You are on page 1of 8

Answers for energy.

Bugok 3: Bringing the H Class


Gas Turbine to Korea
Reprint from:
Modern Power Systems, September 2011
Authors:
Alfred Kessler, Thomas Hagedorn
Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany
CDMIND CYCL
C
S EPS, Koreas first independent
power producer, founded in 1996 as
an offshoot of LG, and now owned
70% by GS Holdings and 30% by
Oman Oil, is continuing its track record of
innovation. Unit 3 at the companys Bugok
site will be one of the first power plants in the
world to employ the new Siemens H class gas
turbine, which makes possible a combined
cycle efficiency of over 60% (LHV basis) but
also provides considerable operational
flexibility, enabling cycling and frequent and
rapid starts/stops.
Siemens, in consortium with GS E&C, is
supplying the complete H class single-shaft
combined cycle plant for unit 3, rated at >415
MWe gross, to GS EPS on a turnkey basis,
with a scheduled commercial operation date
of 31 August 2013. The turnkey contract was
signed on 11 January 2011 and the
groundbreaking ceremony for the new
project, which represents an investment of
about 460 billion won ($420 million), was held
on 19 April 2011.
Units 1 and 2 at the site (both 550 MWe
multi-shaft (2-on-1) combined cycle plants,
which entered commercial operation in July
2001 and March 2008, respectively) also
employ Siemens gas turbines, of the earlier F
class type.
ugok 3: bringing
H cIass gas turbine
technoIogy to korea
The first deployment of Siemens new path-breaking H class gas turbine and combined cycle technology in
Asia will be at the LNG-fuelled Bugok site of GS EPS (Electric Power and Services) Ltd.
AIfred kessIer, project director, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany, and 7homas Hagedorn, VP, sales
management Asia Pacific, Siemens, Offenbach, Germany
ugok 3: bringing
H cIass gas turbine
technoIogy to korea
Location map
VisuaIisation of ugok site
with compIeted unit 3

0l4_020mps09llBugok:l 26/8/ll l5:00 Page l4
CDMIND CYCL
The fuel for all three units at Bugok is LNG,
and they all employ seawater cooling.
Unit 3 will have an efficiency of >55% HHV
basis, equal to >60% LHV basis.
The scope of the unit 3 project, which
employs a single shaft combined cycle
configuration, includes the following:
60 Hz version of the Siemens H class gas
turbine, SGT6-8000H (a direct
aerodynamic scaling from the 50 Hz
version, the SGT5-8000H, now in
commercial operation at Irsching 4 in
Germany, but with 12 can-combustors
rather than 16). Irsching 4 has recently set a
new world record for combined cycle
efficiency, for the first time breaking the
60% efficiency barrier, see pp 00-00. Hot
commissioning of the lead SGT6-8000H
machine, installed on the Siemens test bed
in Berlin, started on 21 July 2011. As well as
the Bugok 3 order, a further six SGT6-
8000H machines have been ordered by US
utility FPL.
SST6-5000 steam turbine with laterally
installed condenser, coupled to the
generator by SSS clutch.
Common hydrogen cooled generator,
SGen6-2000H type, for the steam and gas
turbines.
Triple pressure reheat heat recovery steam
generator with HP once through (Benson
type) boiler and natural circulation LP/IP
boiler design, supplied as an indoor design
within a boiler house.
SPPA-T3000 plant control system with
operator station integrated in the existing
control room.
Power control centres and electrical
equipment such as isolated phase bus duct,
generator circuit breaker, DC components
and LV switchgear.
Main and auxiliary transformer.
New 345 kV grid connection employing
GIS.
New LNG connection including new gas
pressure governor station. The fuel gas is
delivered from the KOGAS terminal point
via LNG piping, gas filtering, metering and
preheating equipment, to the gas turbine
fuel gas skid. The gas pressure at the terminal
point to the power plant is >40 bar(g).
New cooling water structures.
New lifting and circulating water pumps.
Extension of ancillary systems such as
demineralised water and chlorination plant.
C7, S7, generator, cIutch and
condenser
The gas turbine (see also pp 23-27)
The fully air-cooled model SGT6-8000H gas
turbine, like the 50 Hz version, the SGT5-
8000H, is a single-shaft machine of single-
casing design.
The basic design, adopted from previous gas
turbine models, includes the following
features: disc-type rotor with central tie bolt
and radial serrations; two journal bearings
and one thrust bearing; generator drive at
compressor intake end; and axial exhaust
diffuser
The rotor is supported by two journal
bearings and one thrust bearing. The journal
and thrust bearing are located at the
compressor side, and the second journal
bearing at the exhaust side of the turbine.
The rotor is an assembly of disks, each
carrying one row of blades, and hollow shaft
sections, all held together by a pre-stressed
central-tie bolt. Hirth serration provides the
alignment of disks and hollow shaft sections
to allow free radial expansion and contraction,
and transmit the generated torque. The
turbine rotor is internally air-cooled.
The platform combustion system (PCS)
consists of 12 baskets with air cooled
transitions. The annular arrangement
provides excellent uniformity of exhaust-gas
temperature field over the full cross-sectional
area of the turbine inlet. This is attributable to
the fact that the 12 burners in the PCS form a
continuous ring, thus eliminating hot and cold
spots. The ultra low NO
x
technology
suppresses thermal NO
x
formation without
the need for injection of steam or water.
The generator
The two-pole SGen6-2000H generator has
direct radial hydrogen cooling for the rotor
winding and indirect hydrogen cooling for the
stator winding. The hydrogen filled generator
casing is of pressure-resistant and gas-tight
construction and is equipped with two end
shields. The hydrogen cooler is divided into
four sections, two arranged at each generator
end.
The three-phase winding inserted in the
stator core slots is a two-layer transposed-bar
design. The winding is vacuum pressure
impregnated together with the stator core. The
high-voltage insulation employs a proven
proprietary epoxy-mica system.
The generator rotor shaft is a vacuum-cast
forging and has two end-shield sleeve
bearings. The hydrogen is circulated in the
generator interior in a closed circuit by axial
flow fans arranged on the rotor shaft journals.
A gas system contains all necessary
equipment for filling, removal and operation
of the generator with purging gas, hydrogen
or air.
A static (thyristor based) excitation system,
including transformer, is used to take the
excitation current from the auxiliary power
system. A start-up frequency converter is
provided for start-up of the turbine generator
unit. The generator acts as a motor in the
converter mode to start the gas turbine set
without an additional rotating prime mover.
Features of the generator include high
efficiency and low maintenance costs.
Steam turbine
The tandem-compound steam turbine
comprises one combined HP/IP casing and
one double-flow low-pressure casing, with all
components being standardised modules.
With the compact design of the HP/IP
turbine, hot steam conditions are confined to
LongitudinaI section of the
SC76-8000H gas turbine
7he SCen6-2000H generator
Alr lntake
system
Compressor
Turblne
Lxhaust
dlffuser
PCS (platform combustlon system)
wlth l2 advanced ULN burners
0l4_020mps09llBugok:l 26/8/ll l5:0l Page l5
CDMIND CYCL
the middle of the casing. On the other hand
the glands at the casing ends are in regions of
relatively cool steam conditions. Temperature
decay is much slower when compared to a
design with individual turbine casings.
Consequently, the start-up times of such a
compact turbine are significantly shorter,
saving precious fuel.
The design also requires less space, leading
to savings with respect to the civil structures.
The main feature of the LP turbine is the
double shell inner casing, which can be
displaced axially by means of pushrods. The
differential expansion between rotor and
casings is thus minimised under all operating
conditions.
Clutch
To support flexible operation as well as the
start-up procedure for the single-shaft
combined cycle plant a self-synchronous
clutch (SSS) is installed between the generator
and steam turbine.
With the gas turbine only driving the
generator (during start-up) and the steam
turbine at rest, the clutch is disengaged.
Then, the steam turbine is accelerated and
at the instant the steam turbine speed
overtakes the generator, the relay clutch is
engaged and transfers the steam turbine
torque.
Condensing plant
The condenser is a box type surface
condenser. The steam space is of a rectangular
cross section in order to achieve optimum
utilisation of the enclosed volume for the
necessary condensing surface, formed of
titanium tubing. The condenser is installed
laterally at the LP turbine and forms an
integral part of it.
The steam dome, shell, hotwell, and the
water boxes are steel fabrications. The
condenser is fixed to the foundation beneath,
with thermal expansion accommodated by
means of Teflon pads.
The double flow LP turbine outer casing is
connected to the condenser via the steam
dome. The steam dome is welded to the
exhaust casing of the turbine with the result
that the LP turbine cylinder and the condenser
form one unit.
Two water ring pumps with air jets (ELMO
units) are installed for evacuation. During
normal operation, only one pump is in
operation. To shorten the evacuation time
during start up both pumps can be put into
operation.
Heat recovery steam generator
(HRSC)
The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is
located downstream of the gas turbine diffuser
and as already mentioned produces steam in
three pressure stages: high pressure;
intermediate pressure; and low pressure.
The exhaust gas flows horizontally through
the HRSG.
The plant features advanced steam
conditions, with 150 bar and 585C in the HP
stage at the steam turbine nozzle.
The HP steam generator is of the Benson
type, with a once-through evaporator in the
HP section, and natural circulation, drum-
type evaporators in the IP and LP sections.
A condensate preheater is integrated into the
HRSG. This arrangement contributes to
increasing the efficiency of the combined cycle
plant by using exhaust gas energy to preheat
the condensate before it passes towards the
feed water pump and into the LP system.
The boiler casing is made of steel plate as
dictated by the prevailing exhaust gas
temperatures. The HRSG is of the cold
casing design with inside insulation.
The HRSG is equipped with an outlet duct
and steel stack at the end. The stack is fitted
with a damper and a silencer.
The top-supported heating surfaces consist
mainly of finned tubes, which are suspended
from a support structure.
The heat recovery steam generator is
designed to be located indoors and is
contained in a boiler house, which also
encloses the main working platforms.
Each steam stage consists of an economiser
(HP and IP), evaporator and superheater. The
feedwater is heated in the economiser almost
up to boiling temperature and fed into the
superheater (HP section) or in the drum (IP
section). From the IP drum, water is fed into
the evaporator, where a portion is evaporated.
The resulting water-steam mixture flows back
to the drum where it is separated. The
saturated steam is fed to the IP superheater
where it is superheated up to main steam outlet
temperature.
The HP evaporator system is of the Benson
forced flow design, so an HP drum is not
needed. Instead a combined separator/water
vessel is employed.
During start-up and low load, a mixture of
water and steam from the evaporator is
introduced to the separator. Within the
separator, the two phase flow is separated into
water (fed to the water vessel) and steam
(routed to the super-heaters).
In the LP system, the condensate preheater
heats the condensate to approximately the
boiling temperature of the LP system. The LP
feed water therefore goes directly from the
condensate preheater to the LP drum.
The HP steam is fed to the HP section of the
steam turbine. The steam expands in the HP
turbine and is fed back as cold reheat steam to
the HRSG. There it is mixed with the
superheated IP steam, superheated further in
the reheater and then fed to the intermediate
pressure section of the steam turbine.
The HP and IP steam temperature is
controlled by attemperation control.
The generated LP steam is fed to the
connection line from the outlet of the
intermediate to the LP section of the steam
turbine and the entire steam flow is completely
expanded to vacuum in the LP steam turbine.
Water-steam cycIe
For redundancy reasons the watersteam
cycle is furnished with 2 x 100% main
condensate pumps and 2 x 100% feedwater
pumps. The feedwater pumps are equipped
with Voith variable speed couplings.
A 2 x 50% condensate polishing plant is
included. This is to prevent potential pollutant
concentration, thus reducing corrosion and
scaling/fouling in the turbine and superheater
areas.
The turbine exhaust steam is condensed by
a seawater cooled condenser. The condensate
and demineralised water accumulated in the
condenser hotwell is discharged by one of the
2 x 100% condensate extraction pumps to the
condensate preheating system. One
condensate extraction pump operates during
full load operation and a stand-by pump is
ready to cut in automatically in case of failure
of the operating pump. Deaeration of the
condensate is mainly performed in the
condenser under vacuum.
The condensate extraction pump delivers
the condensate from the condenser hotwell to
the LP drum and to the suction side of the
feedwater pumps via the condensate preheater
of the HRSG.
The condensate quality required for proper
operation of the once through type heat
recovery steam generator is ensured by the
condensate polishing plant. Depending on the
condensate quality the entire or only a part of
the condensate mass flow can be supplied by the
2 x 50% condensate polishing pumps to the
condensate polishing plant. The treated
condensate is directly discharged to the suction
side of the condensate extraction pumps.
7he SS76-5000
steam turbine
Slngle-caslng
opposed-flow
HP/|P turblne
LP turblne
0l4_020mps09llBugok:l 26/8/ll l5:0l Page l6
COMBINEDCYCLE
A connection from the demineralised water
distributionsystemis installedfor filling of the
pump discharge side and pressurising the
condensate system during standstill.
Downstream a line for the injection cooling
of the intermediate pressure and low pressure
bypass stations branches off.
The feedwater is routed downstream of the
HRSG condensate preheater in separate
suction lines to the feedwater pumps via a
strainer located upstream of each pump. An
automatic recirculation check valve for the
pump minimum flow requirement is located
downstream of each feedwater pump. The
minimum flow is returned to the condensate
preheating systemupstreamof the condensate
preheater.
The HP pump discharge lines are connected
toa commonheader, whichdelivers feedwater
to the HP part of the HRSG. IP feedwater is
tapped from a specific pump stage. The
tapping lines are connected to a common
header, which delivers the feedwater to the IP
part of the HRSG.
Another tapping point of the feedwater
pump is used to recirculate feedwater via a
common header to the condensate preheating
system.
Under normal operating conditions,
feedwater is discharged by one of the two
feedwater pumps via the HP/IP economisers
of the HRSGinto the HP evaporator and into
the IP drum. The other pump is in stand-by.
In case of failure of the operating feedwater
pump, the standby pump cuts in
automatically.
The HP, IP and LP steam generated in the
HRSG is fed to the steam turbine via the
related steam piping system. The expanded
HP steam is fed back to the boiler via the cold
reheat line and is mixed with the superheated
IP steam. All of the IP steam is superheated
further inthe reheater andfedtothe IPsection
of the steam turbine.
In order to achieve short start-up times and
to control turbine trips a turbine bypass
systemis provided. The bypass systemconsists
of the HP bypass connected to the cold reheat
as well as the IP and LP bypass, both dumped
to the condenser, and with related
attemperation systems. The bypass control
valves are equipped with hydraulic drives.
A fuel gas preheating system preheats the
fuel gas to approximately 215C in order to
increase the efficiency of the power plant.
Accordingly, IP feedwater is extracted from
the IP economiser and routed via the fuel gas
preheater tothe condensate preheating system
upstreamof the HRSGcondensate preheater.
Downstreamof the fuel gas preheater amass
flow control valve is provided to control the
fuel gas temperature at the outlet of the fuel
gas preheater. To guarantee a sufficient mass
flow through the preheater at part load and
during preheater start-up conditions and to
limit the temperature gradient at the preheater
a recirculation pump is installed. This pump
returns cold condensate from the outlet of the
preheater to the inlet via a recirculation
control valve.
Auxiliary steamis supplied to the seal steam
system of the steam turbine and to the
evaporators of the HRSGfor warming during
plant standstill.
The auxiliary steam piping system receives
saturated steam either from the LP
drum steam header or
from the auxiliary boiler of the existing units
depending onthe operationmode of the plant.
During normal combined cycle operation the
auxiliary steamis delivered fromthe LPsteam
generating system.
The cooling water systemconsists of 2 x 50%
seawater lift pumps, 2 x 50%circulating water
pumps as well as a 1 x 100 % seawater cooling
pump.
The circulating water system absorbs the
heat from the steam surface condenser of the
steam turbine, and transfers this heat to the
seawater.
Also, there is anadditional seawater cooling
pump which enables holding of vacuum and
remaining cooling of the closed cooling water
coolers during short
downtimes of the power
plant without the main
cooling water pumps
running. The service cooling
water system
Schematic process diagram
Cutaway of Bugok 3
014_020mps0911Bugok:1 30/8/11 11:07 Page 18
COMBINEDCYCLE
absorbs the heat fromthe closedcooling water
system.
The closed cooling water system, equipped
with plate type heat exchangers, cools the
equipment andcomponents of the gas turbine,
the steam turbine and the water/steam cycle.
Electrical system
The generator is connected to the generator
transformer via an isolated phase busduct. A
generator circuit breaker is installed between
the generator and the tee-off connections to
the unit auxiliary transformer, excitation
transformer and static frequency converter
transformer.
The low voltage transformers and large
motors are supplied from the medium voltage
switchgear.
AnemergencyACsupplysystemis provided
ensuring the supply of AC power to essential
loads in case of complete loss of the main AC
power system.
The uninterruptible power supply consists
of 220 V DC battery and chargers, 125 V DC
battery and chargers, 24 V DC (220/24 V
DC/DC converters) and 460 V AC (inverter),
208/120 V AC (inverter) systems.
The 220 V DC and 125V DC system
provides power for designated consumers (eg,
emergency oil pumps, protection, control
voltage, inverter infeed).
The 220VDCand 125VDCsystemconsists
of 2 x 100% battery chargers connected via
individual fuses to one 100% battery. One
battery charger is supplied from the normal
AC system, the other one is supplied from the
emergency diesel AC bus. The battery has an
adequate capacity to supply the emergency
loads for 1 hour.
The 24 VDCsystemis poweredvia 2 x 100%
redundant DC/DCconverters. Their in-feedis
takenfromthe 220VDCbatterysystem. Main
consumers of 24 V DC are the DCS cabinets.
The main control and monitoring functions
of the electrical equipment are integrated into
the DCS in order to minimise the required local
control andmonitoringactivities. Alsothemain
automatics and interlocks are realised in the
DCS. Safety relevant interlocks, eg, grounding
switches and protection, are hardwired.
The DCS system automatic control
programensures that there is minimal needfor
manual intervention in the control of the
electrical system.
During start-up, the unit auxiliaries and the
relevant stationservice loads are fedbythe HV
grid via the generator transformer and unit
auxiliary transformer. The generator circuit
breaker is open.
The start-up sequence is automated by the
main DCS. The gas turbine is accelerated by
the start-up frequency converter with the
generator in motor operation and minimum
required excitation. After reaching
synchronisation conditions and closing the
generator breaker, the generator takes over
the auxiliary power supply of the unit and
provides power to the network.
If the unit is inislandoperation(withthe HV
breaker open), it canbereconnectedtothegrid
by closing the HV breaker under the
supervision of the synchronisation
equipment.
During normal operation of the power
plant, the auxiliary power will be provided by
the generator via the unit auxiliary
transformer.
During a normal shutdown, the generated
power is reduced steadily until the generator
circuit breaker or the HV circuit breaker can
be opened. The auxiliarypower is providedvia
the respective unit auxiliary transformer from
the HV grid without interruption.
In the case of an emergency shutdown
causedby a mainfailure inthe auxiliary power
supply, the required power for a safe shut
down is provided by the battery and the
emergency AC supply system.
Instrumentation and control
The Bugok 3 combined cycle plant will be
equipped with an SPPA-T3000 (Siemens
Power Plant Automation Teleperm 3000)
distributed control system.
The system uses continuous information
flow, consistent data management and
storage, flexible instrumentation and control
concepts, and uniform humanmachine
interface (HMI) platforms to perform
necessary automation, operational control,
and data monitoring for the plant.
The SPPA-T3000 DCS has a hierarchical
structure. Design features include: a plant-
oriented process control structure that
provides operational functions, combined
with monitoring and diagnostic capability; a
redundant, modular structure capable of
future expansion by adding equipment as
required; and an open local area network
(LAN) structure for interfacing to other
automation systems and external computer
networks.
The SPPA-T3000 DCS consists of a three-
tier architecture based on a server/client
networking structure.
The 100 Mbit Ethernet bus system provides
the communication between the
humanmachine interface, the automation
servers and the application server that
provides all necessary functions for plant
engineering, operation monitoring,
diagnostics and storing of process data.
A basic concept of the system is the use of
what are called embedded component
services, which means that all process-
relevant data is embedded into every single
component. This component-embedded
approach allows all data to be intrinsically
available for operation, engineering or
diagnostics.
An important advantage of this structure is
keeping the user interfaces (thin clients)
independent of other applications.
The thin clients present information
regarding engineering, operation, and
diagnostics and standard industrial PCs
running just a web browser perform this task.
The web-based system structure allows the
use of a wide range of hardware such as
standard PCs or notebooks that can run a web
browser.
The server/client structure means that HMI
applications are available at multiple
locations. There is no need for special
hardware or software for engineering and
operationfunctions. Terminals are identical in
access capability. Limitations need be defined
only by the authorisation system where the
access rights are configured. This approach
allows for highly flexible configurations for a
wide range of power plant process control
applications.
The main benefits of the SPPA-T3000
software architecture are: consistent views at
any time; only one data management location;
integrated I&C, plant display, alarm,
diagnostics and engineering; no code
generation and separate down-loading
activities; no subsystems such as engineering
stations, operating stations and diagnostics
computers.
The SPPA-T3000 control system is
functionally and physically distributed and is
subdivided into functional areas to create a
modular configuration. The functional
separation is by major systems: gas turbine;
steamturbine; heat recovery steamgenerator;
water/steamcycle; and ancillary and auxiliary
systems.
Technology showcase
The 60 Hz Bugok 3 plant, now under
construction, will embody some of the most
advanced features available today in
combined cycle technology, producing over
415 MW on one shaft. The plant is capable of
an efficiency of over 60% (LHV basis), with
very advanced steam conditions. But at the
same time it has immense operational
flexibility, able to hot start in less than 30
minutes (hot start on the fly conditions), to
deload very quickly and also to provide
excellent frequency response capabilities. The
HRSGwithBensontype HPstage contributes
tothe fast cyclingperformance characteristics.
Overall, Bugok 3 represents an optimal
balance between capital costs, plant
performance and operation & maintenance
factors. MPS
3-tier architecture of the SPPA-T3000
014_020mps0911Bugok:1 30/8/11 11:10 Page 20
www.siemens.com/energy
This article appeared in:
Modern Power Systems
September 2011, Page 14 20
Copyright 2011 by
Modern Power Systems
This reprint is published by:
Siemens AG
Energy Sector
Freyeslebenstrasse 1
91058 Erlangen, Germany
Siemens Energy, Inc.
4400 Alafaya Trail
Orlando, FL 32826-2399, USA
For more information, please contact
our Customer Support Center.
Phone: +49 180/524 70 00
Fax: +49 180/524 24 71
(Charges depending on provider)
E-mail: support.energy@siemens.com
Fossil Power Generation Division
Order No. E50001-W220-A139-X-4A00
Printed in UK
Dispo 05400, c4bs No. 7813
TH 224-110891 MPS 432045 SD 09112.0
Printed on elementary chlorine-free bleached paper.
All rights reserved.
Trademarks mentioned in this document
are the property of Siemens AG, its affiliates,
or their respective owners.
Subject to change without prior notice.
The information in this document contains general
descriptions of the technical options available, which
may not apply in all cases. The required technical
options should therefore be specified in the contract.