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Megan Barrera

Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

Thesis Statement: Between 1948 and 1994, the Nationalist Party of South Africa created
a campaign called Apartheid that affected Colored and Bantu Africans by revoking their
common human rights and, because of this, activist groups willingly took the
responsibility to end the campaign.

Primary Resources

AFP/Getty Images. Soweto Riot. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-
CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Nov. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/845886?terms=black+consciousness

According to the photo, the Soweto riot was a protest march that pertained to
education. The caption states that it was due to Bantus not agreeing with the
Afrikaners only teaching European education. By looking at the photo, there is a
large turn out in the march, so it demonstrates the support from Bantu citizens.
This photo is used in my project as a visual representation that explains the support
the Anti-Apartheid movement had, by all who were affected.

African National Congress. Flag of the African National Congress. Digital image. World
History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/420891?terms=african+national+congre
ss

The photo is of the African National Congress (ANC)’s flag, which is colored
yellow, black, and green. It features a hand holding a spear and a shield. This has
significance because it represents the “spear of the nation”, or the organization’s
turn to violence to get their point across. The flag is used in my project as a visual
to support information on the ANC and their campaigns.

African National Congress. “The Freedom Charter.” The Freedom Charter. N.p., n.d.
1955. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://www.anc.org.za/show.php?id=72

According to the Freedom Charter of 1955, the people will govern, have equal
rights, share the country’s wealth, share landholdings, and have equal human
rights. The people of South Africa should connect and leave behind the social
issues tied with the Apartheid. This charter is useful because it shows what the
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

Anti-Apartheid movements were striving for. It is used in my assignment as an
example of what rights colored and Bantu Africans wanted to gain back that were
taken away due to the mass separation.

ANC. ANC Youth League. Digital image. African National Congress. African National
Congress, Apr. 1944. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://ancarchives.org.za/anc-youth-league/

According to the photo, there are participants of the ANC Youth League. Nelson
Mandela, Walter Sisulu, and Oliver Tambo founded this program. The purpose of
the program was to allow young adults to participate in the movement, which it did
and they worked closely with the ANC parent group. This photo is used in my
project as a visual showing how activists group could come together in order to
accomplish their responsibility.

Apartheid: The Tyranny of Racism Made Law. Digital Image. U.N. New and Media
Photos. United Nations, New York, 1 Jan. 1982. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://www.unmultimedia.org/photo/detail.jsp?id=116/116451&key=154&
query=subject:Apartheid&lang=en&so=0&sf=date

The image shows a graveyard in a single colored African homeland where it
appears to be crowded with handmade headstones. In the caption, it states a
demographic of how nearly half of the colored children in these homelands
died before reaching five years old, while white Europeans didn’t suffer from
many medical issues. It is useful because it shows the lack of rights they were
given, such as medical requirements. It is used in my assignment as an
example supporting my argument.

AP Images. “Sign in South Africa before the end of the Apartheid.” Literary Movements
for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Literary Movements.
Ed. Ira Mark Milne. 2
nd
ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2009. World History in Context.
Web. 14 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetails
Window?total=49&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&currPage=1&s
ortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&query=BS+apartheid&prodId=WHIC&actio
n=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CPC3279387164&userGroupName=lvccld
_main&jsid=d7e4f79ff6d7b533773fadecf265492
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided


This image shows one of he guidelines given to colored citizens during the
Apartheid. Many of the laws, including this one, made during the time were to
distance the white and colored groups and support segregation. Specifically,
this sign demonstrates the rules colored shop owners had to follow, which
included placing the guidelines visible in their shop. It is useful because it
shows the regulations and includes one specific law.

AP Photo. Nelson Mandela Addresses Crowd in Soweto. Digital image. World
Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec.
2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldgeography.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/1838274?terms=nelson%20mand
ela&webSiteCode=SLN_WGEO&returnToPage=%2fSearch%2fDisplay%2f183
8274%3fterms%3dnelson+mandela&token=D0013ACB70F70A1BC561BDF8
8FD2F7DD&casError=False

This photo demonstrates Nelson Mandela’s leadership and authority. It
depicts him presenting a speech in 1990. This is after his release from prison,
and it seems that he is supporting triumph that the participation of all the
citizens helped abolish the Apartheid. It is used in my project to demonstrate
how Nelson remained a leader due to his persistence and focus on ending
Apartheid.

AP Photo. South Africa's Foreign Minister Burned in Effigy by Anti-apartheid Protestors.
Digital image. World History in Context: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013.
Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/1768405?terms=apartheid

In the photo, there is a crowd of protestors carrying signs supporting an end to
racism. An effigy is simply a figure made for hatred, so the burning man is a figure
of the foreign minister. South Africa was a disappointing sight for the U.N. when
Eric Louw showed his support for pro-Apartheid. It is used in my assignment as a
reference to show how non-violent protests occurred during the Apartheid and
what they would campaign against.


AP/Wide World Photos. Non-European South Africans Defy Apartheid Restrictions.
Digital image. World History in Context. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2010. Web. 6
Dec. 2013.
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided


Document URL:
http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetailsWin
dow?total=1&query=OQE+non-
european+south+africans+defy&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=normal&mode=vie
w&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_main&currPage=1&dis
playGroh

This photo depicts the Defiance Campaign of 1952 and how the Bantu and colored
Africans refused to carry their required passbooks, which was led by Walter
Sisulu. Pertaining to this situation, officials began to apprehend the citizens in
Boksburg, South Africa. It is used in my project as a visual of how activists would
still keep to their responsibility, even when their plan didn’t go accordingly.

AP/Wide World Photos. Stephen Biko. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era.
ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/301158?terms=stephen+biko

This image is a photograph of Stephen Biko. He was the founder of the Black
Consciousness and one of the most important key contributors of the Anti-
Apartheid movement. It is useful because it offers a face to one of the people who
significantly affected the Apartheid situation. It is used in my assignment as a
reference as to who Stephen Biko was.

Archambault, G.H. “Transition Hard for South Africa.” New York Times 3 Jan. 1951:
69. Print.

Archambault, G.H. “Transition Hard for South Africa.” Editorial. New York Times 3 Jan.
1951: 69. Historical Newspapers. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-
hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searcha
lleras&start=1&rendition=x-article-
image&inmylist=false&urn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3BHNP%
3BPQD%3BHNP%3BPROD%3Bx-article-
image%3B89769280&mylisturn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3B
HNP%3BPQD%3BHNP%3BROD%3Bx-citation%3B89769280

Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

According to G.H. Archambault, the movement of an agricultural society to an
industrial society was quite difficult. White Europeans do not agree with
training colored Africans because they didn’t believe they can be skilled in
any way. It is useful because it demonstrates how the Apartheid affected the
economy as an overall unit and shows that colored Africans were exiled in a
way. The newspaper article is useful because it offers evidence as to how the
separation was reflected on through everyday work.

Biko, Stephen. Bantu Stephen Biko- Architect of Black Consciousness Manifesto- Rare
TV Interview South African History Online. Perf. Stephen Biko. Bantu Stephen
Biko- Architect of Black Consciousness Manifesto- Rare TV Interview | South
African History Online. South African History Online, n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.

Document URL:
http://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/bantu-steve-biko-architect-black-
consciousness-manifesto-rare-tv-interview

According to the interview of Stephen Biko, he stated what the main effort had
been against Apartheid for the activist groups. They wanted to eliminate the ideas
of minority and majority racial groups so there would not be any discrimination,
just people as equals. The interview is used in my project because it provides a
primary account of my key contributors to explain first-hand what they wanted to
change in South African society.

Biko, Stephen. "Stephen Biko: quote on race relations." World History: The Modern Era.
ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 Dec. 2013

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/335738?terms=stephen
biko&webSiteCode=SLN_HMOD&returnToPage=%2fSearch%2fDisplay%2f33
5738%3fterms=stephen+biko&token=D0013ACB70F70A1BC561BDF88FD2F7
DD&casError=False

According to the quote by Stephen Biko, he wanted to end the negative
reputation and show Afrikaners who Bantu and colored Africans really were.
At the end, he states that they will ask if they want to join them on their
clearly defined terms. It is used in my assignment as a representation of what
the activists actually wanted. They did not care for “winning” but more so
becoming whole with society.

Clegg, Johnny. "Asimbonanga." Asimbonanga/Biko. Soweto Gospel Choir. N.d. MP3.

In this audio recording, the artist is talking about how Nelson Mandela was
taken and the citizens can’t see him. It mentions some key contributors that
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

worked alongside him. This is useful because it is about the Apartheid and a
specific situation. It is used in my assignment for aesthetics and its meaning.

Corel. Resettlement Village in Natal. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era.
ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/354147?terms=south+african+apartheid

This image depicts a woman with multiple children in a living area that seems to
be uninhabitable. Unfortunately, this is what the homes of Bantu and colored
Africans appeared to be after the Population Registration Act of 1950. It is used in
my assignment as a representation of what life was like as the Africans’ rights
were slowly diminishing.

Corel. “Segregated stands in a South African sports arena.” Image. World History: The
Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 13 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/330748?terms=south+africa+apar
theid

The image was post-World War II during the South African Apartheid and
depicts the true separation of society at the time. The left side of the stand was
reserved for the white Afrikaners and the right side of the stand was left for
the Bantu Africans. It is useful because it physically demonstrates what it was
like with segregation, even before the worst phase of the Apartheid. In my
project, the photo will be used as a representation of how life appeared.

Embassy of South Africa. Nelson Mandela Casting Ballot. Digital image. World History:
The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/1671577?terms=nelson+mandela

In this photo, Nelson Mandela is submitting his vote after the complete end of
Apartheid. This is a major point in history because it is where colored and Bantu
Africans were able to succeed in their journey of gaining their rights. It is used in
my assignment as a representation of activist groups fulfilling their responsibility
and citizens gaining their rights back. In addition, it is an introduction to a
democratic South Africa.

Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

Farrell, Denis. Oliver Tambo. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-
CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/1153207?terms=oliver+tambo

This image is a photograph of Oliver Tambo, another very significant key
contributor of the Anti-Apartheid movement. Tambo joined together with
Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu to create the ANC Youth League. The photo
is useful because it presents a visual of Oliver Tambo. It is used in my
assignment as a reference to how Tambo appeared.

Geyer, A.L. “Speech in the Support of Apartheid in South Africa.” A.L. Geyer: Speech in
Support of Apartheid in South Africa (1953). Rotary Club of London, London.
19 Aug. 1953. Speech.

“A.L. Geyer: Speech in Support of Apartheid in South Africa (1953).” World
History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 13 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/354590?terms=apartheid

According to A.L. Geyer, Apartheid is the way for both societies to grow
because it allows them to develop at their own pace. The Bantus can advance
further with agriculture and industry and the white Europeans can control
politically. The speech is useful because if offers an opinion to the other side
of the argument. It is used in my assignment as an additional document that
offers the perspective of a white European, rather than a colored African.

Halsall, Paul, ed. “U.N. Resolution 1598: On Race Conflict in South Africa 1961.”
Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University, July 1998. Web. 16 Oct.
2013.

Document URL:
http://www.fordhamuniversity.edu/halsall/mod/1961-un-
southafrica1.html

According to the U.N. Resolution 1598, the South African government failed
to comply with their previous requests, so they reminded them of their
duties as a government and asked of them to reconsider their policies to form
them with their obligations, It is useful because it shows the resistance and
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

reluctance of the government to avoid Apartheid. It is used in my project as
evidence to show the fight against Apartheid was not easy for the activists.

Hulton Archives. Sharpeville Massacre. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era.
ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/333854?terms=sharpeville+massacre

In this photo, it shows the aftermath of the Sharpeville Massacre, a very
violent turn of events at an activist protest. Many protestors were murdered
immediately when officials became frantic. It is used in my project as a
reference as to how violent situations became during the process of activist
groups supporting Ant-Apartheid.

Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis. Rioting in Soweto, South Africa, 1976. Digital image.
World History in Context. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2010. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetail
sWindow?total=3&query=OQE+riots+soweto&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=
normal&mode=view&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_
main&currPage=1&displayGroups=Images&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescendin
g&source=fullList&p=WHIC%3AUHIC&action=e&catId=&view=docDisplay&
documentId=GALE%7CBT2380000594

In this photo, it depicts the situation before the Soweto Massacre. A protestor
seems to be confronting an official, while the other officials are watching the
protestors in the background. This photo is used in my assignment as a visual
to show what happened before the massacre occurred.

Liasion Agency. Apartheid Signs in South Africa 1956. 1956. Photograph. Gale,
Cengage Learning, n.p.

“Apartheid Signs in South Africa, 1956.” Gale World History in Context.
Detroit: Gale, 2010. World History in Context. Web. 14 Oct. 2013

Document URL:
http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/which/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDeta
ilsWindow?total=49&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&currPage=
1&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&query=BS+apartheid&prodId=WHIC&
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

action=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CBT2380000882&userGroupName=
lvccld_main&jsid=757afba83751222212e1af9bf03b11e1

This image demonstrates the white Afrikaner’s ideas of the nonwhite
Africans. They saw and endorsed them as a terrible group of people who
were not “human” or of their standards. The photo shows two colored males
walking to their living quarters with a sign that has a phrase that
demonstrates them as a danger. It is useful because it shows the view of the
colored Africans in the white European perspective. The image will be
utilized in my assignment as a reference on how nonwhite Africans were
seen in other’s eyes.

Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS. South African Shanty Town, 1948. Digital image.
Masterpiece. Public Broadcasting Service, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/masterpiece/endgame/timeline.html

The photo presents a common shantytown in the townships where the Bantu
Africans resided. The area is not the conditions one should be living in, but their
lifestyle normally appeared to be this way. This image is used in my assignment
as a visual of life in the beginning of the Apartheid for nonwhite Africans.

Mandela, Nelson R. “No Easy Walk to Freedom.” Speech. Presidential Address by
Nelson R. Mandela to the ANC (Transvaal) Congress) 21 Sept. 1953. News24.
24 Jan. 2011. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://www.news24.com/NelsonMandela/Speeches/FULL-TEXT-No-Easy-
Walk-To-Freedom-20110124

According to Nelson Mandela, the campaign of Defiance brought far strides in
the fight against Apartheid because a vast array of laws passed were taking
away the rights of Colored Africans. For example, the Bantu Education Bill’s
sole purpose was to teach the African children that they were inferior to the
white Europeans. This speech is useful because it offers important political
changes done during the Apartheid and what accomplishments were made to
gain back rights. It is used in my assignment for its examples of laws and great
milestones reached on the colored African’s part.

Mandela, Nelson."Nelson Mandela: quote on political struggle." World History: The
Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/337287?terms=nelson+mandela

In this quote by Nelson Mandela, he explains how his passion to fight the
Apartheid began. He states that there was no complete thought process, but the
situation of the surroundings prompted him to go against the system to save the
Bantu and Colored Africans. It is used in my assignment as an explanation for
Mandela’s activist efforts during the Apartheid.

National Party of South Africa. “National Party of South Africa: Policy on Colour
(1948).” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 14 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/341253?terms=apartheid

The National Party of South Africa gave this declaration and it explained their
terms and policies on the colored group of South Africa. They wanted to
express that they were in favor of the white minority, but did not want to
oppress the colored group. This document is useful because is offers the
limited rights the colored group had during the Apartheid. It is used in my
assignment as additional examples of rights given to the colored people by the
government.

National Party of South Africa. “Population Registration Act, No. 30.”Governments of
the World: A Global Guide to Citizens’ Rights and Responsibilities. Ed. C. Neal
Tate. Vol. 4. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. 330-331. World History
In Context. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/PrimarySourcesDetailsPage/Prim
arySourcesDetailsWindow?query=&prodId=WHIC&displayGroupName=Prim
arySources&limiter=&source=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&s
ortBy=&search_within_results=&action=2&catId==&activityType=&document
Id=GALE%7CCX3447400356&userGroupName=lvccld_main&jsid=f2782340e
69872d547ca7f9b550aac01

According to the Registration Act, all people in the union were to be recorded
with all details such as birth and residence, but they also needed what is
called an identity number, which individualized them from one another. It is
useful because it gives background insight as to how society during the
Apartheid functioned. It is used in my assignment, as a reference to the
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

different acts performed by the government to separate the societies from
each other.

New York Times. “Racism in South Africa.” New York Times 10 May 1950: 29+. Print

New York Times. “Racism in South Africa.” Editorial. New York Times 10 May 1950:
29. Historical Newspapers. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-
hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchall
eras&start=1&rendition=x-article-
image&inmylist=false&urn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3BHNP%3
BPQD%3BHNP%3BPROD%3Bx-article-
image%3B94258721&mylisturn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3BH
NP%3BPQD%3BHNP%3BPROD%3Bx-citation%3B94258721

The newspaper article states that the Europeans slowly became dominant
over the colored African and this can be supported with a bill passed that
forced Indians to sell their land to Europeans. It is useful because it gives
evidence that as the Europeans’ rights went up, the colored Africans’ rights
went down. It is used in my assignment for its examples of the points of
decreasing rights and explaining the different racial groups.

Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela. DispatchLIVE. Web. 17 May 2014.

Document URL:
http://www.dispatchlive.co.za/news/leaders-have-lost-their-way-naidoo/

This image shows both contributors Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela
together in what appears to be a speech or rally. It is used in my project as a
visual showing how the two individuals connected and worked together to
gain back the rights wrongfully revoked.

Reuters/Corbis-Bettmann. Nelson Mandela and F. W. De Klerk Celebrate the End of
South African Apartheid. Digital image. World History In Context. Gale, Cengage
Learning, 1994. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetailsWin
dow?total=36&query=OQE+nelson+mandela&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=nor
mal&mode=view&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_main&
currPage=1&displayGroups=Images&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&source=f
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

ullList&p=WHIC&action=e&catId=&view=docDisplay&documentId=GALE%7C
BT2380000055

In this image, Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Clerk are triumphantly celebrated the
official end to the South African Apartheid in 1994. In 1991, major laws began to
become appealed and the activists were released from prison. This is useful
because if offers a conclusion to my argument. It is used in my assignment as a
concluding image to the South African Apartheid.


Reuters/Corbis-Bettmann. Nelson Mandela Casting Ballot. Digital image. World History
in Context. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2010. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetails
Window?total=36&query=OQE+nelson+mandela&prodId=WHIC&windowstat
e=normal&mode=view&limiter=&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_main
&currPage=1&displayGroups=&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&source=&
p=WHIC&action=e&catId=&view=statisticsDocDisplay&documentId=GALE%
7CBT2380001437

This image shows Nelson Mandela placing his ballot in the first election where
Bantu and Colored Africans were able to vote. It is significant and useful
because it shows the introduction of a democracy in South Africa. It is used in
my assignment as a concluding photo to demonstrate the aftermath of the end
of the Apartheid.

Sharpeville Massacre. 1960. Photograph. ANC Archives, South Africa.

Sharpeville Massacre. 1960. Photograph. ANC Archives, South Africa. ANC Archives.
African National Congress. Web. 16 Oct. 2013

Document URL:
http://ancarchives.org.za/sharpeville-protest/

The image pertains to the Sharpeville Massacre of March 21, 1960, where
police officials murdered sixty-nine protestors. In the image, the people do not
appear harmful, but the officials are viciously attacking them with weapons. It
is useful because it demonstrates the difficult times when groups tried to
protest for their rights. It is used in my assignment as an example of the
hardships experienced by those trying to gain what rights they should have.

Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

Sprenger, Richard, Mustafa Khalili, and Alex Purcell. "Nelson Mandela, 1964: 'I Am
Prepared to Die' - Audio Recording of Speech at Sabotage Trial."
Theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media, 05 Dec. 2013. Web. 06 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-
1964-speech-audio

In this audio clip, Nelson Mandela is making an opening statement for his trial
pertaining to treason. He mentions how South Africa has the capability of
being successful, but it is too separated and contrasting. It is useful because it
offers his point of view on the situation. It is used in my assignment as a
supplement to his history.

STF/AFP/GETTY IMAGES. Stephen Biko’s Funeral, 1977. A Man Holds a Poster of
Stephen Biko, with a Large Group Of... Digital image. World History in Context.
Gale, Cengage Learning, 2009. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetailsWin
dow?total=1&query=OQE+stephen+biko+funeral&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=
normal&mode=view&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_mai
n&currPage=1&displayGroups=Images&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&sourc
e=fullList&p=WHIC%3AUHIC&action=e&catId=&view=docDisplay&document
Id=GALE%7CPC2831287049

In this photo, it shows a supporter of Stephen Biko raising a poster at Biko’s
funeral in support of his work. The crowd surrounding him appears in a
melancholic state. It is useful because it shows the impact the contributors had on
their followers. It is used in my assignment as an addition image to present
Stephen Biko.

Tambo, Oliver. “Oliver Tambo: Speech on the Struggle Against Apartheid.” Speech on
the Struggle Against Apartheid. South Africa. 1968. Speech.

“Oliver Tambo: Speech on the Struggle Against Apartheid (1968).” World History: The
Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 13 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/309227?terms=south+africa

Oliver Tambo gave this speech in 1968 and goes into depth explaining the
both sides of the Apartheid, one being the side trying to increase human rights
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

and the other attempting to take away colored African’s right. In addition, it
explains the reshaping of African society and the doctrines introduced by the
Nationalist Party. The content of the passage was very descriptive and offered
many events that took place during the time of the Apartheid. In my
assignment, this information is utilized to give a portion of background and to
argue the lack of rights of the Bantu Africans of South Africa.

Telegraph Office 1955. 1955. Hulton Archive/Getty Images. About.com African History.
Web. 17 May 2014.

Document URL:
http://africanhistory.about.com/od/apartheid/ig/Apartheid-Signs-Image-
Gallery/Telegraph-Office.htm

This image depicts a 1955 telegraph office in South Africa during Apartheid. It
shows separation of the office with both European and non-European sections
where individuals falling under the categories would go for service. It is useful
because it demonstrates the true separation of South African society during
the time of the policy of Apartheid.

Turnley, David, and Corbis. Blacks were Forced to Live in Townships Such as This One
during the Apartheid Years in South Africa… N.d. World Religions Reference
Library, n.p.

“Blacks were forced to live in townships such as this one during the Apartheid
years in south Africa…” World Religions Reference Library. Ed. Julie L.
Carnagie, et al. Vol. 4: Biographies. Detroit: UXL, 2007. U.S History in Context.
Web. 14 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/uhic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetails
Window?total=49&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&currPage=1&s
ortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&query=BS+apartheid&prodId=WHIC&actio
n=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CPC3448487182&userGroupName=lvccld
_main&jsid=6e35aa1db03957680a58a5a73a92fc68

The image shows an example of what most colored African’s living areas were
at the time of the Apartheid. The photo includes what is similar to a
shantytown with dangerous living quarters that do not appear fully
supported. It is useful because it gives a representation on how the colored
Africans lived in poverty and unsafe conditions, while being separated from
the privileged Europeans. It is used in my assignment as a description of
everyday lives of colored Africans.
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided


Tutu, Desmond. “The Question of South Africa.” Speech. Capetown. 23 Oct. 1984.
Fordham University. Fordham University the Jesuit University of New York,
Aug. 1997. Web. 16 Oct. 2013

Document URL:
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/1984tutu.asp

According to Desmond Tutu, division was slowly destroying South Africa and
he hoped that peaceful freedom could be brought to all racial groups of South
Africa. He explains a story of how a woman had to watch her grandson be shot
by policemen and also he lack of colored student’s’ education because of
boycotts. The speech is useful because I offers personal stories of how the
Apartheid affected average citizens and it gives a different perspective of the
situation. It is used in my assignment as a reference for a religious perspective
of the Apartheid and the personality offered in it.

United Nations. Official Emblem for International Anti-Apartheid Year. Digital Image.
U.N. News and Media Photos. United Nations, New York, 1 Jan. 1978. Web. 16
Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://www.unmultimedia.org/photo/detail.jsp?id=116/116332&key=107&
query=subject:Apartheid&lang=en&so=0&sf=date

The image states an interest in equality between all races during the time of
Anti-Apartheid Year in 1978; it shows three different colored figure drawings
that are connected. It is useful because it demonstrates the perseverance of
the colored Africans and neutral partied to connect all people. It is used in my
assignment as an example of the Anti-Apartheid movement.

William Campbell/Sygma/Corbis. Police Dragging Away an Anti-Apartheid Protestor
from Demonstrations in Soweto, 1980. Digital image. World History in Context:
The Modern Era. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2008. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetailsWin
dow?total=1&query=OQE+soweto+protestors&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=nor
mal&mode=view&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_main&
currPage=1&displayGroups=Images&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&source=f
ullList&p=WHIC%3AUHIC&action=e&catId=&view=docDisplay&documentId=
GALE%7CPC3048687141

Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

This photo depicts officials taking away a protestor in Soweto, South Africa. This
was highly common in protests to be apprehended by officers in a violent manner.
It is useful because it presents an image as to how protestors were treated at the
time. It is used in my assignment as a visual to demonstrate treatment of activists.

White, William S. “South Africa Splits into Three Groups.” New York Times 16 Apr.
1952: 7. Print.

White, William S. “South Africa Splits into Three Groups.” Editorial. New York Times
16 Apr. 1952: 7. Historical Newspapers. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-
hnpl.bigchalk.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchalleras
&start=51&rendition=x-article-
image&inmylist=falseI&urn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3BHNP%
3BPQD%3BHNP%3BPROD%3Bx-article-
image%3B93565180&mylisturn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3BH
NP%3BPQD%3BHNP%3BPROD%3Bx-citation%3B93565180

According to William S. White, not only did the Bantus and Europeans
segregate, but so did the white minority. To go further, they separated
themselves from the English-speaking Europeans and the Afrikaans-speaking
Europeans. This document is useful because it provides an insight as to how
the Apartheid affected everyone, not just the Bantu and Colored Africans. It is
used in my assignment as a reference as to the ways a society can change in
certain situations.

Yanker, Gary. “The Anti-Apartheid Movement Says Support the African Liberation
Struggle.” The Anti-Apartheid Movement Says Support the African Liberation
Struggle. Anti-Apartheid Movement, n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/yan1996002330/PP/

Although simplistic, the photo depicts support and endorsement of Anti-
Apartheid. It is useful because it provides evidence of the ratification of the
liberation movements in South Africa. It will be used in my assignment for the
purpose of evidence supporting my argument of rights the colored Africans
did not have.

Secondary Sources

Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

ABC-CLIO. "African National Congress." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO,
2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/311684?terms=african+national+c
ongress

In this article, it explains the African National Congress (ANC), which is the
main Bantu political organization. They created the “spear of the nation”,
which was the turn to violence in order to get their point across. They were
banned after the Sharpeville Massacre, but rose again after the end of the
Apartheid. This is useful because it offers background to an activist group. It is
used in my assignment as a resource for more background information on
activist organizations.

ABC-CLIO. "Sharpeville massacre." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013.
Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/309959?terms=sharpeville+massa
cre

According to the article, the massacre took place in Sharpeville, South Africa
and was due to protestors not carrying their passbooks. When they began to
strike the police cars with stones, the officers began to beat and shoot the
weaponless protestors. This is useful because it includes evidence to support
the argument that their rights were taken away and that they tried to get
them back.
ABC-CLIO. "Apartheid and Strife in South Africa (Overview)." World History: The
Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.
Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Topics/Display/1186307?cid=41&webSiteCode=SLN_
HMOD&returnToPage=%2fTopics%2fDisplay%2f1186307%3fcid%3d41&terms
=apartheid&token=9B4C31FF37486558B30FD62A317E0212&casError=False

This article explains the timeline of the Apartheid. It began with already prominent
racism from the Afrikaners, which led to the Nationalist Party being elected into
office. The most significant law passed was the Population Registration Act of
1950. At the end of the Apartheid, a democracy was established and the Apartheid
became nonexistent. This article is useful because it sets a time frame and explains
clearly what occurred. It is used in my assignment as a reference to certain
situation during the Apartheid.
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided


ABC-CLIO. "Nelson Mandela." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013.
Web. 8 Dec. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/315233?terms=nelson+mandela

In this article, it explains the story of Nelson Mandela and what he endured.
Mandela was the co-founder of the ANC Youth League and later gained a position
on the ANC parent group. He was charged with treason and sentenced to life in
prison after the Sharpeville Massacre. Twenty-eight years later, he was released by
F.W. de Clerk and elected president for a term of 1994-1999.



Soweto Gospel Choir. "Hlohonolofatsa." African Spirit. N.d. MP3

This audio recording does not pertain to the history of Apartheid, but talks
about praise. It is used in my conclusion to support the text on how the
Apartheid ended and Nelson Mandela was freed.

Soweto Gospel Choir. "Woza Meli Wami." African Spirit. N.d. MP3.

The audio recording says how the person has a heavy burden and asks for
help. It is used in my project for aesthetics and supports the tone of the text it
is put on, which is Stephen Biko.

"Soweto massacre." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 Dec.
2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/421303?terms=black+consciousness

The article states that the Soweto Massacre was a nonviolent protest due to white
Europeans’ plans to only teach education through a European perspective. Both
students and adults were murdered and, because of this, riots were ongoing for a
whole year. This article is useful because it had evidence on a specific situation. It
is used in my argument as a reference to a significant situation that occurred during
the Apartheid.

Spence, J.E. "Southern Africa in the Cold War." History Today. History Today. Web.
17 May 2014.

Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

Document URL:
http://www.historytoday.com/je-spence/southern-africa-cold-war

In this article, it explains the involvement of areas of Africa in the Cold War,
setting the global historical context. South Africa was shown to be a society
involved both with the United States and the U.S.S.R. The U.S. did not want to
increase their involvement in order to maintain trade with the Europeans and the
U.S.S.R demonstrated support for their efforts to form new allies. It is used in my
project to set the scene for the historical context.


“Stephen Biko.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 14 Oct. 2013.

Document URL:
http://0-worldhistory.abc-
clio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/314466?terms=apartheid

In this article, it gave a brief biography of Stephen Biko, the founder of the
Black Consciousness Movement in 1968 that supported non-violence and
wanted the colored Africans to approach the Apartheid with confidence. It is
useful because it demonstrates the responsibilities colored Africans took in
order to instill confidence into their social group against the Apartheid. It is
used in my assignment as an example of the colored Africans who took action
when the Apartheid affected them.

Watch Mojo. Biography of Nelson Mandela: End of Apartheid. Watch Mojo. Mojo
Supreme, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2013

Document URL:
http://www.watchmojo.com/video/id/9627/

According to Biography of Nelson Mandela, Nelson Mandela was the first Bantu
African president and created the ANC Youth League. He stated that the purpose
of the ANC was to bring the Africans closer together. It is useful because it offers
more information on the activist group and Nelson Mandela. It is used in my
assignment as a resource explaining more about the ANC.

Tertiary Resources

“Apartheid of South Africa.” Prejudice in the Modern World Reference Library. Vol.
2: Alamanac. Detroit: UXL, 2007. 443-462. U.S. History in Context. Web. 1 Oct.
2013.

Document URL:
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided

http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceD
etailsWindow?query=prodId=WHIC&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=
&source=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_withi
n_results=&action=2&catId=&activityType=document&Id=GALE%7CCX2831
400036&userGroupName=lvccld_main&jsid=9df1cedfea8366b19b3280a0a0e
c0810

According to the passage, the Apartheid began with the election of the
Nationalist Party and, during the time, acts such as the Bantu Education Act
were introduced. The Apartheid ended with the election of F.W. de Clerk who
slowly abolish all Apartheid laws. This is useful because it offers plentiful
information to create a background of the Apartheid and supports the
argument. It is used in my essay as support for my argument of the lack of
rights of Colored and Bantu Africans.

Harris, Betty J. “Apartheid.” New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Ed. Maryanne
Cline Horowitz. Vo. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2005. 105-113. U.S.
History In Context. Web. 1 Oct. 2013

Document URL:
http://0-
ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceD
etailsWindow?query=&prodId=WHIC&displayGroupName=Reference&limite
r=&source=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_wit
hing_results=&action=2&catId=&activityType=&documentId=GALE&7CCX34
24300046&userGroupName=lvccld_main&jsid=ff0bf321c1a4d9f26815008b1
f09f92e

According to Betty J. Harris, there were many acts involved with the Apartheid
that slowly removed all rights of colored and Bantu Africans, such as the
Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act and Native Resettlement Act of 1954. The
article is useful because it contains multiple different laws and regulations
created during the Apartheid. It is used in my assignment for its examples of
laws and historical timeline.

Maddox, Gregory H. “Black Consciousness.” New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Ed.
Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Son, 2005. 228-
30. World History –Modern Era (GVRL). Web. 13 Oct. 2013

Document URL:
http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3424300085&v=2.1&u=lvc
cld_main&it=r&p=GVRL.HISTORY&sw=w&asid=62bb4d501cfe7e8aa61fadc7d
e1e6668
Megan Barrera
Annotated Bibliography
Apartheid: A Society Divided


According to Gregory H. Maddox, the Black Nationalist Movement, Black
Consciousness (1960-1970) focused on self-liberation and followed Anti-
Apartheid unrest to fight for their rights. The movement Azanian People’s
Organization is closely linked to this movement. This passage is useful
because it creates the argument of how colored Africans moved forward to
fight for their rights, instead of waiting for something to happen. It is used in
my assignment as support and evidence for my argument.

Savage, Katherine. “South Africa.” The New Book of Knowledge. Vol. 17. Danbury, CT:
Scholastic Library Pub., 2006. 268-73. Print.

In this text, the article gives some background information of the Apartheid,
such as the government group was called the Nationalist Party. The Apartheid
began around the late 1940s and included the increasing separation of white
Afrikaners and colored Africans. The passage is useful becaseu it offers
additional information needed to understand the background story of the
Apartheid. It is used in my assignment as a reference point.