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NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

FOR CLEAN ENERGY

UC Santa Barbara
November 9, 2009

EXTERNAL USE
Applied Materials – Who We Are

 Founded in 1967 in Silicon Valley
 Global leader in Nanomanufacturing
Technology™ solutions with a portfolio
of equipment, service and software
products for the fabrication of:
– Semiconductor chips (#1)
– Flat panel displays (#1)
– Solar PV modules (#1)
– Flexible electronics
– Energy efficient glass
 NASDAQ-100, S&P 500, Fortune 500
 Invest $1B in R&D per year for 5 years
 Extensive global interactions
– Operate in > 20 countries
– Revenue typically > 80% outside US

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EXTERNAL USE
Nanotechnology and Nanoelectronics

 “I can hardly doubt that when we have
some control of the arrangement of
things on a small scale, we will get an
enormously greater range of possible
properties that substances can have,
and of different things that we can do.”
– R. Feynman (1959)
 “The aim of electronics should be …
to perform needed systems functions SiGe SiGe

as directly, as simply, and as
economically as possible from
relevant knowledge of energy-matter
interactions” – J. A. Morton (1965)

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EXTERNAL USE
Nanomanufacturing Technology
Small features on a large production scale

Up?
ale
Sc

Ad
d
Inn itiona
ova l
tion

Placing a nanotube?

More Than Nanofabrication – Repeatable, Robust, Reliable,
Controllable and Cost Effective
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EXTERNAL USE
Miniaturization: Benefits to Transistor Scaling
1T 100
45nm

DSP AA Battery Hours
90nm

Speech
Bits/Chip

1G 0.25um

50
1um

1M
Video

1K 0
1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Year Technology (um)

Classic scaling = decrease dimensions by k and drop voltage by k:
 Circuit area reduced by 1/k2, speed increased by k
 Power per circuit reduced by 1/k2, power per area constant

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EXTERNAL USE
Moore's Law and the VLSI Learning Curve

1968 "Reduced cost is one of the big attractions of
$1.00
Average Cost Per Transistor

integrated electronics, and the cost advantage
continues to increase as the technology evolves
toward the production of larger and larger circuit
1¢ 1978 functions on a single semiconductor substrate,"
– Gordon Moore, 1965
$1B

1m¢ 1988

1998
$200

100n$ 2008F
Nanoelectronics Era
1n$
1 1K 1M 1B 1T

Number of Transistors Produced
(Adapted from G. Moore, ISSCC 2003)

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EXTERNAL USE
Critical and Common Driver: Cost Per Function

Process Cost
Area

Cost
Function

(Good) Function
Area

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EXTERNAL USE
Cost Per Function: VLSI Technology

Process Cost
Area

Cost
Function

(Good) Function
193nm SADP
Area
Scaling has been the primary cost
driver for ICs – but not at an
overcompensating increase in
process cost/area

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EXTERNAL USE
Integrated Hi-k/Metal Gate Stack Processing

Metal Gates for
nMOS and pMOS

Hi-K layer for low
leakage

High mobility
Graded interface layer
transition layer

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EXTERNAL USE
Flat Panel Display (LCD) Manufacturing

LCD Industry Revenue ($B) Production Cost per Area (k$/m2)
120 100
2011
100 60 ” ~$1000
80 10

60
2008
42 ” ~$1000
40 1
2004
20 20 ” ~$1000

0 0.1

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

> 20% Bigger (HD)TV Every Year for the Same Price

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EXTERNAL USE
TFT-LCD Manufacturing Process

Array Process CF Process Cell Process Module Process

Glass Substrate Form Black Matrix
Apply Pl film Completed
Cell
Sputtering
CVD Coat color resist
Rub
Expose through Tab IC
mask Apply
Coat Sealant
Photoresist
Attach
Spacers Bond Drivers
Expose to Glass & PCB
Develop, Panel
Post, Bake Assembly
Develop
Repeat for Green
and blue Inject LC
Backlight
Etch
Apply protective Unit
film
Strip
Photoresist Seal

Deposit ITO Completed
common electrode TFT Module
Attach
Completed Polarizers
array structure/
Array test

Source: Display Search

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EXTERNAL USE
Cost Per Function: Flat Panel Displays

Process Cost
Area

Applied PECVD 5.7 Cost
Function

(Good) Function
AKT-PIVOT™ 55KV PVD
Area

Cost per area tends to be an
equivalent or predominant factor in
Courtesy Sharp applications other than VLSI

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EXTERNAL USE
Flat Panel Display Equipment – PECVD
Gen 10 AKT-90K PECVD

Gen 2 Gen 3 / 3.5 Gen 4 Gen 5 Gen 5 Gen 5.5 Gen 6 Gen 7 / 7.5 Gen 8
1st Release 2/ '93~ 4/ '95~ 1/ '00~ 8/ '01~ 6/ '02~ 8/ '04~ 5/ '03~ 7/ '04~ 2006

System
Layout

ACLS ACLS ACLS ACLS ACLS

1600 3500 / 4300 / 4300A 15K / 15KA 20K 25K / 25KA 40K / 40KA 50K
Model 5500/5500A 10K
550x650 1300x1500 1500x1800 1870x2200 2160x2460
Substrate 370x470 680x880 1000x1200 1100x1250
600x720

Gen 10 = 60nm uniformity over ~ 1019 nm2 area at 50sph
Size (mm) 400x500 730x920 1200x1300 1500x1850 1950x2250
620x750
Substrate 2,000 cm2 4,650 cm2 6,716 cm2 12,000 cm2 15,600 cm2 19,500 cm2 27,750 cm2 41,140 cm2 53,136 cm2
Area (1.00) (2.33 from 1600) (1.44 from 4300) (1.79 from 5500) (1.30 from 10K) (1.25 from 15 K) (1.78 from 15 K) (1.52 from 25 K) (1.21 from 40 KA)

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EXTERNAL USE
Nanomanufacturing Opportunities In Energy

Energy Energy Energy
Conservation Generation Storage

Technology to improve performance, form and cost

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EXTERNAL USE
Nanomanufacturing Opportunities In Energy

Energy Energy Energy
Conservation Generation Storage

Technology to improve performance, form and cost

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EXTERNAL USE
US Electricity Usage

Residential (2001) Commercial (2003)

Other, 10% HVAC, 31%
Lighting, 38%
Other, 15%
Laundry, 7%
Office
Home
Equipment,
Electronics,
6%
7%
Refrigeration
Lighting, 9% 11%

Water Heater,
9% Kitchen HVAC, 30%
Appliances,
27%

HVAC and Lighting are major uses of electricity
Source: EIA

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EXTERNAL USE
Reducing HVAC Energy: Architectural Coated Glass

Cost Reductions Achieved
with Low -e Coatings
700

Annual Energy Expenditures ($)
600

Phoenix
500

400
San Antonio
300

Low-e Coatings

2000 ft2 house with 300 ft2 of windows

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EXTERNAL USE
Increasing Adoption of Coated Glass
Bird’s Nest Stadium (Beijing) Burj Dubai (UAE) Main Triangle Building (Frankfurt)
Shanghai SYP Engineering Glass Co. Guardian Industries Guardian Industries
10,000m2 of high performance Low-E glass 100,000m2 SunGuard® Solar Control 15,000m2 SunGuard® Solar Control
and Low-E coated glass and Low-E coated glass

House of Sweden (Washington DC)
AGC Flat Glass
5500m2 Stopray® Elite
and Stopray® Carat glass

Savings from 2007 Global Output ~ 36,000 Bbl/day†
† Equivalent to 12 oil wells or 18Mt CO2
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EXTERNAL USE
Large Area Glass Coating Systems

 Glass Substrate is ~ 2.6 m x 3.6 m
– Uniformity Spec of +/- 1% on 275 nm film (10 layer Triple Low e stack)
 18 Chamber System ~ 90m: one panel every 20 sec
– Annual output ~ 10 million m2 (10 km2)
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EXTERNAL USE
Electrochromic "Smart Glass"

Key Requirements for Market Adoption:
 Performance: Energy efficiency, lifetime
 Form: Color selection, match non-EC panes, pane-to-pane
consistency, large size panes, on-off
 Cost: At least comparable to Low-e glass + shades
Typical Structure
 ~ 10 metal/dielectric layers, most < 100nm thick (up to ~ 500nm)
Images courtesy of Sage Electrochromics
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EXTERNAL USE
Lighting Sources for General Illumination
Device Metric 2002 2007 2010 2012 2015
HB-LED Efficacy, lm/W 25 68 113 135 168
Lifetime, Khrs 20 37 50 50 50
Cost*, $/klm $200 $37 $10 $5 $2
OLED Efficacy, lm/W 18 35 53 100
Lifetime, Khrs 2 16 25 40
Cost*, $/klm $139 $52 $27 $10
Efficacy, lm/W 10-18
Lifetime, Khrs 1
Cost*, $/klm $0.4
Efficacy, lm/W 35-60
Lifetime, Khrs 10
Cost*, $/klm $2

Need ~ 10x Lumens Cost Reduction for General Illumination

Source: DOE, SSL Program *Capital Cost
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EXTERNAL USE
Improvements to Reach 10X Cost Reduction

Manufacturing Cost
≥ 2x reduction
$/m2

Reducing HB LED
$/lm

Luminous Efficacy
≥ 4x increase lm/m2
Luminous Power
Efficiency Density
≥ 2x increase ≥ 2x increase
lm/watt watts/m2

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EXTERNAL USE
Complementary SSL Approaches
HBLED
Point Sources
InGaN MQWs and Backlights

Focus on
uGaN + n-GaN efficacy, R2R
uniformity,
COC/COO

OLED
Large Area Tiles

Focus on
efficacy, lifetime,
COC/COO

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EXTERNAL USE
Building HBLED Off a Strong Foundation

SiGe SiGe

Applied Centura®: Leader in Si/SiGe epi for ICs

"With this new reactor, you can produce run after run of
LEDs in production quantities, to the tightest specs …without
tearing down the system between runs." (1971)
Applied OLED deposition tool in pilot production

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EXTERNAL USE
LED Near Term Focus on Backlight Inflection

General Illumination
Relative LED Unit Shipments

Backlighting

Specialty LED

1980 1990 2000 2010F 2020F

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EXTERNAL USE
Nanomanufacturing Opportunities In Energy

Energy Energy Energy
Conservation Generation Storage

Technology to improve performance, form and cost

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EXTERNAL USE
Solar/PV and the 1970s Energy Crisis
 "I will soon submit legislation to Congress calling for the
creation of this Nation's first solar bank, which will help us
achieve the crucial goal of 20 percent of our energy coming
from solar power by the year 2000." – Jimmy Carter, 1979

Installed Removed
1979 1986

White House West Wing - 1984 White House West Wing - 1992

 "The administration has significantly reoriented the country's
approach to energy matters in the past 2 years." – Ronald
Reagan, 1983

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EXTERNAL USE
The Problem was the Economics…

Electricity Prices – 1980
100
Retail Electricity
(Constant 2000 Currency)

80
Wind
Cents Per kWh

60 Solar PV

40 Solar Thermal

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Includes:
0 No incentives
No Carbon impact

Sources: NREL, DOE

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EXTERNAL USE
Solar PV Learning Curves: cSi and TF
$100 Cost / m2
Historical Prices $ Production / Watt =
Watt / m2
Module Price (2006 $/Wp)

1980 > $1 per kWh equivalent PV electricity cost

c-Si
$10

Polysilicon
shortage Broadest
2007 applications,
Ideal for large 2008 cSi
ground mounted Thin dominant for
Thin Film 2007 rooftops
systems due to Film 2008
$2 cost and scale 2009
2009 $1.00/W @ >100 GW
$1.00/W @ <20 GW
$1
1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000
Cumulative Production (MWp)

Common focus to drive down cost per watt
Source: Adapted from National Renewable Energy Laboratory
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EXTERNAL USE
Behind the PV Learning Curve

Cost / m2
$ Production / Watt =
Watt / m2

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EXTERNAL USE
Crystalline Silicon PV Value Chain
Wafer or Distribution,
Poly-Si Ingot Cell Module
Sheet Integration &
Feedstock Production Production Assembly
Production Installation

MC

Cz

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EXTERNAL USE
Crystalline Solar Cells: Working Principle

Front contact

Ar and passivation coating (Silicon Nitride)

 Increase efficiency by optimized
H Passivated dangling bond
(surface passivation)
light coupling
H passivated dangling  Increase efficiency by passivating
bond (volume passivation)
H
+ + dangling bonds
- - +
H
 Homogeneous optical appearance
H
+
- H
- P-type crystalline silicon wafer with diffused
A
electron trap N-type emitter and back surface field (BSF)
(dangling bond)

Metal back contact

Keys: Thin wafers + low process cost + conversion efficiency

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EXTERNAL USE
High Productivity Silicon Wafering

 4 ingots concurrently
 Dual wire per motor pair
 20 m/sec wire speed
 ~ 24K wafers per cut*
Applied MaxEdge™
 > 13MWp per year
* with 120µm wire
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EXTERNAL USE
Thin Wafer Processing

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EXTERNAL USE
Advanced Multi-Layer Passivation

 Low Interface State Density
 Optically Thin
 Stable After Contact Firing

4000

Lifetime (!Sec)
3000

2000

1000

0
Nitride Composite
Stack

High Thruput, Uptime, Uniformity + Tailored (Nano) Thin Films

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EXTERNAL USE
High Throughput Printing Technology

Double Print

60µm

80µm

Selective Emitter

 High throughput (1000-3000wph)
 Low breakage for thin wafers (to 100um)
 Aligned printing accuracy (~10um)
 Additional print steps to increase efficiency

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EXTERNAL USE
High Efficiency Commercial Silicon PV Cells
All Back Contact (Sunpower) HIT Cell (Sanyo)

• Back contact structure • Heterointerface creates a
minimizes series resistance minority carrier mirror and
and recombination loss improves thermal dependence
• 22.4% cell efficiency achieved • 22.3% cell efficiency achieved
Source: D. DeCeuster et.al., Eur. PVSEC-22, 2007 Source: Y. Tsunomura et.al., Intl. PVSEC-17, 2007

Comes at Additional Process Complexity
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EXTERNAL USE
Integrated Process Control: From Tool to Factory Level

• Higher efficiency processes add steps
• 9 → 14 can add ~ 3% efficiency
• Integrated factory control avoids increased spread
in efficiency distribution

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EXTERNAL USE
Thin Film PV Value Chain
Wafer or Cell Distribution,
Module
Sheet Production Integration &
Assembly
Production (Si, CdTe, CIS) Installation

Cut Slabs Short Passivation
& Coupons & Cell Definition

Bond Finishing & Laminate &
Electrodes Framing Autoclave

Cut Module
Hi-Pot Test
Cells Test & Ship

Source: Unisolar

FOV: 200.0 !m 10.000 keV 50.0 !m
! 139 flexi-solar 11/29/2007

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EXTERNAL USE
Basic Single Junction a-Si Solar Cell
6-6.5% Efficient with Production Costs ~$1.00-1.25/Wp

Standard soda-lime glass for
single junction; possible low
iron glass for tandem junction

“TCO” -- Typically provided by
glass company; tandem
structures may use ZnO

PECVD deposition – most
important for efficiency, capital
and operating costs

PVD deposition (RF sputter)

Interconnections PVD deposition
formed by laser scribe

Keys: Large substrates + low process cost + conversion efficiency

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EXTERNAL USE
SunFab Thin Film PV Production Line
SunFab™ 5.7m2 TF Module

Cost / m2
Watt / m2

Leverage Learning in LCD to Drive Costs with Large Area Processing
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41 EXTERNAL USE
SunFab™ 5.7m2 TF Production Line

Platt's Green Energy Innovator of the Year Award (2007)
Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation Award – Energy
(2008)
42 (Illustration only, actual configuration varies)
EXTERNAL USE
SunFab™ 5.7m2 Thin Film Si Technology

Number of Sunlight Photons (m s micron ) E+19
5 67

Relative External Quantum Efficiency, %
a-Si:H junction µc-Si:H junction 67 µc-Si fraction (%)

-1
66
Glass Substrate 100
4 64

-2 -1
TCO 65
80
TCO 66
3
a-Si 66
Amorphous Silicon
60 65

2 65

40 66
68
mc-Si Microcrystalline 1 67
Silicon
20
66
AM 1.5 global spectrum 68
0 0 2
sputtered & etched

AZO
ZnO - lab type

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
Test results over 5.7m 68
Ag 68
Back Contact Wavelength, microns

0.5 µm

High efficiency elements
 aSi/uSi tandem junction
 Optimized TCO contact
 Laser pattern size/alignment
 Reflective back contact
 Advanced ARCs
 Light steering layers
 Triple junction structures

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EXTERNAL USE
High Efficiency TF Silicon Cells
Tandem Junction with Interlayer Triple Junction on Foil

Glass
Glass
TCO
TCO
a-Si:H
A-Si Top Cell
a-SiGe:H
Interlayer
Thin film µm-Si
Bottom Cell nc-Si:H

Back Reflector TCO
Ag

Stainless

Interlayer optimizes light capture 15.1% initial efficiency
13.3% stable efficiency
Initial cell efficiency of 15.0% achieved
Source: B. Yan et. al.,
2006 IEEE WCPEC,
Source: S. Fukuda et.al., Eur. PVSEC-21, 2006 pp. 1477-1480

TF Silicon Has Paths to Higher Efficiency
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EXTERNAL USE
Downstream Advantages Add to Module Value

TF Panels Have
Higher Energy Yield
per MW Installed

Typically 5-15% in summer

Large TF Panels
Have Lower BOS
for Utility Scale
> 17%† equivalent to a minimum
of and additional +2% efficiency

† Source: 2 top German installers

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EXTERNAL USE
Building Integrated PV (BIPV)

(BIPV images courtesy of Schüco)
 Allows inclusion in low area rooftop applications
 Serves dual purpose as construction material and energy generator
 Larger 5.7m2 panel size is enabling
– Large panes without gluing, avoids mismatch
– Significantly reduces cost

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EXTERNAL USE
PV Economics: Today and Forward Roadmap
SunFab Thin Film SunFab Thin Film Crystalline Si
New Technology Near Term Roadmap (2008)
N.Carolina
1,491 KWh/KW
14% 13% 12% 11% 10% 8% 9% CoC
Model
Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) - $/KWh

US Southwest
1,800 KWh/KW

$14/MMBTU
2% COC

x $6/MMBTU

Large Scale Ground Mounted
System with 30% US ITC

Installed Cost - $/Wp

Known Technology Learning Will Compete with Load Following
Source: IHS/CERA, Applied Materials

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EXTERNAL USE
Nanomanufacturing Opportunities In Energy

Energy Energy Energy
Conservation Generation Storage

Technology to improve performance, form and cost

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EXTERNAL USE
(Small)
Range of Energy Storage Markets

Miniature Batteries
(100mWh – 2Wh)
Electric watches, calculators,
implanted medical devices

Batteries for Portable Equipment
(2Wh – 100Wh)
Flashlights, toys, power tools, portable radio
and TV, mobile phones, camcorders, lap-top
computers, memory refreshing, instruments,
cordless devices, wireless peripherals

Transportable Batteries
Physical Size

(Starting, Lighting & Ignition)
(100Wh – 1,000Wh)
Cars, trucks, buses, lawn mowers,
wheel chairs, robots

Large Vehicle Batteries
(1kWh – 1,000kWh)
Trucks, traction, locomotives,
regenerative braking

Regenerative
Stationary Batteries
Braking
(0.25MWh – 5MWh)
Emergency power, local energy Large Energy Storage
storage, remote relay stations, (5MWh – 100MWh)
communication base stations,
(Large)

UPS Frequency regulation,
uninterruptible power supplies (UPS). Spinning reserve, peak
shaving, load leveling

(Low) Energy (High)

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EXTERNAL USE
Batteries: Remaining Frontier in System Miniaturization

Sources: TagSense, IMEC,
UCBWRC, MicroChip

Drive cost/mAh → minimize cost/mm2 & maximize mAh/mm2

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EXTERNAL USE
HEV Battery Development Roadmap
Improved battery Advanced
Next generation
Year 2010 Battery
battery
Cost: ½ Year 2015
Cost: 1/10?
$1000 /kWh Cost: 1/7
$200 /kWh
$300 /kWh
Innovative battery
Year 2030~
Cost: 1/40
$50 /kWh

Current cost
$2000 /kWh 700 Wh/kg

• Source: Iwai Yamamoto, Mitsubishi Chemical Group,GIES Symposium 2008

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EXTERNAL USE
Lithium Ion Cell: Manufacturing Tool Set

Electrode Process Final Assembly and Module and
Cell Assembly
Formation Pack Assembly

Slurry Mixing Electrode
Metrology
Stacking

Coating Cell Cell Interconnects
Case
Testing and Electronics
Assembly

Annealing Final Pack
Electrolyte Final Cell
Filling Assembly Assembly

Calendaring Final Test
Sealing and Formation And Sorting
Lamination and Ageing

Slitting

3D Electrode 3D CNT Electrode

(Sources: Applied Materials, MIT)

Le(1-x)FePO4

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EXTERNAL USE
Related Opportunities for Semiconductors

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EXTERNAL USE
Summary and Conclusions
 Nanomanufacturing technology is
already the foundation of several
large markets
– More than just thin/small features
– Cost/fn is a common factor across
virtually all commercial applications
 Challenges in energy represent
great technical, business and
societal opportunities
– Nanomanufacturing technologies
can enable market-making cost &
performance
 Promising opportunities exist
across a number of applications
– Glass, LED, PV, Batteries

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EXTERNAL USE
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EXTERNAL USE