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HOMEWORK 22

(March 21, 2013)

Due on Thursday, April 11, 2013

PROBLEM 64

We showed in class that a time-dependent magnetic dipole generates a vector potential

at distances much larger than the dimensions of the source of the following form:

A =

r

cr

,

where the dot denotes derivative with respect to the retarded time t

=tr/c.

(a) Show that the magnetic and electric elds are given by

B =

1

c

Ar and E =

1

c

(

Ar) r ,

and evaluate them in terms of and/or its time derivatives. You might nd

useful to show that in this limit it is valid to replace the gradient operator by

r

c

=

r

c

t

,

whenever it acts on the vector potential.

(b) Compute, in terms of and/or its time derivatives, the angular distribution of

power dP/d and the total power radiated P. Recall that the angular distri-

bution of power is given by

dP

d

= r

2

r S .

(c) Assume that the permanent dipole moment of a neutron star precesses around

the axis of rotation of the star with frequency . Find the total power radiated

by the star in terms of the magnitude of , the magnitude of , and its relative

angle . In particular, show that there will be no magnetic-dipole radiation

when the axes are parallel to each other (i.e., when = 0).

PROBLEM 65 (Jackson Problem 9.2)

A radiating quadrupole consists of a square of side a with charges q at alternate

corners. The square rotates with angular velocity about an axis normal to the plane

of the square and through its center. Calculate in the long-wavelength approximation:

(a) The quadrupole moment.

(b) The radiation elds.

(c) The angular distribution of radiation.

(d) The total radiated power.

(e) The frequency of the emitted radiation.

Please refrain (at least initially) to look at the posted solutions that are scattered all

over the Internet.

PROBLEM 66

A set of charges oscillates along the z-axis so as to produce electric quadrupole (E2)

radiation. It can be shown that a quadrupole solution to the wave equation for the

magnetic eld may be written as B(r, t) = B(r)e

it

, where

B(r) = f

2

(kr)LY

20

(, ) (k /c) .

Here f

2

(kr) is proportional to a spherical Hankel function, L=ir is the angular

momentum operator, and Y

20

(, ) is a spherical harmonic.

a) Show that the magnetic eld may be written as

B(r) = Cf

2

(kr) sin(2) ; C = constant

and prove that it satises both the wave equation and B=0.

b) Using the asymptotic form of the spherical Hankel function

lim

r

f

2

(kr) = A

e

ikr

kr

; A = constant ,

obtain expressions for the magnetic eld B and electric eld E in the radiation

zone.

c) Compute the time-averaged Poynting vector and sketch the radiation (antenna)

pattern. In particular, nd the directions (i.e., angles) where the radiation

intensity is maximized and minimized.

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