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Index: Polaris Burmese Library, LPK Library, Daw Aung San
Suu Kyi, Bo Than Shwe, Myanmar History, Myanmar Politics,
Myanmar Junta, Myanmar People, Myanmar Students, Insein
Prison, Prison in Myanmar, Political Prisoner in Myanmar,
Torture in Myanmar, Myanmar Army, Myanmar Affairs.

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Aerial view of Yangon Insein Prison

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Guards stand at the entrance to Insein Prison in Rangoon, Sept. 18, 2009.

၁၄ ရက္ေန ့မနက္ကအင္းစိန္ေထာင္ေရွ့ ဓာတ္ပံုခင္ေမာင္၀င္း-ေအပီ 2009ckESpf

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Cries From Insein
by Win Naing Oo
Thse articles were published in 1996 by the ABSDF (All Burma Students'
Democratic Front).

1. Read > 1.1 Structure of the Prison
2. Read > 2.1 Prison Instruction Cell
3. Read > Corruption in the Prison
4. Read > Punishment in Prison
5. Read > Legal Procedures in Prison
6. Read > Criminal Prisoners
7. Read > Politicall Prisoners
8. Read > Harrassment of Politicall Prisoner
9. Read > General Issues
10. Read > Conclusion

Insein Prison

1.1 Structure of the Prison
By Win Naing Oo

The prison is laid out in an octagonal design, with the
halls located radially like the spokes of a wheel. There
are two rows of brick walls around the prison. The
external wall is higher about 20 ft in height, compared
to the internal wall which is about 10 ft in height. There
is also another prison known as the 'attached prison'
which is joined to the main prison. The term 'Insein' is
used to refer to both prisons. In order to enter the
prison, it is necessary to pass through three thick iron
doors in the entrance building. The Chief Warden of
the prison lives on the upper floor of the building at the
entrance. In the centre of the prison is the main prison
office, and also the central tower. Taken in a clockwise
direction, starting from the entrance building, the
buildings in the prison are as follows (see the enclosed
sketch of prison):

1. Entrance building (main iron gate of jail)
2. Female hall no.1
3. Solitary-confinement cell-blocks (there are six cell-blocks
in compound)
4. Hall no. 1 (a two-story building, for detainees who are
facing trial)
5. Hall no. 2 (a single-story building, also for detainees who
are facing trial)
6. Hall no. 3 (for prisoners who have already been
7. Special Hall
8. Hall no. 4 (for prisoners who have already been
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9. Hall no. 5 (for prisoners who have already been
10. Kitchen hall
11. Hospital
12. Store
13. Prison office (reports and data on prisoners are kept
14. Female hall no. 2, including cell-blocks for women in
solitary confinement
15. Attached prison
16. Office of the Prison Director-General (the head of all
prisons in Burma)
17. Workshops
18. Dog-cell A.

Solitary Confinement Cells
There are six solitary-confinement cell-blocks. Each
cell-block has many tiny cells (8 x 10). Each cell is
shared by 3-5 political prisoners (since there are not
enough cells for all the solitary-confinement prisoners,
several prisoners are often kept together in these tiny
cells). Prisoners in these cells are allowed to leave the
room to wash and bathe for 15 minutes per day. Toilet
buckets are cleaned every day.

No 1- Solitary confinement block 14 cells
No 2- 60 cells (including death row)
No 3- 14 cells
No 4- 30 cells
No 5- 22 cells
No 6- 10 cells

B. Other ordinary halls Each hall (25 x 440 ) has eight
cells and has its own vegetable plots, one in front and
one behind. Each vegetable plot is about fifty percent
larger in area than the building itself.

C. Dog-cell The dog-cell is for the punishment of
prisoners who commit a crime or who dare to complain
about unjust treatment by prison authorities.
(Previously, well-trained military dogs were kept in this
cell, but there have been no dogs since 1988. Most of
the worst atrocities take place in this cell. (See also 4.

D. Special cell block This cell-block is only for very
important political prisoners. It has 10 cells. Political
prisoners who have stayed or are staying in this cell
block are:

1. U Win Tin (Secretariat member of NLD)
2. U Khin Maung Mynt (Chairman of Peoples'
Progressive Party)
3. U Thet Khine (Main underground network network
leader of CPB)

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4. Min Ko Naing (Chairman of ABFSU)

There are four small houses in front of this special cell
block. Political prisoners who have stayed in these
small houses are:

1. U Tin Oo (Former Chairman of NLD)
2. U Kyi Maung (The Chairman of NLD following U Tin
3. U Chit Khine (Secretariat member of NLD)
4. Kim Min Chu (North Korean Operative) E.

There are many workshops in the prison. Prisoners
are forced to work long hours weaving, sewing
(clothes and shoes) and working in the carpentry
sections there.

1.2 Numbers of Prisoners
Hall no. 1 has two stories. There are nomally over
2,000 prisoners kept there. The other four halls always
contain ove 1,000 prisoners each. There are routinely
400-500 political prisoners kept in the six solitary
confinement cell blocks in the compound.
Thus the total estimated number of prisoners is:
Five ordinary halls 7,000
Six solitary confinement cell blocks 500
Female hall 500
Hospital 200
Attached prison 1,000
TOTAL 9,200

The number of prisoners in Insein prison varies slightly
according to the situation. However, there are always
9,000-10,000 prisoners there. The solitary
confinement cell blocks contain only political prisoners,
all of whom are charged under section 5-j, but the rest
of the political prisoners are mixed with criminals in
Halls no. 3, 4 and 5. Each ordinary cell block always
contains over 200 political prisoners.

Accordingly, the estimated numbers of political
prisoners are:
6 solitary confinement cell blocks 500
3 ordinary cell blocks 700
Female hall and cell block 200
Attached prison 200
TOTAL 1,600

1.3 Prison Administrative Body
Chief Warden (Chief Supervisor of jail) One crown and
two stars
Warden of jail 1 (Senior Supervisor) One crown and
one star
Warden of jail 2 (Junior Supervisor) Three stars
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Sr. Jailer (Senior prison officer) Two stars
Jr. Jailer (Junior prison officer) One star
Sergeant Major
Lance Corporal Warder

The positions above are listed in descending order of
rank. All positions are filled in Insein prison, but some
of these ranks are vacant in other prisons in Burma. In
addition, there is another authoritarian body made up
of prisoners appointed by the prison administrative
Tan See Gyoke: The most senior person among
Tan See: The most senior prisoner in a hall.
Akhan Lu Gyi: The most senior prisoner in a cell.
Akhan Sa Yei: Cell clerk; one in each cell. Varyar: The
lowest level of these prisoners to managesecurity in
cells, bathing and latrines.

The Tan See Gyoke and Tan See are criminals such
as prominent gangsters and are appointed by the
prison administrative body for this reason. All
prisoners are very scared of them. A few prisoners
become Akhan Lu Gyi by paying a bribe to the prison
officials, but most of them are appointed because they
are ruthless and brutal.
Rights of Prisoners and Violation of these Rights
2.1 Prison Instruction Cell
By Win Naing Oo

In principle, this cell is for teaching prisoners the
regulations that they have to obey. (It is called Poun-
san Khan which in Burmese means 'model cell,'
literally translated.) These cells are included in every
prison in Burma. All prisoners are very afraid of this
cell, even when they have only heard mention of it.

There are two forms of model cells in prisons:

(1) For detainees who are under trial; and
(2) For prisoners who have been sentenced.

Everyone who has been sentenced to imprisonment
has passed through both these cells. They teach
prisoners the regulations of the prison and the four
different standard positions for prisoners. These four
standard positions are:

1. Sitting cross-legged with arms straightened out
and both fists on knees, holding the body
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absolutely vertical with the face downward. This
position is for roll-call and for inspections by
prison officials.
2. A squatting position with arms straight on the
knees, with straight back and head down. This
position is an emergency position to be adopted
if a prison official passes through.
3. A standing position with head down and hands
crossed over groin. This position is for walking
past or standing in front of prison officials.
4. Standing on tip-toes with the knees bent at 45
degrees, a straight back and hands clasped
behind the head with the face raised. This
position is used for punishment. Prisoners are
always beaten and kicked while in this position.

Even though these 'model cells' are only for the
purpose of teaching the standard positions for
prisoners, they are in reality the site of some of the
worst abuses of prisoners.

In the big hall, the Akhan Lu Gyi and their associates
order the prisoners to sit in standard position number
one, and to loudly recite the prison regulations.
Meanwhile, the chief of this model cell and his
subordinates swear at and physically intimidate
prisoners by walking around them and brandishing
sticks (solid and hard bamboo), crops made from three
pieces of intertwined cane, and leather belts.

If the voices of the prisoners reciting the prison
regulations are not in harmony, these Akhan Lu Gyi
and other criminal prisoners go among the prisoners
and start beating and kicking them. Even if the
recitation is in harmony, they will usually use some
excuse to beat the prisoners. If one prisoner is out of
step, all the other prisoners are also beaten at the
same time. Sometimes 14-15 men go among the
prisoners and beat and kick them, cursing the whole
time. They order the prisoners to sit in the standard
position for many hours.

Because of this, the prisoners sweat heavily and
eventually get very sore, stiff backs. As they have to
hold their heads down for many hours, prisoners suffer
dizziness, and some become unconscious. But none
dare to move while in the standard position as they are
all scared of being beaten and kicked. The Akhan Lu
Gyi and his followers say that even if a snake passes
in front of them, the prisoners have to always remain
without moving; even if the snake bites them they
have to die without moving.

Because of this kind of treatment, all the prisoners are
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afraid of these cells. The successive military
governments keep these cells with two main aims:

(I) To break down morale
The detainees feel terrified, depressed and inferior
during this period. When these detainees become
prisoners, all are too afraid to complain against any
inhuman and unjust treatment in the prison, but
instead put up with it and become accustomed to it.

(II) To extort money from the prisoners
During the brutal torture, some subordinates of the
Akhan Lu Gyi of these cellstell the prisoners that if
they want to avoid being tortured and harassed, they
need to pay money. If a detainee agrees to pay
money, he will not be tortured at this time or in the
future. These subordinates pick on the detainees who
appear to be able to pay more, the obvious intention
being to get more money.

After reaching such an agreement, the detainee has to
ask money from his family members on the day of his
trial, and try to arrange for the money to be smuggled
into the prison.

In this way, the daily income of the Akhan Lu Gyi is
about 10,000-20,000 kyats, which is twice the annual
income of doctors and engineers. This money is
shared with the higher prison officials. Consequently,
all of the prison officials become richer.

Because of this, prison authorities turn a blind eye to
the abuses which take place in these cells. In effect,
they seem to be encouraging it to continue. Even if
there are cases of prisoners being over-tortured, the
prison authorities try to cover it up to protect the Akhan
Lu Gyi. If there is no alternative, they blame the Akhan
Lu Gyi, saying that he was responsible for the case.
On such occasions, the senior prisoner of the cell
always takes full responsibility for the problem, but he
will usually just be moved to another hall.

(In principle, according to the jail manual, no prisoner
has the right to beat another prisoner for any reason.)

2.2 Health Situation
There is only one hospital in each prison in Burma. A
prisoner has the right to receive medical treatment.
Every prisoner can go to the prison hospital to have
their illness treated. This is in accordance with the jail

However, the hospital provides no medicine except
some kinds of temporary analgesic and antipyretic,
such as Paracetamol. There is only one doctor at the
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prison hospital. The doctor neither examines patients
nor prescribes medicine for them; these tasks are
carried out by other prisoners, who have only an
extremely rudimentary knowledge of medical matters
(taught to them by the prison doctor). The prison
hospital is always dirty and the sanitation is very poor.

All medicines from the prison hospital are smuggled
out of the prison and sold in the markets outside.
Thus, only very cheap medicines (such as
Paracetamol, Buspro, etc.) are left in the prison
hospital and there is always a lack of necessary
medicines. All the prisoners are really scared of
becoming sick as there are no proper medicines, no
appropriate treatment and no care. Some rich
prisoners get the medicines they require from relatives
or other visitors. The hospital confiscates almost all
these medicines, leaving very little for the patient.
Confiscated medicine is then sold at the market. If a
complaint is lodged with the prison authorities, it is
more usual for them to issue an order banning the
bringing of all medicines to the prison rather than to
stop the confiscation. As prisoners fear that this kind of
order will affect all the other prisoners, no one lodges
a complaint about it.

Furthermore, the hospital does not admit patients
unless they give a bribe to the prison doctors;
otherwise they are admitted to the hospital only when
they develop serious complications, but by this time it
is usually too late and most die. On the other hand, if
the bribe is paid, they will be immediately admitted to
the hospital and treated well. This is just another way
of extorting money from the prisoners, as the doctor
only takes care of patients who can pay money.
Therefore, prisoners who are unable to pay money are
very afraid of being admitted to the hospital, because
they know that they will probably die there.

The hospital has some beds but they are always
occupied by 'pretend patients' who pay money to the
prison doctor so that they can sleep in the hospital
beds. These pretend patients are also allowed to stay
in the better and cleaner cells of the prison hospital.
Real patients who cannot pay the bribe do not have
access to the hospital beds or good cells but rather
have to stay in the corridor or in the toilet and store
areas which are very unhygienic and smell offensively.

The prison hospital provides no sheets and no
blankets for patients. If a prisoner has their own
blanket they can use it, but otherwise none is
provided. There are no appropriate medicines
provided; no regular checks by doctors; no proper
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diagnosis; no proper treatment; no assistance or care
of any kind for the patients. Therefore, most of the
patients who are admitted to the prison hospital die
there. Even if they survive, all end up suffering from
malnutrition and become very thin.

This neglect in prisons has contributed to the high
death tolls of prisoners. When a prisoner dies of
medical mistreatment or neglect, no action will be
taken against the doctor, and no relatives of the victim
will bring charges against him as the prison authorities
will not allow this to happen. This has been an
unspoken norm in prisons. Prisoners themselves
consider this yet another abuse of human rights.

The prison hospital takes very good care of those who
bribe them dearly. The hospital buys medicines from
outside if required for the prisoners. If need be, they
are often transferred to a good hospital outside.

There is a special meal for patients known as hospital
food different from the ordinary food for prisoners. It
consists of a cup soup with a cup of meat curry twice a
day, for lunch and dinner, of cow's milk and an egg for
breakfast. However, this ration exists only on paper,
and in practice patients never receive it. The hospital
food rations are only enjoyed by the pretend patients
who have given money to the prison doctor. These
pretend patients need to pay 3000-5000 Kyats to the
prison doctor (compare this to the normal official
salary of at a government hospital, which is 1250-1500
Kyat per month).

Nobody dares to protest against this corruption in the
prison. If they do protest, they will be charged with
opposition to the prison authorities.

The most common diseases among the prisoners are:
gastrointestinal diseases (amoebic dysentery, bacillary
dysentery and diarrhoea), jaundice (viral and amoebic
hepatitis) and skin diseases. The sources of
transmission of the infection are poor sanitation, a lack
of personal hygiene (particularly because of poor
water supplies), unclean and semi-cooked food, dirty
kitchens and polluted surroundings.

Owing to drug abuse, there is also a high prevalence
of HIV/AIDS in prisons. Prisoners are always afraid to
get injections in the jail hospital because of AIDS.
When administering injections, the doctors give only
half or less than half of the phial to one patient, giving
the rest to another patient from the same needle and
syringe, this almost guaranteeing that any blood-
carried infections will spread. This means that the
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doctors can get away with using less medicine per

The situation for political prisoners is worse. Political
prisoners never give bribes to the prison authorities.
They all reject this practice, in order not to tarnish their
political dignity. Besides, there is a directive
government to prisons to treat the prisoners as
unjustly and brutally as possible. So the prison
hospital authorities ignore the health condition of the
political prisoners. The health care system for political
prisoners is really very poor and they are always

Because of late admission to hospital, mistreatment, a
lack of medicines and no care for patients, the
following prisoners died in the prison hospital. The
majority of deaths were due to dysentery. All of them
were prominent political prisoners from Insein prison.

1. U Sein Win (Kha Yan township)
2. U Tin Maung Win (a member of parliament,
3. Bo Set Yaung
4. U Soe Win (younger brother of Bo Zeya, one of
the Thirty Comrades)
5. U Khin Maung Nyunt (Chairman, PPP)
6. U Man Dawait (Former student leader, Ta Ka
7. U Nyo Win (Joint-General Secretary, PPP)
8. U Thaw Ka (Ex Maj of Burma Navy, author,
NLD CEC member)
9. U Cho Gyi (CEC, Ma Na Ta)
10. U Soe Win
11. U Myint Oo (NLD Chairman in Kamayut
12. U Bo (KNU, NYaung Lay Pin township)
13. Kyaw Myo Thant (Democratic Party for New
Society, Bogalay township)
14. Mohamed Ilyas (alias Maung Nyo)
15. U Zaw Tika (an abbot)

This is only a selected number of well-known
prisoners; there are many other ordinary prisoners
who have also died in prisons without any notice being
taken. If any of these victims had a chance to receive
treatment outside the prison, they would have
survived. These horrific incidents take place in
Burmese prisons because of corruption, abuse of
authority and disrespect for prisoners as fellow human
beings by the prison officials.

2.3 Food for Prisoners
All prisoners receive two meals, one in the morning

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and another in the evening. These meals consist of:
For the morning meal rice, pea curry and fish paste.
For the evening meal rice, talapaw (vegetable soup)
and fish paste.
For the special meal once a week, the prisoners are
given meat.

The rice given to prisoners is the lowest quality
available in Burma. The pea curry consists of a few
yellow peas boiled in a large volume of water. Almost
all the peas from the curry have already been removed
by the prisoners in charge by the time meal time
arrives. This leaves only pea-water for the other

Talapaw curry (vegetable soup): a small amount of
various vegetables are put into a large urn, and then
boiled with too much water. The soup always contains
foreign matter such as small insects, leeches, sand
and some very tiny pieces of stone.

Fish paste: a little fish paste mixed with salt, sand and
tiny pieces of stone. A prisoner gets only one
teaspoon of fish paste for one meal.

Meat: beef, pork or fish. Every prisoner gets a small
piece of meat (about a one-inch cube) once a week.
This is half the amount stipulated in the prison manual.
Good parts of the meat are usually kept by the prison
authorities and then sold to prisoners. For example,
when given fried fish, prisoners are provided only with
the heads and tails. Prison officers never use all the
allowance money when they buy meat and fish, but
keep some for themselves.

Of course, if a prisoner has some hidden money, he
can buy pea soup and meat or exchange it for his
clothes. Because of all this corruption, the food quota
of the prisoners is decreased by half. In this way, the
majority of prisoners are underfed and have to go
hungry all the time.

2.4 Bathing
Bathing is allowed once a day, and clothes may be
washed once a week.

The size of the water-trough is about 80 ft x 20 ft and it
is divided into two parts. The small part is about 20 ft
long and contains drinking water. However, the
prisoners appointed to the authoritarian body can use
as much of this water as they like for bathing. Ordinary
prisoners are allowed to bathe at the large section of
another trough. At bathing time, prisoners line up on
each side of the trough and fetch water for bathing.

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The order in which prisoners must line up is decided
by the authoritarian prisoners. If the prisoners do not
wash in time with one another, the prisoners in charge
beat them with hard bamboo sticks [the prisoners must
wash like a military parade; they are given an order to
scoop out water, and must all do so in unison]. The
prisoners are allowed to use only shallow dinner plates
to scoop water for bathing. They can use no more than
ten plates of water each. Sometimes, if the prisoners
in charge are displeased, they allow prisoners only
eight dishes of water. At other times, prisoners are
allowed fifteen dishes of water, but this is rare.
Prisoners who bribe those in charge with money or
clothes are allowed to bathe for as long as they like.
Because of the small amount of water provided, most
prisoners suffer scabies and other skin diseases
associated with poor sanitation.

2.6 Prisoner Complaint Session
Every week, the chief warden of the jail does his
rounds and checks to see if the prisoners have any
complaints or demands regarding the rights they are
allowed as a prisoner. All high officials in the prison,
including prison doctors, have to accompany him on
his rounds.

However, if prisoners verbally report their grievances
to the chief warden of the jail, later they will be
punished for some reason or other contrived by the
prison authorities. Before the chief warden makes his
rounds, jail officers ask the prisoners what complaints
they have. Prisoners raise some complaints, but if the
jail officers have decided against some complaint
being made to the chief warden, the prisoners may not
make it. They have no way to complain. They do not
dare to take the risk of making a complaint against the
wishes of the jail warden. If someone bravely
complains to the chief warden, ignoring jail officers, he
will have action taken against him (though ostensibly
for another unrelated reason) and will be beaten by
the jail officers later.

No prisoners dare to complain about the atrocities,
harassment and unjust treatment they receive. The
prison officers in any case deny the existence of the
problems about which the prisoners may complain.
But the prisoners can request some minor rights.

The following is an example of a conversation with the
chief warden:

Jail officer: Do you have something to complain to the
chief about?
Prisoners: No, Sir! (It is the answer that the chief

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k zf sujf ypf&rnf/
warden wants to hear) (He asks the same question
three times)

This is the extent of the question and answer sessions
during the rounds of the chief warden. All the prisoners
always feel very dejected during the chief warden's
rounds; they have to wait for him for nearly two hours,
in the standard position, sitting or standing silently on
a hard concrete floor.
Corruption in the Prison
By Win Naing Oo

The following are the usual complaints in the prison:

1. If a prisoner does not want to sit in the standard
position while he is in the model cells, he will be
beaten and will have to pay at least a thousand Kyat to
prison authorities as a fine. (see also section 2.1)

2. A prisoner has to pay some money to the Akhan Lu
Gyi of the hall if he wants to have a good sleeping
place when he reaches the cell after being sentenced.

3. A prisoner has to pay further money to jail officials if
he wants to avoid beatings by senior prisoners. If he
pays this money, he will be regarded as close to the
prison authorities and will not suffer regular beatings.

In one case, a prisoner who was related with a famous
ruby-smuggling case is said to have paid 100,000 Kyat
to the head prisoner of the hall, Aung Gyi. This case
became well-know and Aung Gyi was transferred to
another place, a hard labor camnp at Somprabon in
Kachin State as a punishment.

4. A prisoner has to pay some money to a responsible
person if he wants to get a good position in the jail,
such as helping as a worker in the detention office, jail
office, office of the main jail, office of hall supervisor,
food store, or if he wants to become an Akhan Lu Gyi
or a clerk in the hall. (These places have no strict
regulations and prisoners who work there have a
special chance to obtain some money. To get these
positions, prisoners must pay 5,000-10,000 Kyat to
prison officials.)

There are workshops in the prison for such things as
carpentry, shoe-making, and cloth-weaving, where
prisoners are forced to work. To avoid having to
provide labor (including having to plant vegetables), a
prisoner has to pay some money to prison officials.
Other prisoners are forced to work for extremely long
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hours in such workshops.

5. Every prisoner is afraid of being sent to a hard
labour camp in a remote area. Labour camps are the
places where prisoners receive the harshest treatment
because of the severity of the work load, the
ruthlessness of the officials, malnutrition, poor
accommodation, improper medical care and the
remoteness of the forest locations where malaria and
dysentery are common. Every prisoner considers it to
be the same as being sent to their death. If they do not
want to go there, they have to pay from 3,000 Kyat to
5,000 Kyat to prison officials.

The majority of prisoners who cannot pay bribes to
prison officers are sent to Kyauk Gyi hard labour
camp, where they must break rocks. This place is
infamous for its high death tolls of prisoners. Due to
extreme fatigue and constant torture, some prisoners
have committed suicide, by jumping from the top of the
mountain. In 1991 there was an outbreak of
gastrointestinal disease in that camp, but no medicine
was provided and dozens of prisoners died. The dead
bodies were buried in a mass grave on the spot.

Among the hard labour camps, some are better than
others. The better camps include pig-breeding camps,
the Rangoon-Mandalay Expressway construction
camp and Min Gon camp. In Min Gon camp, some
entertainment such as videos is provided for the
prisoners. If a prisoner wants to stay in one of these
camps, since all prisoners are required to go and work
at a labour camp, they have to pay 10,000 Kyat or
more to prison authorities.

6. If a prisoner smuggles money into the prison, he
has to pay a commission to the warder. Then he has
to give more of the money to the warder in order to
obtain food, medicines and other commodities.

7. According to the jail manual, prisoners who are
patients in the hospital can receive milk and eggs for
breakfast and soup and meat for lunch and dinner.
However, if a prisoner has no money, it is impossible
to get these special meals because they are unable to
give any kind of bribe to the prison authorities. As
mentioned above (section 2.2), the prisoners who can
offer 3,000-5,000 Kyat monthly to prison doctors are
all allowed to stay in the prison hospital as if they are
patients and are treated like real patients.

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k zf sujf ypf&rnf/

Punishment in Prison
By Win Naing Oo

The following are the usual punishments in the prison:
1. Cancellation of visiting rights;
2. Beating;
3. Beating and transferal to a new and unfamiliar cell
4. Solitary confinement.

4.1 Solitary confinement
A 1.5-2 foot long iron rod is placed horizontally
between the shackled legs of prisoners, forcing them
to stand permanently with legs astride.

There are no blankets or mats; prisoners have to sleep
on the bare concrete floor. They are locked in a tiny
cell during this period and have no chance to wash.

Normally, small chamber pots and urine pots are put in
each tiny cell. These pots are not emptied, so the cell
gets wet, becomes very dirty and smells offensively
after a while. Nobody wants to be put in these cells
because of the bad smell. Food is slid in from the
outside of the cell through the iron bars. Every day, the
prisoner is taken out of the cell, forced to stand in
position number 4, and beaten. The period of solitary
confinement usually lasts for at least one month, and
may last up to three months.

The worst type of solitary confinement is when a
prisoner has to stand with both arms tied above the
head. The prisoner has to defecate and urinate while
standing. The authorities feed them no rice but give
them only glue made from rice.

4.2 Types of beating
The following are the usual types of beating:

1. The prisoner has to stand and embrace a post
and is beaten while both hands are held firmly
by another person;
2. The prisoner is beaten while lying prone on the
3. The prisoner, both legs chained, is made to
stand in standard position no. 4 and is beaten
4. The prisoner is beaten while being forced to
crawl along the ground
5. Prisoners are shackled and a long iron bar is
placed so that their legs are splayed. They are
then forced to crawl along the ground and are
6. Prisoners are forced to do squat-jumps (like in
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k zf sujf ypf&rnf/
the game of leap-frog) and are beaten while
doing so.

When the authorities beat the prisoners, they do not
avoid any part of the body, whether it is the face or
chest or back. They routinely kick the chest, abdomen,
face and back with military boots. They also jump on
the backs of the prisoners who are crawling along the

4.3 Implements used for beating prisoners
The following are the usual implements used for
beating prisoners:

1. Leather-coated pipe
2. Wooden stick
3. Stick made from three interlaced pieces of cane
4. Solid bamboo stick about 3-4 ft in length
5. Hard plastic water pipe

Prison authorities never beat the prisoners in
accordance with the jail principles. They over-beat the
prisoners very brutally. Because of this, prisoners are
often seriously wounded and suffer internal bleeding,
fractured skulls, broken bones and internal injuries.
They always abuse prisoners in a way designed to
violate their human dignity.

For example: If they ask "Are you afraid?" the prisoner
has to "I am afraid of you, shint". Shint is a Burmese
suffix used for politeness by female speakers; it is
never used by male speakers. Then, the officer asks:
"What is your name?" and the prisoner has to reply
"My name is Ma Saw Maung (or whatever their name
is), shint." Ma is prefixed to the names of younger
women; it is also never used by men.

Making the prisoners use these female terms is
designed to degrade them. Some prisoners refuse to
talk to the officers in this way, like a woman. In this
case they are beaten continuously until they comply.
Some prisoners are beaten again when they recover
consciousness. Finally, some prisoners can no longer
stand the suffering and knock themselves unconscious
on the stone wall. When prisoners get fractured skulls
or severe bleeding, they are finally sent to hospital.

However, once in the hospital the prisoners still do not
receive systematic medical attention. If they moan
because of pain, they are beaten again and accused
of being noisy. Because of such severe and
systematic torture, some prisoners suffer gangrene
and some have sustained total paralysis for example,
Zarni (a member of NLD) and Kyaw Thu (well known

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for his bravery). The prison officers were not charged
in these cases, but were protected by the prison

Legal Procedures in Prison
By Win Naing Oo

Ka Yin Lay was interrogated because he had been
accused of hiding a pointed piece of iron in the prison.
The Prison authorities asked him to show them the
place where he kept it. When he replied that he had no
such thing, the authorities started to beat him very
violently. They repeatedly demanded that he show
them the hiding place. The authorities did not accept
his explanation and continued to beat him. Ka Yin Lay
bled very severely due to this brutal torture. When he
agreed to show them the hiding place, they stopped
beating him. However, when they searched the place
he directed them to, and did not find the piece of iron,
they began beating him again, and asking him the real
place. He told them another place, but they still did not
find it. So they continued torturing him until he was
unconscious. The reason behind this incident was that
one prisoner, close to prison authorities, had a quarrel
with Ka Yin Lay and given false information to the
prison guards. There are many cases like this. Rather
than depending on the law, or on prison rules,
judgement in prisons depends on the temperament or
emotion of prison authorities.

The main weaknesses of judgement in jail are:

A. The lack of proper investigation into rule infringements
Prisoners are always under the watchful eye of the
appointed senior prisoners in a cell. If a prisoner gets
on well with them (bribes them with money, food or
clothes) then even if that prisoner breaks certain
prison rules, he will face no problems. If a prisoner
does not bribe them, the prisoner can face unexpected
problems with the jail authorities because of some
misdemeanor concocted by the senior prisoners. For
example the senior prisoners may accuse the prisoner

 Trying to escape from the jail
 Smuggling money into the jail
 Inciting rebellion among the prisoners over
cases of injustice against them
 Possessing a pointed iron stick [some prisoners
keep such sticks, about 1 ft in length, for killing
someone when quarreling].

When a jail officer dislikes a particular prisoner, he will

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sometimes also use this kind of false accusation.
Usually, prison authorities come to a decision about
such cases immediately, without evidence, and later
find witnesses who will support their claims. Even if
there is someone who gives evidence in support of an
accused prisoner, it will not help, and that person will
also be punished. Thus, no one dares to give evidence
against the prison authorities in such cases.

When there is a problem, the prison officers conduct a
hearing themselves, and no one dares to give
evidence in support of the prisoner. After the hearing,
they immediately pronounce the prisoner guilty, and
punish him.

B. Unfair punishments
If a culprit has a good relationship with prison
authorities, the punishment is reduced. Conversely,
the punishment will be increased if the culprit is
disliked by prison officials.

According to the basic principles of human rights, no
punishment should be degrading to human dignity. But
there are many purposefully degrading punishments in
prison.(Also see 4.)

C. Bias
Judgement is not fair or just. If there is a problem
between ordinary prisoners and the leading prisoners,
the latter will always be favored. It is the ordinary
prisoners who will always be found guilty and

If a prisoner who is very close to the prison authorities
violates the principles of the jail, he is protected by the
authorities and escapes from punishment even if he is
obviously guilty. At the very least, jail officers reduce
his punishment. If there is a witness who can give
evidence regarding the case, he will be intimidated by
prison authorities so that he does not speak up.
Moreover, they persuade other prisoners, by force or
by givmg favours, to give the kind of evidence that
they want.

At one time, a prisoner by the name of Kyaw Thu who
got into a fight with another prisoner, was paralyzed
from the waist down due to severe beating by
wardens, merely because they disliked him. But when
another prisoner known as Musa had a fight, he was
just transferred to another cell without being beaten up
because he was friendly with prison authorities.

The judgements passed in prisons by prison officials
are more a reflection of the officers feelings than of the

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existing laws.

Criminal Prisoners
By Win Naing Oo

Criminal prisoners can be divided into two different groups: those
who have authority and those who are oppressed.

Among those who have authority, there are two types. The first type
is made up of those prisoners who can pay money to prison
authorities; the other (referred to as Bo in Burmese) are those who
never hesitate kill and are regularly violent to other prisoners. In
criminal society the ideology has arisen such that "you must have
money or a strong resistance to persecution". (For example, if a
prisoner wants to escape from severe harassment, he has to pay
money to prison authorities. If he cannot pay, he has to bend his
back and prepare for a beating by the warders.)

In the case of an ordinary prisoner beating or killing another
prisoner, he will be cruelly beaten by prison authorities and put in
solitary confinement. When he is discharged from solitary
confinement, he is recognized as a senior prisoner and he becomes
a Bo; then nobody dares to insult him. He is also likely to be
appointed a senior prisoner. Prisoners from the administrative group
do not need to obey the strict jail rules exactly, because they are a
privileged class. They can extort money, food and clothes from other
ordinary prisoners by oppression, brutality and injustice. In this way,
the above mentioned ideology emerges in the prison.

One event happened in a military dog cell involving Tbar Thar, Khin
Than and three other prisoners. One night, Mar Thar and Khin Than
killed two other prisoners while asleep with bricks which had been
cut around the toilet. There was no hatred involved, and no reason
for the killing. The two suspects confessed to killing the two others,
but alleged that they had nothing against them and that they killed
them because they wanted to avoid hard labour by gaining status
within the hierarchy of prisoners. After that, these two prisoners
became very popular in Insein prison and were appointed to the
prisoner administrative body. This is the usual tradition in Insein. It
can therefore be seen that the prison system encourages prisoners
to engage in inhuman acts. Thus, those prisoners who want to serve
out their sentences peacefully live in constant fear of being killed.

The majority of prisoners are brutally oppressed by prison
authorities and the senior Prisoners. They have lost their basic
rights. If they try to ask the authorities to respect their basic rights, it
is very dangerous for their personal security; they live in fear of their
lives while being subjected to the worst possible injustices, minimal
food supplies and regular and severe beatings. If they are sent to
hard-labour prison camps, prisoners face an even worse situation
than in prison. If they want to escape from these problems they have

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to commit the kind of crimes that Thai Thar and Khln Than did.

Thus, prison life is a cycle of oppression, brutal killing and prisoners
conspiring to kill each other. Prison authorities actively encourage
this kind of situation.

6.1 Opium and heroin abuse
One prisoner named Nga Shint brutally beat to death another
named Mya Khaung, a Tan See (the head prisoner of a cell block),
with a mattock. After this, Nga Shint died of a heroin overdose.
There are many prisoners like him who have died of heroin

It is possible to get various kinds of drugs in the prison, for example,
raw opium, heroin, concentrated opium oil, marijuana, and
diazepam, etc. The main source of drugs in the prison is the prison
authorities themselves, but there are also a few prisoners who
smuggle a small amount of opium into the prison.

There are two main ways of smuggling drugs into the prison via the
prison authorities:

 Direct method
 Indirect method

The direct method is to ask and bribe the prison authorities directly.

The indirect method is for a prisoner to ask a friend outside to send
food for the prisoner directly to a prison official at his home. The
officer will then pass this food to the prisoner inside the prison;
nobody dares to check food brought into the prison by a prison
official. Thus when the official gives the food to the prisoner
concerned, the drug will be inside the food.

Some high-level prison officials, and even the director of prisons
himself are involved, directly or indirectly, in smuggling of drugs into
the prison. For example, when a prisoner who is either close to the
director of prisons or has given money to him as a bribe receives
visitors, he does so in the presence of the prison director. Nobody
dares to check the food or other items given to a prisoner in front of
the director. In such cases drugs can be easily concealed inside the
items that the prisoner receives. The price for drugs inside the
prison is always at least four times higher than the equivalent price
outside the prison.

6.2 Homosexual abuse
All prisoners are tortured very severely when they first arrive in
prison, when they are learning the prison regulations and the
standard positions. At that time the popular criminals and senior
prisoners arrive on the scene. If they find any young adults among
the newcomers, they call these youths to stay with them. These
youths are at first happy as they are not forced to learn the prison
regulations and standard positions, and they thus avoid the more
severe torture. These youths are even thankful to those senior
prisoners, and they are well-fed and have a chance to stay in a good
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k zf sujf ypf&rnf/

The senior prisoners allow the youths to stay beside them. In the
night they abuse them homosexually. First, they try to persuade
them to comply. If this does not work, they threaten them with
pointed iron sticks. The problem is that these youths are very afraid.
If they threaten the prison authorities, the youths are intimidated by
death very easy for the senior prisoners to kill other prisoners as
they implements to do so.

Those youths who have been sexually abused often become very
depressed, and lose their personal dignity. The higher prison
authorities turn a blind eye to such cases. The victims also keep
quiet because they are ashamed and afraid of being killed.

6.3 Lack of personal security
No prisoner has any degree of personal safety. There are many
cases of murder between prisoners, as well as by prison authorities.
It is very easy to kill someone. The reasons why it is so easy for a
prisoner to kill another prisoner can be summarised as follows:

1. There is an abundance of lethal weapons;
2. There is a lack of proper punishment (not more than three
years further imprisonment is given even for a murder case);
3. The prison encourages the activities of the senior prisoners
and gangsters;
4. These senior prisoners are always protected from
punishment by prison authorities;
5. Prisoners do not have any avenue of complaint or appeal;
6. The prison does not take any serious measures to protect the
security of the prisoners.

The reasons mentioned above are general ones, but there are many
other specific reasons for a lack of security in individual cases which
are the result of personal disputes between prison officials.

Take as an example the killing of Be Ou in Thayet prison. This was
the result of a dispute between the chief warden and senior jailor.

The senior jailer knew beforehand that Be Ou would be killed soon,
but did not take any action, saying that it was just a rumour. If there
is a killing case, it will effect the chief warden. This prison officer will
have a problem with the higher authorities. The killing of Be Ou
happened at the end of 1993. Be Ou was beheaded and his head
was dropped into a big pot of vegetable soup. (Also see 9.4)
Politicall Prisoners
By Win Naing Oo

Political prisoners have to stay together with criminals in the same
halls where they are in a minority when compared with criminal
prisoners. There are normally about 800 criminals and 200 political
prisoners in a hall. Political prisoners are very dfferent from criminals

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in that they always group together and are united. They help and
their opinion is same:

 They only obey what they consider as a group to be just and
fair prison rules
 They share their food and possessions equally among one
another; They assist, protect and take care of one another
 They all agree not to take any part in prisoner administration
 They all agree not to pay bribes to the authorities, even
though most of the political prisoners are students and most
of their families have good incomes
 They preserve, protect and care for the rights of other
 They avoid any act which will tarnish their political dignity.

7.1 Relations between political prisoners and criminal prisoners
Political prisoners have a good relationship with the ordinary
criminals. They also help and take care of the criminal prisoners as
much as they can. But political prisoners do not have a good
relationship with senior criminal prisoners.

Ordinary criminals regard political prisoners as follows:

Prisoners who are jailed because of their endeavors in the interests
of the whole population and the country, and not because they
committed any crime; respectable people who are jailed for their
refusal to accept injustice, their objection to unjust deeds or their
stance on the side of the oppressed; and as people who try to
protect the rights of prisoners as much as they can, help each other
and keep the dignity of political prisoners by not taking special
privileges or favours.

In spite of this respect for political prisoners, all criminals are afraid
to stay near to political prisoners or have a close relationship with

The reason for this is that prison authorities have warned and
intimidated the criminals not to associate closely with political

The relationship between senior prisoners and political prisoners
appears on the surface to be good, but it is not warm. In reality,
there are almost always tensions under the surface, and sometimes
this leads to direct confrontation. Senior criminal prisoners, like the
prison authorities, also regard political prisoners as people who will
destroy their interests and benefits and for this reason they dislike

Moreover, senior prisoners often intentionally create
misunderstandmg, hatred and confrontation between political
prisoners and prison allthorities, by giving false reports about
political prisoners to prison allthorities, and spreading nimours
against the political prisoners. The aim being both to put the political
prisoners in more trouble, and to curry favour from the prison

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authorities. Because of these actions, the relationship between
prison authorities and political prisoners becomes even more

7.2 Two attitudes of prison authorities toward political prisoners
The views of prison authorities on criminal and political prisoners

As the prison authorities consider that they can oppress the
criminals however they want, there is no particular tension. The
prison authorities bear no particular grudges against the criminal
prisoners, like they do agamst political prisoners.

The first attitude that the prison authorities have toward political
prisoners is one of hatred and ill-will. They have negative views
about political prisoners, for the following reasons:

Political prisoners never agree with unjust deeds and harassment,
and always object to any kind of ill-treatment.

Moreover, they submit protest letters to higher authorities with the
help of people outside the prison; they also send protest letters to
higher authorities concerning the corruption of prison authorities;
they always demand their legal rights as prisoners; they take care of
and protect each other They all respond umtedly and with one voice
when one of them is insulted by prison authorities. The prison
authorities strongly dislike prisoners uniting in this way.

This is why prison authorities hate political prisoners. They see them
a hinderance to the smooth operating of the prison.

The second attitude the authorities have is that political prisoners
are antigovernment elements, rebels and an enemy. So, in
accordance with the wishes of the military rulers, the prison
authorities harass and torture them whenever they get the chance.

Because of these two negative attitudes, the harassment, ill-
treatment and torturing of political prisoners has become routine.
The prison authorities always regard political prisoners with
suspicion, and even their most simple and innocent requests are
regarded as politically motivated or as attempts to break prison

Harrassment of Political Prisoners
By Win Naing Oo

8.1 The September 1990 Prison Strike
This prison strike, in Imin prison, is the biggest that has taken place
during SLORC era, and also led to the most severe punishments.
There were many underlying factors which led to this prison strike,
but the main reasons are:

1. The mixing of political prisoners with criminals

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There are naturally differences between political prisoners and
criminals. Criminals are arrested because of a violation of the rights
of other people, carried out for their own personal benefit. Political
prisoners are arrested for a different reason. They are arrested
because of selfless demands, and struggle to get rights for all the
people of the country.

These two different types of people are mixed together in prisons. If
there is a problem in the prison, the views of these two groups of
prisoners will differ, and their approaches to solving these problems
will also be different. Usually, criminals would like to solve problems
by force, by murder and suchlike, the implements for which are
readily obtainable.

2. Non-recognition of political prisoners
Political prisoners reject the fact that they are not recognised as
such. They feel this is an insult to their dignity. Even though they
have the same status and rights as criminals according to the
regulations of the prison, in reality they do not get the rights that the
criminal prisoners receive. Political prisoners are even less free in
prison than criminal prisoners.

Political prisoners are always closely watched and inspected by
prison authorities. They have absolutely no chance to visit other
cells or cell blocks. When they sleep, they cannot sleep near one
another. Visitors and family members who are allowed to visit
political prisoners are thoroughly searched many times. All
conversation between political prisoners and their visitors is
monitored by prison warders. If more than five political prisoners
gather in a group in the prison, it is regarded as a move in defiance
of the prison authorities and they are accused of engaging in
political activities. Political prisoners are even prohibited from going
near the entrance to the cells in which they stay, as the prison
authorities worry about them talking to prisoners in other cells.

The situation for criminal prisoners is less strict. They can talk freely,
can travel to other cells and cell blocks, and are much more free
than political prisoners.

3. Lack of access to reading material
Political prisoners want to read books, newspapers, and material.
Even though all books in Burma are strictly censored by the military
govenunent, reading material is forbidden for political prisoners.
There has always been access to reading material for prisoners
every Burmese government except the SLORC.

4. Lack of visiting rights
Refer to section 2.6.

5. Harassment related to changes in the political situation
outside the jail
When the NLD election victory was not honoured, and not
transferred, more people were arrested and the punishments
became more harsh. Political prisoners in the prisons were
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harassed and oppressed even more than usual. Political prisoners
were very frustrated with the conditions in prison and found it very
difficult to tolerate them.

Because of these conditions, 40 students from the dog cells made
some demands of the prison authorities. They expressed their
willingness to discuss these problems with the prison authorities.
But the prison authorities refused, swearing at the prisoners and
threatening them.

Subsequently, on 18 September 1990, students from the dog cell
commenced a hunger strike and informed the prison authorities
accordingly. They then announced the following five demands:

1. To allow political prisoners to stay together, segregated from
the criminal prisoners
2. To recognize political prisoners as such, and grant them
political prisoner status
3. To allow prisoners access to reading materials including
newspapers, religious books and other legal reading matter
4. To allow political prisoners full and free rights to receive visits
5. To respect the results of the election and hand over power to
the elected representatives.

Prison authorities and prison doctors arrived at the dog cells and
acknowledged the hunger strike. Then, they came and confiscated
all personal items and food in the dog cells. Later, warders came
and smashed the water pots, telling the prisoners their water had
been cut. The prison authorities blacked out news of the hunger
strike so that it would not spread to other cell blocks. However, even
though precise details were not known, news of the strike leaked out
to the other cell blocks in the Prison.

After four or five days had passed, some of the students lost
consciousness, suffered fits and were then sent to the prison
hospital. The others refused to receive medical care and continued
the hunger strike.

At that time, there were about 500 political prisoners in the six
solitary confinement cell blocks. News of the hunger-strike, such as
the number of students from the dog cells that were sent to hospital
and the number that had died, reached the solitary confinement
cells. Political prisoners from other cell blocks became concerned
and prepared to support the hunger strike by also demanding just
treatment for political prisoners.

Consequently, prisoners from these six cell blocks, together with
those from the female hall began to shout slogans in unison,
beginning at 7:00 am, on 25 September 1990. The slogans were the
same demands that the hunger strikers from the dog cells were
making. All the cell blocks echoed loudly with the sound of slogans
being chanted.

In spite of this, no prison officials arrived on the scene. No one came
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and talked to the protesters. There was no discussion between the
hungerstrikers and the authorities. One hour later, the authorities
played music over loudspeakers so that people in other blocks and
outside the prison would not hear the chanting of slogans.

At 11:00 am, military intelligence persormel, soldiers and warders,
with a combined strength of at least 200 men, entered the prison,
armed with batons and other weapons for beating prisoners. Even
though the prisoners were coordinated in shouting slogans, they
were in different parts of the prison. At that time as the doors had
not been opened, they were all shouting from within their locked

Warders then entered the cells and began scolding the prisoners,
chaining their hands behind their backs and beating them. Some
prisoners were dragged out of their cells. At that time there were
three prisoners in each cell. After these prisoners had been dragged
out, the warders came back and repeated the process. The second
time they were more violent and one old man, who could not stand it
any more, shouted at them with tears in his eyes: "You should not
be brutal like this." But that old man was also beaten and taken out.
His name was U Kyin Maung.

The prisoners who were taken out of the various solitary
confinement cell blocks were all beaten by many prison officers in
the field beside the prison office. They were beaten with various
kinds of sticks and even iron bars. They were kicked with army
boots and jumped on. The prison officers continued to beat the
prisoners until the majority were unconscious. These unconscious
prisoners were then thrown, as if they were corpses, into the cells
on death row.

Prisoners who were badly tortured were: See Side Bar

The prison authorities continued to beat these prisoners who had
chanted slogans in support of the hunger strike very brutally until the
next morning. At the same time they took the hunger strikers out of
the cells. The hunger strikers were very weak and were unable even
to walk. The authorities led them into the death row cells and
showed them the prisoners who had been badly tortured and were
stained with blood, telling them these prisoners were suffering
because of their hunger strike. The authorities told them that to
prevent more suffering they should abandon their hunger strike. The
prisoners were then taken back to the cells and ordered to eat.

When the hunger strikers still refused to eat, the prison authorities
put cooked rice in front of them. Then they started to beat the
strikers, even though by this stage they were so weak they were
unable to walk. All hunger strikers were beaten in various brutal
ways. Finally they sorowfully began to eat.

Meanwhile, 40 of the strikers, including five of the hunger strikers,
were again taken into the military dog cells. Early the next morning,
they were sent to Tharawadi prison and Thayet prison in two
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groups, with orders for them to be denied medical attention.

The prisoners from death row were beaten the most severely.
Finally some of them became unconscous and lost large amounts of
blood, and were sent to the prison hospital. The hospital became full
with victims. Those prisoners who were not so seriously injured
were not sent back to their normal cells, but were kept on death row
and provided with no medical treatment. 40 were sent to Tbamwadi
and Tbayet prisons. 100 were kept on death row and tortured. The
remaining strikers were kept in tiny cells in solitary confinement.

When they came to visit the following day, all of the family of the
prisoners heard about the events that had taken place and about the
death, bloodshed, brutal beatings and the departure of two trucks
from the prison, carrying prisoners soaked with blood. When they
heard this outside the gate of the prison, all the family members
began crying loudly. But they were not allowed to meet the
prisoners. Although they pleaded with prison officials to let them
know if the prisoners were still alive or just injured, the officials never
told them.

On their way home, the family members of the political prisoners
were unable to control themselves and cried and talked about the
situation with other passengers on the same bus. The other
passengers also became sad and angry, but tried to calm down the
grieving family members, since there was nothing that could be
done about the situation.

8.2 The case of Soe Thein and Zaw Win Htut
Soe Thein had been sent to the attached prison from solitary-
confinement cell block number 5 in the main prison, after being
accused of discussing Politics. This happened one month pnor to
the 25 September 1990 prison strike. There are two walls between
the main prison and the attached prison, so it is well isolated from
main prison.

This move was not known, at the time, by the prisoners staying at
attached prison, as the information was totally blacked out. Soe
Thein and Zaw Win Htut were put together in a tiny cell in the
attached prison.

When the prisoners in the main prison were taken out to be beaten,
warders also arrived at the cell of Soe Thein and ordered him to
move gain. They took him out with hands shackled and face
covered, and beating him when he got outside the cell.

How was Soe Thein related to the strike? He was not involved in
what was happening in the main jail. He did not even hear about it.
Why did they beat Soe Thein? Zaw Win Htut, who was left in the
cell, shouted out: "You are totally unjust. Stop it, or if you are brave,
come on let's fight one on one". Four warders opened the door,
rushed into the cell and started to beat him very violently. He
suffered a head fracture and was sent to the prison hospital.

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The real reason the warders came and beat Soe Thein was
probably not to do with the strike, but had more to do with their
hatred of him. What is the principle of the jail manual? Is it justice or

8.3 The demand for an end to hard labour
The following event took place at number 4 hall. There are two
different types of cell block for political prisoners in Insein prison the
solitaryconfinement cell blocks and the ordinary halls. Out of a total
of five halls, three contain political prisoners. There are over 200 in
each hall. Political prisoners who are put in solitary confinement
cellblocks get only 15 minutes for washing clothes, bathing and
walking, but do not need hard labour. In the halls the prisoners are a
little more free, but they have to work in the vegetable gardens.

Political prisoners do not mind working in the vegetable garden, but
they regard it as an insult to their dignity because it would put them
same status as criminals. The work is extremely tiring, and prisoners
are forced to work under a lot of pressure. The prison authorities
use it as another way to intimidate and oppress prisoners. In line
with the SLORC since, prison authorities always insult political
prisoners, saying: "there are no political prisoners; all are criminals".
One time students and became angry at these insults, and
demanded that the prison authorities stop giving them forced labour.

The prison authorities summoned the students and told them they if
they did not want to work in the vegetable gardens, they would not
be allowed to stay in the halls, but would have to stay in solitary
confinement. The students replied that they would not provide hard
labour they agreed to stay in solitary confinement instead.

The prison authorities told the students who had agreed to be to
solitary to come out. About 40 students came out of their hall
brought their personal belongings (clothes, food, blankets) with
them. Many warders accompanied them into the sofitary
confinement cell blocks. However, they were not sent to the solitary
confinement cell blocks, but were put into the dog cells instead. The
dog cells are for the punishment for prisoners who commit crimes in

These students were very surprised that they were being taken into
the dog cells. They were put into tiny cells, four people to a cell.
When all the students were in the cells, the warders opened each
cell in began to beat them, shouting 'This punishment is because
you don't want to work. You worthless politicians! You f-ing
politicians! This is you have to live! This is the dog cell!' The
students had no opportunity to explain themselves. They did not
even understand why they were being beaten, as they thought they
had reached an agreement with the prison authorities. Thus, the dog
cell was filled with the sound of beatings, shoutings and groans. All
the students were given solitary confinement for one month as a
punishment. Permission to receive visitors was denied and all their
belongings were confiscated.

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Please note: The dog cell was where the dogs used in patrolling the
prison compound were kept. The prison authorities often used them
to torture prisoners. Out of hatred, all the dogs were killed during a
prison riot in 1988 and eaten by the prisoners.

8.4 The case of Zaw Myo Aung (Hall 4)
According to prison regulations, lights out is at 9 pm. After lights out,
all prisoners must sleep and must remain silent. However, almost all
the prisoners use this opportunity to talk with each other in whispers.
The warders also come and talk with the prisoners.

Zaw Myo Aung was the general-secretary from Ma Ka Tha Pha
(National Students' Organisation). Saya Maung Maung was a
philosophy teacher from the workers' college. They were cell mates.
One night they were talking together after 9 pm. It is common for
prisoners to learn from teachers who have been incarcerated.

Zaw Myo Aung asked Saya Maung Maung a question relating to
philosophy. Saya Maung Maung replied, but one prisoner, named
Hla Htim, disagreed with what Saya Maung Maung was saying, and
a quarrel started with Zaw Myo Aung. The next day Hla Htun kept
quiet, pretending that nothing had happened, but the warder, Soe
Win took the case to the prison authorities because he had heard
about it from another prisoner.

The warder later summoned Hla Htun saying that the case would be
sent to trial. Hla Htun refused and so was forced to attend the
internal hearing andgive evidence. Tbree senior prisoners were also
summoned to give evidence against the accused, but no one was
summoned as witness to defend Zaw Myo Aung. Consequently he
was found guilty and sentenced to three months' in solitary
confinement in the dog cell, with hands and feet shackled. He was
also refused permission to receive visitors.

He was found guilty of the following offenses:

1. Talking after 9 PM
2. Lack of respect for prison authorities.

If they wish to enforce the first of these, then all prisoners must be
sentenced. The second punishment is because he allegedly said to
Ma Htun that he 'was not afraid of telling a truth to any one even if
he was a prison official', and the authorities were angry that he
dared to talk in this way in prison.

On another occasion, Abbot Meggin was put into a tiny solitary
confinement cell because he had taught English to students in hall

8.5 The case of Kyaw Htway (Cell block 5)
After staying in prison for a long time, sometimes students become
friendly with some of the warders, and they often tease each other.

One time, Kyaw Htway asked warder Nyunt Kyi jokingly, "Will you

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give me your sister's hand in marriage?" Such jokes and taunts are
quite common. All the prisoners and warders in Cell block 5
understood the situation, and did not take offense in such cases.
However, on this occasion Kyaw Htway was soon summoned to the
prison office by the authorities. They moved him to the attached
prison, accusing him of insulting a prison official. When a prisoner is
moved to a new cell, he always finds it hard to adjust to new
conditions that are likely to be alien to him.

The warder, Nyunt Kyi, had not made any complaint, but the
authorities had come to hear about the incident and took action
directly. When Kyaw Htway was summoned, Nyunt Kyi apologised
and appealed to the authorities not to take any action. However, his
appeal was rejected and the authorities threatened Nyunt Kyi,
saying: "Do you want to lose your job and be punished?" Moreover,
they forced Nyunt Kyi to act as a witness.

8.6 The case of Mya Aye and others
Mya Aye is the vice-chairman of a post-graduate student democratic
union. In May 1990 he was tortured and sent to solitary confinement
because he complained that the meat ration was much smaller than
it have been.

In December 1990, prisoners from death-row cell block number 2
were taken out and badly beaten. All were blindfolded with sarongs
and forced to walk past the warders in single-file. The warders hit
them side of the face as they walked past. When the other prisoners
warders why they did that, they replied that it was a prison custom.

In June 1991, the students from Hall 3 complained to the prison
authorities that they were only receiving half the usual amount of
soap. Because of this complaint, fifteen students were moved to the
attached prison.

8.7 Forced latrine cleaning
In November 1991, 100 political prisoners from Insein prison were
moved to Thayet prison. All were kept together in Hall 2, separate
from the criminal prisoners. There are four halls in Thayet prison.

One duty for prisoners is to clean the prison latrine pots (big bowls
of excrement in the latrines.) This duty is a punishment for prisoners
who commit a crime while in prison. Otherwise, it is a job for
prisoners who want a reduction in their jail sentences. Only these
two types of prisoners have to do this job.

As a part of the tradition in prisons, no political prisoners are
required to clean the pots whatsoever. In Thayet prison, the political
prisoners were always quiet, and did not create any problems. The
criminals who had committed crimes in prisons were given the duty
to do this job there.

However, two weeks after these prisoners were moved, the
authorities announced that the political prisoners had to clean the
latrines in their block. Since this was an unusual move, and not in

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accordance with prison regulations, the prisoners concerned asked
the authorities the reason for this order. The reason given was that
the political prisoners had been talking to the criminal prisoners
when they came to clean the latrine.

This reason was a little strange. Speaking with criminals is not
usually a problem. Indeed, for the two weeks preceding this incident,
the political prisoners had been talking to criminal prisoners openly
and in front of warders, with no problem. The political prisoners
requested a discussion with the prison authorities over this incident.
They did not complain about having to clean the latrines. They did
not threaten to call a strike. They just wanted to have a discussion.
But the prison authorities did not reply.

At 5 pm, while waiting for a reply from the prison authorities, the
warders instructed the prisoners to collect their personal belongings
together. At 6 pm the political prisoners were sent to three different
halls. At Thayet prison, each hall has three large cells. Eleven
political prisoners were put into each cell. These cells are large
enough for 60-70 prisoners each. The rest of the prisoners in these
cells were criminal prisoners.

At 7 pm, all the halls were closed. At 7:30 a warder visited these
three halls with a list of names. Nine prisoners on the list were taken
out. The prisoners did not understand what the reason was. These
nine prisoners were all students. Without any explanation, prison
authorities put them into solitary confinement cell block number 2
and shackled their legs to a 2.6viss (about 4.2 kg) wooden weight.

Two days later, the Chief Warden of the prison called these
prisoners to his office. He told them that they were punished
because they insulted and opposed the prison authorities. Although
they denied this and tried to tell him that they were just requesting to
meet with him, they were immdiately put back into their tiny cells
without being allowed to explain what had happened. The nine were
then put into tiny solitary confinement cells for one month.

Then two days after the punishment had been handed were put on
trial. The nine students were:

1. Zaw Myo Win
2. Soe Myat
3. Aung Paing
4. Kyaw Wunna
5. Hla Win
6. Ye Maw Htoo
7. Kyaw Kyaw Thein
8. Hla Myo Naung
9. Win Naing Oo

8.8 The pen case (Thayet Prison)
The following incident took place at number 3 cell block, Thayet
Prison in April 1992. There are four cell blocks in it.

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Number 3 cell block was quiet after the 9 pm lights out. Some
prisoners had fallen asleep and some had not. There were 1O
prisoners in 8 cells in this block. It was a windy night. The rhythmic
banging of a loose corrugated iron door was the only sound to be

At one point when a powerful gust of wind blew against the door,
something dropped onto the floor in front of number 6 cell where
Win Naing Oo and Ye Maw Htoo were confined. Ye Maw Htoo was
fast asleep. Win Naing Oo got up and found a folded Longyi
(Sarong). It must have been left by someone to dry it out this
evening, he thought. Then he shouted, "Whose is that?" A voice
from number 3 cell answered, "That's mine." It was Soe Myat. "Grab
it and throw it to me," he continued. "There is a ballpoint pen inside."

Win Naing Oo grabbed it and threw it to Soe Myat through iron
railing. They used to throw food, cheroots, etc. from one cell to
another because cell doors were locked.

A corporal walked in before Soe Myat was able to snatch the
bundle. He was not on duty at number 3 cell block; the warder on
duty had gone out (of the building) for a while. The corporal picked
up the bundle and unfolded it. He found a ballpoint pen inside. Soe
Myat requested the corporal to give the Longyi and the ballpoint pen
to him. But the corporal did not say anything and walked out of the

"Tell them the truth when they question you tomorrow," Soe Myat
then said laughing. "There will be no problem. At worst they'll take
away my visiting rights. Maybe, in addition, they'll give me a few
lashes. I'll wear thick clothes tomorrow." Prisoners from other cells
laughed too when they heard him say this. Some prisoners did not
even know what had happened. Soe Myat was the only criminal in
the number 3 cell block. He had been a notorious criminal and when
he was in Insein Prison, he was loved and feared by fellow
criminals. Many years of incarceration had made him an expert on
prison laws and other unlawful dealings in the prison. He was also
friendly with prison authorities.

Prisoners are forbidden to own pens. Sometimes action is taken in
such cases, but sometimes is not. When the warders do not turn a
blind eye to this kind of thing, they usually just ask the prisoner
where he got the pen, and then revoke visiting rights for a month.
This is usually the maximum punishment. Wm Naing Oo and Soe
Myint thought that they would be punished like this.

The next moniing, at 7 am, the chief warden, prison officials and I 00
warders came into the solitary confinement ceff-block shouting
angrily and beating on the walls with sticks. The cells were locked.

They first opened the cell where Win Naing Oo was staying.

Both Win Naing Oo and his cellmate, Ye Maw Htoo, were pushed
violently out of their cell. Ye Maw Htoo did not know what was going
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on; he had been fast asleep List night when the corporal had walked
away with the bundle. They were ordered to sit down. Then the
warders started to beat them with batons, shouting and abusing
them verbally at the same time. They did not attempt to ask any
questions. At least they should have been told why they were being
beaten. Both ended up slumped on the ground because of the

Then the warders made them to sit up again. This time one said,
"How did you manage to get the ballpoint pen?" Win Naing them the
truth. But another warder shouted, "Liar", and then they were beaten
again. Win Naing Oo slumped to the floor again.

Meanwhile, Soe Myat shouted from his cell: "What Win Naing Oo
said is true. The pen is mine! Don't be so ruthless like this." Then
they took out Soe Myat from his cell and beat him. Abbot Meggin,
who was in the same cell as Soe Myat, was also beaten at the same
time as Soe Myat. The abbot did not respond to the beating and
received it with great tolerance. Then Zaw Myo Win and Maung
Maung Than, who were cells between the others, were also taken
out. The authorities ask Myo Win if he knew anything about the pen,
but he replied that he did not. Then the authorities started to beat
both of them very badly shouting, "Why not?" Finally both of them
dropped to the ground. Neither of them had actually known anything
at all about the incident.

Maung Maung Than complained that he had heart disease. The
people beating him just made a joke about this and continued the
beating. After the beating, the authorities ordered the prisoners to sit
in the standard position. However, because of the beatings they had
sustained, them were unable to maintain their balance, and they
could not even sit. At that time, the warders in front of them made
them sit with their heads between their knees, they were beaten
again. This time they all lost consciousness.

Subsequently, all the students inside that solitary confinement cell
block were taken out and beaten unconscious. The other students
had never even heard about the problem with the pen, and did not
understand why they were being beaten. That day the whole cell
block rang out with the sound of shouting, cursing, beating and cries
of pain.

The next day, Win Naing Oo was taken outside and left on a brick
block under the scorching sun for two hours, with his legs chained
and fixed with 10 viss (about 16 kg) iron shackles. He was then
forced to walk on the burning hot sand, which was as hot as
charcoal. [According to the prison manual, the heaviest weight to be
shackled to a prisoner is 2.6 viss.

Then Soe Myat was taken out. But he was not given the same
treatment as Win Naing Oo. Instead they offered him a matted cane
chair to sit down with them. Then they asked him politely about the
ballpoint pen.

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Soe Myat told them the truth saying that he had found it somewhere.
Without any further questioning, the prison authorities closed the
case. Soe Myat was sent back to his cell. Before he left, they said to
him, "We treated you as a gentleman. Ask Win Naing Oo how we
treated him." Subsequently, all prisoners at the number 3 cell block
were put into solitary confinement.

The next day Win Naing Oo got cyanosis and his body turned a blue
colour. He suffered tightness of breath and had great difficulty in
breathing. The authorities gave him no treatment or care of any
kind, even though the warders had seen his conditions. At 12 pm,
other prisoners heard murmuring sounds coming from his cell and
asked him how he was. There was no reply, however. So the whole
solitary confinement cell block shouted together loudly.

Only then the authorities arrived and gave the sick prisoner some
treatment. After about a week he recovered.

The following day, all family members of the prisoners arrived at
Thayet prison to visit them. The authorities denied them permission,
saying that the prisoners were being punished for climbing a water
tower and giving a political speech. The family members cried and
went home.

A protest was made by some prisoners regarding this case. They
sent a protest letter to government officials not directly related to the
prison. Some miltary intelligence personnel came and investigated
the matter, but their findings were that:

1. The authorities beat the prisoners in self-defence
2. No 10 viss leg weights were found in Thayet prison. There
were only the normal 2.6 viss weights.

The authorities concerned and all prisoners at Thayet Prison knew
that the report was a coverup. This is usual when there are
investigations in Burmese prisons.

There are many other cases of political prisoners in Thayet prison
being mistreated.

For example: Ko Pyeit and Ko Hla Htay were forced to crawl on
sharp pointed stones after being accused of failing to maintain their
standard sitting position. They had to crawl like this for about 500
yards. While crawling they were beaten with sticks by officials on
both sides. Finally they were put into solitary confinement cells.
Such actions are totally against prison regulations.

One time Zaw Win Htut dropped a cup while drinking and it was
reported to the prison authorities by a warder. This warder was
angry with that particular prisoner as he had refused to give the
warder food provided by his family members while they were visiting

After being taken out of his cell, Zaw Win Htut was forced to crawl
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on sharp stones and was beaten like Ko Pyeit and Ko Hla Htay. He
was also put into a tiny solitary confinement cell. Some warders said
that the hard bamboo stick which was used to beat him broke into
two pieces, that is how brutally he was beaten.

The root of all such incidents is this: When there is a problem
between political prisoners and the prison authorities, no attempt is
made by the authorities to find a reasonable solution. There is no
discussion. There is no justice and no reasonable punishment. The
prison authorities decide everything with hatred or prejudice and all
they want to do is oppress the political prisoners with the intention of
breaking their spirit.

The cases discussed in the present report are only those that took
place in Insein and Thayet prisons. There are many other cases of
systematic abuse in other prisons in different areas of Burma.
Moreover, there have been many more cases, even in Insein prison,
which are not in this report, as the author did not have personal
knowledge of them.

8.9 Deliberate separation of immediate families in prisons
Prisons have a deliberate policy of separating immediate family
members while they are in prison. For instance when father and
son, two brothers, mother and daughter or two sisters are put in
prison, the authorities separate them. This is obviously a deliberate
policy for the political prisoners. if two brothers are sent to the same
prison, their families can visit them at the same time. If they are sent
to different prisons, travel will be a big burden for the families for
they have to visit both prisons in different cities. It is a tiresome and
costly task for the families. This policy is aimed at aggravating the
suffering immediate family members whose brothers, fathers or
sisters are in prison.

The following are a few examples of political prisoners who had to
live separately:

1. U Hla Shwe People's Progressive Party (father-Mandalay
2. Set Aung Naing Rangoon University Student Union (son-
Thayet Prison)
3. Aung Din All Burma Federation of Student Unions (elder
brother-Thayet prison)
4. Shwe Phone Luu All Burma Federation of Student Unions
(younger brother-Thayawaddy)

Another deliberate policy to aggravate the already burdened families
whose loved ones are under detention is the transferring of
prisoners from one prison to another. Prisoners in Insein Prison
whose families are in Rangoon will be sent to prisons such as
Mandalay Prison, Myingyan Prison, Thayet Prison, Thayawaddy
Prison, etc., which are located up-country. Their families can easily
visit them in Rangoon on a regular basis, but it is not easy for them
to visit their loved ones in Mandalay Prison. It is both a costly and a
wearisome task. Some poor families are hit hard by this policy.

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When they cannot go to visit the prisoners do not get the essential
things that they need while they are in prison.

8.10 The instigation of problems between political prisoners and criminals
The water supply is not sufficient for bathing; people can just get wet
but not clean. As a result, many kinds of skin disease spread among
the prisoners. When the political prisoners complained to the
authorities that the water supply was not enough, the authorities
failed to increase the water flow through the pipe, but instead told
the criminals to carry the water themselves from an outside tap, 300
yards from the prison. When the criminals became tired of carrying
water, the prison authorities told them that it was because of the
demands of the political prisoners that they had to do this. They
became angry with the political prisoners.

When the political prisoners refused to do hard labour, the prison
authorities ordered the criminals to provide more labour. When the
criminals became angry because they had to do so much, the prison
authorities told them that it was because. of the refusal of political
prisoners to do this work. The political prisoners finally decided to
work as they did to have a problem with the criminal prisoners, and
they did not want their actions to create more suffering for other

Because prisoners have to bathe using food plates, they are only
able to scoop up tiny amounts of water. For this reason political
prisoners asked to be allowed to bathe using water cups. At this
time, the prison authorities allowed it, and also told the political
prisoners to bathe first, before the criminal prisoners. When the
criminal prisoners came to bathe, the warders stopped the water
supply, saying: "The water has run out because the political
prisoners who bathed before you used too much water."

There are many ploys prison authorities employ to create problems
among prisoners. It is a part of the divide-and-rule policy of the
SLORC. In this way, criminals come to be angry with and hate the
political prisoners. The creation of disunity reduces problems for the
prison authorities, as criminal prisoners never protest or oppose the
prison authorities when politicalprisoners are badly tortured or
beaten. There are also more methods used to separate political
prisoners and criminal prisoners. For example, the order that
criminal prisoners cannot eat meals with political prisoners and
cannot talk with political prisoners.

This divide-and-rule policy is very dangerous. Whenever there is a
likelihood of a confrontation with the criminals, the political prisoners
try to avoid it as criminals are inclined to resort to violence. Prison
authorities always turn a blind eye to confrontation of this kind.

The following is the example of this kind which took place at number
1 cell, Hall 3 during an inspection in January 1991.

All prisoners were sitting in rows for the inspection as it was closing
time of the prison. There were over 100 prisoners in all. Among

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them were 30 political prisoners. One of them was Thein Tun 0o, a
handsome 16-year-old 8th grade student. The hall leader and
another criminal named Soe Myat were sitting comfortably separate
from the others.

Soe Myat was feared by all criminals and political prisoners alike.

At that moment, Soe Myat told Thein Tun Oo to come and Thein
Tun Oo refused. Soe Myat asked him again to sit beside him. Again
he refused. Then Soe Myat stood up and called him names. Soe
Myat was angry because Thein Tun Oo refused. Soe Myat then
continued, "I don't give a shit about you politicians. What do you
take me for? Do whatever you want if you don't like my calling you
names. Complain about it to anybody. I don't give a shit." None of
the students replied; in fact, no one dared to say anything.

It's common in prisons that hard-core criminals force or coax
younger prisoners to have sex with them. So younger prisoners
have to be very careful when dealing with them, and keep a
distance whenever possible.

After the inspection, political prisoners had a discussion on how to
tackle this problem. Should the prison officials be informed? They
did not want a fellow prisoner to be in trouble because of this
whether he be a political prisoner or a criminal. Besides, they did not
want to have any problems with the criminals. Their lives could be at
stake. At the same time, they did not wish to be insulted again.
Eventually, they decided that they would seek advice from political
prisoners in other cells the following day.

But they could not sleep that night, knowing the mentality of
prisoners and wondering what might happen the next day. As they
worried, the criminals also had a talk on this. "I hate these
politicians, I want to kill them all," were the remarks of many
criminals. At that time, there was a well-known student leader
among the political prisoners. His name is Zaw Myo Aung. The
criminals decided that they would target him and Thein Tun Oo.
Criminals urged Soe Myat to give them the order to kill the two. After
consideration, Soe Myat told them to wait until the following day.

The next day Zaw myo Aung and Thein Tun Oo discussed this with
political prisoners from other cells. "Should we inform the
authorities?" Just then Soe Myat came over and said, "So you are
discussing because you don't like me to call you names? You want
a fight with me?" The students asked him to stop abusing them. But
he continued, "I will kill all of you and be happy to live in solitary
confinement. He then went out to assemble the criminals from
number 3 hall. Criminals from other halls came and joined them.
There were many of them. The cell leader from number 1 cell of hall
3 gave them pointed iron rods. During this time, none of the political
prisoners knew anything about the plot.

The situation was heading towards a likely massacre. Political
prisoners had no weapons at all, not even a needle to fight back the
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hard-core criminals. Then in the nick of time, an old prisoner who did
not wish to see this happen risked his life and informed the prison
officials, knowing that he would be definitely killed if the criminals
found out who told this to the authorities.

Prison authorities did not want such carnage to take place as it put
all of them in jeopardy. So they intervened at the last minute
slaughter was averted.

Even if it had happened, the prison authorities must be held
responsible, for they were the ones who created the problem by
gradually inciting hatred in the minds of the criminals against the
students; the political prisoners.

Political prisoners are usually defenseless in prisons against all
possible dangers.

General Issues
By Win Naing Oo

9.1 Buddhist Monks
It is estimated that there are nearly 200 Buddhist monks in Insein prison alone. One
venerable monk is U Thu Mingala, who won a Buddhist literature title Pitaka Thone Bon
(he gained a distinction in all three parts of the Tripitaka, the Buddhist canon). Along
with him in Prison, there are 8 other senior monks who also won distinctions in one of
the three parts or the whole of the Tripitaka. All of these monks are highly venerated in
their respective areas. In Burma, there are only five monks who have gained
distinctions in all three parts of the Tripitaka. One of these monks passed away in 1994,
leaving only four alive.

According to Buddhist Law, in Buddhist country, if a King has opressed his own people
too much, the Buddhist monks can impose some punishment such as not going to the
palace or anywhere else when invited by the king, not accepting things offered by the
King and not giving the King Buddhist services. This is called Patta Nikujjana Kan in
Pali. The main reason for using this Kan is that the King comes to realize how brutally
he is oppressing his citizens. It is intended to make him change his habits. The monks
in Insein prison participated in a Patta Nikujjana Kan against the Burmese government
and were accused of being fake Buddhist monks and were arrested by the military
regime. U Thu Mingala and eight other senior monks were sentenced to 8 years in
prison and other monks were sentenced to five or ten years in prison.

The monks have asked to wear robes in prison, but the prison authorities took off their
robes and now the monks only wear white prison uniforms. In addition, the monks are
not referred to by their monk names, only ordinary names. When the prison authorities
call them, they do not use the word U, which is a respectful prefix to a name. The monk
Meggin Sayadaw is over 70 years old, but the warden calls him, "Hey, Shwe Tha Aye"
in a very rude way.

However, all the monks are very patient, but they did not accept their forced and
unlawful disrobing. They have been staying in prison in accordance with all the
traditional principles of a Buddhist monk they do not eat dinner (Buddhist monks are not

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allowed to eat after noon) and early morning meals are not provided. This means that
they can only eat one meal a day (lunch). No monks in prison are allowed to preach the
Buddhist Dharma and the prisoners are also not allowed to Pay obeisance (with palms
raised together on the forehead) to monks.

9.2 Prisoners still facing trial
According to the law, a person who is accused of a crime is innocent until proven guilty.
Furthermore, no political prisoner can beat a fellow prisoner. If a prisoner has to be
beaten up for the crime he commits in prison the officials have to give him this

Hall no. 1 and hall no. 2 are full of prisoners who are still facing trial, and they number
nearly 3,000. According to the law, they should not be treated as criminals. But this is
not the case in Insein prison. Every day, they are oppressed and given punishment
without justification. They have to suffer beatings, money being extorted, clothes being
seized, hard labor, and have to clean excrement in the latrines. There is no possible
excuse for such treatment.

They are the ones whose rights are most violated. They always look frightened
because of the regular beating and of their morale crushed. Although the prison law
allows them the luxury of receiving prison clothes and blankets, they never receive
them. If they have good clothes when they are sent to prison, they will be taken away
as well, and replaced with old ones. The majority of prisoners are always half naked
and sleep without blankets at night. (See also 2.1)

9.3 Public torture
On one occasion, two prisoners quarrelled with each other. The punishment was this:
they had to fight each other again continuously. If they refused to do so, they would be
beaten by the warders. When they became tired, they had to do press-ups on a 2 foot
step, then they were beaten with canes by the warders. However, they could not
continue the press-ups in that position and finally, their whole bodies shaking, fell down
on the floor. The warders kicked them with military boots because they fell down on the
floor. The two prisoners had to do press-ups even though their backs were bloody; they
were still beaten. At that time, some other prisoners were nearby, but they were sent
away from the scene by warders. I was also near there and when I left that scene, an
old warder followed me and asked: "Are you feeling sad about that?" I didn't reply. He
continued that "This is a prison, cruelty and injustice are not strange; if you understand
that you can calm yourself down." All I could do was just stare at that old warder.

The ideology of warders is that beating the prisoners violently is the best way to prevent
quarreling among them. It may work, but it is not in accordance with either human
dignity or human rights.

However, this policy of the authorities means that prisoners try never to quarrel among
themselves openly, because they know they would be beaten.

There is however a lesson prisoners learn from their experiences while in prison, That
is, "if you have a fight with a fellow prisoner, fight him until he is dead so that it will be
worth it as you will be severely beaten by prison officials for getting into a fight in the
first place." This fact has contributed to many deaths in Burmese prisons.

9.4 Conspiracies In Prisons
There were over 200 political prisoners in hall number 4. They were closer to each
other and more united than prisoners in other halls. If a problem occurred between a

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prisoner and the officials and if they believed that he was right, they all stood together.

Prison officials did not like it because it prevented them from controlling the prisoners
completely. They blamed this unity among hall no.4 prisoners on Win Naing Oo. So
they decided to bring charges against him.

They started to investigate whether he had violated prison regulations, but he had not.
When this failed, they planned to plot against him. This failed again. Finally, they
summoned Soe Myat, the most feared criminal in prison. They said to him, "Win Naing
Oo lodged a complaint with us about your wrong doings in prison. If we have to take
action against you, you are going to be in big trouble. We want you to know this. We
don't want to bring any charges against you. We hope that you understand what we are
saying. Finish him off." This is the usual method for prison officials to get rid of some
one they dislike.

Soe Myat believed what the authorities had said and held a grudge against Win Naing
Oo. So he planned to kill him. But the plan was difficult carry out due to some
objections from criminals who liked Win Naing Oo. As the whole thing took longer than
it should to be carried out authorities called him and said, "We'll be more frank this time.
We'll give you the protection. We'll give you special rights."

The conspiracy was somehow leaked and made known to political prisoners. They then
began a whispering campaign among the prisoners that prison authorities would be
held responsible if something happened to Win Naing Oo, that when it happened, they
would not and that they would start a prison riot not only in hall no. 4, but would make it
spread throughout whole prison. In fact, the prisoners did not know what the conspiracy
was in detail, but as a precaution, they launched the campaign.

Since the campaign was launched, all prisoners had to be extra careful. They also had
to organize some criminals. But by the time the news was spread throughout the whole
prison, the prison authorities asked Soe Myat to stop it for a while, for fear that their plot
be revealed. During this time, an order to transfer 100 prisoners to Thayet prison was
issued and Win Naing Oo was listed among those who had to be transferred. That put
an end to the conspiracy.

(Details were revealed only when both Win Naing Oo and Soe Myat were put in the
same cell block in Thayet Prison and became friends.)

This is one of many common methods used by officials in prisons. Many have already
died as a result of these practices. It is an open secret within the prison, but remains
unknown to outsiders only because prisoners have no power to inform them.

It is generally understood by prison officials that locking away two criminals who dislike
each other in the same cell gives then an opportunity to try to kill each other. This was
the very method that gave a well-known hardcore criminal named Nga Shint a chance
to crush the skull of another equally notorious criminal known as Mya Khaung with a
blunt hoe. The whole prison knew that they had made a deal to behead other. This was
also known to prison officials. Despite this, the two were deliberately locked in the same

It is customary in prisons that a prisoner who knows something of the corruption of the
officials who has potential to upset their interests killed in some way or another.

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By Win Naing Oo

On behalf of the political prisoners in Burma, I would like to make it clear that all we
sought was freedom, justice and personal security fundamental rights enjoyed by any
civilised society. What we were given were imprisonment, torture and even death.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in its preamble declares "Whereas
disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have
outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings
shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been
proclaimed as the highest aspirations of the common people, whereas it is essential, if
a man is not compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny
and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law." Then we are
the ones who genuinely seek peace whereas the SLORC denies the aspirations and
desires of the people who cherish peace.

Even during the British era, cases in which prison authorities would deny water to
political prisoners on hunger strike were never heard of. Yet during the BSPP and
SLORC period water pots have been broken into pieces or seized, and the weak
hunger strikers beaten again and again. We have heard this many times and now I
have seen it with my own eyes. In some cases, prisoners have had to drink their own
urine because, during the hunger strikes, the prison authorities seized the water pots.

Political prisoners during the period of British rule were permitted to read, write and
discuss politics. It was the same in the period of the AFPFL government. Political
prisoners were separated from the criminals and were able to get basic necessities. A
person who was imprisoned in that period said to me in comparison of the two prison
systems. "Our time in prison was like on going on a picnic compared with the situation

This kind of brutal treatment is imposed when all we have done is peacefully
demonstrate. The world that we live in is becoming smaller and smaller day by day. The
interrelation and interdependence among people the world over is now greater than
ever before. In this modern era a civilised man is one who considers not only his safety
and security but also for other people.

We believe man has an unwritten duty to protect and to promote peace, culture and the
intellectual advancement of all mankind. Is it not an insult to man's conscience and
intelligence when in one corner of the world a handful of people are arbitrarily
committing atrocities against millions of innocent people? Is it also not a challenge to
peace and culture of mankind?

We want the whole world to know that we the Burmese people are experiencing
unspeakable suffering under the military regime in this corner of the world.

Win Naing Oo

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qufwGJrSwfwrf; vdkΠajym&r,f xifygw,f?
wu,fuawmh ud0k if;Ekid Of ;D rSww f rf;rsm;&JŒ y&Du, G vf af &SŒqufwt JG cef;awGukd Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;a[mif; tawmfrsm; rsm;uvJ
azmfxw k cf =hJ u+yD;jzpfygw,f? 1962 ckEpS f rwfv 2 &uf ppfwyf tm%modr;f wJah eŒup+yD;* av;vH;k ta&;tcif; umvtxd/ wzef 8 av;vH;k
umvuae 'DuaeŒtxd/ ausmif;om;awGtygt0if Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awG axmifeŒJ aomif;eJŒcs+_D yD; ppftpd;k &tqufquf&ŒJ tusO;f axmif
awGxaJ &muf&/ csKyfaESmifc&H / ESyd pf ufnif;yef;cHc&hJ w,f? urBmay:rSm Armjynf[m ausmif; om;awG trsm;qH;k towfc&H wJw h ikd ;f jynf/ trsm;qH;k
tzrf;cH&wJhwdkif;jynf vdkŒajym&if &Ekdifygw,f?
8 av;vH;k rwdik rf D a&SŒqufwrJG w S w f rf;awGukd udak tmifapmOD; (r_id ;f &mjynf/h ,ckNLD-LA)/ udak rmifarmifww d f (OD;oefŒ ta&;tcif;/
,ck ABSDF)/ udkaX;atmif (75 *|efta&;tcif;)/ udkcifarmifpdk; (75 *|efta&;tcif;/ ,ckRFA)/ udkat;0if; (r_dif;&m jynfh/ ,ck vrif;w&m
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ta&;awG tjynfht0&wJhtcgus&ifawmh ,rrif; O,sOf}uD;&JŒ &kyfyHkum;csyftjynfhtpHkudk awGŒjrifEkdifvdrfhr,fvdkŒ xifygw,f?
,ckrw S wf rf;udk pepfwusoak ooevky+f yD;tcsut f vufawG jyefveS pf pfaq;zdŒk tajctaeray;wma=umifh 'Daqmif;yg;rSm tcsuf
tvufawG vGrJ mS ;wm/ ºuGi;f usew f m&S&d if pma&;ol usaemhw f m0efom jzpfygw,f? 'gt h jyif wcsed u f axmifwiG ;f tae txm;awGukd jzwfoef;
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2? a&aomufjrpf

1975 ck ESpfv,favmufrSm tif;pdefaxmifxJ xdef;odrf;cHxm;&wJh ausmif;om;OD;a&[m 300 ausmf&Sdaeygw,f? tJ'DxJ rSm 74 'D
Zifbm OD;oefŒ ta&;tcif;u ausmif;om; 60 cefŒeJŒ 1975 *|ef (tvkyo f rm; ta&;tcif; ESpyf gwv f nf) a&$w*d kH ta&;t cif; ausmif;om;280
cefŒyg0ifygw,f? wjcm; EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGxJrSm OD;oefŒta&;tcif;wHk;u zrf;qD;axmifcscH&wJh oHCm awmf 10 yg;cefŒ &Sdygw,f? 74
ar-*|ef tvkyo f rm; ta&;tcif;awGu 20-30 avmuf&ydS gw,f? OD;oefŒta&;tcif;rSm pzrf;wke;f u ausmif;om;eJŒ t&yfom;OD;a& 10000
avmuf tzrf;cHc&hJ +yD;oHCmawmfeŒJ oDv&Siaf wG tyg; 500 avmufygcahJ yr,fh 75 ESpv f ,favmufrmS awmh jyefrv$wb f J aemufq;kH usew f m
ckeajymovdk ausmif;om; 60 avmufeJŒ oHCm 10 yg;avmufyJ jzpfyg w,f? OD;oef‹ta&;tcif;[m rE Wav;rSmvJ jzpfcJhw,f? rE Wav;
ausmif;om;awGuawmh rE Wav;axmifrSmbJ xdef;odrf;cHcJh&w,f?
OD;oefŒt&;tcif; rjzpfrD 74 ckEpS x f rJ mS urm&Gw*f gwwf J rD;±_Œd r_jzpf+yD;wuUov kd af usmif;om;awGeŒJ urm&Gwv f n S ;f wef;u t&yfom;
vli,fawG tzrf;cH&ao;w,f? tJ'Dta&;tcif;uawmh wuUodkvfausmif;om;wOD;ukd cg;ydkufE_duf qdk+yD;ppftm%m &Sifa'gufwdkif rqv
ykvyd af wGu olwŒkd tusit hf wdik ;f zrf;+yD;rw&m;ESyd pf ufwmudk ausmif;om;awG rcHr&yfEikd jf zpf&muae urm&Gwf &Jpcef;udk ausmif;om;awGeŒJ
vlxak wGu 0kid ;f aqmfxnfh rD;±_Œd ypfvu kd wf hJ tr_jzpfygw,f? 75 ckEpS v
f ,frmS awmh 'Dtr_uaemufq;kH useaf e+y;D w&m;±H;k xGuaf e&wm urm&Gwu f
vli,fwOD;yJ &Sw d ,f? cH0efcsKyfeŒJ jyefvw $ af y;xm;wJh ausmif;om; 3 a,mufuakd wmh 76 r_id ;f &mjynfh ta&;tcif;jzpf+yD;aemufyikd ;f rSm jyefvnf
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r_(ac: ) 0if'rD ,
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tjyefrmS [Hom0wDt0dik ;f &Sd Edik if aH wmfaumifp±D ;kH *dwaf pmifph pfwyfu rdu k rf u kd ±f ikd ;f ±dik ;f &efpapmfum;+yD; jy\em&Sm ±du k Ef uS vf Œkd ausmif;om;awG
rausreyfjzpf&muae taqmifrmS vljyefpk Edik if aH wmfaumifp±D ;kH *dww f cH g;eJŒuif;wJukd cJeŒJ 0dik ;f xkwhJ tr_jzpfygw,f? tJ'u D pd aP =umifh aemufyikd ;f rSm
ynma&;wuUodkvf ausmif;om; 10 a,mufausmfudk zrf;qD;axmifcscJh&mrSm trsm;pk [m a&$wd*Hk ta&;tcif;rSmvJ tr_wGJyg=uw,f?
75 *|ef ta&;tcif;[m 74 ar=*|ef tvkyo f rm; ta&;tcif;&JΠESpyf gwv f nftjzpf v_y&f mS ;wmjzpfwt hJ wGuf ausmif; om;oydwf
omru tvkyo f rm;oydwaf wGvyJ gwhJ taxGaxGoydw}f uD; jzpfzŒkd &nf&, G Of ;D wnfcw hJ m jzpfw,f? tJ'rD mS ausmif;om; oydwu f tpydik ;f rSm
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

bGJŒESif;obifcef;r/ aemufydkif;rSm a&$wd*Hkbk&m;udk oydwfpcef;zGifhcJh+yD;aemufqHk; a&$wd*Hkbk&m;ay:rSmyJ òzdcGJ zrf;qD;cHcJh&vdkŒ a&$wd*Hkta&;tcif;
vdŒk vJ ac:a0:cJ=h uw,f? tvkyo f rm;awGuawmh rdrw fd Œkd puf±tkH vky±f akH wGtvdu k f oydwpf cef; awG zGichf =hJ u+y;D tJ'u D aeyJ jzKd cGzJ rf;qD;cH=u&w,f?
74 tvkyform; ta&;tcif;avmuf puf±Hktvkyf±Hkyg0ifr_rrsm;cJhbJ rSwfrdo avmuf tif;pdef rD;&xm;pufacgif;tvkyf±Hk/ bDyDtdkif
aq;0g;vkyfief;pu±Hk/ &GmroHr%dpu±Hk/ tvHkopfpufawGeJŒ rD;jcpfpuf wdk‹ygcJh =uw,f? 75 *|efta&;tcif;[m &efukefwGifomru
rE Wav;wuUodkvf/ rauG;aumvdyfeJŒ armfvòrdifaumvdyf wdkŒrSmvJ jzpfcJŒw,f?
76 rwfveJΠ{_yDvawGrSm r_dif;&mjynfh ta&;tcif;tr_eJΠausmif;om; 100 eJΠ200 =um; tif;pdefaxmifxJ xyf0ifvm w,f? 76
r_dif;&mjynfh rjzpfcifav;rSmbJ &efukefwuUodkvf0if;xJ ta&;tcif;i,fwck jzpfcJhao;w,f? ausmif;vceJΠtaqmifvc awGwdk;wmudk
ta=umif;±Hkðy_+yD; ausmif;om;wcsdKŒu oydwfarSmufzdkŒ óud;pm;cJh=uw,f? olwdkŒu ausmif;0if;xJ wnavmuf taqmifawGa&SŒ
aºu;G a=umfoaH tmf vlpak yrJh ausmif;om;trsm;pk}u;D u r_id ;f &mjynft h wGuf pDpOfjyifqifxm;_+y;D jzpfvŒkd tJ'D v_y&f mS ; r_rmS ryg0if=ubJ oydwjf zpfa&;
óu;d yrf;v_y&f mS ;r_ratmifjrifcyhJ gb;l ? 'gayr,fh aemufyikd ;f rSm ppftpd;k &u 'Dvy_ &f mS ;r_ukd acgi;f aqmif w,fvŒkd pGypf +JG y;D udjk rifvh KdS if (aq; 1/ tif;awmf/
,cktar&duefEkdifiH)/ udkom'Gef;atmif (&efukef0dZ…mody`H wuUodkvf/ ausmufawmf/ &cdkiftrsdK;om;)/ udkapmodef;armif (&efukef0dZ…mody`H/
awmifukwf/ &cdkiftrsdK;om;) eJŒ udkae'Gef;atmif (&efukef0dZ…mody`H/ ysOf;rem;) wdkŒ 4 a,mufudk r_dif;&mjynfh tr_ygwGJ_+yD; axmifcscJhw,f?
1976 ck r_id ;f &mjynfŒ rSm &efuek ef ŒJ tif;pderf mS omru rE aW v;/ awmif}uD;/ rauG;/ ykord òf rdŒawGrmS vJ ausmif;om;v_y&f mS ;r_awG jzpfcahJ o;w,f?
ykodrfrSm rwfv 'kwd,ywftwGif; taqmifa=u; usyf 120 udpPeJŒ ywfouf_+yD; v_yf&Sm;r_wck jzpfcJhw,f? q&meJŒausmif;om;
n‡dESdKif;aqG;aeG;cJh=u_+yD; tqifajyoGm;=uw,f? 'gayrJh rwf 23 &uf &efukefrSm r_dif;&mjynfŒ ta&;tcif; jzpfyGm;_+yD;wJhaemuf ykord faumvdyfu
v_y&f mS ;r_rmS yg0ifwhJ ausmif;om;awGukd Edik if aH &;eJΠqufE, G w
f ,fq+kd yD;ykord af xmifrmS yJ axmif 2 ESp/f 3 ESppf D csvu kd w
f ,f? yg0ifoal wGuawmh
rSwrf o d avmuf udpk ;kd xdu k f (ajrmif;jr/ uAsmq&mpd;k tdr/f e0w acwf axmifxyfus/ ,ckusL&Siq f &m)/ udx k eG ;f a0 (ajrmif;jr/ uAsmq&mpd;k opf/
e0wacwf axmifxyfus/ ,ckusL&Siq f &m)/ ud0k if;jrifh (ajrmif;jr/ uAsmq&majrEk)/ udck ifarmifp;kd (ajrmif;jr)/ udw k if&h edS f (ajrmif;jr)/ ud0k if;jrifh
(ajrmif;jr)/ udpk ed 0f if;armif (aygi;f wnf)/ udok ef;0if; (ykord /f uAsmq&m atmifa0;) wdŒk jzpf=uw,f? ausmif;om;r[kww f hJ t&yfom;/ odŒk r[kwf
0efxrf;jzpfygap ausmif;om;ta&;tcif;eJŒ axmifusvmoltm;vHk;udk axmifxJrSm ausmif;om;vdkŒbJ owfrSwfac:a0: =uw,f?
76 ESpfv,favmufrSm AdkvfausmfaZmawmcdkr_=rD;armif;pmapmif xkwfa0r_wdkŒeJŒ ywfouf_+yD; ausmif;om;/ 0efxrf;/ ppfom;eJŒ
t&yfom;awG 20 ausm/f 30 avmuf axmifusvmw,f? 1978 ck ESpv f ,frmS pufrw _ uUov kd f oydwaf rSmufzŒkd óud;pm; wm ratmifrjrifjzpf+_ yD;
ausmif;om;awG/ ausmif;_+yD;xm;wJh ausmif;om;a[mif;awGeJŒ Auy,l*sD vdkŒpGyfpGJcH&olawG axmifxJ a&mufvmw,f?
tckrSwfwrf;rSm ta&;tcif;umv v_yf&Sm;r_awGeJŒ tzrf;cH&cgp ppfa=uma&;umv ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r_awG yg0ifrSmr[kwf ygbl;?
axmif'%f csrSwfcH&_+yD;aemufydkif; axmifwGif;tjzpftysufawGudkom t"durSwfwrf;wifrSm jzpfygw,f? ausmif;om;oydwf awGta=umif;
tJ'DwHk;u OD;pD;OD;aqmifcJholawG jyefa&;wm ydkjynfhpHkrSefuefygvdrfhr,f? xl;jcm;csuftaeeJŒuawmh OD;oef‹ta&; tcif;rSm tzrf;cH&wJh
ausmif;om;awGudk EkdifiHa&;yk'frawGomru &mZ0wfr_yk'frawGyg trsdK;rsdK;wyf_+yD; pkpkaygif;yk'fr 50 ausmfeJΠaxmifcscJhovdk 75
*|et f a&;tcif;rSmvJ tvm;wlbJ cd;k r_tygt0if yk'rf rsKd ;pHk 10 ckavmufeŒJ axmifcscw hJ ,f? 'gayr,fh OD;oefŒ ta&;tcif;rSm zrf;qD;axmifcsc&H wJh
oHCmawmfawG[m tcke0w=etzacwfvdkr[kwfbJ oCFef;±HkcGifh/ tm&k%fqGrf;bkef;ay;cGifh/ 0denf; eJŒtnDaecGifhawG &cJh=uw,f?

3? y%mrtcif;tusif;

1975 ckESpfv,frSm EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGudk tif;pdefaxmifxJu ESpfxyftdyfaqmif}uD;awG jzpfwJh taqmif 3/ 4 eJŒ 5 wdkŒrSm
oD;oefŒxm;ygw,f? oD;oefŒqdkwmu EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGcsnf; oD;oefŒae&_+yD; ±dk;±dk;&mZ0wftusOf;om;awGeJŒ a&mr xm;wmudk
k w kd mjzpfygw,f? taqmif}u;D oH;k aqmiftjyif ppfa=uma&;umvrSmeJΠwjcm;xl;jcm;wJh tajctaeawGrmS Ekid if aH &; tusO;f om;awGxm;wJh
wdkufawGuawmh t"dutm;jzifh 4 wdkuf (4 &Snf 18 cef;/ 4 wdk 12 cef;) eJŒ 5 wdkuf (22 cef;) wdkŒjzpfygw,f? 6 wdkufuawmh EkdifiHa&;
tusOf;om;awGtwGuf jypf'%fwdkufjzpf+yD;10 cef; &Sdygw,f? tarSmifwdkuf/ odkŒr[kwf tvHkwdkufvdkŒvJ ac:w,f? wdkufopf (tcef; 10 cef;)
uawmh tif;pdefaxmifxJu ppfaxmufvSrf;a&; ±Hk;0if;twGif;rSm&Sd_+yD; ta&;}uD; EkdifiHa&; tusOf;om;awG/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&Sif=uD;
tusOf;om;awGeJΠwjcm;ta&;}uD;tusOf;om;awGudk ppfa=uma&; vkyfpOf/ 'grSr[kwf wjcm;ta=umif;wckckt& umvwck xm;wJhwdkuf
1 wdkuf/ 2 wdkuf (&ifuGJwdkuf) eJΠ3 wdkufuawmh vdktyf&ifvdktyfovdk EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG xm;wwfayrJh a,bl,s tm;jzifh
1 wdkuf (10 cef;) rSm rdef;rvsm (tajcmufawG/ xdkpOfutac:ta0:t&rwfawG) xm;wwf_+yD;/ 3 wdkuf (10 cef;) u awmh apmapmydkif;wHk;u
“nrD;” vdŒk ac:wJh nbufrmS waxmifv;kH twGuf xrif;csuzf }kd uD;qif;&wJh &mZ0wftusO;f om;awG xm;_+yD; aemufyikd ;f rSmawmh aiGx;kd Ekid w f hJ
&mZ0wftusOf;om; olaX;}uD;awG txl;tcGifhta&;tjynfheJŒxm;wJh ydkufqHwdkufjzpfoGm;ygw,f? 2 wdkuf ac: &ifuGJwdkuf (tcef; 60)
uawmh óud;wdkuftjzpfvJoHk;/ &mZ0wftusOf;om;awGtwGuf jypf'%fwdkuftjzpfvJ vdk&ifoHk;/ EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG wjcm;
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

6 wdkufrSm jywif;aygufi,fav; wckuvGJ+yD; tvHkydwfxm;w,f? opfom;wHcg;ESpfxyfeJΠydwfxm;vdkΠtvif;a&mif tjynfht0
r&ovdk &ifuw JG ukd u f vJ jywif;ayguif ,fav; wckomyg+_ yD; tvHyk w d rf xm;ayr,fh oHwikd w f cH g;u wdu k tf wGi;f tv,fvrf; bufvn S x hf m;vdŒk
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jzpfaeavh&w dS ,f? wdu k of pfuawmh tcef;xJrmS yJ a&csKd ;cef;/ tdro f mcef;awG &Sw d hJ tjyif wdu k af &SŒ ajruGuv f yfav;eJŒyg oD;oefŒwGx J m;ay;vdŒk
wdkufawGxJrSm tqifhtjrifhqHk;vdkŒ ajymEkdifayrJh vlrawGŒ&bJ t+rJydwfavSmifcHxm;&w,f?
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a&$wd*Hkta&;tcif;ausmif;olawG trsm; qHk;jzpfygw,f? OD;oefŒta&;tcif;wHk;u ausmif;olawG tzrf;cH&wmrsm;ayrJh 3-4 vt=umrSm
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*sDwDtdkifausmif;ol rouf (cHkzdeyfpdef) wdkŒudkawmh jypf'%fpD&ifcsufcs_+yD;aemuf om,m0wDaxmifudk ydkŒvdkufw,f?
Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awGukd oD;oefŒxm;w,f qdak yr,fh wcsKd ŒusawmhvJ &mZ0wftusO;f om;aqmifrmS xm;wmawG vJ&w dS ,f?
1975 ESpfukefydkif;avmufrSm rqvygwDXmecsKyfu pma&;0efxrf; udkaomif;OD; qdkol acgif;aqmifwJh tvHeDEG,fwcsdLŒ v#dKŒ0SufEkdifiHa&;ygwD
axmifwt hJ r_/ udx k eG ;f atmifausmf (ac: ) bJjzL (&efuek 0f Zd m… odyw H` uUov kd /f ABSDF &JŒyxrqH;k OuUX) acgi;f aqmifwhJ azmufcaJG &;oifwef;qif;
ausmif;om;tvkyo f rm;tzGŒJ wdŒk tr_eŒJ 1976 ckrmS cdik rf ;kd vif; ALP tzGŒJ csi;f jynfe,fxJ wdu k yf jJG zpf zrf;rdvmwJt h r_awGrmS usawmh w&m;±H;k u
pD&ifcsucf s+yD;wmeJŒ trsm;pkukd &mZ0wftusO;f om;aqmifukd ydŒk vku d wf ,f? 'ga=umifh axmifwiG ;f Ekid if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_yifra&pD;a=umif;xJ rygEidk f
cJh=uyg? 171 eJŒ axmifcsxm;wJh wcsdKŒaom uGefjrLepf ygwDvlawG/ vlawGvJ &mZ0wfaqmifrSmbJ xm;wm&Sdovdk wcsdKŒusawmhvJ EkdifiHa&;
tusOf;om; oD;oefŒtaqmif rSm xm;w,f?
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om;awG xm;wmvJ &Sdw,f? taqmifawGeJŒ wdkufawGu EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG xrif;au|;/ rdv†mcs/ a&csdK;xkwf pwJh a0,sm0pPawG vkyf
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w,f? tJ'gawGuvGJ&if EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;eJΠ&mZ0wftusOf;om;awG a&mrxm;yg?
tJ'DwHk;u EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG pm;&wmu vHk;wD;qefxrif;/ reufydkif; ukvm;yJ[if;&nfusJ eJŒiydpdrf;pm;a=umf/ naeydkif;
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qdkwmuvJ qDylvSdrfhtqifh avmufyJjzpfw,f? wywfrSmweyf tom;[if; au|;w,f? udkufr&wJh tom;wHk;/ odkŒr[kwf tom;rygwJh 0uf
qDwHk;ðywf/ odkŒr[kwf ig;a=umf/ odkŒr[kwf bJOðywfESpfvHk; &w,f? wdkufawGrSm au|;wJh yJ[if;u ydkyspfavh&Sdw,f? [if;&Gufðywfudkawmh t
rSKd ufðywf vdŒk ac:wm ydo k ifah wmfr,fxifygw,f? bmha=umifv h qJ akd wmh jrufyifawG/ trsKd ;trnfrod tyif awGomru zdeyfoóJ u;d wdŒk / wDaumif
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tpnf;awGu waxmifv;kH udk qDepf+yD; El;tdaewJh trJEyS [ f if;au|;w,f? Ak'b < mom aeŒ}uD;&uf}uD;awGrmS awmh b,fA'k b < momtzGŒJ tpnf;/
b,fvlyk*~dKvfurS waxmifvHk;udk tvSLay;au|;arG;wmrawGŒcJhzl;yg? wESpfrSmawmh c&d,meftzGJŒwzGJŒu c&pPrwfaeŒrSm waxmifvHk;udk
auGumtkwf w}udrfwdkufzl;w,f?
axmifaq;±HkwufaewJh tusOf;om;awGudkawmh qefjzLxrif;eJŒtom;[if; aeŒpOfau|;w,f? aq;±Hkrwuf&ayrJh aq;rSL; 0g'gu
EkŒd pm;/ qefðywfpm; "gwpf m owfrw S af y;&if EGm;EkŒd eJŒo=um;/ qefðywfeŒJ o=um;&w,f? tdyaf qmifawGrmS Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;wOD;udk jcifaxmif
wvH;k / tke;f qHar$Œ,mwck/ tdy&f mcif; wxnf/ *Gr;f apmif w xnf xkwaf y;_+yD; rsuEf mS okwyf 0k gi,f wxnf/ rsuEf mS okwyf 0k gt}uD;/ odŒk r[kwf
a&vJykdif; wxnfeJ‹ axmifyHkpH tuFsD-vHkcsnftjzL awGuawmh wESpfwcg &w,f? wywfwcg vufESpfqpf avmuf&SdwJh aysmh+yJ+yJ wdkŒ[l;wHk;
qyfjym=urf;/ odkŒr[kwf qifacs;wHk; qyfjym =urf; wcJeJŒ qHyifvdrf;zdkŒqdk+yD;tkef;qD yife,fpvif wykvif;pm xkwfay;w,f? 'g[m 1975 ck
wkef;utajctaeom jzpfygw,f?
tif;pdefaxmifr}uD;xJu tdyfaqmifawGrSm wxyfudk tcef;}uD; 4 cef;/ waqmifudk 8 cef;&Sdw,f? tcef;}uD;wcef;rSm EkdifiHa&;
tusO;f om; 20 uae 40 avmuftxd xm;w,f? &mZ0wftusO;f om;aqmifawGrmS awmh tcef;}uD;wcef;udk vl 200 u ae 300 avmuf
txd xm;w,f? Ekid if aH &; tusO;f om;aqmifawGrmS tay:xyftcef;}uD;wcsKd Œudk tcef;i,fawGtjzpf uefŒxm;+yD; tusO;f om;wa,mufuae
10 a,muftxd xm;wwfw,f? atmufxyfrmS oHrefwvif;cif;ay: ukwifav;awGeŒJ tdy&f +_ yD; tay: xyfrmS awmh opfom;=urf;jyifay:rSmbJ
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

tdy&f w,f? wdu k af wGrmS awmh oHrefwv H if;cif;jzpf+yD;wcef;udk 4-5 a,mufu =urf;eJΠtdy&f w,f? tapmydik ;f wke;f u 5 wdu k rf mS opfom;=urf;
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a&'D,ekd m;axmifciG hf wcsKd Œ&=uw,f? rqv ppftpd;k &&JŒ wdu k ±f u
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vky=f uw,f? wGb J ufaxmifrmS awmh reufuae naetxd taqmifziG x hf m;ay;w,f? Ekifd if aH &;tusO;f om;aqmifawGrmS a&vGwv f wG f vyfvyf
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eJŒcyfcsKd ;&vdŒk a&odyrf ygbJ vlay: enf;enf;om a&mufwt hJ wGuf axmifxJ ayG;/ 0J/ ,m;em;awG txl;aygrsm;vSw,f? wdu k yf w d cf &H olawG[mvJ
wywf 10 &uf/ wcsdK‹qdkwvausmf =umrSwcg a&csdK;&vdkŒ ,m;emawGayguf=uw,f?
EkdifiHa&;aqmifawGrSm a&00 csdK;vdkŒ&ovdk tdrfomvJ toifhtwifh vGwfvyfvHkðcHpGm wufvdkŒ&w,f? &mZ0wfaqmif awGrSm
awmhtdrfom vGwfvGwfvyfvyf wufcsif&if tdrfomAg,mudk vmbfxdk;&w,f? (axmifwGif;tojymu aq;vdyfjzpfw,f?) aq;vdyfray;
Ekid &f ifawmh wd&pd m> efawGvkd tumt&Hr&S/d trd;k r&Sd vljrifuiG ;f wGi;f yufvuf}uD;udk uke;f abmif xd;k xm;wJt h ay: wuf+yD;aemufaz;oGm;&w,f?
vlyo D pGm tdro f moGm;cGihf qdw k m Ekid if w H um vltcGit hf a&;ynm&Siaf wGawmif ta&;w,l xnfph Of;pm;rd=ur,f rxifygb;l ? Ekid if aH &;aqmifrmS
a&m &mZ0wfaqmifrSmyg csrSwfxm;wJh ±l;a=umifa=umif pnf;urf;csufwcku “csD;yg&if ao;r ayguf&” qdkwJhpnf;urf;yJ jzpfygw,f? qD;udk
pOft h ;kd }u;D wvH;k xJ oyfoyf aygux f nf&h ifxnf/h 'grrS [kwf aemufaz;oGm;pOfrmS EkŒd qD cGuaf v; wvH;k udik +_f y;D aygux f nf&h w,f? tJ'q D ;D td;k awGeŒJ
axmifwGif;pdkufcif;awGudk avmif;=uw,f?
&mZ0wfaqmifawGrmS reuftyd &f mx&if urBmra=uoDcsi;f rqdrk ae& atmfq&kd w,f? reuftyd &f mxeJΠntdy&f m0ifrmS bk&m;&Scd ;kd
rvkyrf ae& atmf&cdS ;kd &w,f? reuftyd , f mx taqmifziG chf sed ef ŒJ naetaqmifyw d cf sed f vlppfwef;pD&mrSm yHpk t H jynfx
h ikd f ay;&w,f? Ekid if aH &;
aqmifawGrSmawmh tJ'Dvdk oDcsif;qdk&wmeJΠbk&m;&Sdcdk;&wmawG r&Sdyg? wef;pDvlppf&mrSmvJ oabmavmufyJ xdkifay;& w,f?
axmif0ifpmuawmh axmifus+yD;wJh/ odkŒr[kwf ppfa=uma&;umv vHk;0+yD;oGm;wJh EkdifiHa&; tusOf;om;awGu ESpfywfwcg 0g'g
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xm;wJh tcef;xJ oHZum&JŒ [kdbufeJŒ'Dbuf pum;ajym&wm jzpfw,f? axmif0ifpm ypPnf;awGudkawmh axmifxJ oGif;cGifhr&SdwJh ypPnf;awG
(Oyrmpmtkyfpmwrf;/ vufeufponf) ygryg 0g'gawGupDppf_+yD;rS tusOf;om;awGqD a&mufvmw,f? a,bl,stm;jzifh EkdifiHa&; tusOf;
om;awG&JΠaxmif0ifpmypPnf;awGudk axmif0g'gawGurckd;&J/ rdkufa=u;rcGJ&JbJ &mZ0wftusOf;om;awG &JΠaxmif0ifpmypPnf;awGudkawmh
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txufrmS Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awG ae&xdik &f yHk a&;jywm[m tck e0w/ etzacwf axmifwiG ;f tajctaeawGeŒJ ESKd if;,SOf =unfŒzdŒk
a&;wmjzpfwt hJ jyif a&SŒrSma&;rhJ tjzpftysuaf wGeŒJ tenf;eJŒtrsm; qufpyfaevdŒk vJ jzpfygw,f? ppftpd;k &tquf quf[m Ekid if H a&;tusO;f
om; qdkwJhowfrSwfcsufudk y,fzsufypfzdkŒ awmufav#muf óud;pm;tm;xkwfcJhwm jzpfw,f? t*FvdyfudkvdkeDacwfeJ‹ OD;Ek (zqyv) acwfawG
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pdwf"gwft& OD;usdK;oGm;+yD;cE<mudk,ft& vHk;yg;yg; csdeJŒoGm;atmif t+rJ&nf&G,f vkyfaqmifaewm jzpfw,f? 'gha=umifh usaemfwdkŒ[m t"du
tm;jzifh 'Dt=uHtpnfudk wdkufzsuf±dkufcsdK;a&; tajccHeJŒ axmif wGif;wdkufyGJawG qifEGJcJh&w,f? wenf;tm;jzifh ajym&&if 'DrSwfwrf;[m
1974 ckuae 1980 cktxd ,rrif;O,sOfawmfxJu txl; {nfhcHazsmfajzyGJawG/ odkŒr[kwf ,rrif;eJŒpD;csif;xdk;yGJawG ta=umif;yJ jzpfygw,f?

4? jzpf&yf 75

1975 ck *sLvdkifvv,frSmtif;pdefaxmifr}uD;taqmif 3/ 4 eJΠ5 u touf 20 atmufausmif;om;vli,fawGudk a&G;ac: xkwf
+yD; wGJbufaxmifudk ydkŒvdkufygw,f? 'Dausmif;om;av;awG[m 75 *|ef a&$wd*Hkta&;tcif;rSm zrf;qD;axmifcscH&wmjzpf+yD; t a&twGuf
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

120 ausm&f w dS ,f? tJ't D xJrmS ti,fq;kH ausmif;om;awGu touf 14 ESpo f m;awGjzpf+_ yD; ynmtm;jzifh 6 wef;ausmif; om; awG jzpfw,f?
armifarmifjrifh/ rsdK;jrifh/ jrifhoef;/ rsdK;vGif (ABSDF rSjynfyxGuf)/ rif;atmif (ac: ) *dk&S,fav;/ armif=unf wdkŒ[m ti,fqHk; ausmif;om;
awGjzpfw,f? 8 wef;ausmif;om; ta,muf 40 eD;yg;eJh usefwm & wef;/ 9 wef;eJΠ10 wef; ausmif; om;awG jzpfygw,f? touf 18 ESpf
rjynfah o;wm trsm;pkjzpf+_ yD; 16 ESpf rjynfah o;wm w0ufe;D yg;&Sw d ,f? wuUov kd /f aumvdyf ausmif;om;awGuawmh 10 a,mufrjynfyh gb;l ?
14 ESpo f m; 6 wef;ausmif;om; tygt0if 16 ESpf rjynfah o;wJh ausmif;om;av; awGuv kd J tenf;qH;k axmif'%f av;ESpcf s+yD;tif;pdeaf xmifxJ
xnfx h m;wmjzpfw,f?
'Dausmif;om;awGukd wGzJ ufaxmif taqmif 2 rSmxm;ygw,f? taqmifrLS ;u t=uyftqif&h dS 0g'g wifvwf jzpfw,f? ausmif;om;
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&&ifawmh rif;wkdŒ[m xpfEG,f&pfaewJhaumifawGyJ? tJ'DEG,fudk b,fvdkvkyfrvJ?” (“"g;eJŒ ckwfjzwfypfr,f” vdkŒajymwJh ausmif;om;av;
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

&JŒaemufrSm trsm;}uD;jywfusefraeygbl;? a&a&vnfvnf wG,fwmygyJ?
txuausmif;om; vlarmf (abmufaxmf) [m tvkyyf ifyef;r_'%f/ taetpm; qif;&=urf;wrf;r_'%feŒJ use;f rma&;t& OyuQmðycH
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ausmif;om;csif;n‡m+yD; odyfr±dkufrESufrxkd;}udwfwma=umifh&,f wef;pD;&mxl;u ðzkwfypfvdkufw,f?
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wHawG;axG;&mrSm jywif;ayguftajcrSm jyefusaewmudk tjypfvdkuf&SmaewJh 0g'gu awGŒoGm;_+yD; v#meJ‹jyefvsufcdkif;cH&w,f? tdrfomoGm;
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cg;udkif; vufa&SŒqefŒ+yD;yg;pyfuvJ qdkifu,foHatmf&w,f? av,OfpD;wmu ajcaxmuf wacsmif;wnf;ay:&yf/ cg;udka&jyifnDudkif;/
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axmiftm%mydik af wGqu D tcGit hf a&;ar#mu f ;kd / tm%m,pfr;l +yD;rsuEf mS om&atmif taeacsmifatmif ud, k ahf usmif; om;tcsi;f
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vkyf/ tifazmfrm owif;ay;vkyfwJh opPmazgufausmif;om;awGudk usefwJhausmif;om;av;awGu “xGufa&Sm” vdkŒ uifyGef;wyf=uw,f?
qdv k wkd mu axmifuxGuw f t hJ cg a&Smypfr,fvŒkd aw;xm;wmjzpfw,f? 'gayr,fh xGuaf &Sm xJu wcsKd ŒvJ aemufyikd ;f rSm ausmif;om;xkbuf
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

jyefa&mufvm+yD;axmifwiG ;f wdu k yf aJG wGrmS wufwufºuGºuG yg0ifvmwm&So d vdk 8 av;vH;k ta&;tcif;rSm jynfoŒl bufu ygvmwm&Sw d ,f?
touf20 atmufausmif;om;av;awGukd wGb J ufaxmifyŒkd wm[m rqv ppftm%m&Siaf wG&ŒJ Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om; tqift h wef;
vHk;0y,fzsufa&;/ yHkpHudkifu|efZmwfoGif;a&; ay:vpDudk yxrtqifh prf;oyftaumiftxnfazmfwmyJ jzpfw,f? pdwf"mwfft&
OD;usdK;oGm;+yD;cEQmudk,ft& vHk;yg;yg; csdeJŒoGm;a&;udk &nf&G,fcsuf&Sd&Sd =uHpnfwmjzpfw,f? tJovdk nDi,fausmif;om; &JabmfawGudk
wGJbufaxmifrSm axmiftm%mydkifawGu pepfwusay:vpDcs+yD;yHkpHudkif tvkyf=urf;cdkif; ESdyfpufaewJhowif;awG[m wjznf;jznf;eJŒ
tif;pdeaf xmifr=uD;rSmusecf ŒJ wJh touf20 txuf aemifawmfausmif;om;=uD;awGqD jyefa&mufvmw,f? wcgw±HKausmif;om;av;awGeŒJ
axmif0ifpm twlwlawGŒ&wJhtcg &ifeifhp&m&kyfoGifeJŒ emusnf;cHjyif;p&m owif;awG &vmw,f? 'ga=umifh touf 20 txuf
ausmif;om;}uD;awG[m a&SŒa&;udk tcsif;csif; v#dKŒ0Sufwdkifyif aqG;aEG;xm;=uw,f?
touf 20 atmufausmif;om;av;awGudk yHkpHudkif tvkyf=urf;cdkfif;+yD;prf;oyfwm wvavmuf =umoGm;wJhtcgrSm awmh
axmiftm%mydkifawG[m pdwfcs&avmuf+yD vdkŒwGuf+yD;touf 20 txufausmif;om;}uD;awGbuf OD;vSnfhvmygw,f? 1975 -o*kwfv
xJrSm 3 aqmifrSm &SdwJh OD;oefŒta&;tcif; ausmif;om; 50 ausmfeJŒ a&$wd*Hk ausmif;om; 15 a,mufavmufudk wGJbufaxmif taqmif
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

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udk,fpm;vS,fawG wdkufydfwfcHvdkuf&ayrJh 7 &uf*sLvdkif tcrf;tem;vkyfr_eJΠwvcefΠwdkufydwfcHxm;&wJh a&$wd*Hkta&;tcif;u udkjrifhaqG
(pufr_wuUodkvf/ rHk&Gm=qm;vif;}uD;)/ udkjrifhatmif=unf ac: armif ajr0g (pufr_wuUodkvf/ wefŒqnf)/ udkoef;Ekdif (aumifpDpma&;/ &efukef
1989 rS ,aeŒxd etz axmifusaeqJ yk*Hoef;Ekdif) tp&dSolawG tJ'Dae‹rSmyJ wdkufuvGwf+yD;wGJbufaxmifa&mufvm=uvdkŒ qENjyyGJ
&kyfodrf;vdkuf+yD;taqmifxJ jyef0if=uw,f? wGJbufaxmif -o*kwf Strike awGa=umifh &vmwJh tcGifhta&;awGvJ wckrS t&kyfodrf;rcH&yg?
wdu k yf w
d cf &H wJh ud, k pf m;vS,af wGae&mrSm ud, k pf m;vS,o f pfawG xyfa&G;aumuf=uw,f? ausmif;om;awG[m rdrw d Œkd ud,
k pf m;vS,f
rdrw d Œkd a&G;+yD;ud, fk yf ikd t
f yk cf sKyfa&;pepfwck axmifxu J sio
hf ;kH aewmudk tm%mydik af wGu rwwfombJ cGiðhf yxm; &w,f? wu,fw h u,fawmh
axmifx;kH pHt& tusO;f om;tcsi;f csi;f tkycf sKyfzŒdk tcef;vl}uD;/ wef;pD;/ Ag,m/ bkwu f ikd af wGukd axmif tm%mydik af wGuom a&G;cs,cf efŒtyf
wm0efay;±dk;jzpfayrJŒ tckawmh tJovdkvkyfvdkŒr& jzpfaew,f?
wdkufydwfcH&wJh 11 a,muf[m 6 wdkufeJΠ4 wdkufrSm 3 veD;yg;wdkuf ydwfcH&+yD;aemuf 8 a,mufu tif;pdefaxmifr}uD; 3
aqmifuakd &mufomG ;w,f? ukcd ifarmifvif;/ udpk ;kd 0if;eJŒ udo k ef;Ekid w f Œkd uawmh aemufxyf3vausmrf S wdu k uf vGw+f yD;3 aqmifa&muf oGm;w,f?
wa,mufrS wGJbufaxmifjyefrydk‹yg?
75 -o*kwf wGb J ufaxmifwu kd yf aJG wG&ŒJ atmifjrifrt _ &Sed t f [keaf =umifh tif;pdeaf xmifr}uD; 3 aqmifrmS a&m wGb J uf axmifrmS yg
ausmif;om;awGtygt0if EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG[m EkdifiHa&;aqG;aEG;yGJawG/ avhvma&;awG vGwfvGwfvyfvyfeJΠyHkrSef vkyfEkdif=uw,f?
t*Fvdyfpm avhvma&;vJ tawmfvkyf=uw,f? 'ghtjyif opfom;/ yvyfpwpf (oGm;wkdufwHvufudkif±dk;)/ ydkufqH taºuGaphawGeJŒ
yef;yk&kyfvkyfwm/ wHqdyfawG/ 'DZdkif;awGvkyfwm/ óud;ykwD;vkyfwm pwJh axmifwGif;vufr_ynmawGvJ avhvm oif,l+yD;cGyfa'gif;&kyf/
i_ rd ;f csr;f a&;*sKd ;iSu&f yk /f bk&m;&kypf wmawG 'DZikd ;f trsKd ;rsKd ; xGi;f xkvyk +f yD;rdbaqGrsKd ;awGqD trSww f &jyefyŒkd =u w,f? wcsKd ŒvJ 0goemtavsmufeŒJ
pm;a&;aomuf a &; yd k t qif a jyzd k ΠoD ; ES H a wG p d k u f = uw,f ? tm;upm;v_ y f & S m ;r_ a wG / ud k , f c H y nm oif w ef ; awG v k y f = uw,f ?
axmif0ifpmxnfhay;vmwJh yvyfpwpftdwfawGtm;vHk; pkpnf;aq;a=um+yD;0g'gawGuwqifh tjyifu yvyfpwpf0,form;xH jyefa&mif;/
&wJ h a iG e J ΠabmvH k ; / jcif ; vH k ; / abmf v D a bmwd k Π0,f u pm;=uw,f ? wcgw&H r S m vJ 0g'grd o m;pk a wG vma&mif ; wJ h rk e f ΠawG /
ta=umfawG0,f+yD;tm;vHk;0dkif;pm;=uw,f? vufa&;uAsmpmtkyfawG/ r*~Zif;awGxkwf+yD;vSnfhzwf=uw,f? EdkifiHa&;pmtkyfawG tygt0if
pmtkyfpmwrf;trsdK;rsdK;vJ oGif;EdkfifcJhw,f?
axmifxJrSm t"duxm; vkyfwmwcku aeŒ}uD;&uf}uD; tcrf;tem;awGygbJ? txl;ojzifh ppftm%m&SifawG vufcsuf a=umifh
jynfolawG aoG;ajruscJh&wJh &ufawGudk txdrf;trSwf rysufruGufvkyf=uw,f? tJ'DaeŒ&ufawGuawmh (1962) *sLvdkif 7 &uf/ (1967) -
o*kwf 13 &uf ppfawGqefvkyGJ ('Dtxdrf;trSwfu a&$wd*Hkta&;tcif;rSm tHkeJŒusif;eJŒ yg0ifqifE$J+yD;tzrf;cH&wJh &cdkif ausmif;om;awG&JŒ
rdwfqufay;r_uae usefwJhausmif;om;awG odvm+yD;txdrf;trSwf vkyfwmjzpfw,f)/ (1950) -o*kwf 12 &uf apmbOD;}uD; usqHk;wJh&uf
('D&ufuawmh 1976 ckxrJ mS KNU u q&mapmatmfvif;'kd (ynma&;wuUov kd /f ,ck -opa-w;vs) axmifxaJ &muf vmawmh ausmif;om;awG
u&ifhawmfvSefordkif;odvm+yD;txdrf;trSwfvkyfwmjzpfw,f)/ (1974) *|ef 6 &uf tvkyform;owfyGJ/ (1974) 'DZifbm 11 &uf
OD;oefŒta&;tcif; ausmif;om;=jynfolowfyGJwdkŒudk t"duvkyf=uw,f? 'ghjyif (1968) pufwifbm 24 &uf ocifoef;xGef; usqHk;wJhaeŒ/
1975 rwf v 15 &uf ocif Z if = ocif c spf usqH k ; wJ h a eŒawG v J txd r f ; trS w f ð y=uw,f ? t"d u tm;jzif h ppf t m%m&S i f a wG & J Œ
&ufpuf,kwfrmr_udktjrJowd&+yD;emusnf;pdwfxufoefaeatmif tJovdk aeŒrsdk;awG txdrf;trSwfvkyfwmjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh ZEM0g&D 4
&uf vGwv f yfa&;aeŒ/ azaz:0g&D 12 &uf jynfaxmifpak eŒ/ rwf 27 &uf awmfveS af &;aeŒ/ Zlvikd f 19 &uf tmZmenfaeŒawGawmh axmifxrJ mS
ausmif;om;awG tcrf;tem; vkyaf vhvyk x f r&Syd g? txdr;f trSwv f yk &f mrSmawmh tajctaeay;&ifay;ovdk tvHtav;ðywm/ usq;kH olawGukd
tav;ðywm/ wkdufyGJ0ifoDcsif;qdkwm/ uAsm&GwfwmawGvkyf=u+yD;ausmif;om;tawmfrsm;rsm;[m w&uf/ odkŒr[kwf weyf xrif;rpm;bJ
aewmrsdK;vJvkyf=uw,f? axmifxJrSm udk,fu txufpD;&aecsdefrSmawmh tcrf;tem;awGudk ajAmifay:wif}uD;vkyf+yD;cGyfa'gif;tvH/
wl w H Z if t vH a wG a xmif / ausmif ; om;or*~ o D c sif ; / tif w mae&S i f e ,f o D c sif ; awG tptqH k ; atmf q d k = u/ tvS n f h u suAsm&G w f /
awmfvSefa&;oDcsif;awG tvSnfh usqdk eJΠwu,fh vGwfajrmufa'ovdkvdk vkyfwmjzpfw,f? axmifxJrSm udk,fcHae&wJhtcsdefrsdK;usawmh
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

'DvdkaeŒ}uD;&uf}uD;awGudk v#dKŒ0SufodkodyfpGmeJŒ ±dkufESufcH/ wdkufydwfcH pGef‹pm;vkyf=u&w,f?
vuf0Jausmif;om;awGeJΠvuf0J EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGuawmh apmapmuajymwJh &ufawGtjyif rwfv 28 &uf Auy
awmfvSefa&;aeŒ/ -o*kwf 15 &uf Auy arG;aeŒ/ ar 1 &uf urBmhtvkyform;aeŒ/ Ekd0ifbm 7 &uf r[matmufwdkbm awmfvSefa&;
aeŒawGvJ tcrf;tem; vkyf=uw,f? tJ'DumvawGwkef;u ArmjynfrSm rqv uvGJ+yD;w&m;0ifygwDpHkpepf r&Sdao;bJ rqv
ppftm%m&Sipf epfukd cdik cf ikd rf mrm pGpJ jJG rJjrJ/ tm;aumif;aumif;eJŒ qefŒusiw f u kd af ewm Auy wzGŒJ bJ&adS eawmh obm0uspmG bJ ausmif;om;awG
tygt0if Ekid if aH &;wufºuGvy_ &f mS ;ol trsm;pk[m vuf0, J rd ;f =uwm/ 'grrS [kwf axmifxaJ &mu+yD;aemuf vuf0J ,dr;f oGm;wm rqef;ygb;l ?
'ga=umifh uGefjrLepf/ ºuGufpkwfeJŒ ‘nif;oD; zdk;bD;,m; (Phobia) &SdwJhpdwfa0'em&SifawG tJ'DtcsdefwHk;u om axmifxJa&mufvm&if
oGufoGufcgatmif &l;oGm;Ekdifygw,f? axmifxJrSm ºuGufpkwfºuGufyJhawGuvJ bmaygovJrar;eJŒ? ‘nif;oD;vdk teHŒqdk;wJh *sydk;awGuvJ
ausmif;om;awG/ Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awG wefc;kd xGm;aecsed q f &dk if tkwef ±H KH 4 buf=um;/ oHwikd af wG&ŒJ aemuf a&mufaewm uvGv J Œkd
wjcm;Ekid if aH &;udpaP wG vkycf siw f mvkyv f Œkd &w,f? txufwae&mrSm ajymcJo h vdk axmifjyify ppftpd;k & tkycf sKyf&ma'orSm vkycf iG rhf &wmawG
axmif x J r S m vk y f v d k Π&w,f ? tJ o vk d tajctaersd K ;rS m qd k & if axmif 0 g'g/ axmif r S L ;awG u vJ ausmif ; om;awG tygt0if
Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awGukd &d&k u kd sKd ;usKd ;qufqw H ,f? pma&;cGirhf &Sw d hJ axmifxrJ mS pmapmifpmwrf;awG a&;jzefŒaewm od vJ bmrSrajym=ubl;?
axmifxHk;pHt& wvm}uD;/ wvmav; pDvdkŒ awGŒoGm;vJ e0w=etz acwfvdk &kHk;wif+yD;axmifxyfcs ESpf xyfwdk;wmr&Sdyg? tusOf;axmif&JŒ
taqmuftOD/ ypPn;f ud&, d mawG zsuq f ;D aewmawGŒvJ rsuEf mS v$o J mG ;w,f? ausmif;om;awG uvJ &efoŒl ypPn;f qdk tcGit hf a&;&&if&ovdk
zsufqD;&r,f? &efolŒypPnf; rsm;rsm;ysufqD;av aumif;av qdkwJhcH,lcsuf xm;=u w,f? axmifpnf;urf;eJŒqefŒusifwJh u&maw;oifwef;/
odik ;f / vufa0SŒ oifwef;awG ay;wmawGŒvJ tm%mydik af wGu bmrSrajym =uawmhb;l ? &efoŒl pnf;urf;udk wwfEidk o f avmuf csKd ;azmuf&r,f
qdkwJhcH,lcsufudkvJ ausmif;om;awG cH,l=uw,f? usef;rma&; eJeJraumif;vdkufeJŒ/ neufoef;acgif 0g'gudktoHukefatmfac: +yD;aq;rSL;
ta=umif ; =um;cd k i f ; w,f / aq;&H k w uf c G i f h awmif ; w,f ? Ek d Œ pm;/ qef ð ywf p m; r&&atmif awmif ; w,f ? 'gayrJ h axmif & J Œ
aq;ukoapmifha&Smufr_pepfeJΠt&nftcsif; tifrwef nHhzsif; pkwfcsmwma=umifh axmifxJrSm usef;rma&;jy\em[m tjrJwrf;yJ ylnHylnH
1975 ck tukefydkif;avmufrSm ausmif;om;av;rsm;aewJh wGJbufaxmif 2 aqmifrSm yxrqHk;udk,fpm;vS,f 4 a,muf
wd k u f y d w f c H & +yD ; aemuf x yf a &G ; aumuf wif a jr‡ m uf x m;wJ h ausmif ; om;ud k , f p m;vS , f 10 a,muf u d k axmif t m%myd k i f a wG u
aqG;aEG;p&m&Sdw,fvdk‹ajym ac:xkwfoGm;+yD;aemuf axmifr}uD;rSm 6 wdkufydwfvdkufw,f? tJ'D ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,fawG[m 2
aqmifrSm&SdwJh touf 20 atmufausmif;om;av;awGudk aumif;aumif; pnf;±kH;tkyfcsKyffEdkif+yD;ausmif;om;av;awG&JŒ tcGifht a&;awG
tjynfht0&atmif OD;aqmifv_yf&Sm;aewmjzpfvdkΠausmif;om;av;awGay: -oZm}uD;wJhtwGuf tm%mydkifawG rsufpdqHyif ar$;pl;p&m
jzpfaew,f? 'ga=umifh olwdkŒr&dS&if ausmif;om;av;awG _idrfvdrfhr,fvdkŒwGuf+yD;wdkufydwfvdkufwmjzpfw,f? tJ'D udk,f pm;vS,f 10
a,mufuawmh 1? udkapmEkdif (pufr_wuUodkvf/ rmefatmif/ &cdkiftrsdK;om;)/ 2? udkatmifoef;jrifh (pD;yGm;a&; wuUodkvf/ awmifOuUvm/
,ck uvvw)/ 3? udk0if;aqG (txuausmif;om;/ yg&rD/ ,ck a&$vD)/ 4? udkrdk;jrifh (txuausmif; om;/ 8 av;vHk;aemufydkif;
jynfolŒwdk;wufa&;ygwD)/ 5? udkcifaZmfvif; (tvuausmif;om;/ AuyodkŒawmcdkusqHk;/ q&marmif aomfu.wl)/ 6? udkwifa&$ (ac: )
qrfqef (,ck ABSDF=vlŒabmifopf/ tar&duefEdkifiH)/ 7? udkvlarmf (txuausmif;om;/ abmufaxmf)/ 8? udkausmfxl; (tvuausmif;om;/
prf;acsmif;)/ 9? udpk EH k (t&yfom;/ &cdik t f rsKd ;om;)/ 10? udak rmif0if; (txu ausmif;om;) wdŒk jzpf+yD;tm;vH;k a&$w*d t kH a&;tcif;u jzpfygw,f?
2 aqmifu ausmif;om;awG[m rdrdwdkŒ&JŒ ‘kwd,ajrmuf udk,fpm;vS,fawGudk wdkufydwfvdkufjyef+yDqdkwm od&wJhtcg tifrwef
rcHr&yfEkdifjzpf+yD;taqmif0if;xJrSm atmf[pfqENjy=uw,f? naetaqmifydwfcsdefrSm taqmifxJ jyefr0ifbJae=uvdkΠtajctaeawG
wif;rmvmw,f? tm%mydkifawGu axmifOya't& taqmifxJjyefr0if&if ypfr,fqdk+yD;axmifAl;ay:u ppfwyfudk 2 aqmifbuf *sDzdk;/
*sDo&D;awGeJΠtoifhcsdefxm;cdkif;w,f? ausmif;om;av;awGxJu 8 wef;ausmif;om; udkrif;atmif (ac: ) *dk&S,fav; (awmifOuUvm) [m
tuFs=D u,fo;D awGðzkwf &ifziG +hf yD;axmifA;l 0bufvn S hf &ifaumh&if; “rif;wdŒk owW&d &dS if ypfvu kd uf ”G vdŒk atmf[pfped af c:cJwh ,f? aemufq;kH rSmawmh
1 aqmifu ausmif;om;}uD;awG vma&mufajzmif;zs+yD;wif;rmr_avsmhoGm;atmif vkyfay;Ekdif cJhw,f? ausmif;om;av;awGvJ taqmifxJ
aemufwaeŒreufrSm udk,fpm;vS,fawG wdkufydwfcH&wJht=umif;[m xGufa&SmawGc|efvdkŒ qdk+yD;ausmif;om;av;awGu
xGufa&Smtkyfpkudk 0dkif;xdk;=uvdkΠtm%mydkifawGu xGufa&Smtkyfpkudk 2 aqmifrSmrxm;bJ wGJbufaxmifxJrSmyJ taqmifajymif;
1 aqmifu ausmif;om;}uD;awG aqG;aEG;wdkifyif+yD;2 aqmifausmif;om;av;awG tpGef;ra&mufapzdkŒeJŒ tm%mydkifawG&JŒ
axmifacsmufxJ rusa&mufapzdkŒ ausmif;om;}uD;wcsdKŒ 2 aqmif ajymif;ae+yD;xdef;zdkŒpOf;pm;=uw,f? 'ga=umifh axmiftm%mydkif awGudk
wifjywJhtcg olwdkŒuvJoabmwlvdkŒ 1 aqmifu ausmif;om;}uD;wcsdKŒ 2 aqmifajymif;/ 2 aqmifu ausmif;om;av; wcsdKŒ 1
aqmifajymif;+yD;a&mar$vdkufw,f? 'ga=umifh ausmif;om;av;awGtwGuf EkdifiHa&;t& ydkaumif;wJhtajctae &vmcJh w,f?
wd k u f y d w f c H & wJ h ud k , f p m;vS , f a usmif ; om; 10 a,muf u d k 6 wd k u f y d w f v d k u +yD ; rS wcef ; eJ Πwcef ;
vS r f ; pum;ajymvd k Œ qd k + yD ; tm;vH k ; ud k x k w f ± d k u f w ,f ? ausmif ; om;wa,muf j zpf w J h ud k 0 if ; aqG u “xl ; ...rjcm;em;”
vd‹k ocD si;f atmfq f v kd u
kd w
f mudk oDcsi;f qdv k Œkd / pum;ajymvdŒk qd+k y;D xkw±f u
kd wf mjzpfygw,f? wdu k w f m0efctH jzpf wGb
J ufxm;wJh ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;u
wyf=uyf}uD;tqifh&Sd odef;jrdKif OD;pD;+yD;axmif0g'gawG/ tjym0wfawGeJŒ 0dkif;0ef;±dkufESuf xdk;}udwf=uwmjzpfw,f? “'gaxmifuG/
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

rif;tarviftrd rf [kwb f ;l / rif;wdŒk tm;vH;k udok w+yD;rS igóud;pifwufr,fu”G vdŒk &l;a=umifr;l a=umifvJ ajymvdu k af o;w,f? t±du k cf %em;pOf
ausmif;om;av; 10 a,muf[m apmiftyk x f m;&ufeŒJ aqmifah =umifx h ikd af e&if; olwŒkd xJuwa,mufjzpfwhJ udak usmx f ;l u a&SŒbufajr}uD;ay:
d Œkd udk &ku
d w
f hJ om;a&jym;rSm “pdeAf v kd w
f if”h vkŒd pmvH;k xGi;f xm;wm awGŒ&w,f? tJ'o D m;a&jym;udt
k omqG,J +l yD;apmifc_ KH awGatmufuae
wa,mu+yD;wa,muf vufqifhurf;=unfh=uw,f? twefi,f=umwJhtcgrSmawmh 0g'gawG[m om;a&jym;aysmufvdkΠylnHylnH
awGjzpf+yD;ausmif;om; 10 a,mufvHk; apmif_cHKawG zGifh&SmwJhtcg om;a&jym; jyefawGŒoGm;vdkŒ om;a&jym; cdk;zGufxm;&rvm;
qdk+yD;xyf±dkufjyefw,f? (wdkufrSm&SdwJh om;a&jym;awGrSm “pdefAdkvfwifh” tjyif “pdefpwif;/” “wdkŒvdyf}uD;vufoH” eJŒ “emAdk*sif”
vdkŒemr,fay;xm;wJh om;a&jym;awGvJ &Sdao;w,f)?
a&mufcgp&ufyikd ;f rSm wae‹o;kH cgavmuf xkw±f u kd f od‹k r[kwf 0if±u kd cf &H w,f// ausmif;om;av; 10 a,muf[m 6 wdu k f ydwcf aH e&pOf
6 wdkufrsufESm=uufawGcGm+yD;wcef;eJŒwcef; cdk;oGm;/ axmif0ifpm &duQmypPnf;awG a0r#pm; vkyf=uw,f? 'gayr,fh 6 wdkufuxGufwJhtxd
'Dvdk wcef;eJŒwcef ; ul ;oef ;aewmud k 0g'awG r od v d k u f = uygbl ; ? 'D 10 a,muf u d k 6 wd k u f rS m 10 &uf a vmuf 4 wd k uf r S m
aemufxyfwvavmufxm;+yD;rS axmifr}uD; 3 aqmifudk ykdŒvdkufw,f?

5? jzpf&yf 76

1975 ck -o*kwfvup+yD;axmifwGif;ausmif;om;rsm;&JŒ pnf;vHk;nDn$wfr_/ wufºuGjywfom;r_wdkŒeJŒ yHkpHudkiftvkyfcdkif;
u|efZmwfoGif;a&; pDrHudef;udk &kdufcsdK;vdkufEdki+yD;wJhaemuf ausmif;om;awG[m wGJbufaxmifeJŒ tif;pdefaxmifr}uD; 3 aqmifwdkŒrSm
acgi;f armh&ifaumh+yD;Edik if aH &;*k%o f u
d mQ jrifjh rifrh m;rm;eJŒ rif;rlaecJ=h uwm 1976 ck rwfvtxd jzpfygw,f? tm%mydik af wG[m rwwfomvdŒk
vufav#mhvdkuf&ayrJh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om; tqifhtwef;zsufodrf;a&;ukd tjrJ=uHpnfaew,f? EkdkifiHa&; tusOf;om; awG pdwf"mwfft&
OD;usdK;oGm;+yD;&kyfcE<mt& c|wf_cHKusoGm;atmif tjrJpOf;pm; &nfrSef;aew,f?
1976 ck rwfvrSm r_dif;&mjynfhta&;tcif;jzpf+yD;tif;pdefaxmifxJudk ausmif;om;awG wzGJzGJ0ifa&mufvmjyefw,f? axmifxJrSm
ausmif;om;tygt0if Ekifd if aH &;tusO;f om;OD;a& wqifw h ;kd rsm;vmwJt h cg rqvppftpd;k &&JΠaxmiftm%mydik af wG[m Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;
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tckwacguf axmiftm%mydkifawG&JŒ ajcvSrf;u ausmif;om;awG&JŒ tm;enf;csufwckudk tcGifhaumif;,l tjrwfxkwfzkdŒ
pDpOfxm;w,f? ta=umif;jycsuf aumif;aumif;eJŒ ausmif;om;awG&JŒ EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;b0udk y,fzsufzdkŒ&nf&G,fwm jzpfygw,f?
tJ'DtcsdefwHk;u wGJbufaxmifxJ&Sd ausmif;om;awGxJ EkdifiHa&;avmurSm jzpfavhjzpfx&SdwJhtwdkif; EkdifiHa&;t,ltq taoG; ta&mif
uGJvGJr_awG&Sdaew,f? tJ'DuGJvGJr_awGudk axmiftm%mydkifawGu toHk;cs rD;xdk;ay;+yD;ausmif;om;csif; ±dkufyGJjzpfatmif ajrSmufay;w,f?
tJovdkeJΠ1976 ck rwfvukefydkif; nwn tm;vHk;tdyfaysmfaepOf tenf;pkausmif;om;awGu trsm;pkausmif;om; awGudk
tvpftidkuf,l &kdufyGJjzpfoGm;w,f? tm%mydkifawG&JΠt=uHtpnfudk }udKwifowif; &xm;+yD;jzpfwJh trsm;pkausmif;om; awGbufu
uGjJ yJ'g%&f m&cJah yrJh jyefr±duk b f J onf;cHpw d xf ed ;f cJw
h ,f? jyef±u kd cf siaf ewJh ausmif;om;av;awGuv kd J tm%mydik af wG&ŒJ qifuu G xf rJ 0ifrad pzdŒk
vHk;0xdef;csKyfEdkifcJŒw,f? 'gayrJŒ usGefZgwfoGif;a&; pDrHudef; taumiftxnfaz:zdkŒ ydkif;jzwfxm;+yD;jzpfwJh tm%mydkifawGtzdkŒawmh
'Dwzufowf&kdufyGJudkyJ ausmif;om;csif; {&mr±dkufyGJ}uD;tjzpf pGyfpGJ+yD;tcif;jzpfwJh wGJbufaxmif 1 aqmifrSm&SdwJh ausmif;om;tm;vHk; 100
ausmfudk 0g'gtiftm; 200 ausmfeJΠnwGif;csif; 0kdif;zrf;+yD;tif;pdef axmifr}uD; 1 wdkufrSm wdkufydwfvdkufw,f? 4/ 5/ 6 wdkufawGrSm
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ausmif;om;awGu qef‹usi+yD;aºuG;a=umfoaH wGatmf=uw,f? aºuG;a=umfoaH wGxrJ mS “vky&f w J m ausmif;om;uG/ cH&w J m ausmif;om;uG”
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axmifr}uD; 2 wkduf (&ifuGJwdkuf) udkydk‹ wdkufydwfvdkufw,f? wGJbufaxmifuae axmifr}uD; 2 wdkufxd vrf;wav#mufvHk; 0g'gawGeJ@
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udkausmfpdk; (&efukef 0dZ…m=ody`H/ yJcl;=ouUv/ ,ck pdwfwdkif;usvzuf&nfqdkif) eJŒ OD;ausmfvif; (A[dkw&m;±Hk;a&SŒae) wdkŒjzpf=uw,f?
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

vrf;}udwo f 'H vdrw hf ;kH }uD;udk 2 a,mufwwGJ qGcJ ikd ;f w,f? tckvkd nrD;tcdik ;f cH&wJh ausmif;om;awG uawmh yxrnrSm OD;oef@ta&;tcif;u
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,ck jrdK@awmfowif;pm) wkd@jzpf+yD;aemufnawGrSmawmh OD;oef@ ta&;tcif; u udkwifpdk; (ac: ) csLaw; (&efukef0dZ…mody`H/ ajrmufOuUvm)/
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nrD;pcdik ;f +yD;wwd,nrSm ausmif;om;awG ckvykd ifyef;w}uD; qm;tdwyf t J w
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tvkyform;awGuawmh ppfcHk±Hk;u pD&ifcsufcs

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7 cef;rSmawmh ausmif;om; 28 a,muf&w dS ,f? OD;oefŒta&;tcif;u 2 a,muf/ 0if'gr, D mcJaygurf 1_ a,mufeŒJ usef wmtm;vH;k
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

axmifpnf;urf;awG tcsdK;azmufqHk; ausmif;om;awGtjzpf tm%mydkifawG&JΠrsufrkef;tusdK;cH&qHk; EkdifiHa&; tusOf;om;awG jzpfaew,f?
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ckESpfrsm;tapmydkif; OD;Ekzqyv tpdk;& vufxufu bl;oD;awmif armif;awmbufu zrf;vmwJh b*F gvDrlqvifolykefawGeJŒ
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vm;awmhrodyg? aocsmwmuawmh woufwu|ef; tjypf'%fr[kwfbJ a,musmf; rdef;r cav;tm;vHk; 1950 ckESpfrsm; tpydkif;uae
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

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9? udkouf0if;atmif (aq;=2/ ,ck tif;pdefusL&Sifq&m ´etz axmifusaeqJ)/ 10? udkatmifrdk;ol (ac: ) at;=unf (aq;=2/ armfvjrdKif
,ck pdwfwdkif;usvzuf&nfqdkif)/ 11? udkatmifZif (aq;=2/ ajrmif;jr)/ 12? udkjrifhpdk; (aq;=2/ [oFmw)/ 13? udkwifjrifh (ac: ) rm&S,f(aq;=2/
aygi;f wnf)/ 14? udo k ed ;f xGe;f (aq;=2/ awmifi)l / 15? udak usmaf tmif (pD;yGm;a&;wuUov kd /f ykZeG af wmif)/ 16? ukAd [de;f atmif (pD;yGm;a&;wuUov kd /f
pma&;q&m Aef;armf;)/ 17? udzk ek ;f jrifh (pD;yGm;a&;wuUov kd /f tif;pde)f / 18? udo k ef;Ekid f (ynma&;wuUov kd /f zm;tH/ rGet f rsKd ;om;/
,ck NLD)/ 19? udkpef;vGif (ynma&;wuUodkvf/ vufyHwef;)/ 20? udkarmifarmifpdk; (ynma&;wuUodkvf/ [oFmw)/ 21? udkaX;atmif
(&efukef0dZPmody‘H=Oya'/ oHv#if/ ,ck u,ef;jynfopf)/ 22? udkpdk;0if; (&efukef0dZPmody‘H/ ,ck *syefEfkdifiH {&m0%f*sme,f)/ 23? udkxGef;jrifh0if;
(&efukef0dZPmody‘H=opfawm/ rHk&Gm)/ 24? udkcifarmifaX; (&efukef0dZPmody‘H/ awmifOuUvm)/ 25? udkat;atmif (aq;=1/ &efukef)/ 26?
udkxdef0if;atmif (vkyfom;aumvdyf/ a&eH±Hk;0efxrf;/ rGeftrsdK;om;/ ,ck uAsmq&m Anm;vif;/ tif;pdef ae0ef;ESif;qD pmay)/ 27? udkxeG f;&D
(tvuausmif;om;/ &efuek )f / 28? udak omif;pdef (tiSm;,Ofarmif;/ anmifav;yif)/ 29? udak e0if;atmif (&efuek 0f Zd mP ody‘H ausmif;om;a[mif;)/
30? omauwrS txuausmif;om;wOD;/ 31? udo k ef;vGif (aps;onf/ av[mjyifaps;)/ 32? PD vufeufcs umwGe;f q&mwOD;wkŒd jzpf=uw,f?
tJ't D xJrmS tifrwefukd &J&J &J if&h ifh &Gy&f yG cf |cH |eH ŒJ vufoaH jymifajymif wdu k cf u kd cf vhJ Œkd rSwwf rf;wifxu kd o
f al wGuawmh udo k uf0if;atmif/
udo k ed ;f xGe;f / udak tmifuu kd /kd udpk ;kd 0if;eJŒ udxk eG ;f &DwŒkd ygy?J udak tmifuu kd [kd m Ekid if aH wmfaumifp±D ;kH cJaygurf e_ ŒJ axmifusaeayrJh tJ't D a&;tcif;rSm
vHk;0yg0ifywfoufr_r&SdcJhbJ rw&m;zrf;qD;cH&oljzpf+yD;EkdifiHa&;vJpdwfrygbJ tifrwef±dk;at; pdwfoabmaumif;olwOD; jzpfygw,f?
udkpdk;0if;uawmh 1974 *|ef tvkyform;ta&;tcif;rSmvJ yg0ifcJhzl;+yD;ordkif; bmwm a&SŒrSm ae0if;wyfuypfvdkŒ vufudkusnfqHxdrSef
‘%f&m&cJhzl;w,f? tJ'DwHk;u a&=unftdkifeJŒ tif;pdefaxmifrSm pkpkaygif; 3=4 vavmuf aecJh&+yD;rS jyefvGwfvmcJhw,f?
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

ppfacG;wdkufeJŒ 6 wdkufwdkŒudk 1968 ck a*s;atmfya&;&Sif; ac: axmifwGif;ppfqifa&; qdkwJh umvrSm wnfaqmufcJhwm jzpfw,f?
a*s;atmfya&;&Si;f qdw k m urBmay:u b,faxmifrmS rS r=um;zl;wJh Armjynf ppftm%m&Siaf wG&ŒJ txl;py,f&, S f ordik ;f 0if &ufpufru kd &f ikd ;f r_}u;D
jzpf y gw,f ? tJ ' D p pf q if a &;qk d w m[m axmif x J E S p f & S n f v rsm; tusOf ; uscH a e&+yD ; jzpf w J h Ek d i f i H a &; tusOf ; om;awG u d k
ac:xkwf+yD;bmta=umif;rSr&Sd/ bmaxmifwGif;jypfr_rS rusL;vGef&bJeJŒ tom;vGwf}uD; rD;ukef,rf;ukef ESdyfpuf n‡Of;qJ ±dkufESufwJh
atmfya&;&Sif;}uD;jzpfygw,f? axmifxJrSm udk,fh[mudk,f at;at;ae aewJh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om; 100 ausmf 200 cefŒ[m tvum;ae&if;
aovkarsmyg;jzpfatmif tjyif;txef ESdyfpufn‡Of;yrf; ta&E$mcHcJh&w,f? tJ'Dta=umif;udk q&m OD;vSaz (,ckOD;wifhaZmf RFA) udk,fawGŒ
tao;pdwaf &;cJzh ;l +yD;jzpfygw,f?
6 wdu k f (tarSmifwu kd /f odŒk r[kwf tvHw k ukd )f udk tJ'D 1968 ckumvup+yD;Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awG wdu k yf w d wf hJ jypf'%fwu kd t f jzpf
awmufav#mufoHk;cJhw,f? acG;wkdufudkawmh paqmu+yD;cgp a*s;atmfya&;&Sif;rSm oHk;cJhovm;qdkwm aumif;aumif;rodyg? 'gayrJh 1968
ckuae 1976 cktxd axmifvHk_cHKa&; t,fvfaZ;&Sif;acG;awG om;azmufzdkŒ/ 'grSr[kwf rD;aezdkŒ ae&mtjzpfom awmufav#mufoHk;cJh+yD;1976
{+yD 11 &ufaeŒrSmawmh acG;wdu k x f u J ppfacG;awGukd uref;uwef;z,f&mS ;/ rvSr;f rurf;rSm&Sw d hJ e*d&k &dS if; acG;avSmiftrd af wGrmS jyefxnfv h u kd w f ,f?
ppfacG;awG&JŒ csD;eHŒao;eHŒawG/ acG;ar$;awGeJŒ acG;eHŒawG vSdKifvSdKifv$rf;xHkaewJh ppfacG;wdkufudk 3 aqmifu ‘%f&m&ausmif;om;awG 1976 ck
{+yD 11 &ufn oef;acgifausmfrSm wa,mu+yD;wa,muf a&muf&Sdvm ygw,f?
ausmif;om;awG ppfacG;wdkufta&muf 0g'gawG&JΠxdk;}udwfuefausmufcHt+yD;rSm t0wftpm;tm;vHk;c|wf+yD;ukd,fvHk;wD; twdkif;
wdu k cf ef;awGxJ xnfv h u kd wf ,f? tJ'w D ;kH u v#ypf pfr;D rwyfao;vdŒk arSmifraJ ewJt h cef;awGxJ bmqdk bmrSr&Sb d J vH;k vH;k ajymifwvif;jzpfygw,f?
zsmr&S/d a&td;k r&S/d apmifr&S/d *efzvm;r&Sjd zpf+yD;ud, k wf ;kH vH;k eJΠ'g%&f m&ausmif;om;awG[m ppfacG;awG aeovdrk sKd ; ppfacG;wdu k x
f J ae&ygw,f?
ppfacG;awGvdkyJ at;pufpuf oHrefwvif;ay: obm0twdkif; vJavsmif;tdyf&ygw,f? tcif; }uD;tcif;av;udk acG;awGvdk tcef;xJ
'Dtwdkif;pGefŒ&w,f? ppfacG;wdkuf 10 cef;rSm pwdkcef;wcef;csef+yD;usef 9 cef;rSm wcef;udk 3 a,mufuae 6 a,mufxnfhxm;w,f?
12 &ufaeΠreuftm&Hw k ufcge;D rSm axmifaq;rSL;awG a&mufvm+y;D 'g%&f mawG aq;xnfah y;w,f? axmifaq;&Hrk mS 'g%&f m&0g'gawG
t&ifaq;ukay;+yD;rS acG;wdu k u f ausmif;om;awGqD vmukay;wmjzpfw,f? uGjJ yJaewJ'h %f&mawG tpdr;f csKyf/ usKd ; aewJh t±d;k awG ausmufywW;D
udik af y;w,f? ‘%f&m&wJah usmif;om;wdik ;f tenf;qH;k acgi;f rSm 5 csuaf wmh csKyf&wmcsn;f bJjzpfw,f? wcsKd ŒvJ ESmacgi;f ±d;k usKd ;wm/ ezl;uGw J m/
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“gwfrSefr±dkuf&vdkŒ rodEkdifyg? wcsdkŒu ‘%f&maoG;xGufvGefwm&Sdw,f? awmifil u aq;=2 ausmif;om; udkodef;xGef;[m acgif;ay:rSm
em;&Gufwbufuae aemufwbufxd =uufajccwfyHkuGJ+yD;vufvJusdK;vdkΠ'g%f&maoG;vGef+yD;owdvpfoGm;cJhw,f? aq;=1 ausmif;om;
ud k a t;atmif v J aoG ; vG e f + yD ; 2 em&D a vmuf owd v pf o G m ;cJ h w ,f ? (ud k a t;atmif [ m etzvuf x uf 1998 arvwk e f ; u
om,m0wDaxmifwiG ;f tpmiwfcw H ukd yf rJG mS axmiftm%mydik af wGu ±du k of wfvu kd w
f hJ udak tmifausmrf ;kd &JŒtudjk zpfw,f?) pD;yGm;a&;wuUov kd f
tEkynmtoif; twGif;a&;rSL; udkoufwif (0rf;wGif;) [m acgif;uGJwmtjyif vufn‡dK;wacsmif; wqpfavmuf vHk;0jywfxGufoGm;w,f?
wuU o d k v f v J h v J h / wuU o d k v f [ ef j rarmf w d k ΠeJ ΠwwG J x J *D w tEk y nm vd k u f p m;cJ h w J h ud k o uf w if [ m *D w ud k
tifrwef0goem}uD;+yD;xl;vJxl;c|efoljzpfw,f? tEkynmorm; jzpfayrJh ppftm%m&SifawG&JŒ &ufpuf,kwfrmr_udk rcHEkdifvdkŒ
axmifwiG ;f wku d yf aJG wGrmS ‘l;raxmufbJ yg0ifcw hJ ,f? {+yD 11 wdu k yf rJG jzpfcif 3 aqmif 7 cef; rSm rwfv 23 &uf ocifu, kd af wmfrid_ ;f &mjynfah rG;aeŒ
tcrf;tem;vkyfwHk;u “_idrf;csrf;a&;zcif” oDcsif;udk udkfoef;aqG (ac: ) _idrf;a0opf eJŒwGJ+yD;a&;pyfoDuHk;cJhol/ udk,fwdkifoDqdkcho J l jzpfw,f?
tJ'DoDcsif;[m ABSDF xkwf “b0wuUodkvfu ae0ef;eDeD” pD;&D;acGxJ yg0ifcJhw,f?
'g%f&mawGuko&mrSm u|rf;usifr_r&SdwJh 0g'gaq;rSL;awGu apwemrygbJ +yD;+yD;a&m jzpfovdkukoGm;vdkŒ ‘%f&mawG[m
wESpaf usm=f umwJt h xd jynfw&$&J eJ$ ŒJ jzpfae=uwmvJ&w dS ,f? t±d;k usKd ;oGm;wmawGuv kd J pepfwus jyefqrJG wnfb h J ausmuf ywW;D pnf;oGm;vdŒk
t±dk;aumufaumuf}uD; qufoGm;wmawGrsm;w,f? ‘%f&mawG aemufxyf aq;a=um aq;xnfhwmeJŒ yifep vifxdk;wmudk 2 &ufwcg 3
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11 &ufaeŒn ppfacG;wdu k af &muf+y;D r=umcif axmifyikd }f u;D tqif&h dS ruUem; vm=unfw h ,f? olu “wjcm;axmifawGrmS axmifqw l m
igwdk‹tjywfudkifvdkŒ&cJhw,f/ rif;wkdŒudkvJ igwdkŒrr_bl;” vdkŒpdefac: }udrf;0g;+yD;jyefxGufoGm;w,f? ausmif;om;awGu awmh tzufvkyf
12 &ufaeŒtm&k%fwuf aq;rSL;awG aq;vmrukcif ausmif;om;awG[m wcef;eJŒwcef; wD;wdk;vSrf;qufoG,f+yD;,cif
aqG;aEG;xm;wJh tpmiwfcw H u kd yf JG qufwu kd af &;/ rwdu k af &; aqG;aEG;=uw,f? wcsKd Œu tpmiwfcw H ukd yf JG 0ifv=kd uayrJ/h trsm;pku tckjzpfcw hJ hJ
tqift h jrifqh ;kH wdu k yf o
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f [keu f kd apmif=h unf+h yD;rS xyfwu kd o f ifh roifh pOf;pm;wmaumif;r,fvŒkd
oabmxm;ay;=uwJhtwGuf tpmiwfcHwdkufyGJ qufrwdkufjzpfawmhyg?
'DvdkeJΠausmif;om;awG[m oHwdkifawGaemufrSm wd&dp>mef&HkxJu wd&dp>mefawGvdk udk,fvHk;wD;eJΠzsmr&Sd/ apmifr&Sd/ *efzvm; r&Sd 4
&ufavmuf ae&w,f? wd&dp>mefawGvdk ae ae&wJh 'D 4=5 &uftwGif;rSm vHk;0xrif;rau|;/ a&rwdkufbJ/ tpmjzwf/ a&jzwf xm;w,f?
axmifxJra&mufcif ausmif;om;b0u zwfcJhbl;wJh tar&duefEkdifiHxkwf vdkufzf Life r*~Zif;xJrSm 1971 ck e,l; a,mufòrdŒu tufwDum
axmifxr_}uD;udk e,l;a,mufjynfe,ftkyfcsKyfa&;rSL; a&mhu,fzJvm; (aemifrSm ‘korRw) udk,fwdkif OD;pD;+yD;&uf&ufpufpuf aoGacsmif;pD;
ESdrfeif;cJhwJhta=umif; urBmausmfowif;"mwffyHkawGxJu vlrJtrsm;pkyg0ifwJh tusOf;om; tkyfvdkuf}uD; udk,fvHk;wD;eJΠacgif;ay:vufwif
yHkpH&yf wef;pDae&wm/ arSmuftdyfae&wm/ yHkpHxdkifae&wmawGudk jyeftrSwf&rdw,f?
ausmif;om;awG[m ‘%f&mawG emusifudkufcJr_tjyif xrif;qm a&iwfwJh'%fudkyg =uHH=uHHcHcJh=uw,f? wa,mufrS r_iD;cJh ygbl;?
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

k yf jJG zpf ppfacG;wdu k af &muf+yD;2 &uft=umrSm o}uFeu f s+yD jzpfygw,f? ppfacG;wdu k [
f m axmiftw k ±f ;kd eJŒ tvGeef ;D uyfpmG wnf&adS ewma=umifh
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acG;cs;D acG;ao;eHŒomru aoG;nDe‡ ‹H e‹J vlcs;D vlao;eHŒawGyg vSKd ifae+yjD zpfww hJ ukd x f J a&wpufrS raomuf&bJ 76 o}ueF f udk jzwfoef;ae=uygw,f?
tJ ' D t csd e f r S m aysmf a ysmf a ewwf w J h aq;=2 ausmif ; om; ud k w if j rif h (ac: ) rm&S , f (aygif ; wnf ) u &k y f & S i f rif ; om; 0if ; OD ;
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

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f a=umif; b,ftusO;f om;rS r=um;bl;
rodbl;ao;wmwa=umif; wdkŒa=umifh ppfacG;wdkufa&muf ausmif;om;awG[m axmifxJrSm owif;aysmufae+yD;{+yD strike rSm
ausmif ; om;wcsd K Œ aow,f q d k w J h o wif ; awG wtm;ysH Œ ES H ‹ oG m ;cJ Œ w,f ? 3 aqmif r S m usef w J h ausmif ; om;awG e J Œ wd k u f awG u
ausmif;om;awG=um;xJ {+yD 11 wdu k yf rJG mS ausmif;om; 4 a,mufusw,fvŒkd owif;awGjzpfae+yD;usq;kH ausmif;om;awGukd *k%ðf yoDcsi;f pyfzŒkd
tcsut f vufawG pkaqmif;jyifqifwmawmif vkycf =hJ uao;w,f? tjyifu rdbaqGrsKd ;awGuvJ qGr;f oGwf &rvm;/ roGw&f bl;vm; a0cGrJ &eJŒ
aomuawGygG ; tylr;D awGcpH m;aecJŒ&w,f? 3 v=umvdŒk axmif0ifpm jyefawGŒcGi&hf rS owif;rSef udk axmifwiG ;f axmifjyifu odomG ;=uw,f?
axmif0ifpm jyefawGŒ&wJhtcg 'D 3 vtwGif; tjyifutarawG ododomom=uD; ydef_cHK;usoGm;wm awGŒvdkuf&w,f?
{+yD 11 wdkufyGJjzp+yD;aemuf ppfacG;wdkufa&mufausmif;om;awG[m axmifqlylr_eJŒ w&m;±Hk;wif+yD;axmifxyfcsrSmudk ar#mf
vifhwGufqxm;cJh=uw,f? 'gayrJh vufawGŒrSmawmh w&m;±Hk;wif axmifxyfcswm r&SdcJŒygbl;? rqv acwfrSm EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; awG
axmifwGif;Oya' csdK;azgufvdkŒqdk+yD;±Hk;wif axmifxyfcswm tifrwef&Sm;ygw,f? axmifxJrSm EdkifiHa&;pmapmifawG a&;om; xkwfa0wm
awGŒayrJhvJ wcgrS ±Hk;wifaxmifcswmr&Sdyg? tvGefqHk; 6 wdkufydwf ±dkufESufwmyJ rsm;ygw,f? oHa_cusif;cwfwm/ a'guf cwfwmawGvJ
tawmfeJygw,f? axmifus+yD;om; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;udk aemuftr_twGuf ±Hk;xkwf&mrSmawmh oHa_cusif;cwf wwfygw,f?
axmifajymif;ypfwmvJ &Sm;ygw,f?
ppfacG;wdkufrSm&SdaepOf 75 a&$wd*Hkta&;tcif;u udkA[def;atmif (pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvf/ pma&;q&m Aef;armfwifatmif . om;)
u “a'gif;wrmef” oDcsif;udka&;pyfcJhw,f? “_idrf;csrf;a&;wdkufyGJ” pD;&D;acGrSm udkrGef;atmif jyefqdkxm;wJh oDcsif;jzpfygw,f? rlv pyfwkef;u
pmom; tawmf&Snfygw,f? udkrGef;atmifu tJ'DoDcsif;&JŒoHòydiftydk'fudkom jyefqdkxm;wmjzpfygw,f? 'gŒtjyif EdkifiHa&; rygbJ
tusOf;om;wa,muf&JŒ tdrfvGrf;pdwf tdyfrufeJŒ vufawGŒb0udk ,SOfjyxm;wJh “ajreDvrf;uav;” qdkwJh aumfyDoDcsif; wyk'fvJ
pyfcahJ o;w,f?
1976 {+yD 11 &uf axmifwiG ;f t=urf;zufcck aH &;wdu k yf [JG m Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awG=um;rSmvJ *,uftrsKd ;rsKd ; jzpfay:ap cJw h ,f?
“'g[m “e&SifaygufpynmwwfawG&JŒ qifuef;awmwdk; rdkuf&l;&Jvkyf&yf” “ausmif;om;awG&JŒ a'goaygufuGJr_” vdkŒwHqdyf uyf
&SKwfcswmawG&Sdw,f? “axmifwGif;wdkufyGJrSm t=urf;rzufoifh/ _idrf;csrf;wJhenf;eJŒom wdkuf&r,f/ t=urf;zufwm[m a'go
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

ayguu f w JG mjzpfw,f/ a'goayguu f w JG m[m rSeu f efww hJ u kd yf JG rjzpfapbl;” vdŒk -o0g'ay;olawGv&J w dS ,f? wcsKd Œuawmh “cifAsm; wdŒk vkyw f m
odyrf eS w f ,f/ rmufpaf jymwJh (Violent t S ruggel ) t=urf;zufwu kd yf JG qdw k m tJ'gb”J vdŒk tm;&yg;& tm;ay;=uw,f? “tzdEydS cf v H w l ef;pm;u
zd E S d y f o l v l w ef ; pm;ud k wd k u f z d k Πaemuf q H k ; tm;ud k ; &m enf ; vrf ; jzpf w J h Viol e nce (t=urf ; ywrf ; enf ; ) qd k w m
tJovdkta_ctaersdK;yJ”vdkŒoabmw&m;t& oHk;oyfed*Hk;csKyfjyw,f? “t=urf;zufa&; rzufa&;qdkwJh wdkufyGJo%Wef[m &efolu
owfrSwfjyXmef;wm jzpfw,f? tzdESdyfcHvlwef;pm;bufu udk,fhpdwf=udKuf a&G;cs,fEdkifwm r[kwfbl;? zdESdyfolvlwef;pm; ay;vmwJh
tcif;tusif;twdkif; udk,fhwdkufyGJo¿mefu vdkufeif;&wmjzpfw,f” vdkŒ {+yDwdkufyGJ axmufcHolawGu oifcef;pmxkwfjy=uw,f?
wcsKd Œuawmh “axmifqw kd m ppfajrjyifr[kwb f ;l / Edik if aH &;oifwef;ausmif; omjzpfw,f? ocifoef;xGe;f wdŒk / ocifEw k Œkd [m axmifukd
EdkifiHa&;oifwef; ay;p&mae&mtjzpfyJ oabmxm; usifhoHk;cJh=uw,f? 'ga=umifh axmifwGif;wdkufyGJawG/ txl;ojzifh t=urf;zufwdkufyGJawG
rvkyfoifhbl;” vdkŒvSnfŒajym=uw,f? wbufu acsyolawGuvJ “axmif[m EdkifiHa&;oifwef;ausmif; qdkwmrSefw,f? 'gayrJh
acwfrSDoifwef;ausmif;qdkwm oabmw&m;oufouf oifwmr[kwfbl;? EdkifiHa&;oabmw&m;eJŒ vuf awGŒwdkufyGJ aygif;py+yD;oifrS
wu,fhoifwef;ausmif;ppfppfjzpfrSm” vdkŒjyefacsy=uw,f? wcsdKŒu “JS eJŒ AS rSm AS u t"du jzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh axmifxJrSm JS (Jail Strike)
axmifwiG ;f wdu k yf JG vky+f y;D ud,
k Œf tiftm; tvum;xdcu kd f ðyef;wD;rcHoifb h ;l ? axmifuvGwaf wmhrS AS (Armed t S ruggel ) vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;
vkyzf Œkd t"du&nf&, G cf suf xm;+yD;axmifxaJ eoGm;& r,f” vdŒk qifac_ ay;olawGv&J w dS ,f? “AS twGuv f tkd yfwhJ pnf;±H;k jyifqifrt _ awGŒtñuH/
pdwf"mwffavhusifha&; tawGŒtñuH eJŒ wdkufyGJtawGŒtñuH awGudk JS awGxJrSm pkaqmif;avŒusifhoGm;&r,f” vdkŒaxmufcHolawGu
jyefvSefacsy=uw,f? JS rvkyfbJ AS twGuft"du&nf&G,f+yD;udk,fhudk,fudk,f xdef;odrf;arG;jrL&r,fvdkΠajymolawG[m axmifxJaepOfumv
wav#mufvHk; axmif wGif;wdkufyGJawG wckrS ryg0ifcJŒbJ udk,fhwOD;csif;taeacsmifa&;/ av#mh&ufrsm;rsm;&a&;udkom vHk;yef;cJh=uovdk
axmifjyifa&muf awmhvJ b,f AS rSoGm;wmrawGŒ&ygbl;? NLD odkŒr[kwf w_cm;EdkifiHa&;ygwDawGxJ0if+yD;òrdŒay:Oya'wGif;v_yf&Sm;r_xJ ygwm
awmif rawGŒ&ygbl;? udk,fusdK;rpGefŒ&J/ &efoludkta=umuf=uD;vdkŒ zwfzl;rSwfzl;or#udk toHk;csqifajcay;wm oufoufjzpfygw,f?
ausmif;om;awGuawmh rmufpf &JŒ t=urf;zufawmfvSefa&; oabmw&m;udkvJ rzwfzl;ygbl;? t”rRtiftm; oDtdk&D vdkŒac:wJh
Force Theory udkvJr=um;zl;ygbl;? JS – AS jy\emawGvJ rodygbl;? olwdkŒodwmuawmh ppftm%m&SifawGudk b,fae&ma&mufa&muf
‘l;raxmufbl;qdkwmyJ jzpfygw,f?
wckxl;_cm;wmu {+yD 11 eJŒywfouf+yD;qefŒusifbufavoHawG[m ausmif;om;r[kwfwJh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; t0ef; t0dkif;u
xGufay:vmwmrsm;+yD;ausmif;om;awG tm;vHk;vdkvdkuawmh {+yD wdkufyGJudk axmufcH=u *k%f,ltm;us=uygw,f? ausmif;om;r[kwfwJh
Edik if aH &;tusO;f om; t0ef;t0dik ;f xJrmS vJ {+yw D u kd yf u
JG kd axmufc=H uolawGu rsm;ygw,f? ausmif;om;tm; vH;k vdv k u kd axmufc=H uw,fqakd yrJŒ
ausmif;om;awGxJrSmvJ taysmhtrm 'D*&DuGm_cm;r_=uD;=uD;rm;rm;&Sdwm/ trsdK;rsdK;&SdwmawG udk aemufydkif;rSm awGŒvm&ygw,f?
{+yD 11 wdkufyGJqefŒusifolawG[m wdkufyGJxJum,uHajrmuf yg0ifqifE$JcJhwJh ausmif;om;awG a&SŒrSmawmh wdkufyGJrSm; a=umif;
wcgrS awhawhqdkifqdkif rajym&=ubJ ab;rSmom q&m=uD;vkyf+yD;'Dcav;awGudk ynmay;&tHk;r,f/ wnfaqmufay;& tHk;r,f pojzifh
Edik if aH &;tusO;f om; trsm;pk txif}u;D axmufcrH &_ atmif =uKd ;pm;aewmjzpfw,f? 'gayrJh ausmif;om;xk tygt 0if Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;xkeŒJ
uif;uGmoGm;+yD;wcsdKŒ[mqdk aemufydkif;rSm axmiftm%mydkifawG&JŒ tifaz:rm owif;ay;tqifhtxd av#musoGm;cJhw,f?
ppfacG;wdkufrSm 5 vavmuf=umawmh ausmif;om;w0ufavmufudk 3 aqmifjyefydkŒvdkufw,f? usefausmif;om;awGudk awmh
1976 ckESpf 'DZifbmv usrS 4 wdkufeJŒ 5 wdkufudk cGÒydŒvdkuf+yD;ppfacG;wdkuf[m ppfacG;awG om;azgufxdef;odrf;&m ae&m jyefjzpfoGm;w,f?
1976 ckEpS f -o*kwf 10 eJŒ 11 &ufwŒkd rSm r_id ;f &mjynfh ausmif;om;awGukd ppfc±kH ;kH xkw/f tusO;f enf;eJŒppf+y;D axmif'%fawG pD&ifcŒJ w,f?
ausmif;om; 130 ausmf 5 ESpfrS 15 ESpftxd axmif'%fawGuscH&+yD;&efukef0dZPmody‘H ausmif;om; udkwifarmifOD; [m 1976 ck *|efvxJrSm
=udK;ay;owfccH ŒJ &w,f? ausmif;om;awG[m pD&ifcsucf st+yD;ppfc±kH ;kH uae tif;pdeaf xmifjyeftydŒk tcsKyfum; ay:rSm ausmif;om;or*~ocD si;f /
tifwmae&Sief ,focD si;f awG oHòydiq f +kd yD;jyefvŒkd axmifxjJ yefa&mufwt hJ cg wcsKd Œ wcgwnf; 6 wdu k f wef;ydwcf &H w,f? 6 wdu k yf w
d cf &H wJt
h xJrmS
udw k ifat;=uL ac: armifrid_ ;f vGif (tif;0) (pufrw _ uUov kd /f wHwm;OD;/ ,ck trsKd ;om;Edik if aH &; wyfaygi;f pk (e0waxmifxu J saeqJ)/ ud0k if;jrifh
(pufr_wuUodkvf/ ,ck aw;a&; 0if;rif;axG;)/ udkoef;vif; (pufr_wuUodkvf) wdkŒyg0if=uw,f?
1976 ck ESpfv,favmufrSmbJ 74 ar=*|ef ta&;tcif; tvkyform;awGudk t&yfzufw&m;±Hk;wif tr_ppfwm+yD;oGm;vdkŒ
axmifcsvdkufw,f? axmifcs+yD;aemuf tvkyf=urf;vkyfcdkif;&mrSm tvkyform;awGu EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGjzpfwJhtwGuf tvkyf
=urf;rvkyfEdkifbl;vdkΠ_iif;qefwma=umifh tm%mzDqefoltm;vHk;udk 6 wdkufydwfvdkufw,f? wdkfufxJrSm *efzvm; ray;bJxm;vdkΠtcif;=uD;
tcif;av;udk wdkuf=urf;cif; orHovif;ay:rSmyJ pGefŒ&w,f? &uf=umvmwJhtcg tcef;xJ wtm;eHapmfvm+yD;avmuf awGuvJ wcef;vHk;
azG;azG;v_yf w&G&GoGm;aew,f? 'ga=umifh ntdyf&if wa,mufwvSnfh uif;apmifh+yD;tdyfaeolawGay: avmufawG wufrvmatmif
wm;ay;&w,f? wcsKd Œtvkyo f rm;awGvJ rcHEikd af wmhbJ tvkyv f yk rf ,fvŒkd tm%mydik af wGuakd jym+yD;wdu k x f u
J jyefxu G o f mG ;w,f? OD;vSoed ;f
(ordkif;csnfpuf)/ OD;wifaiG (ordkif;csnfpuf)/ udk0if;xdef (qifrvdkufoabFmusif;/ ,ck a&$vD)/ udkausmfpdef (ordkif;csnfpuf) tygt0if
tvkyform;wcsdK‹yJ =uHh=uHhcHusefaewm wvavmuf=umrS axmiftm%mydkifawG bufu tav#mhay;+yD;wcsdK‹ 3 aqmif/ wcsdK‹ 4 wdkuf
ydkŒvdkufw,f? olwdkŒ[m 6 wdkufuxGufvm+yD;a&aumif;aumif;csdK;&/ qyfjym
aumif;aumif;wdkuf& wmawmif 15 &uf &uf 20 avmuftxd olwdkŒcE<mudk,fawGrSm teHŒawGpGJaew,f? 'gŒtjyif avmufudkuf xm;wJh
temawGuvJ yGaew,f? tJ'Dtwnf;up+yD;EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG=um;rSm “csD;wdkuf” ydwfw,fqdkwJh a0g[m&opf ay: vmw,f?
,cif&Sd&if;pGJ wdkuf=uD; (6) wdkuf/ wdkufopfeJŒ ppfacG;wdkufawGtjyif “csD;wdkuf” qdkwJh wdkuftrsdK;tpm;wck xyfwdk;vm ygw,f?
{+yD 11 &ufnu axmifydkif=uD;tqifh&Sd ruUem; ajymoGm;cJhwJhtwdkif; 1976 ckESpfxJ w_cm;axmifawGrSm axmifqlr_/
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

axmifxr_tqifah &mufwhJ axmifwiG ;f wdu k yf aJG wG jzpfcyhJ gw,f? rE aW v;axmif/ yJc;l axmif/ armfvjrKd ifaxmifwŒkd rSm axmifqrl a_ wG jzpfcw hJ ,fvŒkd
owif;=um;&ayrJŒ twnfðyowif;awmh r&cJŒyg? twnfðyowif;&wJh axmifxr_awGuawmh om,m0wDaxmif eJŒ o&ufaxmifawGrSm
jzpfcJhygw,f? om,m0wDaxmifxr_rSm EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGeJΠ&mZ0wftusOf;om;awG vufwGJwdkuf=u wm axmiftm%mydkifawGu
&efukefuaxmif0g'g tiftm;jznfh ppfulac:+yD;&uf&ufpufpuf t=urf;zufjzdKcGJvdkŒ tusOf;om; tajrmuftjrm; ‘%f&mtjyif;txef
&cJh=uygw,f? axmifxr_udk acgif;aqmifwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif; &mZ0wftusOf;om; 2 a,mufudkawmh 0g'gawGu ±dkufowfvdkufw,f?
0g'gawGxcd u kd rf r_ &Scd yhJ g?
o&ufaxmifxr_uawmht'J u D mv axmifwiG ;f wdu k yf aJG wGxrJ mS atmifjrifrt _ &Sq d ;kH tjzpf o&zlaqmif;cJw h ,f? rauG;òrdŒ rSm 1975
ck *sG e f v tvk y f o rm;ta&;tcif ; ES p f y wf v nf ausmif ; om;oyd w f a rS m uf r _ a =umif h o&uf a xmif r S m axmif u saewJ h rauG ;
aumvdyfausmif;om;awG acgif;aqmif+yD;w_cm;EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGeJŒ &mZ0wftusOf;om;awGudkyg pnf;±Hk; waxmifvHk;udk
odr;f ydu k Ef ikd cf w hJ ,f? axmif0g'gawGeŒJ axmifrLS ;wcsKd Œudk “g;pmcHawGtjzpf zrf;qD;xm;Edik cf w hJ ,f? 'ga=umifh axmiftm%mydik af wG[m rwwfombJ
tusOf;om;awG&JΠawmif;qdkcsuftm;vHk;vdkvdkudk vdkufavsm tav#mhay;cJh&w,f? 'DvdkeJΠaxmifxr_[m aoG;xGuf oH,dkrjzpfvdkufbJ
atmifjrifxajrmufomG ;cJw h ,f? xH;k pHtwdik ;f o&ufaxmifwu kd yf jJG zpf+yD;2 vavmuf t=umrSmawmh acgi;f aqmifcw hJ hJ udw
k ifO;D / udak pmvScsKd
tygt0if rauG;aumvdyf ausmif;om; 4 OD;/ &mZ0wftusOf;om;wOD;wdk‹udk rvdrfhwywfeJŒ ac:xkwf/ tif;pdefaxmifudkajymif; 4 wdkufrSm
wdkufydwfvdkuf+yD;w&m;±Hk;wif axmifxyfcsw,f? rqv ppftpdk;&vufxufrSm axmifus+yD;om; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG axmifxyfcs
ESpfwdk;cH&wmeJΠaxmifajymif;cH&wm 'DwcgbJ&Sdw,fvdkΠxifygw,f?
1976 ck ESpu f ek yf ikd ;f rSm ppfc±kH ;kH eJŒaxmifcsxm;wJh ausmif;om;awGtygt0if Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awGudk csrw S xf m;wJh jypf ‘%ftay:
“jyifqifcsuf” wifzdkŒudpPay:vmw,f? ppfcHk±Hk;awG[m ±dk;±dk;t&yfzufw&m;±Hk;awGvdk t,lcHcGifhr&SdbJ jyifqifcsuf qdkwmyJ wifcGifh&Sdw,f?
ppfc±kH ;kH u pD&ifcsucf s+y;D prSmwcg jyifqifcsuw f ifcikd ;f cJ+h y;D tck ‘kw,
d t=urd f xyfwifcikd ;f wmjzpfw,f? tJ't D cg ausmif;om;awG=um;xJ jyifqifcsuf
wifoifh rwifoifh tjiif;tcHkawG ay:vmw,f? wcsdKŒu “jyifqifcsuf” qdkwm t,lcHudkyJ aemufxyfemrnfwrsdK;eJŒ ac:wmjzpfw,f?
ppftm%m&SifawGqD b,fawmhrS t,lcHrwifoifh/ toem;rcHoifhbl;vdkŒ cH,l=uw,f? wcsdKŒuawmh jyifqifcsufqdkwm t,lcHwdkŒ
toem;cHv$mwdkŒeJŒ Oya'a=umif;t& rwlbl;? 'ga=umifh Oya't&eJŒ EdkifiHa&;t& tjypfr&Sda=umif;/ rdrdwdkŒvkyf&yf rSefa=umif;
&Si;f vif;acsywmjzpfvŒkd wifoifw h ,fvŒkd ,lq=uw,f? 'Dvekd ŒJ ausmif;om; trsm; tjym;tygt0if Edik if aH &;tusO;f om; tawmfrsm;rsm;[m
jyifqifcsufwifbdkŒ jiif;qef=uw,f? 'DtcgrSm tm%mydkifawGu jyifqif csufrwifoltcsdKŒudk 6 wdkufydwfvdkufw,f? wywfausmfavmuf
6 wd k u f yd w +yD ; aemuf 4 wd k u f 5 wd k u f r S m quf y d w f x m;w,f ? ausmif ; om;tcsif ; csif ; =um;rS m awmh jyif q if c suf wif a &;
rwifa&;udpPa=umifhpdwf0rf;uGJwm/ wif;rmwmr&SdbJ wOD;csif; vGwfvyfr_vdkΠcH,lxm;=uw,f? jyifqifcsufwifwJh ausmif;om;awGa&m
rwif w J h a usmif ; om;awG y g axmif w G i f ; wd k u f y G J a wG r S m wav#muf v H k ; wuf w uf º uG º uG vuf w G J y g0if = uwmyJ j zpf w ,f ?
ausmifom;awmfawmfrsm;rsm; jyifqifcsurf wifayrJh 'Djyifqifcsuq f w kd mudk tusO;f om;ud, k w f ikd f wdu
k ±f u
kd rf wifbJ tjyifurdbom;csi;f awG
wifvJ&w,fqdkvdkŒ rwifwJhausmif;om;awG&JŒ rdbom;csif;awG tjyifu ae wif=uwmvJ&Sdw,f? wcsdKŒrdbawGvJ wifvdkŒ&rSef;
rodem;rvnfvŒkd / 'grrS [kwf rqufpyfwwfvŒkd / 'grrS [kwf wifukd rwifcsif vdŒk rwifw f mvJ&w dS ,f? 1978 ckxJ ausmif;om;wcsKd Œudk ppftpd;k &u
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

aq;&Hkutjzpftysuftm;vHk; ajymjyw,f? aemuf eD;pyf&mtcef;awGuwqifh waqmifvHk;udk owif;jyefŒoGm;w,f? aemufwaeŒreuf
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

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,ck yef;csDq&m)/ 2? udkoufwif (pD;yGm;a&;/wuUodkvf/ 0rf;wGif;)/ a&$wd*Hkta&;tcif;u 3? udkcifarmf (ac: ) armf}uD; (aq;=1/ pma&;q&m
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,cktif;pdef usL&Sifq&m)/ 6? udkjrifhodef; (aq;=2/ xm;0,f/ ABSDF wnfaxmifpwGif vlrsdK;a&;-EdkifiHa&;tpGef;a&muf0g'DwcsdK@. owfjzwfcH&)/ 7?
ukdwifjrifh (ac: ) rm&S,f (aq;=2/ aygif;wnf)/ 8? udk0if;aqG (txu ausmif;om;/ yg&rD/ ,cka&$vD)/ 9? udkapmEkdif (pufrlwuUodkvf/
&cdik t f rsKd ;om;/ rmefatmif)/ 10? udo k ed ;f vGif (aq;=2/ yJc;l )/ 11? udck ifaZmfvif; (tvuausmif;om;/ Auy odŒk awmcdu k sq;kH )/ 12? udkped af &$r;kd
(&efukef0dZPmody`H/ &ckdiftrsdK;om;)/ 13? udkaX;atmif (ac: ) armfwm (ausmif;q&m)/ r_dif;&mjynfhta&;tcif;u 14? udkcifarmifav;
(pD;yGm;a&;wuUov kd /f rdwv Dˆ m/ etzacwf axmifxyfus)/ 15? udw k if0if; (ac: ) bkZd ifaumh (pD;yGm;a&;wuUov kd /f a&=unf/ ,ck jrpf }uD;em;)/
16? udkapmvSdKif (0=owuUodkvf/ tif;awmf/ ,ck NLD v$wfawmftrwf)/ 17? udkcifarmifnGefΠ(pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvf/ &efukef)/ 18?
udkarmifarmifomjrwf (ac: ) oef;jrifh (&efukef0dZPmody`H/ uGrf;_cHukef;)/ 19? udkrif;atmif (pufrlwuUodkvf/ aygif;wnf/ ,ckuG,fvGef)/ 20?
udi_k rd ;f 0if; (pufrw _ uUov kd /f ,cktEd , dN )/ 21? udo k ed ;f oef;OD; (rE aW v;0dZmP ody/H` ,ck trsKd ;om;Ekid if aH &;wyfaygi;f pk/ etzacwf axmifxyfus)/
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_idrf;at;tdrf)/ 24? udkatmif=unf (*sDwDtdkif/ ysOf;rem;)/ 25? udkom'Gef;atmif (&efukef0dZPmody`H/ aygufawm/ &cdkiftrsdK;om;)/ 26?
udkapmodef;armif (&efukef0dZPmody`H/ awmifukwf/ &cdkiftrsdK;om;)/ 27? udkwif0if;armif (tif;pdef)/ 28? udkcifarmifaxG; (&efukef 0=o/ oxHk)/
30? udkjrwfudkudk (*sDwDtdkif/ AdkvfcsKyfausmfaZmwl/ Auyodk‹awmcdk usqHk;)/ 31? udkae'Gef;atmif (&efukef 0=o/ ysOf;rem;) eJŒ tif;pdef *sDwDtdkif
uyJjzpf=uwJh 32? udw k ifx;l vGi/f 33? rmruf&zD/ 34? udw k ifxËG f (ac: ) zd;k aumuff (tif;pde)f / 35? udak omif;nGeŒf (jyGew f q H m)/ 36? ud^k m%f0if;
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,ck ABSDF§vlŒabmifopf)/ 2? udkvlarmf (txuausmif;om;/ abmufaxmf)/ 3?udkpHEk (t&yfom; &cdkiftrsdK;om;)/ 4? udkausmfpdef (74
tvkyform;ta&;tcif;/ ordkif;csnfpuf)/ 5? udkrdk;jrifh (txuausmif;om;/ a&ausmf/ * av;vHk;aemufydkif; jynfolŒwdk;wufa&;ygwD)/ 6?
udkatmifoef;jrifh (/ pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvf/ awmifOuUvm/ ,ckuvvw)/ 7? udkausmfxl; (tvu ausmif;om;/ prf;acsmif;)/ 8? udkcifpdk;
(t&yfom;/ ouFef;y&duQ&mqdkif/ A[ef; 3 vrf;)/ 9? udkpdk;0if; (ac: ) azaZmf*sD (&efukef 0=o wuUodkvf/ prf;acsmif;)/ r_dif;&mjynfŒu 10?
udk0if;xGef; (0=owuUodkvf/ ,ckuG,fvGef)/ 11? udkxGef;atmifa&$ (pufr_wuUodkvf zsmyHk)/ 12? udkrif;xGef;0if; (*sDwDtdkif/ tif;pdef)/ 13?
udkausmfaZ,s (&efukef 0=owuUodkvf/ tif;pdef)/ 14? udkwifvS (pD;yGm;a&; wuUodkvf/ rdwWDvm)/ 15? udkpef;vSdKif (pufr_wuUodkvf rE aW v;)/
16? udkcifarmifcsdK (pufr_wuUodkvf rE Wav;/ ,ckusL&Sifq&m)/ 17? udkatmifapmOD; (oGm;=aq;wuUodkvf/ ykodrf) wdkŒjzpf=uw,f?
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u&iftrsKd ;om;/ tvHck 0Jjc)H wd@k o;kH OD;udk cyfa*guaf *guaf usmif;om;wa,mufu tm%mydik af wGqrD mS “'Dval wG rd;k &moDqENjyyGJ vkyzf @kd =upH nfae
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

vGwfvGwfvyfvyfoGm;vmcGifh r&=uayrJh w&m;r0if csufðywfcGifh tygt 0if tcGifhta&;tawmfrsm;rsm; &,lEdkifcJhw,f? waxmifvHk;&Sd
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'DvdkeJŒausmif;om;awG[m taqmifawGrSma&m/ wdkufawGrSmyg EkdifiHa&;avhvmaqG;aEG;r_awG t*Fvdyfpmavhvma&;eJŒ
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pD r H u d e f ; awG jzpf ygw,f ? axmif a vmurS m tapmyd k i f ; wcsd e f w H k ; u &J b uf q d k w m tif r wef t m;us p&m tcG i f h x l ; cH
pHjytusOf;om;awGjzpfcJh+yD;wjynfvHk;rSmrS &Jbufpcef; 2 ck= 3 ck avmufbJ&SdcJhw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u &JbufvdkufcGifh&zkdΠtusOf;om;awG[m
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uGejf rLepfysuaf wG&ŒJ pdwu f ;l ,Of0g'jzefŒjyuGuf tjzpfuae ajAmiftwdtvif; zufqpfac|;wyfom; awGtjzpf tqifah v#musomG ;+yjD zpfygw,f?
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tjrefvrf;r}u;D pDru H ed ;f qdw k muawmh ArmjynfajryHak y:rSm &efuek ef ŒJ rE aW v;udk aywHwacsmif;eJŒ rsO;f ajzmifq h xJG nfvh ukd +f y;D tJ'rD sO;f ajzmift
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&J b uf t usOf ; om;awG axmif e J Œ aomif ; eJ Œ csD + yD ; oH k ; cJ Œ &mrS m iS u f z sm;'%f / yif y ef ; qif ; &J r _ ' %f / t[m&csd K ŒwJ h r _ ' %f a wG a =umif h
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tcketzacwfrSmawmh tJ'Dawm&Sif; ikwfxkw+yD;om; ae&mawGudk AdkvfcsKyfrsm; cGJa0,l+yD;eD;pyf&m aqGrsdK;om;csif; wynfha&mif;&if;awGudk
udk,fydkif_cHajrtjzpfcdkif;pm;/ iSg;pm;/ a&mif;pm;=uw,fvdkΠod&ygw,f?
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udak usmpf ed Of ;D (&efu f ek f *sw D t D ikd )f / udak t;0if; (&efuek f 0dZm… ody/H` vrif;w&mat;0if;/ ,ck avmhpt f ed *f s,v f pd )f / udak Zmfoef;pdef (pufrw _ uUov kd )f /
udpk ENmxl;rif;0if; (&efuek f 0dZm… ody)H` / ud0k if;xGe;f (&efuek f 0dZm… ody)H` / udak X;0if; (&efuek f 0dZm… -ody/H` ,ck =opa=w;vs)/ udw k ifx;l vGif (*sw D t D ikd )f
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

wdkufydwfvdkufw,f? a&rjzwfayrJh tm;ay;ulnDolawGudkyg xrif; rau|;bJxm;w,f? oHk;&ufajrmufae@v,frSm !¸efrSL;Adkvf rSL; tqifh&Sd
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'DypkH uH ikd f ay:vpD[m taES;eJŒtjref wdu k x f u J ausmif;om;awGeŒJ wjcm;Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awGqD a&muf vmrSmjzpfvŒkd &mZ0wfaqmifawGukd
wuGJwjym;tydkŒrcH&cif wpkwpnf;xJ&SdaewHk;/ udk,fuvufOD;atmif pwdkufzkdŒ qHk;jzwf vdkuf wmjzpfygw,f? tpmiwfcHrJh ausmif;om;eJŒ
Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;pm&if; awmif;vdu k w f t hJ cg 5 wdu k u f ausmif;om;tygt0if Edik if H a&;tusO;f om;tm;vH;k eD;yg; 80 cefŒeJŒ 4 wdu k t f wku d
ausmif;om; 30 ausmpf m&if;ay;=uw,f? tpmiwfcw H u kd yf uJG kd aemuf qH;k tcsed t f xd toufpeG Œf wdu k rf hJ trmcH 40 avmufvrkd ,fvŒkd cefŒrSe;f
xm;+yD;5 a,muf 6 a,mufavmuf toufpGefŒ&Ekdif w,fvdkŒ wGufxm;w,f? 5 wdkufuausmif;om;awGu 4 okwfcGJ+yD;wokwfeJŒwokwf
3 &ufpDjcm; tpmiwfcHzdkŒeJŒ tpmiwfcH olawGudk cGJxkwfwm/ ae&ma&$Œwmvkyf&ifawmh &ufrjcm;awmhbJ w&u+yD;w&uf qufwdkuf0ifzdkŒ
qH;k jzwf=uw,f? 4 wdu k t f wdu k ausmif;om;awGuawmh tm;vH;k wokwx f pJ =uw,f? axmifwiG ;f tawGŒtñuHt& tpmiwfcw H u kd yf 0JG if&if
axmiftm%mydik af wG u aomufa&ygjzwfypfwm ñuHcb hJ ;l vdŒk tckwu kd yf rJG mS tpmiwfomru a&iwf'%fygcEH idk &f nf&zdS Œkd tm;vH;k pdw f "f mwft f &
jyifqifxm; =uw,f?
'DwcgtpmiwfcHqENjy&mrSm =udKwifumuG,fwJhtaeeJŒ tdrfawGudk axmif0ifpmuwqifh Œ0rf;ESKwfaq;awG =udKrSmxm;w,f?
tpmiwfrcHcif 0rf;ESKwfxm;vdu k w f t hJ wGuf tl&iS ;f oGm;+y;D pjrif;cHwm Adu k af tmifw h mawG rjzpfEikd af wmhyg? owfrw S xf m;wJh &ufrmS awmif;qkcd suf
awGukd pm&Guw f &Gurf mS a&;+yD;ausmif;om;awGtygt0if wdu k yf 0JG if Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;tm;vH;k vufrw S x f ;kd +yD;axmif0g'gawGvufxJ xnfh
vdu k w f ,f? awmif;qdck suaf wGuawmh t"dutm;jzifh Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awGtm;vH;k udk yHpk u H ikd f tvkycf ikd ;f r_zsuo f rd ;f a&;eJΠEkid if aH &;tusO;f om;
awG oD;oefŒxm;a&;/ wdu k u f ausmif;om;awGeŒJ wjcm;Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awGukd taqmifjyefyŒkd ay;a&;eJŒ wjcm;xH;k wrf;pOfvm awmif;aeus
tcGit hf a&;awG jzpfygw,f? wdu k yf pJG 0ifwn hJ rSm ausmif;om;rsm;[m wdu k yf 0JG ifocD si;f awGeŒJ uAsmawG wa,muf+yD;wa,muf qd=k u/ &Gw=f u
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

5 wdu k uf yxrtokwf tpmiwfco H al wGukd wdu k yf pJG 0ifw&hJ ufrmS bJ 6 wdu k yf w d v f u kd +f yD;a&jzwfw,f? yxrtokwf rSmygoal wGu
75 a&$wd*Hkta&;tcif;u udkOD;vSapm (pufrlwuUodkvf/ ,ck pma&;q&m/ uAsmq&m cdkifatmif/ ppfawG)/ udkoef;Ekdif (ynma&;/ zm;tH)/
udw k ifatmif (&efuek f 0§o wuUov kd Of ya'/ erfph ef/ yavmiftrsKd ;om;)/ udck if0if; (ac: ) bd;k awmfcif0if; (vkyo f m;aumvdy/f use;f rma&;Xme
0efxrf;/ ,ck aoG;opfvli,ftzGJŒcsKyf/ etz axmifusaeqJ)/ udk0if;aqG (txuausmif;om;/ yg&rD/ ,ck a&$vD)/ udkjrifhOD; (ac: ) [mepf
(txuausmif;om;/ armfvjrdKifu|e;f )/ OD;oefŒta&;tcif;u udx k eG ;f xGe;f (pma&;q&m awmifwiG ;f udu k }kd uD;.om;/ Auyod‹k awmcdk usq;kH )/
udkausmfpdk; (&efukef0dZPmody`H/ yJcl;ouUv)/ r_dif;&mjynfhta&;tcif;u udkjrifhOD; (&efukef0dZPmody`H/ a&eHacsmif;)/ udkwif0if;armif (tif;pdef)/
rD;armif;pmapmifxw k af 0r_u udjk rat; (udu k ;kd u|e;f jyef/ vufyw H ef;/ ,ck NLD)/ Adv k af usmaf Zmrdom;pk awmcd&k mrSm um;armif;+y;D vdu k yf Œkd ay;vdŒk
axmifusvmwJh pufrlwuUodkvfausmif;om; udk&J0if; (,ck =opa=w;vs) wdk@jzpf=uw,f? udk&J0if;[m ,cif ausmif;om;or*~ acgif;aqmif
uduk ;kd u|e;f jyef ud^k m%f0if;eJŒ udw k ifarmif0if;wdŒk &JŒ nDjzpfygw,f? ud&k 0J if;&JŒ tpfuEkd pS af ,muf[m u|e;f ujyefa&muf/ axmifuvGw+f yD;wJah emuf
yJcl;±dk;rAuyxH awmcdkcJh=uw,f? udkudk;u|ef;uae ref;atmif=unf (KNU usqHk;)/ ref;jidrf;armif (,ck KNU A[kdaumfrwD) wdkŒeJŒtwl
avSwpif;xJxGufajy; vmcJh+yD;aemuf yJcl;±dk;r Auy xHa&mufaewJh q&matmifa0/ wjcm;awmcdku|ef;jyefwOD;jzpfwJh rE Wav;wuUodkvf
ausmif;om;or*~ acgif;aqmif udkatmifabmf wdkŒeJŒtwl olwdkŒnDtudkESpfa,muf[m 1974 ckrSm a&Gusife,ftwGif; vlrsdK;a&;EkdifiHa&;
tpGef;a&muf orm;wcsdKŒ&JŒ vSnfhzsm;vkyf=uH owfjzwfjcif;cH&+yD;a&wdrfepfcJh&w,f?
yxrtokwf wdu k yf w d cf &H wJt h cg usew f hJ 5 wdu k af usmif;om;rsm;eJΠwjcm;Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;u rlvpDpOfovdk 3 &ufprD jcm;
awmhbJ aemufwaeŒup+y;D qufwu kd f tpmiwfcw H u kd yf 0JG if=uw,f? aemuftokwaf wGuakd wmh 6 wdu k rf ydwEf idk af wmhbJ 5 wdu k rf mS bJ tpmiwf
rcHao;olawGeŒJ oD;jcm;tcef;cGx J m;w,f? tpmiwfco H al wGukd tpmiwfrcHao;olawGu ðypkun l cD iG rhf &yg? 4 wdu k tf wduk f ausmif;om;awG
uawmh tm;vHk; owfrSwf&ufrSmp+yD;tpmiwfcH=uw,f? tJ'DrSmyg0ifolawGu r_dif;&mjynfhu 1? udkatmifapmOD; (oGm;aumvdyf/ ykodrf/
,ck NLD-LA)/ 2? udkausmfaZ,s (0dZPmody`HwuUodkvf)/ /3? udkrif;xGef;0if; (*sDwDtdkif)/ 4? udkcifarmifcsdK (pufr_wuUodkvf/ rE Wav;/ ,ck
usL&Siq f &m)/ 5? udpk ef;vSKd if (pufrw _ uUov kd /f rE aW v;)/ 6? ud0k if;xGe;f (&efuek f 0dZm… ody/H` ,cku, G v f eG )f / 7? udx k eG ;f atmifa&G (pufrw _ uUov kd /f
zsmyH)k polwŒkd eJŒ a&$w*d t kH a&;tcif;u 8? udpk ;kd 0if; (&efuek 0f Zd mP ody/H` ,ck *syefEidk if H {&m0%f*sme,f)/ 9? udak usmaf tmif (pD;yGm;a&;wuUov kd )f /
10? udjk rifah qG (pufrw l uUov kd /f rH&k mG qm;vif;}uD;)/ 11? udrk if;atmif (ac: ) *d&k , S af v; (tvuausmif;om;/ awmifOuUvm)/ 12? udo k ef;Ekid f
(aumifpDpma&;/ /,ck etzaxmifusaeqJ yk*Hoef;Ekdif)/ 13? udkatmifoef;jrifh (pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvf/ ,ckuvvw)/ 14? udkzkef;jrifh
(0§owuUodkvf)/ 15? udkatmifwifodef; (0§owuUodkvf/ oHwGJ/ &cdkiftrsdK;om;/ ,cka&$vD)/ 16? udkrdk;jrifh (txuausmif;om;/
,ckjynfolŒwdk;wufa&;ygwD)/ 17? udkwifa&$ (ac: ) qrfqeff (tvuausmif;om;/ ,ckvlŒabmifopf)/ 18? udkausmfpdef (ordkif;csnf puf/ 74
tvkyform;oydwf) wkd‹jzpf=uw,f?
ppftpd;k &axmifawGrmS tpmiwfcw H ukd yf 0JG ifwmudk òzdcw JG ehJ nf;ESpef nf;&Sw d ,f? or±d;k usenf;u tpmiwfco H al wGa&SŒ xrif;[if;awG
teH@woif;oif;/ qDwa0ha0heJΠvmcsay;+yD;qGJaqmifwJhenf;jzpfw,f? 'gayrJh ydktoHk;rsm;wJhenf;uawmh tpmiwfcH olawGudk aomufa&
jzwfwmjzpfw,f? tckwdkufyGJrSm tpmiwfcHolwcsdKŒu rdrdwdkŒt0wftpm;awG óud;eJŒcsnf+yD;wdkufcef;tjyif buf rdk;&GmxJvSrf;ypf/ rdk;a&&$Jepf
oGm;wJt h cg óu;d eJŒjyefq, JG /l a&n‡px f w k +f y;D aomuf=uw,f? wcsKd ŒvJa&jyef (qD;) aomuf=unf=h u w,f? wcsKd Œuawmh 'Dtwdik ;f =u=hH uchH aH ew,f?
a&jyefaomufwJhenf;u &uf=umvmwJhtcg tvGefeHapmfvm+yD;t&omvJ t0ifqdk; vmwJhtwGuf qufraomufEkdif=uawmhyg?
5 wdkufuausmif;om;trsm;pk}uD;[m tpmiwfcH/ txl;ojzifh a&iwf'%f rcHEkdif=ubJ wdkufyGJp+yD;2-3 &ufavmuft =umrSm
wa,muf+yD;wa,muf t&SHl;ay;aemufqkwfoGm;=uw,f? olwdkŒ[m axmiftm%mydkifawGqDrSm wdkufyGJuxGufa=umif;/ axmifpnf;urf;
twdkif; aerJhta=umif; vufrSwfxdk;&+yD;wdkufyGJquf0ifolawGeJΠtcef;cGJxm;cH&w,f?
wywfavmuft=umrSm t0wfawGr;kd a&xJc+H y;D a&aomufwm axmif0g'gawGawGŒoGm;vdŒk tpmiwfco H al wGukd t0wft pm;tm;vH;k
c|w, f o l mG ;+y;D ud, k wf ;kH vH;k xm;w,f? ðcpH &mapmifyg odr;f oGm;vdŒk tpmiwfcw H u kd yf 0JG ifoal wG[m rd;k at;at;rSm a&wpufraomuf&bJ wdu k cf ef;
xJ ud, k v f ;kH wD;tdy&f w,f? 6 wdu k yf w d cf &H wJh yxrtokwt f pmiwfco H al wGeŒJ 4 wdu k t f wdu k f tpmiwf cHot l rsm;pk[m 10 &ufwikd af tmif
awmifhcHaeayrJh useftrsm;pk}uD; t&SHl;ay;xGufoGm;+yD;rlv&nfrSef;ovdk trmcH 40 avmuf rusefEkdifawmhbl;qdkwm oabmaygufvmvdkŒ
tm;vHk; oydwfvSefvdkuf&w,f? 5 wdkufrSm yxrtokwfu r[kwfbJ aemufqHk; tenf;pk usefwJhxdwdkufyGJ0ifolawGuawmh r_dif;&mjynfhu
udkrsdK;xGef; (ac: ) cGefqdkif; (aq; 1/ ,ck aoG;opfvli,ftzGJŒcsKyf/ etz axmifxyfusaeqJ)/ udk+idrf;0if; (pufrlwuUodkfvf/ ,ck tdENd,)/
udkwifat;=uL (ac: ) armifr_dif;vGif (pufrlwuUodkvf/ tif;0 wHwm;OD;/ ,ck trsdK;om;EkdifiHa&;wyfaygif;pk/ etz axmifusaeqJ)/
ud k a usmf a usmf O D ; (*sD w D t d k i f / ,ck pma&;q&m +id r f ; at;td r f ) / a&$ w d * H k t a&;tcif ; u ud k a tmif x d k u f (aq; 2/ òrd Œ vS / ,ck
&efuek pf w d wf ikd ;f usvufzuf&nfqikd )f / udak 'Am&mh*sf (&efuek 0f Zd mP odyOH` ya'/ ausmufr/J a*:&cg;trsKd ;om;)/ udak X;atmif (&efuek 0f Zd mP odyOH` ya'/
oHvsif ,ck u,ef;jynfopf)/ udkat;atmif (aq;1/ &efukef)/ pwJholawGjzpfw,f? tpmiwfcHolawGxJaemufqHk;usefolu udkpdk;0if;
(&efukef0dZPmody`H/ ,ck *syefEkdifiH) jzpf+yD;tpmiwfcH 12 &ufajrmufrSm 4 wdkuftwdkufae xrf;pifeJŒxrf;xkwfoGm;+yD;6 wdkufydwfvu dk fw,f?
udpk ;kd 0if;eJΠ6 wdu k f ydwcf x H m;&wJh 5 wdu k f yxrokwf tpmiwfco H al wGukd useaf usmif;om;awG wdu k yf u JG xGuw f t hJ a=umif; vufrw S x f ;kd xm;wJh
pmtkyjf y+yD;tm%mydik f awGuqGaJ qmifvŒkd qufwu kd v f rJ xl;awmhb;l qd+k yD;pdwaf v#mv h ukd =f uw,f? 10 &uf=umtpmiwfc+H yD;jyefpm;olawGukd
vH;k wD; xrif;bJwcgwnf; wef;au|;vdŒk Adu k ef mAdu k af tmifjh zpf=uw,f? uHaumif;axmufrpGmbJ 'Dxufq;kd qd;k 0g;0g; a&m*ga0'emawmh rjzpf
vdu k yf gb;l ? 'Dvekd ŒJ 1977 ckatmufwb kd mv u|eZf mwfoiG ;f a&;ay:vpDwu kd zf suaf &; 4 wdu k ef ŒJ 5 wdu k f ausmif;om;rsm;&JŒ wku d yf [
JG m t±_;H }uD;±_;H
oGm;cJyh gawmhw,f? tajctaeydq k ;kd oGm;&wmu tpmiwfcaH usmif;om;awG[m ,cif tpmiwfcw H u kd yf aJG wGvkd wnDxJ 0ifwm/ txl;ojzihf
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

wnDwnf;oydwv f eS w f mrsKd ; rvky=f ubJ wa,mufwayguf t±_;H ay;oGm;=uwm[m tm%mydik af wGtwGuf ydk tuGuq f u kd of mG ;apygw,f?
4 wdkufeJŒ 5 wdkuf tpmiwfcHwdkufyGJ vHk;0òydoGm;+yD;aemuf ausmif;om;awGtygt0if EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGudk &ufwcsdkŒ
wdkufxJrSmbJ qufxm;w,f? 3-4 &uft=umrSm yJ[if;todk;awG au|;wJhudpPeJŒywfouf+yD;ausmif;om;awGeJŒ0g'gawG pum;rsm;=uw,f?
tJ'n D aerSm a&$w*d t kH a&;tcif;u udak tmifxu kd f (aq;2/ òrdŒvS/ ,ck pdww f ikd ;f uspm;aomufqikd )f udk t&if qH;k ac:xkwo f mG ;w,f? 'DaemufrmS
5 wdkufrSm&SdwJh usefausmif;om;awGtygt0if EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;tm;vHk; wa,muf+yD;wa,muf 15 rdepf-rdepf 20 avmufjcm;+yD;
ac:xkww f ,f?
ac:xkwcf &H olawGukd tjyifrmS apmiftyk v f u kd +f yD; 6 wduk yf wd wf ,f? 6 wdu k x f aJ &mufawmh toifph pk nf;xm;wJ0h g'gawG/ ppfaxmuf
vSr;f a&;awGeŒJ &mZ0wftusO;f om;a'guw f ikd af wG0ifvm+y;D a&a&vnfvnf0ikd ;f E$m=uw,f? 0g'gawGeŒJ &mZ0wftusO;f om;awG 100 avmufukd
pkxm;+yD;toifhapmifhaewmjzpfw,f? 6 wdkufwcef;udk ausmif;om; 4-5 a,mufxnfh+yD;0g'gawG/ ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;awGeJΠ&mZ0wfom;
a'guw f ikd af wG wa,mufanmif;&ifwa,muf 0dik ;f tHk qGr;f }uD;avmif;=uwmjzpfw,f? eHygwf 'kwrf ygayrJh om;a&jym;/ ppfcg;ywf/ }udrv f ;kH awGe‹J
vufo;D awG/ vuf0g;awG/ ppfzed yfawG azmazmoDoo D ;kH =uvdŒk aoG;xGuo f , H kd zl;a,mifaygu+f yu J ek =f uw,f? tJovdk tm;&yg;&±du k Ef u fSd +y;D wJt h cg
yHkpHtjynfhpudkifygw,f? 'g%f&mawG aq;rxnfhay;yg? 6 wdkufwifru usefwJh 4 wdkuft&Snf/ twdkuf ausmif;om;awGtygt0if
EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;tm;vHk;udkvJ yHkpHudkifygw,f? 4 wdkuftwdk udk0if±dkuf=uawmh yxrqHk;tcef;u eHywf 19 yg? tJ'Dtcef;rSm
tpmiwfcHqENjywm 10 &uf=umvdkŒ aumif;aumif; evHrx Edkifao;wJh udkwifa&$/ udkausmfpdef/ armifarmifjrifheJŒ udkatmifapmOD;wdkŒudk
ppfaxmufvSrf;a&; wyf=uyf=uD;tqifh&Sd odef;jrdKifeJŒwpk 0ifvm+yD;ppfzdeyfeJŒaqmifhuef/ vufoD;eJŒxdk;/ om;a&cg;ywf/ =udrfvHk;pwmawGeJŒ
0dkif;or=uw,f? 'Daemuf yHkpHudkifw,f? 4 wdkuf/ 5 wdkuf/ 6 wdkufrSm tpmiwfcHqENjywJhaeŒup+yD;37 &ufa&csdK;ray;bJxm;w,f? 38
&ufajrmufaeŒrSm wcsKd Œudpk pfacG;wdu k af c:oGm;+yD;a&csKd ;ay;w,f? tJ'aD emuf 4-5-6 wdu k uf Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;trsm;pkukd &mZ0wf aqmif(t
csKyf 1-2 aqmif) awGupkd pfacG;wdu k yf Œdk vdu k w f ,f? wcsed w f nf;avmufrmS 2 wku d u
f OD;oef‹ta&;tcif;eJ‹ a&$w*d t kH a&;tcif; ausmif;om;awG
tm;vHk;udk ppfacG;wdkufydk‹+yD;0g'g awG &mZ0wftusOf;om;a'gufwdkifawGu y,fy,fe,fe,f yHkpHudkifw,f? wywfavmuf tjyif;xefqHk;
yHkpHudkif+yD;wJhaemuf &mZ0wf aqmifawG ydk‹vdkufw,f?
&mZ0wfaqmifawGrmS tcef;}uD;wcef;udk ausmif;om; 3-4 a,mufxnf+h yD;yHpk aH y;w,f? tvky=f urf;awmhrcdik ;f yg? axmiftm%m
ydik af wGu trmcHacgi;f aqmifvŒkd ,lqwJh tenf;pkuakd wmh 4 wdu k ef ŒJ 5 wduk rf mS wa,mufwcef; wESpef ;D yg;avmuf qufvufwu kd yf w d x f m;+y;D rS
&mZ0wfaqmifawGyŒkd vdu k w f ,f? ,cifu ‘qlyal &;ausmif;om;’ vdŒk axmiftm%mydik af wGu ac:a0: oH;k EH;_ cJ&h mu ,cktcgrmS awmh ‘axmifus
&Jbuf’ vdkŒajymif;vJac:a0:vmw,f?
6 wdu k x f J 0dik ;f +yD;qGr;f }uD;avmif;aecsed rf mS ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;awGeŒJ 0g'gawGyg;pyfu pum;wcGe;f xGuv f mw,f? “rif;wdŒk ausmif;
om;awG[m awmxJuolyek x f ufyq kd ;kd w,f” wJ?h 'g[m Armjynfppftm%m&Siaf wG&ŒJ ordik ;f jzpfw,f? 1962 ckup+yD;ppftpd;k &tqufquf
awmufav#mufc, H l usio hf ;kH cJw
h hJ oabmxm;&yfwnfcsuf jzpfw,f? rqv/ e0w/ etz ppftyk pf t k m;vH;k [m 'Dc, H cl sut f wdik ;f worwfxJ
v_yf&Sm;&yfwnfcJhwm/ v_yf&Sm;&yfwnfaewm/ v_yf&Sm;&yfwnfaetHk;rSm jzpfygw,f?
'DtcsdefrSmbJ &ifuGJwdkufrSm aemufqHk;usefaewJh OD;oef@ta&;tcif;eJ@ a&$wd*Hkta&;tcif;ausmif;om; 25 a,mufuvJ
taxGaxGyHkpHay:vpDudkwdkufzsufzdk@eJ@ ,cif&xm;wJh pmtkyfpmwrf;oGif;cGifhvdk tcGifhta&;awG zsufodrf;cH&wmjyef&zdk@ tpmiwfcH
wdu k yf 0JG if=uw,f? OD;oef‹ta&;tcif;u udak omif;at; (&efuek f 0§o wuUov kd /f rtlyif/ ,ck NLD)/ udpk vSaiG (&efuek f 0§o wuUov kd /f
,ck KNU wyfr[m 2)/ udkjrifh[ef (&efukef0§o wuUodkvf/ c&rf;/ ,ck pdwfwdkif;usvzuf&nfqdkif)/ udkarmifarmifwdwf (&efukef 0§o
wuUov dk /f ,ck ABSDF)/ udkpdk;!Gef@ (&efukef 0§o wuUodkvf/ ,ck tar&duefjynf)/ udkoufOD; (tvu ausmif;om;)/ udkatmifudk
(&efukef0§o/ ,ck e,l;ZDvef)/ 75 *|efta&;tcif;u udkxGef;oef; (aq; 2/ armfvjrdKif)/ udkoef;xGËf (aq; 2/ [oFw)/ udkpdk;atmif (aq; 2/
[oFmw)/ udkausmfausmf (txuausmif;om;/ rif;bl;/ ,ck ABSDF udkvGrf;%D)/ udkjrifhxGef; (&efukef0=o/ a&eHacsmif;/ ,cka&$vD)/
udkarmifarmifvwf (&efukef0dZ…mody`H/ &efukef bm;vrf;)/ udk0if;atmif (&efukef0§o/ awmifom)/ udkpdef0if; (pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvf)/ vmvl;
(tvuausmif;om;/ Auyodk@awmcdkusqHk;) pwJholawG yg0ifw,f? tpmiwfcHwm 2 &uft&rSm tm;vHk;udkac:xkwfoGm;+yD;
ppfacG;wdkufydwfvkdufw,f? ac:oGm;&mvrf;wav#mufvHk;eJ@ txl;ojzifh rdef;a*s;a&S@rSm t}uD;tus,f0dkif;±dkufwmcH&w,f? ppfacG;wdkufxJ
aemuf 7 &ufqufxm;&mrSm vH;k 0tpmiwfa&iwfxm;+yD;apmif/ zsm/ *efzvm; (aemufaz;td;k ) ray;bJxm;w,f? 7 &ufjynhaf wmh tm;vH;k udk
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ra&SŒraESmif;avmufrmS bJ wGb J ufaxmifrmS &Sw d hJ ausmif;om;awGtygt0if Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om; 40 avmufuvJ yHpk u H ikd f u|eZf mwf
oGi;f a&;ay:vpDukd pwdu k =f uw,f? naetaqmifyw d cf sed rf mS taqmifxjJ yefr0ifbJ tm%mzDqef+yD;awmif;qdck suaf wGukd tm%mydik af wGqD
wifvu kd w f ,f? 'DtcgrmS 3 aqmifypkH pH udik u f wJu pwif;bdik v f yk x
f m;wJh 0g'g 200 avmufu }udr'f ikD ;f awGuikd +f yD;eHygw'f w k af wGeŒJ 0if±u kd w f ,f?
ausmif;om;awGu aºuG;a=umfoaH wGatmf=uayrJh jyefvnft=urf;zufcck rH r_ vkycf yhJ g? ausmif;om;awG tygt0if Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om; trsm;
tjym; jyif;jyif;xefxef '%f&mtemw& &cJ=h uw,f? tJ'aD emuf wdu k yf 0JG ifoal wGukd ppfacG; wdu k yf Œkd +yD;yHpk u
H ikd cf whJ ,f? tJ'w D u kd yf rJG mS r_id ;f &mjynfh
ta&;tcif;u udk0if;jrifh (pufr_wuUodkvf/ ,ckaw;a&; 0if;rif;axG;)/ udkjrifhvSdKif (aq;-1/ tif;awmf/ ,ck tar&duefEkdifiH)/ udkapmvSdKif
(pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvf/ tif;awmf/ ,ck NLD v$wfawmftrwf)/ udkausmfrif;armif (&efukef0dZPmody`H/ ,ckyef;csD'DZdkif;q&m/ tifrwef*,ufx
±dkufcwfoGm;cJhwJh 1976 &efukef0dZ…mody`H ESpfvnfr*~Zif; rsufESmzHk;yHkqGJol)/ 4if;&JŒtpfudk udkausmf0if;armif (&efukef0dZPmody`H/ uAsmq&m)/
udo k ed ;f oef;OD; (rE aW v;0dZmP ody/H` ,ck trsKd ;om;Ekid if aH &;wyfaygi;f pk/ etzacwfaxmifxyfus)/ udo k ef;a&$ (*sw D t D ikd /f csi;f trsKd ;om;)/ udt k ikd Af if
(*sw D t D ikd /f ykord )f / udx k eG ;f xGe;f OD; (*sw D t D ikd /f armfvjrKd ifu|e;f )/ udck ifarmifoef; (&efuek 0f Zd mP ody-H` Oya'/ rH&k mG )/ udo k ef;wifah tmif (pufrw l uUov kd /f
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

a&$u)l / udpk ;kd 0if; (pD;yGm;a&;wuUov kd /f ig;odik ;f acsmif;)/ udak usmrf if; (pufrw l uUov kd /f rE aW v;)/ teDarmif (&efuek f 0§owuUov kd /f uAsmq&m)/
urm&$wf*gwfwJrD;±_DŒr_u udkjrifhatmif (&efukef0dZPmody`H)/ udkcifa&$ (&efukef0dZPmody`H)/ OD;oefŒa&$wd*Hk ESpfr_wGJu udkcifarmifvif; (&efukef0dZPm
ody`Hausmif;om;a[mif;)/ a&$wd*Hkta&;tcif;u udkjrifhat; (&efukef0dZPmody`H)/ udkausmf&if (EkdifiHjcm; bmomody`H/ rGeftrsdK;om;)/ rdk;+AJ (ac: )
aygufp (tvuausmif;om;) eJΠtouf20atmuf ausmif;om;av;awG trsm;tjym;yg0if+yD;rD;armif;pmapmifxkwfa0r_eJΠAdkvfausmfaZm
awmcdkqufpyfr_u udkpdef (ppfawmif;puULpuf ynm&Sif0efxrf;/ ucsifjynfe,f ABSDF twGif; tcsif;csif;ðzkwfxkwfowfcH&ol)/ udkaZmf
(a&wyf)/ udpk ed 0f if; (aq;wyf/ jynf)/ udak e0if; (use;f rma&;Xme0efxrf;) polwŒkd yg0if=uw,f? ppfacG;wdu k rf mS yHpk u H ikd +f y;D aemuf &mZ0wfaqmifawG
qDykdŒvkdufw,f? udkcifarmifvif; eJŒudkjrifhvSdKifudkawmh 5 wdkufrSm 2 ESpfausmfquf+yD;wdkufydwfxm;vdkufw,f? 3 aqmif/ 2 wdkuf/ 4 wdkuf/ 5
wdkufeJΠwGJbufaxmifu wdkufyGJ0ifolawGudk axmif0ifpm wvavmuf ydwfvdkufao;w,f?
'D 1977 ck -=o*kwv f wdu k yf aJG wG[m tifrwefwu kd o f ifw
h /hJ ta&;}uD;vSwhJ tqH;k tjzwfwu kd yf aJG wG jzpfayrJh ausmif;om; awG[m
udk,fhtiftm;udk,f ydkwGufcJhrdwm t"dutm;enf;csuf jzpfoGm;w,f? 'ghtjyif 3 aqmif/ 4 wdkuf 5 wdkufeJŒwGJbufaxmifu ausmif;om;eJ‹
Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awG[m &efou l ud, k u hf kd bmwckrS wdu k ±f u kd vf yk rf vmcif ud, k u f t&ifpwdu k w f mjzpfvŒkd usKd ;a=umif;qDavsmrf y_ ikd ;f rSmvJ
tm;enf;oGm;w,f? t"dutrSm;uawmh ,cifwu kd yf t
JG &Sed af wGeŒJ rdrw d @kd ausmif;om;awG[m Ekid if aH &; pdw"f mwff jrifrh m;=uHch ikd w f ,fvŒkd qENpJG
usus tuJjzwfrdwmbJjzpfw,f? udkudk;u|ef;wdkufyGJawGta=umif; =um;od+yD;aemuf rdrdwdkŒvJ udkudk;u|ef;&JabmfawGvdk wdkufEkdifwJhtqifh
&Sdr,fqdk+yD;tm;uspdwfeJΠpdwful;,Ofr_aygif;um udk,fhudk,fudkydkwGufrdcJhw,f? wu,fu awmh ukd,ftompD;&aewJh tajctaeaumif;rSm
tm;vH;k vdv k kd wufºuGae=u+yD;bmtcuftcJrS }uD;}uD;rm;rm;rawGŒ&bJ vdu k yf gr a=umif;aecJ=h uwmjzpfw,f? ppftm%m&Sipf epfqefŒusiaf &;
tajccHtm;jzifh &Sd=uayrJh a&SŒydkif;rSmajymcJhovdk taysmhtrm 'D*&DuGmjcm;r_trsdK;trsdK; }uD;}uD;rm;rm;awG &Sdae=uwmjzpfygw,f? wdkufyGJ0if
oltcsif;csif; tqufjywfoGm;wJhjy\emeJŒ a&iwf'g%f cHEkdifa&;jy\emawGudkvJ vufawGŒrSm rausmfv$m;EkdifcJhygbl;?
vDeifajymcJzh ;l wJh “oydwo f rm;wdik ;f ya&mfzuf&iS ef ,f awmfveS af &;orm;r[kw?f oydwo f rm;eJŒ ya&mfzuf&iS ef ,f awmfrvSeaf &;
orm;=um;rSm ta&;ygwu hJ jJG ym;r_}uD;}uD;rm;rm;&Sw d ,f? omrefoydwo f rm;awGukd trmcHxm;+yD;&efou l kd atmify&JG atmif wdu k vf Œkd r&Ekid b
f ;l ?
ya&mfzuf&iS ef ,f awmfveS af &;orm;awGubJ trmcHvyk +f yD;omrefoydwo f rm;awGukd pnf;±H;k wdu k yf 0JG if&r,f? omrefoydwo f rm;qifu h ae
ya&mfzuf&Sife,f awmfvSefa&;orm;tqifh a&mufatmif t&nf tcsif;t&a&m/ ta&twGuft&ygjr‡ifhwifzdkŒvdkw,f” qdkwJhpum;awGudk
'DwdkufyGJawGtwGif;rSm vufawGΠodjrifoabmaygufcJh&w,f?
'DvdkeJŒ tif;pdefaxmifxJrSm wcsdefu bkef;rD;aevawmufycJhwJh ausmif;om;tifyg,m}uD; usqHk;òydvJ oGm;cJhygawmh w,f? 'gayrJh
ausmif;om; ppfonfawmfawG vH;k 0OD;usKd ;oGm;wmr[kwb f ;l qkw d mudak wmh axmifuaemufq;kH vGww f t hJ csed x f d awmuf av#mufawGŒ&ygw,f?
wzufrmS awmh rqvppftyk pf &k ŒJ Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om; tqift h wef;zsuo f rd ;f a&; yHpk u H ikd uf |eZf mwfoiG ;f a&; ay:vpD[m twdik ;f twmwckxd
atmifjrifr_&oGm;wm 'DuaeΠetzacwfwdkifatmif jzpfoGm;ygawmhw,f?
rqv ppftpd;k &[m 1974-75 ckEpS af wGrmS t=uyftwnf; tifrwef}uD;cJw h ,f? wEkid if v H ;kH vlO;D a&&JΠ91 &mcdik Ef KS ef; ausmf axmufcH
twnfðyw,fqdkwJh wygwDtm%m&Sifpepf zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'csrSwf+yD; 6 vt=um 1974 ar*|efv rsm;rSm ‘jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpf
vrf;pOf&ŒJ tajccHtiftm;vdŒk qdw k hJ tvkyo f rm;awG wEkid if v H ;kH tESŒH oydwaf rSmufqENjy=uwmudk ppftpd;k &u &uf&ufpufpuf ypfowfòzdciG ;f
vku d jf cif;tm;jzifh rqv&JŒ ‘qd&k , S v f pf'rD u kd a&pD' vdŒk qdw k hJ rif;om;acgi;f pGyf vH;k 0u|wu f somG ; +yD;aemuf òrdŒay:vlxt k ºkH uGra_ wG/ ausmif;om;
v_yf&Sm;r_awG 6 vwcg jyif;jyif;xefxefaygufuGJvmcJhw,f? ppftpdk;&&JŒ tajc tae tifrweft=uyfqdkuf&muae tckvdk vlxktHkºuG
v_yf&Sm;r_awG ay:vmwmygbJ? 'DvdkpD;yGm;a&;/ EkdifiHa&;/ vlr_a&; t=uyftwnf;awGeJŒtwl &efolwGif;yËdyuQawGvJ jyif;xefvm+yD; Adkvf}uD;
tke;f ausmjf rifw h Œkd &JŒ Ekid if aH wmfvyk =f uHr/_ rqvygw, D el pf OuUÏa[mif; ref;aiGatmif&ŒJ Ekid if aH wmfopPmazmufr/_ rqvygw, D el pf OuUXa[mif;
OD;xdefvif;&JŒ &cdkifjynfcGJxGuf&ef =uHpnfr_qdkwmawG rzHk;EkdifrzdEkdifay:vmw,f? 'Dumv[m 1962 ckeJŒ 1988 =um; ppftm%m&SifawG&JŒ
t=uyftqdkufqHk;umv jzpfcJhyg w,f?
tJovdkppftm%m&SifawG&JΠtajctaeqdk;uae+yD;1976 ckaemufydkif;rSm u,fwif&SifawG ay:vmcJhw,f? ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk
toufqufay;cJholawGuawmh 'DuaeŒArmjynfrSm 'Drdkua&pDrusifhoHk;rcsif; pD;yGm;a&;tultnDawG jzwfawmufxm;r,fvdkŒ ajymaewJh
urBmhb%f/ (taemuf) *smr%DEkdifiH/ *syefEkdifiHeJŒ tdkyufac: a&eHa&mif;EkdifiHrsm;tzGJŒ wdkŒjzpfw,f? 'DtzGJŒtpnf;awG/ EkdifiHawG&JŒ pD;yGm;a&;
tultnD[m bufaygi;f pHk t=uyftwnf;qdu k af ewJh rqvppftpd;k &udk touf&alS ygu&f apcJ+h yD;ae0if; rqv twGuf pD;yGm;a&;t&omru
Ekid if aH &;eJŒ pdw"f mwfa&;t& tm;ay;r_yg jzpfapcJv h Œkd 1977 ckup+yD;ppftyk pf [ k m evHjyefx vmEkid cf w hJ ,f? wcsed x f rJ mS Ekid if w
H umhtajctae
tcif;tusif;awGvJ t&ifeJŒrwlwJh tajymif;tvJawGjzpfvm+yD;urBmh EkdifiH}uD;awG ay:vpDtajymif;tvJ jzpfvm=uw,f?
tJ'gawGeŒJ qufpyf=unf&h if 1977 -o*kwv f axmifwiG ;f wdu k yf aJG wG cGucf u G v f efvefatmif ±_;H oGm;wm em;vnf,v l Œkd &Ekid yf gw,f?
'ghtjyif pdefvGif&JŒtaetxm;udk tav;rxm;wm/ odkŒr[kwf av#mhwGufwmvJ ta=umif;wck ygEkdifygw,f? (tJ'Dum vavmufubJ
ajrmuftikd , f mvefrmS tdik t f mat tzGŒJ 0if Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awG tpmiwfcw H u kd yf 0JG ifwm rD', D mawGuwqifh urBmrSm [d;k av;wa=umf
a=umfjzpfcJhaomfvJ rm*&ufoufcsmu tifrwefacgif;rmrmeJŒ &yffcJhvdkŒ tusOf;om; 8 a,muf usqHk;cHwdkufcJhayrJh ratmifjrifbJ wdkufy±GJ _H;
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1977 ckESpf -=o*kwf-pufwbFmvawGup+yD;axmifwGif;rSm &efolŒzdESdyfr_tifrwef}uD;rm;jyif;xefvmwJhtcg ausmif;om; wcsdKŒ/
EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;wcsdKŒvJ tm%mydkifawGxH tifazmfrmowif;ay;vkyf+yD;wOD;csif;taeacsmifzdkŒ tcGifhta&;&Sm=uwmawG vJ&Sdw,f? 76
r_dif;&mjynfhta&;tcif;rSm xl;jcm;r_wcku wuUodkvfaygif;pHku vrf;pOfvli,fausmif;om;awGyg0if+yD;axmifusukefwm jzpfygw,f? wu,f
uawmh olwdkŒyg0ifwm[m 8 av;vkH;umvwkef;u vrf;pOfvli,fawG/ rqv ygwD0ifawG jynfolŒbuf &yfwnf+yD;yg0ifwmrsdK; r[kwfyg?
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_udk 0ifa&muftkyfpD;+yD;rqvtvdkus vrf;a=umif;ay: a&mufatmifqGJ,lzdkΠ&nf&G,fcsufeJΠyg0ifjcif;omjzpfygw,f?
OD;oefŒta&;tcif;eJŒ 75 *|ef a&$wd*Hkta&;tcif;wHk;uvJ yg0iftkyfpD;zdkŒ óud;pm;cJhayrJh ausmif;om;xku vufrcHbJ armif;xkwfvdkŒ tm;vHk;
jyefacguo f mG ;=uw,f? olwŒkd u oD;jcm;vufurf;pmapmifawGxw k +f yD;ausmif; om;awGukd yHrk mS ;±du k pf nf;±H;k w,f? olwŒkd xkww f hJ pmapmifawGrmS
vl&nfc|efwHqdyfvdkvdk/ vrf;pOfvli,fwHqdyfvdkvdkxJ cGyfa'gif; xnfh xm;w,f? ausmif;om;oydwfwckvHk;udk trsm;qENt&OD;pD;aewJh EC
udt k odray;bJ tJovdk pmapmifawGeŒJ ydpk wmawG xkwaf 0 jzefŒcsw D mvkyw f ,f? r_id ;f &mjynft h a&;tcif;rSmawmh OD;oefŒ/ a&$w*d w kH Œkd xufpm&if
ydk+yD;twGif;udk0ifEdkifcJhayrJh r_dif;&mjynfhrSmvJ rSefuefwJhacgif;aqmifr_cdkifcdkifrmrm&Sdaeawmh olwdkŒ&nfrSef;oavmuf tvkyfuvJrjzpf/ vkyf&if;
u|H0ifoGm;vdkŒ olwdkŒtxufuvJ r,HkawmhbJ axmifusukefwJhtxd tajctaea&mufoGm;w,f? olwdkŒaxmifuswm[m vkyfydkifcGifhxuf
ausmv f yk vf Œkd jzpfw,fvŒkd aemufyikd ;f rSm rqvygwt D wGi;f owif;awGt& od&w,f? qdv k wkd mu rqvygweD ŒJ vrf;pOfvil ,fA[ku d wm0ef
ay;xm;wJh ausmif;om;v_y&f mS ;r_ukd twGi;f 0ify;l owfzŒkd vkyyf ikd cf iG x hf ufausm+yD; ausmif;om;ta&;tcif;udk tm;ay;tm;ajrmufðy&ma&muf
oGm;w,f/ OD;oefŒeJŒa&$wd*HkwHk;uvdk tvkyfrjzpf&if jyefqkwfwmrsdK; rvkyf&aumif;vm;vdkŒ rqvtm%mydkifawG trsufawmf&S +yD;zrf;qD;
axmifcsypfwmjzpfw,f? olwŒkd xJu eHygwf 1 tqif&h dS vrf;pOfvil ,fxyd o f ;D acgi;f aqmif puf r_wuUov kd f ausmif;om;wOD; uawmh ud, k vf w G f
&ke;f oGm;Ekid +f yD;axmifxaJ &mufrvmcJyh g?
vrf;pOfvil ,f ausmif;om;trsm;pk}u;D [m axmifxaJ &mu+y;D aemuf wu,fbJ ppftm%m&Siq f efŒusiaf &;/ jynfoŒl buf awmfom;
ausmif;om;awGbuf ±d;k om;pGmul;ajymif;vmcJ=h uw,f? axmifwiG ;f wdu k yf aJG wGrmS wufwufºuGºuG ud, k uf sKd ;pGeŒf tepfemcH+yD;us&mae&mu
yg0if=uw,f? axmifuvGw+yD;aemufvJ ppftpdk;&qefŒusifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_awGudk 88 rwdkifrDrSma&m/ 88 eJŒaemuf ydkif;rSmyg qufvkyf=uw,f?
'gayrJt h enf;pk 1 a,muf 2 a,mufuawmh axmifxaJ &muf+y;D 2 ESpf 3 ESp=f umwJt h xd rqv[m rluawmhaumif;ygw,f/ vluraumif;vdŒk yg
vdkŒxifae/ ajymaeao;w,f? 'ghtjyif tJ'Dwkef;u rqv ppftpdk;& xkwfjyef0g'jzefŒwJh 62 ck rwfv 2 &ufaemufydkfif; ArmjynfrSm wmwrH
b,fEpS cf /k wHwm;b,fEpS pf if;/ um;vrf;b,fEpS rf ikd /f pmoifausmif; b,fa&GŒ b,fr#/ aq; ±Hak q;cef;b,fEpS cf k topfwnfaqmuf zGiv hf pS Ef idk cf hJ
w,fvŒkd 0g'jzefŒwmawGukd t[kw}f uD;xif tr$r;f wifaeao;w,f? tcketzawG avoHvi$ 0hf g'jzefŒovdk tJ'w D ;kH u rqvuvJ Armjynf}uD;
rñuHpzl; wd;k wufzjHG zdK;aew,fvŒkd ajymwmawGukd ,H=k unfaeqJ/ rqvbufua&SŒaevdu k af eqJ vkyv f u kd af o;w,f? (74 tvkyo f rm; ta&;
tcif;eJŒ axmifxaJ &mufvmwJh qd&k , S ef yD suf &JabmfeaD tmifausm/f (uke;f vrf;o,f,yl Œdk aqmifa&;Xme) uvJ axmifx&J pdS Of owif;pmxJrmS
rqv u uif;uGmygwD0ifawG jyefrSwfyHkwifqufoG,fzdkŒ a=unmwJhtcg rqvygwD0if rSwfyHkjyefwifzdkŒ axmifrSL; ±Hk;cef;oGm;ajymwJhtcg
0g'gawGu qJvw $ /f [m;v$wv f ukd w
f ,f?) jynfoŒl bufukd tawG;tac:rajymif;wJh r_id ;f &mjynfh vrf;pOfvil ,fausmif;om;awGxu J acgi;f aqmif
ausmif;om;ESpaf ,muf[m 1977 aESmif;ydik ;f axmifxrJ mS jyif;xefvw S hJ zdEydS uf yG nf y‡ f r_'%fawGu oufomuif;vGwcf iG &hf atmif tm%mydik f
vufyg;ap &mZ0wftusOf;om; wef;pD;&JΠwdwfwdwf ykef;r,m;tjzpf rwfazgufcH *sDykef;b0udk udk,fh[mudk,f oufqif; oGm;cJhw,f?

7? jzpf&yf 78

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kd ef m
&w,f? 1 aqmifa&mufausmif;om;awGxu J udpk ;kd 0if; (&efuek 0f Zd mP ody/H` ,ck*syefEidk if )H [m tdro f mwuf&mrSm tdro f mAg,mudk aq;vdyrf ay;
bJ tdro f mwufvŒkd tdro f mAm,muxd;k wm cH&w,f? xrif;pm;csed jf zpfvŒkd usew f ahJ usmif;om; awGvJ taqmiftjyifrmS &Sad ewmeJŒñuHawmh
tJ'DrSm ausmif;om;awGeJŒ &mZ0wfom;Ag,mawG/ wef;pD;awG xdk;=u/ ±dkuf =uw,f? 'DtcgrSm 0g'gawGu 0if±dkufwJhtcg ab;u=unfhaewJh
wjcm;&mZ0wftusOf;om;awGyg xdukef+yD;tukefvHk; ±_yf,Sufcwf &kef;&if; qefcwf jzpfoGm;w,f? tJ'Dtjzpftysufaemufydkif;rSm &mZ0wf
aqmifa&mufausmif;om;awG tcGifhta&;enf;enf; wdk;&vmw,f? xrif;00pm;&/ a&00csdK;&+yD;tdrfomvGwfvyfpGmwufcGifh/ taqmif0if;
xJoGm;vmcGifhawG &vmw,f? ajrmif;jrbaqGwdkŒvdk ausmif;om;r[kwfol/ ausmif;om;tr_ r[kwfolawGawmif a&csdK;csdefrSm ausmif;om;
ausmif;om; vdkŒajym+yD;a&00 0ifcsdK;=uw,f?
,cifumvawGw;kH u yHpk u kH ikd wf thJ cg tvky=f urf;awGeŒJ wGu J ikd cf ahJ yr,fh tckwacguaf wmh yHpk u H ikd w
f mudo k m t"duxm; +yD;tvkyf
=urf;cdik ;f zdŒk udak wmh tm%mydik af wGu tajctaeapmif=h unfah eao;wJyh ykH gb?J ausmif;om;awG/ Ekid if aH &; tusO;f om;awG yHpk u H ikd v
f Œkd awmfawmfu h kd
usdK;oGm;rSbJ tvkyf=urf;cdkif;zdkŒ pdwful;yHk&w,f? 'gayrJh tvkyf=urf;rcdkif;ao;bJ yHkpHudkifwJhtqifhrSmwif olwdkŒvdkcsifoavmuf usdK;oGm;/
0yfomG ;wJt h aetxm;udk ra&mufEidk b f jJ zpfaew,f? Edik if aH &; tusO;f om;wcsKd Œudak wmh bm,m/ bkwu f ikd /f aq;rSL;/ pma&; &mxl;awGay;cJah yrJh
1975 wGb J ufaxmifrmS vdk tcsi;f csi;f rjzpfraezdEydS n f O‡ ;f yrf;cdik ;f wmrsKd ;r&Sb d J tm%m ydik af wGtaeeJŒ txufukd pm&if;tjywifay;zdŒk twGub f J
jzpfyHk&ygw,f? vGwfwJhtxd tvkyf=urf;cdkif;wm r&SdcJhygbl;?
1978 ckEpS v f ,favmufrmS &efuek pf ufrw _ uUov kd f ausmif;om;wcsKd Œ oydwaf rSmufzŒkd óud;pm;&mu ratmifjrifbJ tzrf;cH&w,f?
'gth jyif Auy ,l*sw D csKd ŒeJŒ rqvygwn D v D mcHrmS ae0if;udk rJeŒJ ðzwfzŒkd =upH nfwhJ rqvygwD twGi;f a&;rSL;tzGŒJ *d% k ;f om;awGvJ 0ifvm=uw,f?
axmifxJa&muf EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGtay: xHk;pHjzpfoGm;+yD;jzpfwJh yHkpHtjynfht0 tudkifcH&w,f? 'g[m ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;&JΠppfa=um
a&;umv ESdyfpufn‡Of;yrf;r_awGeJŒrqdkifwJh/ oD;jcm;jzpfwJh axmif&JŒyHkpHudkif ESdyfpufn‡Of;yrf;r_awG tjyif;txef xyfqifhcH&wm jzpfygw,f?
rqvygwD twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJŒ0ifawGvJjzpf/ 0ef}uD;awGvJjzpfwJh xGef;vif;/ oef;pdef/ ausmfaZm/ wif0if;ndK wdkŒ&JŒ*dk%f;om; AdkvfrSL;}uD;tqifh/
k rf LS ;tqif&h o dS l wdik ;f a'oygwaD umfrf wD0iftqif/h ygw, D el pfOuUÏtqif&h o dS al wG tawmfrsm;rsm;[m wcgrS rñuHpzl;/ tdyrf ufawmifrrufz;l
wJh 'kuaQ wGñuH&wJt h cg a,mufsm;}uD;wefr/hJ ppfAv kd }f uD;wefrhJ id=k uwm awG awGŒ&w,f? tJ'gawGŒ&awmh ausmif;om;awG axmifxJ pa&muf
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

umpu ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;awGeJŒ axmiftm%mydkifawG 0ifhºuGm; }udrf;0g;cJhzl;wJh pum;wcGef;udk trSwf &rdw,f? “zqyv0ef}uD;a[mif;
OD;ausm+f idr;f wdŒk / OD;AaqGwŒkd udak wmif usK;d oGm;/ 0yfomG ;atmif igwŒkd udik cf w hJ muG/ rif;wdŒk ausmif;om;awGubmrdŒk vJ” qdw k phJ um;jzpfygw,f?
ausmif;om;awG[m zqyv0ef}uD;a[mif;awG/ rqv0ef}uD;a[mif; awGe‹J bmrSrqdik b f ;l qdw
k mudk 1974 uae 1980 txdumv jzwfoef;
cJh+yD;aemuf ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;awGeJ‹ axmiftm%m ykdifawG aumif;aumif; oabmaygufoGm;avmufyg+yD;?
1978 ESpfukefcgeD;rSm &mZ0wfaqmifawGrSm ae ae&wJhausmif;om;awG tygt0if EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om; 30 ausmf 40 avmufu
axmiftm%mydik af wGxH tvky}f u;D qif;cGiahf y;zdŒk wifw,f? 'DtcgrmS tm%mydik af wGu t&ifw;kH u tvky=f urf;cdik ;f wmudk oJ}u;D rJ}u;D qefŒusif
wJo h al wG[m b,forl rS cdik ;f &bJe‹J tvkyv f yk rf ,fajymwm r±d;k om;bl;vdŒk ,lq+y;D tvkyq f if;cGiw hf ifol tm;vH;k udk wdu k yf w d v f u kd wf ,f? olwŒkd udk
2 wdkuf (&ifuGJwdkuf) rSmxm;+yD;ol wdkŒ&JŒ&nf&G,f csuftppftrSef bmvJqdkwmod&atmif ppfw,f? ppfwmrS r=um;pzl; &uf&ufpufpuf
ESdyfpufn‡Of;qJ+yD; ppfa=umwm jzpfw,f? vkyf±dk;vkyfpOf ±dkufwmESufwmawGtjyif acgif;udk yvyfpwdwfpGy+yD;a&avmif;wm a&pufcswmrsdK;/
ajcaxmufudk óud;csnf aZmufxdk;qJG+yD;a&uefxJESpfwmrsdK; pwJh omref tm;jzifh axmifrSm oHk;avhoHk;xr&SdwJh ESdyfpufn‡Of;yrf;a&; enf;em
awGoHk;+yD; tjyif;txef ppfaq;ar;jref;wmjzpfw,f?
axmiftm%mydkifawG 'gavmufxdrouFmjzpf+yD;jyif;jyif;xefxef udkifwG,f&jcif;ta=umif;uawmh 1978 ckESpfqef; ydkif;rSm Auy
jrpf0u|ef;ay:wdkif;u zrf;rdaxmifusaewJh òrdŒe,faumfrwD Adkvfodef;vGif[m wjcm;&mZ0wftusOf;om;awGeJŒ &JawGudkyg pnf;±Hk;
+yD;a';'&JtcsKyfazmufajy;oGm;&mrSm &JeJŒtcsKyfom; 50 ausmfeJŒ vufeuf 30 ausmfavmufygoGm;vdkŒ jzpfygw,f? Adkvfodef;vGif[m
tcsKyfazmufajy;+yD;aemuf jrpf0u|e;f ay:rSm vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; jyeftajccHzŒkd óud;pm;ayrJh ppftpd;k &u wyftiftm;tajrmuftrsm;eJŒ
t}uD;tus,0f ikd ;f 0ef;ydwq f Œkd acsre_ ;f wJt h wGuf &uf 20 avmuft=umrSm wdu k yf rJG mS usq;kH oGm;cJh w,f? tJ'w D ;kH u wdu k yf aJG wGtwGi;f rqv&JŒ
{&m0wDwdkif; a'oygwDaumfrwD tqifh&Sdolwa,muf '%f&m&vdkŒ r*Fvm'Hkppfaq;±Hkudk [yfpuD;eJŒjyefydkŒ&ao;w,f? Adkvfodef;vGif[m
tifrwefpdwf"gwfjyif;xef cdkifrmolwOD;jzpfovdk pnf;±Hk;a&;vJaumif; =uH&nfzef&nfvJ xufjrufoljzpfw,f? aemuftr_qdkifzdkŒ
a';'&JtcsKyfudkrajymif;&cif tif;pdefaxmifrSm axmif'%fuscHae&pOfuwnf;u waxmifvHk;tusOf;om;awG pnf;±Hk;+yD;axmifxyGJvkyfzdkŒ/
axmifxyGjJ zpfaecsed rf mS tcGiahf umif;,l+y;D axmifazmufxu G zf Œkd =upH nfchJ w,fqw kd m axmiftm%mydik af wGu Adv k o f ed ;f vGiu f s+y;D rS odc=hJ uw,f?
'ghtjyif Adkvfodef;vGif[m awmxJuae ptzrf;cH&uwnf; u pdwfcs&wJhvl,HkawGudk rdrdudkw&m;±Hk;xkwfEkdifwJhòrdŒawGu &JtzGJŒawGxJrSmeJŒ
axmif0g'gxJrSm 0ifvkyfcdkif;xm;cJhw,f? 'ga=umifh tm%mydkifawG[m &JawGeJŒ 0g'gawGxJ Adkvfodef;vGif jr‡Kyfxm;wJhvlawGudk jyefvdkuf&Sm
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tm%mydkifawGuwtm;pdk;&drf+yD;jyif;jyif;xefxef wHkŒjyefudkifwG,fwmjzpfw,f? 'Dn‡if;yrf;ESdyfpufr_=uD;rSm cH&olawGxJ udkodef;oef;OD;
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aw;a&; 0if;rif;axG;)/ udkjrifhaqG (pufrlwuUodkvf/ qm;vif;}uD;)/ udkoef;Ekdif (aumifpDpma&;/ ,cketz axmifxyfusaeqJ yk*Hoef;Ekdif)/
udkwifpdk; (&efukef0dZPmody`H/ *G)/ udkjrifh[ef (&efukef0dZPmody`H/ c&rf;/ e0wacwf axmifxyfus/ ,ck pdwfwdkif;usvzuf&nfqkdif)/ udkaomif;pdef
(tiSm;,Ofarmif;/ anmifav;yif)/ rD;armifpmapmifxw k af 0r_rS udjk rat; (udu k ;kd u|e;f jyef/ vufyw H ef;/ ,ck NLD/ etzacwfaxmifxyfus)/
udpk ed f (ppfawmif;puULpufynm&Si/f ucsijf ynfe,f ABSDF twGi;f tcsi;f csi;f ðzkwx f w k of wfc&H ol)/ udpk ed 0f if; (aq;wyfrw S yf=uyf)/ udak A'g
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OD;wifaiG (csnfr#if)/ OD;vSodef; (csnfr#if)/ OD;ausmfpdef (csnfr#if)/ udk0if;xdef (qifrvdkuf) polawGeJΠ75 *|eftvkyform;wcsdKΠyg0ifcJhw,f?
&efol&JŒ enf;trsdK;rsdK;eJŒ tjyif;xefqHk; &ufpufn‡Of;yrf;r_awGudk =uH=uHcHcJh=u+yD;'l;raxmufcJh=uyg? 'ga=umifh 2 vausmf 3 vavmuf
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awG wnDw!GwfeJŒ waxmifvHk;udk pnf;±Hk;+yD;axmifxr_}uD;vkyf&if axmiftm%mydkifawGtzdkŒ racsmifbl;qdkwmoabmaygufvdkŒ yHkpHudkif
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&wmawG&Sdw,f? ausmif;om;tawmfrsm;rsm;[m e,fuausmif;om;awGjzpfvdkΠaxmif0ifpm yHkrSefrvmEkdif wmawG&Sdovdk tvkyform;
awG[mqdk&ifvJ e*dkuwnf;u qif;&JŒcsdKŒwJhvSolawGjzpfvdkŒ axmif0ifpmtm;enf;=uw,f? (axmifusoGm; wJh 74 *|ef tvkyform;}uD; w
a,muf&ŒJ rdom;pk[m qif;&=uyfwnf;vGe;f vdŒk orD;jzpfou l cE<mud, k &f if;+yD;rdom;pku&kd mS au|;cJ&h w,f? tJ't D cgrmS jynfw h efqm r_eŒJ tzrf;cH
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&duQmypPnf; tm;eJwmrsm;ygw,f? 'ga=umifh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG[m &mZ0wfaqmifrSmae&if; pD;yGm;a&; vkyf&ygw,f? pD;yGm;a&;
qdkwmuawmh a&aEG;=urf;a&mif;wmeJΠumwGef;pmtkyfiSm;wJh vkyfief;awG jzpfw,f? tJ'Du0ifaiG (aq;vdyf) eJΠwjcm;vdktyfwJh pm;p&m
aomufp&mawG jyef0,f (zvS,f) &wmjzpfw,f? ausmif;om;awG/ EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG&JŒ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;awGtay: axmif0g'gawGeJŒ
&mZ0wfom;a'guw f ikd af wG Advk rf us rdu k af =u;rcG&J /J acgi;f yHk rjzwf&v J Œkd vkyif ef;taeeJŒ tawmfav;atmifjrif+yD;axmif0ifpmcsKd ŒwJh wJh Ekid if aH &;
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

tusOf;om;awGtwGuf tqifajyapygw,f? tJ'DtvkyfawGvkyf&mrSm axmif0ifpmtm;&SdwJh ausmif;om;awGuyg axmif0ifpmtm;eJwJh
tvkyform;awG/ EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om; awGeJΠaygif;pk+yD;vkyf=uwmjzpfw,f? wudk,faumif;rqef=uyg?
r_dif;&mjynfhausmif;om;awGxJu udkatmifapmOD;[m oGm;aq;wuUodkvf wmwdktajy;vufa&G;pifjzpf+yD;wuUodkvfrsm; &efukef
ajy;ckeyf pfrmS qk&cJo h jl zpfw,f? r_id ;f &mjynfah usmif;om; a'gyrkH mS aewJh udv k OS ;D (v#ypf pfynm naeoifwef;) [mvJ tajy; aumif;oljzpfygw,f?
olwdk‹[m wjcm;ausmif;om;awG aq;vdyfwdkŒ/ &duQmwkdŒjywfawmh tif;pdefaxmifxJrSm &Sdaeygw,f?
&efuek af eausmif;om;av;awGukd v$waf y;vdu k w f t
hJ cg axmifA;l 0rSm vrf;p&dwjf ym; 60 pDxw k af y;w,f? ausmif;om; av;awGu
tif;pdefaps;rSm ta=umf0,fpm;ypfvdkuf+yD;tdrfjyefzdkŒbwfpfum;pD;awmh py,f,mudk axmifuvGwfvmwJh ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfa=umif;/
um;cay;p&mr&S d a =umif ; ajympD ; +yD ; jyef & w,f ? um;orm;awG u vJ axmif u xG u f v mwm od o mvS w J h axmif y H k p H x G u f a ewJ h
ausmif ; om;av;awG tk y f v k d u f } uD ; ud k em;vnf r _ & S d p G m eJ Πvd k & myd k Πay;cJ h w ,f ? wjcm;bwf p f u m;pD ; c&D ; onf a wG v J
v_yfv_yf&Sm;&Sm;jzpfuke+yD;owif;awGyHsŒoGm;awmhw,f? 'ga=umifh aemufydkif;rSm ausmif;om;}uD;awGv$wf&mrSmawmh Al;0uae
wdu k ±f u kd rf v$waf wmhbJ &efuek òf rdŒay:u òrdŒe,faumifp±D ;kH awGtxd um;eJŒvdu k yf @kd +yD; tJ'uD ae &yfuu G af umifpu D wqifh rdbaqG rsKd ;vufxJ
ta&mufxnfhwm vkyfvmw,f?
axmifuv$wfzdkΠvlppf&mrSm axmif0ifeHygwf (ac: ) tusOf;om;rSwfyHkwifeHygwfudk ajym&w,f? 'gayrJh ausmif;om;rsm;u
tJ'aD xmif0ifeyH gwu f kd rodb;l / rrSwrf v d /l 'grrS [kwf todtrSwrf ðyvdŒk rSwrf xm;bl; qd+k yD;vky=f uw,f? tusO;f om;wa,muf [m rdrt d rnf/
taz tar trnf e J ΠwuG axmif 0 if e H y gwf u d k b,f t csd e f a r;ar; ajymEk d i f & r,f q k d + yD ; yH k p H ud k i f x m;wmud k ausmif ; om; awG u
tajctaeay;&ifay;ovdk qefŒusiaf ecJ=h uwmjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh v$wu f meD;rSm axmif0ifeyH gwrf odb;l qdv k Œkd tm%mydik f awGtvky±f y_ u f ek +y;D
v,f*smpmtkyt f xl}uD;awG jyefveS &f mS &w,f? 'gt h jyif xif&mS ;aomtrSwt f om;/ bmnmuGu d aG wG ppfaq; =unf±h t kH wnfðy+yD;wJah emuf
vufzsHrSm wHqdyfwHk;eJŒwHqdyf±dkufw,f? tJ'DwHqdyfudk axmifAl;0rSmjyrS axmifjyifxGufvdkŒ&rSm jzpfw,f? 'gayrJh ausmif;om;wcsdKŒu
‘igwdkŒEGm;r[kwfbl;uG’ qdk+yD;wHqdyfudk wHawG;qGwfzsufypfvdkufw,f? 'ga=umifh axmifAl;0 a&mufawmh vufzsHuwHqdyfrawGŒvdkŒ
jy\emwufjyefw,f? ausmif;om;awGu wHqyd rf &dv S Œkd rv$wb f J axmifxq J ufxm;vJ &w,fvŒkd 0g'gawGuakd jymawmh pum;rsm;=uw,f?
aemufawmh axmifrSL;wa,mufa&mufvm+yD; ay;xGufvdkufw,f? “rif;wdkŒ[m aemufqHk;vGwfwJh tcsdefxd igwdkŒudk'kQay;wmbJ”
vdŒk nOf;&Smw,f? ausmif;om;awG axmifxJ 3-4-5 ESpñf uH&wJh 'kuaQ wGuakd wmh tm%mydik af wGu 'kuv Q Œkd owfrwS yf rkH &yg? axmifOya't&
vGwfrdef‹us+yD;om; vlwa,mufudk aemufxyfw&uf ydkcsKyfcGifhr&SdwJh twGuf vufzsHuwHqdyfudpPudk olwdkŒwif;rxm;wmjzpfygw,f?
1978 rSm tawmfrsm;rsm;vGwfoGm;+yD;aemuf usefaewJhausmif;om;awGxJu axmif'%f 5 ESpf/ 6 ESpf/ 7 ESpf usolawG[m
yHkrSefav#mh&ufawG&_+yD; 1978 eJΠ1980 =um;rSm vGwfvm=uwmvJ&Sdw,f? 1980 ck {+yD;vrSmawmh *dk%f;aygif;pHk oHCmh nD!Gwfa&;
txdrf;trSwfqdk+yD; rqvEkdifiHawmfaumifpD vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtrdefŒ 2§80 eJŒ usefwJhausmif;om;awG tygt0if EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;
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vdkŒedrdwfzwfñuH0g;cJhwJhtwdkif; 8 av;vHk;rSm wu,fjzpfvmcJhygawmhw,f?

Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Min Ko
Naing Prisoner’s Name: Jimmy @ Prisoner’s Name: Aung Htake
Kyaw Min Yu Soe (a) Aung Kyi
Prison: Insein Prison:
Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 5/96 Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : 5/96
Date of Sentence : August 22, Date of Sentence : August 22, Date of Sentence :
2007 2007 Years of Sentence : Detained
Years of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: Aung Kyaw Oo
Prisoner’s Name: Ko Hla Myo Prisoner’s Name: Ko Ko Gyi (a) Khin Oo (a) Kywet
Naung Prison: Insein Prison: Insein
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 5/96 Law Act No. : 17(1), 505(B),
Law Act No. : 5(J) Date of Sentence : 13(D)
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Under Trial Date of Sentence : Under Trial
Years of Sentence : Under Trial Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Ank Bwe Kyaw
Prisoner’s Name: Htay Kywe Prison: Insein Annex Prison Prisoner’s Name: Aung Thu
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 5/96 Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 5/96 Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : 17/20
Date of Sentence : October 13, Years of Sentence : Under Trial Date of Sentence :
2007 Years of Sentence : Under Trial
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Prisoner’s Name: Aung Naing @
Prisoner’s Name: Htin Kyaw Myo Ag Naing Prisoner’s Name: Aung Zaw Oo
Prison: Insein Prison: Insein (Taung Gyi)
Law Act No. : 505(b), 124 Law Act No. : 5/96 Prison:Law Act No. :
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Prisoner’s Name:
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Prisoner’s Name: Prisoner’s Name:
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

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Prisoner’s Name: Prisoner’s Name: Prisoner’s Name: U Pa
Prison: Insein Prison: Insein Ni Ta
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Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: U Aung Soe Prisoner’s Name: U Kyaw Khin Prisoner’s Name: Saw Naing
Myint Prison: Taunggyi Naing
Prison: Thayet Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/20 Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : Date of Sentence : February 25, Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/20, 17(1)
Date of Sentence : August 31, 2005 Date of Sentence :
2003Years of Sentence : 7 Years Years of Sentence : 14 Years Years of Sentence : 21 Years

Prisoner’s Name: U Kyaw Min Prisoner’s Name: Dr. Than Nyein
Prisoner’s Name: Daw May Win
Prison: Insein Prison: Prome
Myint (Dr.)
Law Act No. : 5(J), 18 Law Act No. : 5(J), 10(A)
Prison: Insein
Immigration Act Date of Sentence :
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Date of Sentence : March 17, Years of Sentence : 7 years
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : 7 Years
Years of Sentence : 47 Years

Prisoner’s Name: U Khin Maung
Prisoner’s Name: U Kyaw San
Swe Prisoner’s Name: Dr. Zaw Myint
Prison: Insein
Prison: Lashio Maung
Law Act No. : 5(1), 5(3)
Law Act No. : 5(J), 5(E), 109 Prison: Myitkyina
Date of Sentence : March 17,
Date of Sentence : August 4, Law Act No. : 5(J), 122(1), 17/20
1994 Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : 3

Prisoner’s Name: U Saw Hlain
Prisoner’s Name: U Khin
Prison: Katha
Law Act No. : 16, 17/20
Date of Sentence :
Prison: Insein Years of Sentence : 12
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Aung Htake Prisoner’s Name: Ko Aung Kyaw
Prisoner’s Name: Ank Bwe Kyaw Soe (a) Aung Kyi Moe
Prison: Insein Annex Prison Prison:
Law Act No. : 5/96 Prison: Insein
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Prisoner’s Name: Aung Htake Prisoner’s Name: Aung Kyaw Oo
Prisoner’s Name: Maung Aung Soe (a) Aung Kyi
Aung (a) Khin Oo (a) Kywet
Prison: Prison: Insein
Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : 17(1), 505(B),
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Detained 13(D)
Years of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: U Aung Khin Prisoner’s Name: Aung Min
Prisoner’s Name: Aung Aung @
Bo Prison: Moulmein
Prison: Pyapon Law Act No. : 17/1
Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 143, 505(b) Date of Sentence : February 01,
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1
Date of Sentence : 2000
Date of Sentence : September,
Years of Sentence : Under trial Years of Sentence : 5 Years
1998Years of Sentence : 45 Year

Prisoner’s Name: Aung Kyaw Prisoner’s Name: Aung Myint
Prisoner’s Name: Aung Gyi @ Kyaw Prison: Insein
Moe Aung Soe Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 143, 505 b
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 17/1, Date of Sentence : September 27,
Date of Sentence : October 17,
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Aung Myo Prisoner’s Name: Aung Than @ Prisoner’s Name: Aung Zaw Oo
San @ Sar Kalay Aung Moe (Taung Gyi)
Prison: Insein Prison: Prison:
Law Act No. : 3 -Special Act Law Act No. : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : December 14, Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
2004Years of Sentence : Life Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Detained

Prisoner’s Name: Aung Naing Prisoner’s Name: Aung Thu Prisoner’s Name: Maung Aye
Prison: Thayet Prison: Insein Aung
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1 Law Act No. : 17/20 Prison: Kale
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1
Years of Sentence : 10 Years Years of Sentence : Under Trial
Date of Sentence : September,

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Aung Tun
Prisoner’s Name: Aung Naing @ Prisoner’s Name: Aye Kyu @
Prison: Insein
Myo Ag Naing Monywa Aung Shin
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/20
Prison: Insein
Date of Sentence : February 17, Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 5/96
1998 Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/20
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : 17 Years Date of Sentence : September 20,
Years of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: U Aung Zaw Prisoner’s Name: Ba Myint
Prisoner’s Name: U Aung Soe Prison:
Myint Law Act No. :
Prison: Thayet Date of Sentence :
Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : Years of Sentence
Date of Sentence : August 31,
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: U Ba Myo Prisoner’s Name: Di Nyein Lin Prisoner’s Name: U Hla Myint
Thein Prison: Insein Prison:
Prison: Thayet Law Act No. : 147, 505b Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1, 6 Date of Sentence : October 23, Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : October 27, 2007 Years of Sentence :
1990 Years of Sentence : Under Trial
Years of Sentence : 19

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Hla Myo
Prisoner’s Name: Gen; Hso Ten Naung
Prisoner’s Name: Ba Tint
@ Sai Kyaw Sein Prison: Insein
Prison: Insein
Prison: Khamti Law Act No. : 5(J)
Law Act No. : Special Act-3
Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : December 19, Law Act No. : 122/1, 124(A),
Years of Sentence : Under Trial
2001 17/1, 17/20, 24(A)
Years of Sentence : Life Date of Sentence : February 9,

Prisoner’s Name: U Hla Soe
Prisoner’s Name: Chan Pu Prisoner’s Name: Han Win Aung Prison: Mandalay
Prison: Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 5(J), 5/1, 6/1
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5(J) Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : September 26, Years of Sentence : 17
Years of Sentence : 2003

Prisoner’s Name: U Hla Aye
Prisoner’s Name: Chit Ko Lin
Prison: Insein Prison
Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Law Act No. : 505/b, 143 Prisoner’s Name: Hlaing Aye
Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Prison:
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under trial Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Detained
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Htay Kywe Prisoner’s Name: U Khin Maung
Prison: Insein Swe
Law Act No. : 5/96 Prison: Lashio Prisoner’s Name: U Khun Htun
Date of Sentence : October 13, Law Act No. : 5(J), 5(E), 109 Oo
2007 Date of Sentence : August 4, Prison: Puta O

Prisoner’s Name: U Khin Maung Prisoner’s Name: Ko Ko Gyi
Prisoner’s Name: Htin Kyaw
Win Prison: Insein
Prison: Insein
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 5/96
Law Act No. : 505(b), 124
Law Act No. : 5(J), 15(A) Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : March 31, Years of Sentence : Under Trial
Years of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: Ko KoGyi @
Prisoner’s Name: Jimmy @ Prisoner’s Name: Khin Nyo Thein Than Tun
Kyaw Min Yu Prison: Prison: Insein Annex
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : 5/96 Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : September 18,
Date of Sentence : August 22, Years of Sentence :
2007 2007
Years of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: Khin Kyaw
Prisoner’s Name: U Khin Win Prisoner’s Name: Ko Ko Maung
Prison: Insein
Prison: Prison: Myingyan
Law Act No. : Special Act-3
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5(J), —-
Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : September,
Years of Sentence : Life
Years of Sentence : 1998
Years of Sentence : 24
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: U Kyaw Khin
Prisoner’s Name: Ko Oo Prison: Taunggyi Prisoner’s Name: U Kyaw Min
Prison: Unknown
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/20 Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1
Date of Sentence : February 25, Law Act No. : 5(J), 18
Date of Sentence : June, 2000
Years of Sentence : 2005

Prisoner’s Name: U Kyaw Mya
Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Ko Ko Prison: Myingyan
Prisoner’s Name: Ko Thein (a)
Prison: Law Act No. : 5(J-D), 17/1
Thein Tun
Law Act No. : Date of Sentence : June 13, 2005
Prison: Insein
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 27 Years
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1
Years of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : September,

Prisoner’s Name: Win Maw (a) Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Nu
Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Kyaw Prison:
Htwe @ Marky Law Act No. :
Prison: Insein Prison
Prison: Insein Date of Sentence :
Law Act No. : 145, 505/b
Law Act No. : 5/96 Years of Sentence :
Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : August 22,
Years of Sentence : Under trial

Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Aye
Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Kyaw
Naing Prisoner’s Name: Ko Kyaw
Prison: Moulmein Nyunt
Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 6, 32(b), 13/1 Prison:
Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: U Kyaw San Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Thura Prisoner’s Name: Kyi Lwin
Prison: Insein Aung Prison:
Law Act No. : 5(1), 5(3) Prison: Insein Prison Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : March 17, Law Act No. : 19/e Date of Sentence :
2005 Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Detained
Years of Sentence : 7 Years Years of Sentence : 3 years

Prisoner’s Name: Linn Htet
Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Saw Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Tin Naing
Htay Prison: Unknown Prison:
Prison: Law Act No. : Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 10 Years Years of Sentence : Detaining
Years of Sentence : Detained

Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Zin Win Prisoner’s Name: Lwin Ko Latt
Prison: Supposed to be at Insein @ Win Ko
Prisoner’s Name: Ko Kyaw Soe
Prison Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 6, 32b, 13/1 Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : January 3, Date of Sentence : September 23,
Years of Sentence : 2008 2006

Prisoner’s Name: Kyi Lin (a) Pyi Prisoner’s Name: Maung Maung
Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Soe Win Lin Aye
Prison: Insein Prison: Myitkyina Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 143, 505(b) Law Act No. : 5(J), 505 Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1, 17/2
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : 97 Date of Sentence : February 6,
Years of Sentence : Under trial Years of Sentence : 14 Years
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Ko Ko
Prisoner’s Name: Di Nyein Lin Prison: Prisoner’s Name: Lwin Ko Latt
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : @ Win Ko
Law Act No. : 147, 505b Date of Sentence : Prison: Insein
Date of Sentence : October 23, Years of Sentence :
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1
2007 Current Situation:
Years of Sentence : Under Trial Date of Sentence : September 23,

Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Kyaw
Prisoner’s Name: Han Win Aung Prisoner’s Name: Min Zay Ya
Htwe @ Marky
Prison: Insein Prison: Insein
Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 5(J) Law Act No. : 5/96
Law Act No. : 5/96
Date of Sentence : September 26, Date of Sentence :
2003 Years of Sentence : Under Trial:
Years of Sentence : 7 Years

Prisoner’s Name: Kyaw Thura
Prisoner’s Name: Ko Ko Maung Aung Prisoner’s Name: U Mya Aye
Prison: Myingyan Prison: Insein Prison Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 5(J), —- Law Act No. : 19/e Law Act No. : 5/96
Date of Sentence : September, Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
1998 Years of Sentence : 3 year Years of Sentence : Under Trial
Years of Sentence : 24

Prisoner’s Name: Moe Kyaw Thu
Prisoner’s Name: Ko Thein (a) Prisoner’s Name: Linn Htet Prison:
Thein Tun Naing Law Act No. :
Prison: Insein Prison:Law Act No. : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence :
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Mya Than Prisoner’s Name: Nanda Sit Aung Prisoner’s Name: Paw Lwin
Htike @ Sit Ko Aung Prison: Insein
Prison: Insein Annex Prison Prison: Pa-An Law Act No. : 5(J)
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5(J), 6, 17/1, Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : 145, 505(b) 13(15) Years of Sentence : 12 Years
Years of Sentence : Under trial

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Pyone Cho
Prisoner’s Name: Myat San Prisoner’s Name: Nay Zar myo @ Htay Win Aung
Prison: Insein Annex Prison win Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Law Act No. : Prison: Law Act No. :5/96
Date of Sentence :
Law Act No. :
Years of Sentence :
Date of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Ohn Kyaw Prisoner’s Name: San Pwint
Prisoner’s Name: Myo Min Htike
Prison: Prison:
Prison: Myingyan
Law Act No. : Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : 5(J)
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Detained
Years of Sentence : 52 Years

Prisoner’s Name: Panate Tun Prisoner’s Name: Shein Yazar
Prisoner’s Name: Myo Min Zaw
Prison: Isein Annex Prison Htun
Prison: Putao
Law Act No. : 5/96 Prison:
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/20
Date of Sentence : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : 52
Years of Sentence : Detaining
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Si Thu Maung Prisoner’s Name: Ko Tin Htoo
Prison: Aung
Law Act No. : Prison: Insein Prisoner’s Name: yan yan chan
Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : 5/96 Prison:
Years of Sentence : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence :
Years of
Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Than Tin @
Prisoner’s Name: Tun Tun Naing
Kyi Than
Prison: Law Act No. : 10(B)
Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Date of Sentence :
Law Act No. : 5/96
Years of Sentence :
Prisoner’s Name: Zaw Htet Ko
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Tria
Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 5/96
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: Thaw Zin Htun Prisoner’s Name: Tun Tun Naing
Prison: Insein Annex Prison - Kyauk Phyu
Law Act No. : Prison: Law Act No. : 10(B)
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Prisoner’s Name: Zaw Lin Tun
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence :
Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 5(J), 6, 17/20,
13(1), 13(5)
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : 20 Years

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Thet Zaw Prisoner’s Name: Yan Naing Min
Prison: Insein Annex Prison Prison: Mandalay
Law Act No. : 5/96 Law Act No. : 5(J), 124(A)
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial Years of Sentence : 20 Years Prisoner’s Name: Zaw Min @
Baung Baung
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )
Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Zaw Ye Win Prisoner’s Name: Zayar Thaw
Prison: Taungoo Prison:
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1, 17/20 Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : 17 Years Years of Sentence : Detained

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Zaw Zaw
Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Zaya (a)
Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Law Act No. : 5/96
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: Zaya Aung
Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17(1,2),
17/20, 23/1
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Hanni Oo Prisoner’s Name: Kyi Kyi War Prisoner’s Name: Ma Noe Noe
Prison: Prison: Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5/96
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Detained Years of Sentence : Detained Years of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: Hinn Pwint Wai Prisoner’s Name: Leah Leah Cho Prisoner’s Name: Ma Sanda Min
Prison: Prison: Mandalay @ Shwee
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5(J) Prison: Insein
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : 5/96
Years of Sentence : Detaining Years of Sentence : 7 Years Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: Lay Lay Mon Prisoner’s Name: Ma Than Than
Prisoner’s Name: Ma Khin Khin Htay
Leah Prison: Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Prison: Insein
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1 Years of Sentence :
Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 17 Years
Years of Sentence : Life

Prisoner’s Name: Ma Than Than
Prisoner’s Name: Ma Khin Moe Prisoner’s Name: Noble @ Hnin Htay(1)
Aye May Aung Prison: Magwe
Prison: Insein Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 17/1, 13/1, 5(J)
Law Act No. : Acts 505b and 24 Law Act No. : 5/96 Date of Sentence :
of the Penal CodeKhin Moe Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 7 Years
Aye(4Jul08) Years of Sentence :
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Thet Thet Aung
Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 5/96
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: Thin July Kyaw
Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Detained

Prisoner’s Name: Thin Thin Aye
@ Mee Mee
Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 5/96
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: Ma Zin Mar
Prison: Mandalay
Law Act No. : 5(J)
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence :28
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Daw Aung San Prisoner’s Name: Aye Thida Prisoner’s Name: Ma Khin Khin
Su Kyi Prison: Insein Prison Min
Prison: Law Act No. : 33/a Prison:
Law Act No. : 10(B) Date of Sentence : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 7 Years Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Detention Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Ma Aye Aye Prisoner’s Name: Cho Mar Htway Prisoner’s Name: Ma Khin Sanda
Min Prison: Molumein Lwin
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 5(J) Prison:
Law Act No. : 5(J) Date of Sentence : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 14 Years Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : 10 Years Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Daw Khaing
Prisoner’s Name: Daw Aye Cham Mar Soe Prisoner’s Name: Khin Yu Sein
Prison: Insein Prison: Insein Prison:
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : 8 Years Years of Sentence : 20 Years Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Ma Aye Thi Prisoner’s Name: Daw Khin Aye Prisoner’s Name: Ma Ngal
Khaing Prison: Insein Prison: Insein
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 143, 505(b) Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial Years of Sentence
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Daw Myint Prisoner’s Name: Ma Sanda Min Prisoner’s Name: Ma Thin Thin
Myint Thein @ Shwee Soe
Prison: Insein Prison: Insein Prison:
Law Act No. : 143, 505(b) Law Act No. : 5/96 Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial Years of Sentence : Under Trial Years of Sentence

Prisoner’s Name: Ni Mo Hlaing Prisoner’s Name: Su Su Nway Prisoner’s Name: Daw Win Mya
Prison: Prison: Insein Mya
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 17/20, 124, 505 Prison: Obo
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : 5(J)
Years of Sentence : Detaining Years of Sentence : Under Trial Date of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Ma Yin Kyi
Prisoner’s Name: Daw San San Prisoner’s Name: Ma Than Soe
Prison: Insein
Tin Prison: Insein
Law Act No. :
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 5(J)
Date of Sentence :
Law Act No. : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : 8 Years
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 7 Years
Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Ma Thanda
Prisoner’s Name: Daw San Yee Prison:
Prison: Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence :
Years of Sentence
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Maung Maung Prisoner’s Name: Min Min Soe Prisoner’s Name: U Mya Aye
Latt Prison: Prison: Insein
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5/96
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/20 Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : May, 2004 Years of Sentence : Detained Years of Sentence : Under Trial

Prisoner’s Name: Maung Maung Prisoner’s Name: Min Thu Prisoner’s Name: Mya Than
Myint Prison: Obo Htike
Prison: Insein Law Act No. : 5(J) Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1, 17/2 Date of Sentence : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : February 5, Years of Sentence : Under Trial Date of Sentence : 145, 505(b)
2003 Years of Sentence : Under trial

Prisoner’s Name: Min Zay Ya
Prisoner’s Name: Maung Maung Prisoner’s Name: Myat San
Prison: Insein
O o @ Myo Tun Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Law Act No. : 5/96
Prison: Monywa Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence :
Law Act No. : N/A Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial
Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Min Ko
Naing Prisoner’s Name: Moe Kyaw Thu Prisoner’s Name: Ko Myint Oo
Prison: Insein Prison: Prison:
Law Act No. : 5/96 Law Act No. : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : August 22, Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
2007 Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Nay Min @
Prisoner’s Name: U Myo Chit Prisoner’s Name: Myo Min Zaw
Win Shwe
Prison: Prison: Putao
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/20 Prison: Insein
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : 5(J)
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 52 Date of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Naing Aung @ Prisoner’s Name: Nay Phone Latt
Prisoner’s Name: Myo Htay Fighter Aung
Prison: @ Nay Myo Kyaw
Prison: Myingyan Prison: Insein prison
Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : Law Act No. : Video censor Act
Years of Sentence : Date of Sentence : 32/b, 212
Date of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Myo Khin Prisoner’s Name: Nanda Sit Aung
Prison: @ Sit Ko Aung Prisoner’s Name: Nay Win (Dr.)
Law Act No. : Prison: Pa-An Prison:
Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : 5(J), 6, 17/1, Law Act No. :
Years of Sentence : 13(15) Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Detention

Prisoner’s Name: Maung Nay Lin Prisoner’s
Prisoner’s Name: Myo Min Htike Prison: Name: Nay Zar myo win
Prison: Myingyan Law Act No. : Prison:
Law Act No. : 5(J) Date of Sentence : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : 52 Years Years of Sentence : Detained
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Ne Win Prisoner’s Name: Nyunt Shwe Prisoner’s Name: Paw Lwin
Prison: Prison: Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5(J)
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Detained Years of Sentence : 12 Years

Prisoner’s Name: Ngwe Soe Prisoner’s Name: Ohn Kyaw Prisoner’s Name: Phyo Zaw Latt
Prison: Insein Annex Prison Prison: Prison:
Law Act No. : 505(b) Law Act No. : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: U Ohn Than Prisoner’s Name: Pyae Phyo
Prisoner’s Name: Nyan Lin Aung Prison: Insein Hlaing
Law Act No. : 124/a Prison:
Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Date of Last Sentence : April 2, Law Act No. :
Years of Sentence : Detained 2008 Date of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Nyi Lay Prisoner’s Name: Panate Tun Prisoner’s Name: Ko Pyone Cho
Prison: Prison: Isein Annex Prison @ Htay Win Aung
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5/96 Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Law Act No. :5/96
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Under Trial Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Tri
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: San Ya Prisoner’s Name: Sein Aye
Prisoner’s Name: Robert San
Aung Prison: Insein Prison:
Prison: GTI Interrogation Center Law Act No. : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : 17/1, 13/1, 5(J) Date of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: U Saw Hlain Prisoner’s Name: Sein Win
Prisoner’s Name: Sai Hla Aung
Prison: Katha Maung
Prison: Kyaukphyu
Law Act No. : 122/1, 124(A), Law Act No. : 16, 17/20 Prison: Insein Prison
17/1, 17/20, 24(A) Date of Sentence : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 12 Date of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Saw Naing Prisoner’s Name: Shein Yazar
Prisoner’s Name: Sai Nyunt Lwin Htun
Prison: Kale Prison:
Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : 122/1, 124(A), Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/20, 17(1)
17/1, 17/20, 24(A) Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Detaining
Years of Sentence : 21 Years
Years of Sentence : 85 Years

Prisoner’s Name: Saw Wai Prisoner’s Name: Shwe Htoo
Prisoner’s Name: San Pwint Prison: Insein Prison:
Prison: Law Act No. : Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Detained
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: U Shwe Maung Prisoner’s Name: Ko Soe Win Prisoner’s Name: Dr. Than Nyein
Prison: Obo Prison: Prison: Prome
Law Act No. : 5(J) Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5(J), 10(A)
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 7 years

Prisoner’s Name: U Shwe Tin Prisoner’s Name: Ko Than Htay Prisoner’s Name: Ko Than Tin @
Prison: Prison: Kyi Than
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : 5/96
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Than Win
Prisoner’s Name: Ko Soe Myint Prisoner’s Name: U Than Lwin Prison:
Htein Prison: Obo Law Act No. :
Prison: Law Act No. : 5(J), 10(A), 12(A), Date of Sentence :
Law Act No. : 124(A) Years of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 26 June 1998

Prisoner’s Name: U Soe Thein Prisoner’s Name: Than Min
Prison: Kale Prison: Taungoo Prisoner’s Name: Than Zaw
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1 Prison: Insein Prison
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : 1993 Law Act No. : 32/b, 505/b
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 20 Years Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under tria
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Maung Than Prisoner’s Name: Prisoner’s Name: Thet Naing
Zaw Myint Prison: U Thein Lwin Aung
Prison: Law Act No. : Prison: Insein
Law Act No. : Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : Special Act -3
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence Years of Sentence : Life & 8

Prisoner’s Name: U Thein Maung Prisoner’s Name: Ko Thet Zaw
Prisoner’s Name: Thant Zaw
Prison: Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5/96
Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence :
Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Tiha Thet zin
Prisoner’s Name: Ko Thant Zin Prison:
Prisoner’s Name: Thein Myint Law Act No. :
Myo Tun
Prison: Insein Date of Sentence :
Prison: Years of Sentence : Detained
Law Act No. : 143, 505(b) Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial Years of Sentence : Detention

Prisoner’s Name: Ko Tin Htoo
Prison: Insein
Prisoner’s Name: Thaw Zin Htun Prisoner’s Name: Ko Thein Shwe Law Act No. : 5/96
Prison: Insein Annex Prison Prison: Date of Sentence :
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : Years of Sentence : Under Trial
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence :
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: U Tin Oo Prisoner’s Name: Tun Myint Prisoner’s Name:
Prison: House Arrest Prison: Insein Prison Prison:
Law Act No. : 10(B) Law Act No. : 505/b, 143 Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Detention Years of Sentence : Under trial Years of Sentence : Maung Tun
(10/B) Tun Oo

Prisoner’s Name: Tin Win Prisoner’s Name: Tun Tun
Prison: Prisoner’s Name: U Win Myint
Naging Prison:
Prison: Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Law Act No. :
Law Act No. : Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence :
Years of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Detained

Prisoner’s Name: Tun Tun Naing
Prisoner’s Name: U Tin Myint Prison: Law Act No. : 10(B) Prisoner’sName: Wanna Aung
Prison: Date of Sentence : Prison: Insein Prison
Law Act No. : Years of Sentence : Law Act No. : 5/j
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Tun Tun Naing Prisoner’s Name: Win Htein
- Kyauk Phyu Prison: Katha
Prisoner’s Name: Tint San
Prison: Law Act No. : 10(B) Law Act No. : 5(J)
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Law Act No. :
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 14 Years
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence :
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: U Win Tin
Prisoner’s Name: Win Ko Prisoner’s Name: Ko Ye Myint
Prison: Insein
Prison: Prison:
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5(J), 5(E), 17/20
Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 21 Years of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: U Win Maung Prisoner’s Name: Yan Naing Min
Prisoner’s Name: Maung Ye
Prison: Prison: Mandalay
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5(J), 124(A)
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Law Act No. :
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 20 Years
Date of Sentence ::

Prisoner’s Name: U Win Maw Prisoner’s Name: yan yan chan
Prison: Insein Prison: Prisoner’s Name: Zar Naing Tun
Law Act No. : 5(J) Law Act No. : Prison: Insein
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : 122(1), 368(1)
Years of Sentence : Under Trial Years of Sentence : Detained Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Life

Prisoner’s Name: Win Myint Prisoner’s Name: Ye Myat Hein
Prison: Prison: Prisoner’s Name: Zaw Htet Ko
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : Ko
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence : Prison: Insein
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Detained Law Act No. : 5/96
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Under Trial
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

Prisoner’s Name: Dr. Zaw Myint Prisoner’s Name: Ko Zaw Zaw
Prisoner’s Name: Zaw Lin Oo Maung Min
Prison: Insein
Prison: Myitkyina Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence : Law Act No. : 5(J), 122(1), 17/20 Law Act No. :
Years of Sentence : 10 Years Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :

Prisoner’s Name: Zaw Thet Htwe Prisoner’s Name: Zaya (a)
Prisoner’s Name: Zaw Lin Tun
(a) Thet Zaw Kalama
Prison: Insein
Prison: Prison: Insein Annex Prison
Law Act No. : 5(J), 6, 17/20,
Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5/96
13(1), 13(5)
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Detaining Years of Sentence : Under Trial
Years of Sentence : 20 Years

Prisoner’s Name: Zaw Min @ Prisoner’s Name: Ko Zaw Win Prisoner’s Name: Zaya Aung
Baung Baung Prison: Prison: Insein
Prison: Law Act No. : Law Act No. : 5(J), 17(1,2),
Law Act No. : Date of Sentence : 17/20, 23/1
Date of Sentence : Years of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : Years of Sentence : 19 Years

Prisoner’s Name: Zaw Ye Win
Prisoner’s Name: Zaw Min Prisoner’s Name: Zayar Thaw
Prison: Taungoo
Prison: Prison:
Law Act No. : 5(J), 17/1, 17/20
Law Act No. : Law Act No. :
Date of Sentence :
Date of Sentence : Date of Sentence :
Years of Sentence : 17 Years
Years of Sentence : Detained Years of Sentence : Detaine
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

• Daw Aung San Su Kyi’s Bio • Min Ko Naing’s Bio

• U Win Tin’s Bio • Ko Ko Gyi (a) K Cube’s Bio

• U Tin Oo’s Bio • Htay Kywe’s Bio

• Dr. Than Nyein’s Bio • U Thura @ Zarganar’s Bio

• U Khun Htun Oo’s Bio • Htin Kyaw (a) Kyaw Htin’s

• U Ohn Than’s Bio • Zaw Thet Htwe (a) Thet
Zaw’s Bio

• U Khin Maung Swe’s Bio
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

• U Gambira’s Bio • Aung Kyaw Oo (a) Kywet’s

• Kyaw Ko Ko’s Bio
• Lay Lay Mon’s Bio

• Thin Thin Aye (a) Mie Mie’s
Bio • Nobel Aye’s Bio

• Su Su Nway’s Bio • Zayyar Thor’s Bio

• Nay Phone Latt’s Bio
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• De Nyein Lin’s Bio
• Dr. May Win Myint’s Bio

• Aung Gyi @ Aung Thike
Soe’s Bio
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )

• Aung TheinLwin @Ag
Ag@Shell’s Bio

• Aung Tun’s Bio

• Aye Aung’s Bio

• Aye Thida’s Bio

• Myo Yan Naung Thein’s Bio

• Khin Moe Aye’s Bio
Polaris Burmese Library ( Singapore )
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