the luobie and Jing Bie, explaining the gamut of various treatments :
_ epidermal needling
_ needling of the channels
_ needling on the opposite side
_ great needling, etc.
because the jingluo (principal and secondary channels) are multiple. These notions appear
difficult to conscientious doctors.
II - Ma shi explains :
In this paragraph, Huangdi questions Qi Bo about the terms Separation and Union.
Man follows the movements of the natural world. Because the 5 organs are yin, they
respond to :
_ the 5 sounds: Jiao (wood), Zi (fire), gong (earth), Zhang (metal) and Yu (water), (4)
_ the 5 colors: green (wood), red (fire), yellow (earth), white (metal) and black (water),
_ the 5 flavors: sour (wood), bitter (fire), sweet (earth), pungent (metal), salty (water),
_ the 5 cardinal directions: North (water), South (fire), East (wood), West (metal) and
Center (earth)
_ the 5 planets: Xue jing (wood:Jupiter), xing Hua (fire:Mars), Chan jing (earth:Saturn), Tai
Bai (metal:Venus) and sheng jing (water:Mercury). (5)
The 6 bowels are yang. They respond to the 6 laws classified as yin and yang in order to
determine the 3 yin and 3 yang (taiyin, jueyin, shaoyin, taiyang, shaoyang, yangming)
corresponding to the 12 months, 12 branches (6), 12 jing shui (currents of water; rivers) and
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12 jingmai (principal channels).
Physiologically, the 12 jingmai are energetic currents which maintain life; pathologically,
they determine the processes of the activation of illness and their evolutive principles, and
clinically, they play a fundamental role in disease classification, diagnosis and treatment.
The concept of the jingmai represents, therefore, a basic theory for those who become
initiated into energetic medicine. Wise doctors discern the movements of separation/union and
entering/exiting of the jingmai in their therapeutic research.
PARAGRAPH 2 368.

1. The principal (Zheng) of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) isolates in the
popliteal crease, ascends to 5 cun below the coccyx, penetrates into the
anus, goes into relation with the bladder, branches to the kidney, runs
alongside the paraspinous muscles and distributes to the heart. Another
vessel ascends to the neck and inserts into the taiyang (Bl). Such is the
circulatory route of the Jing Bie of the Foot Taiyang (Bl).

3. See Chapter 47 (Essay on the singular diseases) of the Suwen, Volume III- N.V.N. Edition; the phrase singular diseases
designates illnesses caused by disturbances in the secondary vessels.
4. See Chapter 71 (Great Study on the Preparation of Cyclic recordings of the 6 Energetic Sources) of the Suwen,
Volume IV- N.V.N. Edition.
5. See Chapter 67 (Great Discourse on the Circumductions of the 5 movements) of the Suwen, Volume IV- N.V.N.
Edition.
6. See M.T.C., page 36, N.V.N. Edition.
2. The principal (Zheng) of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) also isolates in
the popliteal crease, unites with the taiyang (Bl), reaches the kidney
and reconnects at the 14th (2nd lumbar) vertebrae to link up with the
Daimai (heartvessel); then, beyond that, a vertical vessel reaches the
base of the tongue, comes back out via the nucha and inserts into the
taiyang (Bl) to constitute (with the preceding Jing Bie) the first system of
union.
In this way, the Jing Bie of the yin channels unite with all the
yang channels.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi comments :
1. The Foot Taiyang (Bl) and Foot Shaoyin (Ki) constitute the first system of union.
The term principal (Zheng) implies that, beside the jingmai, there also exists the Jing
Bie (Distinct Channels) which are different from the luobie (Longitudinal or distinct luo)
described in Chapter 10 (Vessels-Channels) of this classic.
Another vessel implies that the Jing Bie comprise two pathways, one external and one
internal.
... penetrates within the anus ... comes back out via the neck and inserts into the
taiyang indicates that the Jing Bie emanate from the jingmai, penetrate into the abdomen via the
anal route, reach the thorax and arrive at the neck then rejoin the channel of origin.
2. The principal of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) detaches from the principal channel at the
popliteal crease, unites with the principal of the taiyang (Bl), ascends to the neck, emerges at
the 14th (2nd lumbar) vertebrae to anastomose with the Daimai (vessel-belt). A vertical vessel
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leaves the kidney, reaches the base of the tongue, comes back out at the nucha to reunite with the
principal of the Foot Taiyang (Bl).
This fusion of channels constitutes the first system of union.
Chapter 6 (Separation and Reunion of Yin and Yang) of the Suwen specifies:
Yang being considered as the principal, yin becomes the master.
Above shaoyin is taiyang.
In front of taiyin is yangming.
And outside jueyin is shaoyang. 369.
This assertion means that yang is the principal vessel of yin and that yin commands it.
yang is created by yin. This means to say that the principal vessels of the 3 yang unite with the
3 yin to form the Jing Bie (Distinct Channels) of the 3 yin of the foot and hand. As a result, the
3 yang always return toward the principal vessels of the 3 yin. This is why it is said: They are
all principal channels.
II - Ma Shi comments :
This paragraph defines the first system of union formed by the channels of the bladder
and kidney.
1. Foot Taiyang (Bl) has a distinct branch which detaches from the principal channel,
_ is directed toward the middle of the popliteal crease where one finds weizhong (Bl 40)
_ ascends to 5 cun below the coccyx
_ passes the point Chengfu (Bl 36) to penetrate into the anus
_ arrives at the bladder
_ runs alongside the paraspinous muscles up to the region of the heart where it branches.
A vertical vessel directly leaves from the paraspinous muscles, that is to say, from the
points jineiyushu (or Zhonglushu- Bl 29), Pangguanshu (Bl 28), etc.,
_ reaches the nucha
_ and inserts into the Foot Taiyang (Bl), at the point Tianzhu (Bl 10).
Such is the trajectory of the Distinct Channel (Jing Bie) of the bladder.
2. The Foot Shaoyin (Ki) is the principal vessel of the kidney channel. It starts at the
point Yongquan (Ki 1), reaches the internal malleolus, arrives at the popliteal crease, gives rise
to a distinct branch which unites with the Foot Taiyang (Bl) at the point weizhong (Bl 40). It
ascends to the kidney,
_ exits at the level of the 14th (2nd lumbar) vertebrae via the point shenshu (Bl 23) to
link up with the Daimai (vessel-belt)
_ a vertical vessel directly reaches the base of the tongue
_ comes back out at the nape to reunite with the Foot Taiyang (Bl) at the point
Tianshu (Bl 10) forming, in this manner, the first system of union (Figures 42 and 43).
In this way, the presence of the yang channels summon those of the yin channels, and the
Jing Bie of these yin unite with the yang channels.
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370.

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Figure 42.
Distinct Channels of the Bladder and kidney (first system of union)
After Theory and Practice of Acupuncture Analgesia (N.V.N. Edition)
371.
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Figure 43 :
Synthetic study of the first system of union
(Distinct Channel of the Bladder and kidney)
PARAGRAPH 3

1. The principal of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) encircles the
inguinal region, penetrates into the pubic hair, unites with the jueyin
(Li), reaches the hypochondria (Ji Lie), penetrates into the thorax,
branches to the gallbladder, ascends to the liver, traverses the heart,
reaches the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus, reappears at the chin,
spreads to the face, integrates with the ocular system and unites with
the Foot Shaoyang (GB) at the external canthus of the eye.
2. The principal of the Foot Jueyin (Li) detaches from its
channel of origin at the top of the foot, ascends to the pubic hair,
unites with the Foot Shaoyang (GB) and circulates together with it to
constitute the second system of union.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 372...
I - Zhang Shi explains :
1. The Foot Shaoyang vessel starts at the external canthus of the eye, reaches the head
and face, descends to the dorsum of the foot where the trajectory of departure of the Jing Bie is
located. The latter encircles the internal surface of the thigh, ascends to the external canthus of
the eye and reunites with its channel of origin, the Foot Shaoyang (GB).
The principal channel of the gallbladder and its Jing Bie circulate, therefore, in opposite
directions.
2. The principal of the Foot Jueyin (Li) starts at the dorsum of the foot, arrives at the
pubic hair, unites with the Foot Shaoyang (GB) forming, in this way, the second system of union.
(Figures 44 and 45)
II - N.V.N. :
Commentary by Ma Shi on this paragraph could not be found.
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373.
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Figure 44 :
Distinct Channels of the Gallbladder and liver (second system of union)
After Theory and Practice of Acupuncture Analgesia (N.V.N. Edition)
From 1 to 8: circulatory direction
374...
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Figure 45 :
Synthetic study of the second system of union
(Distinct Channel of the Gallbladder and liver)
PARAGRAPH 4 372....

The principal (Zheng) of the Foot Yangming (St) arrives at the
inner thigh (Bi), penetrates into the abdomen, goes into liason with the
stomach, branches to the spleen, communicates with the heart, arrives
at the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus, reaches the mouth, ascends to the
forehead, links up with the ocular system and unites with the yangming
( St ) .
The principal of the Foot taiyin (Sp) arrives at the inner thigh,
unites with yangming (St), circulates together with the Jing Bie of this
latter, links with the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus and penetrates
deeply into the tongue. This is the third system of union.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains :
The word Bi (or Be) designates the inner thigh. After the point Futu (St 32), the point
Biguan (St 31) is found, which means door of the thigh.
1. The principal of the Foot Yangming (St) starts at the top of the foot,
_ arrives at the inner thigh
_ penetrates into the abdomen and thorax
_ arrives at the face and head
_ unites with the Hand Yangming (LI) in the space where the points Chengqi (St 1) and
sibai (St 2)are found. This trajectory constitutes a circulation opposite to that of the principal
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channel (Foot Yangming- St).
2. The principal of the Foot Taiyin (Sp) detaches from its channel of origin,
_ reaches the internal face of the thigh 374.
_ unites with the Jing Bie of the yangming (St)
_ circulates together with it
_ inserts into the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus
_ and penetrates deeply within the tongue.
This is the third system of union. (Figures 46 and 47)
II - Ma Shi comments :
This paragraph concerns the third system of union formed by the distinct channels of the
stomach and spleen.
1. Chapter 10 (Vessels-Channels) of this classic addresses the circulatory movements of
the energy of the principal channel of the stomach, which starts at the point yingxiang (LI 20)
and ends at the point Lidui (St 45). In contrast, in this paragraph, the circulation begins at the
jing, ying, shu, jing and he points located at the lower part of the body and reascends toward the
upper part. This is why it is said: The principal (Zheng: distinct channel) starts at the tip of
the 2nd toe,
_ reaches the top of the foot 376....
_ runs alongside the external surface of the leg up to the knee
_ arrives at the points Futu (St 32), Biguan (St 31) and qichong (St 30)
_ penetrates within the abdomen
_ links up with the stomach
_ traverses the heart
_ enters into Quepen (supra-clavicular fossa)
_ reaches the laryngopharyngeal apparatus
_ arrives at the mouth
_ ascends toward the side of the nose
_ and unites with the jing Sui (satisfying vessels; or segmental linking vessels) of the
Foot Yangming (St).
The circulation of the Jing Bie of the stomach takes place, therefore, in the opposite
direction to that of the principal channel of origin. 377...
2. The Foot Taiyin (Sp) and Foot Yangming (St) are in yin-yang, interior-exterior
relationship. Their Jing Bie interacts with the points Biguan (St 31) and qichong (St 30), where
the longitudinal luo (Luo Bie) of the stomach also arrives. Together, they penetrate into the
abdomen and thorax, arrive at the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus, connect to the base of the tongue
and enter deeply there. These Jing Bie of the stomach and spleen form the third system of union.
(Figures 46 and 47).
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375.
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Figure 46 :
Distinct Channels of the stomach and spleen (third system of union)
After Theory and Practice of Acupuncture Analgesia (N.V.N. Edition)
From 1 to 8: circulatory direction
376....
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Figure 47 :
Synthetic study of the third system of union
(Distinct Channel of the stomach and spleen)
PARAGRAPH 5 377...

The principal of the Hand Taiyang (SI) belongs to the earth. It
starts at the shoulder, penetrates into the axilla, reaches the heart and
attaches to the small intestine.
The principal of the Hand Shaoyin (He) reaches Yuanye (GB22), at
the level of the 2 tendons, links up with the heart, reaches the laryngo-
pharyngeal apparatus, exits from the face and unites at the internal
canthus of the eye. This is the fourth system of union.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains :
The principal of the Hand Taiyang (SI) belongs to the earth expresses that the
connection of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and the taiyang is located at the bottom because the
12 jingmai are divided into Shou (hand) and Zu (foot). When one speaks of the two energies, yin
and yang, one elaborates on the 3 yin and 3 yang without dividing them into hand and foot.
The 6 bowels manifest from the 3 yang of the foot which unite above with those of the
hand. This is why the principal of the Hand Shaoyin (He), located above, manifests at the eyes
and unites with the Foot Taiyang (Bl) at the point jingming (Bl 1), at the internal canthus of the
eye. Such is the situation of the union of water and fire of the top and bottom of the body.
Logically, the Hand Taiyang (SI) responds to water and the Hand Shaoyin (He), to fire:
heaven follows the number 1 to create the water of earth, and the number 2, to create fire; fire is
at the top and water, at the bottom; it fulfills therefore the phenomena of exchanges of potential
between yin and yang. This is why the Hand Taiyang (SI), belonging to earth, circulates toward the
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bottom to unite with Zu (foot), and the Hand Shaoyin (He) is directed above to unite with the
bladder channel (taiyang). Such is the dissertation on water and fire of heaven and earth whose
exchange, originating from their top-bottom positions, always conducts them in an original
state, that is to say, reduces them to one single and unique energy (7). It is also so in the human
being, the organs/bowels and jingmai respond to the Celestial Dao.
378...
II - Ma Shi comments :
This paragraph explains the formation of the fourth system of union.
1. The Hand Taiyang (SI) channel starts at the tip of the little finger, runs alongside the
external side of the hand, reaches the wrist, follows the forearm, arrives at the elbow, passes to
the outside surface of the arm up to the shoulder, penetrates into Quepen (supra-clavicular
fossa), descends toward the heart, reascends to the laryngopharyngeal apparatus, redescends
toward the diaphragm, arrives at the stomach and links up with the small intestine. This is why,
the text states, ... penetrates into the axilla, reaches the heart and attaches to the small
intestine.
2. The Hand Shaoyin (He) and Hand Taiyang (SI) channels form a yin-yang, interior-
exterior system. The Hand Shaoyin (He) starts at the heart, reaches the heart system (Xin he)
(8), descends to the diaphragm and links up with the small intestine. A vessel leaves the heart
system, arrives at the lung, reaches the point Yuanye (GB 22) below the laryngopharyngeal
apparatus, leaves via the face and unites at the internal canthus of the eye, at the point jingming

7. See The Monistic System (energetic system reducible to unity), Volume I of the Art and Practice of Acupunture-
Moxabustion According to the Da Cheng, page 287. N.V.N. Edition.
8. The system heart implies the system heart-Master of heart.
(Bl 1) where a vessel of the Hand Taiyang (SI) also arrives. This is the fourth system of union.
(Figures 48 and 49)
379.
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Figure 48
Distinct Channels of the heart and small intestine (4th system of union)
After Theory and Practice of Acupuncture Analgesia (Edition N.V.N.)
From 1-4: circulatory direction
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Figure 49:
Synthetic study of the fourth system of union
(Distinct Channel of the Small intestine and heart)
PARAGRAPH 6 378.

The principal of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) belongs to heaven. It
starts at the vertex of the cranium, penetrates into Quepen (supra-
clavicular fossa), descends to the sanjiao (SJ) and disperses into the
t hor ax.
The principal of the Hand Jueyin (XB) descends to 3 cun below
the axilla to the point Yuanye (GB 22), penetrates into the thorax, links
with the sanjiao (SJ), ascends to the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus,
reaches behind the ear and unites with the shaoyang (SJ) below the
point Wangu (GB 12). This is the fifth system of union.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
1. The shaoyang is primary yang created by yin. Consequently, from the bottom, it is
directed toward the top.
The term principal of the Hand Shaoyang expresses that Shou (hand) must unite with
Zu (foot), and the term ... belongs to heaven explains that Zu (foot) must unite with Shou (hand).
When one studies the system of the two channels shaoyang/jueyin (SJ-XB), one
determines the nature of the 6 unions. In contrast, when one studies it according to the yin energy
and yang energy, one only analyzes the 3 unions.
380.
2. Yuanye (GB 22) belongs to the Foot Shaoyang (GB) channel. It is located 3 cun below the
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axilla.
The principal of the Master of the heart (xin bao luo) of the hand descends to
Yuanye (GB 22) to penetrate into the thorax; it links up with the sanjiao (SJ),
_ reaches the laryngopharyngeal apparatus
_ emerges behind the ear
_ rejoins the shaoyang (SJ)
_ unites below the point Wangu (GB 12).
This is the fifth system of union. (Figures 50 and 51)
II - Ma Shi clarifies:
This paragraph concerns the system of union of Hand Shaoyang (SJ) and Hand Jueyin (XB).
1. Hand Shaoyang (SJ) starts at the tip of the little finger. reaches the wrist, arrives at the
elbow, ascends the arm to the shoulder, descends to Quepen (supraclavicular crease, arrives at the
sanjiao (SJ) and disperses into the thorax.
From the fact that its Jing Bie takes off from the vertex, the text qualifies the shaoyang
(SJ) channel as belonging to heaven. 381....
2. The Jing Bie of the Hand Jueyin (XB) begins at Tianchi (XB 1) below the axilla,
_ penetrates into the thorax and abdomen,
_ joins with the sanjiao (SJ),
_ reascends to the thorax,
_arrives behind the ear,
_and unites with the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) below the point Wangu (GB 12), that is to say, at
the point Tianfu (SJ 16), to form the fifth system of union. (Figures 50 and 51)
382.
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Figure 50:
Distinct Channels of xinbao and sanjiao (fifth system of union)
After Theory and Practice of Acupuncture Analgesia (N.V.N. Edition)
From 1 to 4: circulatory direction
383....
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Figure 51:
Synthetic study of the fifth system of union
(Distinct Channel of the sanjiao and xinbao)
PARAGRAPH 7

The principal of the Hand Yangming (LI) leaves from the arm at
the level of the breast, arrives at the point Jianyu (LI 15), reaches the 7th
cervical vertebrae, descends to Quepen (supraclavicular fossa), arrives
at the large intestine, joins with the lung, reascends to the laryngo-
pharyngeal apparatus, comes back out at Quepen and unites with the
yangming (LI).
The principal of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) penetrates into the point
Yuanye (GB 22) in front of the shaoyin (He) vessel, enters the lung,
branches to the taiyang (SI), reascends to Quepen, runs alongside the
laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus and unites with the yangming (LI) to
constitute the sixth system of union.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi clarifies:
1. The principal of the Hand Yangming (LI) follows the jingmai of the hand up to the
arm, at the height of the breast, detaches from its channel of origin and arrives alone at
Jianyu (LI 15), reaches the area underlying the 7th cervical vertebrae to the point Dazhui
(GV 14), descends towards the large intestine, links with the lung, reascends to the laryngo-
pharyngeal apparatus, comes back out at Quepen and unites with the jingmai of Hand Yangming
(LI).
2. The principal of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) separates from its channel of origin at the level
of the area of the points Zhongfu (Lu 1) and Yunmen (Lu 2),
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_ arrives at the point Yuanye (GB 22)
_ is directed to the front of the taiyin (Lu)
_ arrives at the lung and the region near the heart where it branches to the taiyang (SI)
_ reascends to Quepen
_ reaches the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus
_ unites with Hand Yangming (LI) to constitute the sixth system of union. (Figures 52
and 53)
383.
II - Ma Shi comments :
This paragraph concerns the system of union of the large intestine and lung channels.
1. The principal of the Hand Yangming (LI) leaves at the point Jianyu (LI 15),
_ reaches Dazhui (GV 14)
_ descends to the large intestine and links up with the lung
_ reascends to the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus
_ and unites with the Hand Yangming (LI), its channel of origin, at the point Futu (LI 18).
2. The principal of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) reaches Yuanyue (GB 22),
_ joins the xinbao (XB) channel
_ passes in front of the Hand Shaoyin (He)
_ arrives at the lung
_ connects to its channel of origin
_ reascends to Quepen 384.
_ reaches the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus
_ and unites with the Hand Yangming (LI) at the point Futu (LI 18) to constitute the sixth
system of union. (Figures 52 and 53)
385.
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Figure 52 :
Distinct Channels of lung and large intestine (sixth system of union)
After Theory and Practice of Acupuncture Analgesia (N.V.N. Edition)
From 1 to 5: circulatory direction
386...
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Figure 53 :
Synthetic study of the sixth system of union
(Distinct Channel of the large intestine and lung)
III - N.V.N.: 384.
In conclusion, the Jing Bie (distinct channels) are vessels belonging to the 12 jingmai
(principal channels). They differ from the other luomai (secondary vessels) and constitute a
particular system of pathways derived from the principal channel.
I. Original system of inter-unions
The Jing Bie do not possess a yin-yang, interior-exterior system of relationship
characteristic of to the 6 yin and 6 yang channels, but establish an original system of 6 unions:
1. The Jing Bie of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) and that of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) unite below at the
popliteal crease at weizhong (Bl 40), and above at the nucha at Tianzhu (Bl 10) (Fig. 42 and 43).
2. The Jing Bie of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) and that of the Foot Jueyin (Li) unites below at
the pubis symphysis at the point Qugu (CV 2), and above at the external canthus of the eye at the
point Tongziliao (GB 1) (Fig. 44 and 45).
3. The Jing Bie of the Foot Yangming (St) and that of the Foot Taiyin (Sp) unite below at the
groin at the point qichong (St 30), and above at the neck at renying (St 9) (Fig. 46 and 47).
4. The Jing Bie of the Hand Taiyang (SI) and that of the Hand Shaoyin (He) unite below at
the sub-axillary region at the point Yuanye (GB 22), and above at the internal canthus of the eye
at the point jingming (Bl 1) (Fig. 48 and 49).
5. The Jing Bie of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) and that of the Hand Jueyin (XB) unite below at
the sanjiao bowel (shangjiao, zhongjiao, xiajiao), and above below the mastoid process at the point
Tianfu (SJ 16) (Fig. 50 and 51).
6. The Jing Bie of the Hand Yangming (LI) and that of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) unite below at
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the large intestine bowel, and above at the neck at the point Futu (LI 18) (Fig. 52 and 53).
In this way, the 12 jingmai (principal channels) possess not only a direct system of
interrelation at the level of the organs/bowels and at the foot/hand, but also an indirect system of
inter-union in the other parts of the body via the intermediary of the Distinct Channels.
II. Physiologic role
The Jing Bie reinforce the circulatory paths of the jingmai in the interior of the organism.
1. They reinforce them by their connection with the yang channels. The Jing Bie begin at
the level of the great articulations and become intraabdominal and intrathoracic to reach the
organs/bowels; then they cross the heart before emerging at the neck, nucha or face and project
themselves exclusively into the yang channels.
2. This connection explains the fact that the 12 jingmai are not only dependent on their
own system of inter-union, but also on the system of entering/exiting-separation/union of the
distinct channels. The organization of these latter systems is more complex than those located at
the level of the feet/hands. In other words, the physiological activities of the organism depend not
only on the 12 jingmai (principal channels), but also on the 12 Jing Bie.
3. The role of the Jing Bie is complementary to that of the jingmai because
_ the regions not covered by the jingmai are under the control of the Jing Bie.
_ the yin principal channels all have one influence on the head and face (with the
exception of the jueyin- Li), although their trajectories ends at the thorax and pharynx. This
action explains the fact that the 6 yin distinct channels collateralize from the yin principal
channels, arriving at the neck or the face, to anastomose with the collateral yang distinct channels
from the yang channels.
The yang principal channels located at the facial-cervical area, therefore, receive the
blood and energy of the yin distinct channels.
387.
III. Disease description and classification and therapeutic nature
Chapter 11 describes the circulatory routes of the 12 Jing Bie, but does not mention
disturbances which can affect them. Nevertheless, by therapeutic plan, one can choose the points
following the channels based on the yin or yang nature of the illness and symptomatology.
The study of the classification of the 12 jingmai shows us that there exists numerous
illnesses that are located outside of the area of the principal channels; they localize within the
area of the Jing Bie (distinct channels). One understands as well that the distinct channels have a
certain role in physiology and that they can be sites of attack of the illness.
The action of the points of the principal channels outside their trajectories, therefore,
allows explaining that of the distinct channels. In this manner, for example, the principal
channel of Hand Jueyin (XB) does not reach the neck, but its points, Jianshi (XB 5) and Daling
(XB 7), act on ailments of the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus. This is to say that the
symptomatology of the distinct channels on the whole may be superimposable on that of the
corresponding principal channel. They nevertheless call attention to the intermittent nature of
some clinical signs. This particular characteristic establishes the treatment by needling on the
opposite side .
In-depth study of the text, particularly of the explanations of Zhang and Ma, allow us to
draw more analytic and more precise outlines according to the thinking of our times, toward the
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goal of better grasping the energetic physiology of the Jing Bie.

no 388/389
CHAPTER XII
River Ways
(jing shui)
Chapter 12 of the Lingshu is devoted to the 12 rivers (qing, wei, Hai, he, Ru,
Zang, Huai, Lei, Jiang, Ha, Ji and Zhang) of Huangdis era. These rivers are
differentiated by their extent, depth, source, location and length. They are used as an
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example of similarity with the 12 jingmai (principal channels).
This analogous study illustrates more than ever the symbiosis of man with the
natural world, particularly due to the conformity of the depth and length of each
channel with that of a waterway (river). In this way, one can deduce by analogy that
the depth of needling and the time to leave the needle in permanently at the level of
the energetic points and channels must be established according to precise
constants.
This chapter has the basic property:
_ of establishing a parallel study of the 12 jingmai with that of the 12 rivers
(jing shui) in the search for the depth of implantation of the needle and its duration
permanently at the level of the 3 yin and 3 yang of the hand and foot.
_ and of making us understand needling as a function of age, build and the
constitution of the individual.
It is only after having assimilated all these components that one will be able to
resolve the problem of emptiness and fullness. This is why this chapter is entitled
jing shui (waterways; rivers).
This chapter consists of 4 paragraphs.
PARAGRAPH 1 390.

Huangdi questions Qi Bo:
At the exterior, the jingmai respond to the 12 jing shui, and in
the interior they belong to the 5 organs and 6 bowels.
The 12 jingmai differ in their extent, depth and distance. In
contrast, the 5 organs and 6 bowels are distinguishes by their location
at the top or bottom, their morphology, their utilization and reception
of nutritive substances... . What then are their correspondences?
The jing shui contain water for their circulation; the 5 organs
combine the shen qi (mental energy), hun (vegetative soul) and po
(sensitive soul) for their reception; the 6 bowels receive the cereal
water (nutritive liquid) for their transport and energy for their
activity; the jingmai contain ying-Xue (nutritive energy-blood) for
their impregnation... . How then are all these elements combined to
execute a treatment? Is it necessary to needle superficially or deep?
What is the number of moxas to utilize? I would like to clearly
understand you.
Qi Bo responds:
The height of heaven is unfathomable and the size of earth
immeasurable. Man being born in the space between heaven and earth,
within the 6 Unions (1), the height of heaven and the magnitude of earth
cannot be measured by the human mind.
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As for the body of man, the skin and flesh are well localized and
can be examined by simple palpation of the fingers. At death, autopsy
permits recognizing the firmness and suppleness of the organs, the
magnitude or narrowness of the bowels, the quantity of food products
absorbed, the length of the vessels, the purity or impurity of the blood,
the abundance or shortage of energy... and among the 12 jingmai,
which contain more blood than energy, less blood and more energy,
much blood and energy, less blood and energy... . All that is well known.
In therapy, acupuncture and moxabustion are used with the
purpose of balancing the energy of the channel according to a precise
number.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:
This paragraph establishes the parallel study of the 12 jingmai and 12 jing shui.
The jing shui are distinguished by their expanse, depth... and the 5 organs by their
locations, morphology... . But if the height of heaven and the size of earth are difficult to estimate,
mans body can be examined by the methods of measurement, palpation and dissection.


1.6 Unions indicates Top (heaven) and Bottom (earth) and the 4 cardinal points: North (front), South (back), East
(right) and West (left).
As for treatment, acupuncture and moxabustion are executed as a function of precise
numbers. Example: 0.6 cun depth, 7 expirations, 3 moxas, etc.
II - Ma Shi comments:
This paragraph concerns the correspondence between the 12 jingmai and 12 jing shui.
This correspo