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Bibliography (Primary Sources

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"100 Years of Miracles." Helen Keller Services for the Blind. Helen Keller Services for the Blind, n.d.
Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
I used another photograph here of a blind worker since they were benefited by the original Act.

"1930-1939." Elder Web. ElderWeb, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used an image on here of a elderly man living alone is his home, showing what happened to the
elderly during the Depression.

"Adaptation of Jobs and the Employment of the Disabled." The New Zealand Digital Library. The New
Zealand Digital Library, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
I used a photograph on this website of a blind person working to show what type of disabled worker
the original Act protected.

Albee, Sarah. "Poorhouses." Sarah Albee. Sarah Albee, 25 Jan. 2012. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used photographs on this website of what workhouses in London would have looked like in the early
1900s.

Allen, John E. "Jobless Men Keep Going." New Deal Network Photo Library. New Deal Network, n.d.
Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used this picture of city signs preventing unemployed to try to find jobs in a city with no jobs to show
how bad unemployment was in the 1930s.

Altmeyer, Arthur J. "HOW DISTANT IS THE GOAL OF SOCIAL SECURITY?" Social Security. Social Security
Administration, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
This speech by the father of Social Security contained a quote I used explaining what the Act did for
families.

"American History: A Survey (Brinkley), 13th Edition." Social Studies. McGraw-Hill, n.d. Web. 23 Feb.
2014.
This website contained many pictures I used to showcase the devastation caused by the Great
Depression.

Andrews, John B. Progress of Social Insurance in America. WI: American Association for Labor
Legislation, 1930. Print.
This pamphlet by the secretary of the American Association for Labor Legislation argued that society
needed social insurance due to the economic insecurity industrial workers faced. This helped
me establish the basis of my argument.

Barrett, John Q. "How Social Security Was Defended by Supreme Court Justice Robert
Jackson." History News Network. George Mason University, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
This article used several quotes by Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson on why we needed Social
Security. I used one of these quotes for my website.

"Benjamin Cardozo." Benjamin Cardozo. Columbia, 2004. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.
I used a picture of Justice Benjamin Cardozo to go along with his quote explaining the constitutionality
of Social Security.

"Bismarck, Otto Von." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 23 Feb.
2014.
I used this website for a visual of Otto von Bismarck, the person who created Germany's Social
Security program.

"Brother Can You Spare a Dime." Internet Archive. Internet Archive, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
I used the song here to showcase how bad the Great Depression was.

Conners, Tiffany. "HowStuffWorks "What Happened to the People of Louisiana?"" HowStuffWorks.
HowStuffWorks, 27 Feb. 2008. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.
I used a picture here of an industrialized city to illustrate how the Industrial Revolution caused a
migration from rural to urban.

Darling, Don. "The Poor Farm Revisited." RURAL HERITAGE. Poorhouse Story, 1989. Web. 21 Apr.
2014.
This article included the experiences of a person who live through a poor farm. I used quotes from
here to illustrate what the poor went through before federal social insurance.

Dodds, Eric, and Rebecca Kaplan. "The Legacy of F.D.R." Time. Time Inc., 24 June 2009. Web. 24 Feb.
2014.
I used a poster on here advertising Social Security's elderly benefits.

Domhoff, G. W. "How Corporate Moderates Created the Social Security Act." Who Rules America.
University of California, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
I used another poster on here promoting Social Security.

Dowling, Roisin. "Roughing It: Migrant Camps in the 1930s « The Grapes of Wrath." Emerson College.
Emerson College, 14 Oct. 2012. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used a picture on here of another hooverville.

"The Economic Bill of Rights." Franklin D. Roosevelt - American Heritage Center, Inc. Franklin D.
Roosevelt - American Heritage Center, Inc., 2007. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.
This speech by FDR explains what the economic rights are. Since Social Security protects some of
these rights, I was able to connect Social Security to Rights and Responsibility.

Ellis, Neenah. "Survivors Of The Great Depression Tell Their Stories." NPR. NPR, 2008. Web. 21 Apr.
2014.
This website provided several accounts of the Great Depression from actual survivors of the
Depression, helping me understand the effects of the Depression more in-depth. I quoted
several people here.
"Every Man a King (fisher)." YouTube. YouTube, 21 July 2011. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used this song to illustrate what Huey Long's plan was and what many of the plans during the Great
Depression were trying to achieve.

Fagre, Cora. "Danish Immigration - An Overview." Danish America - Museum of Danish America.
Museum of Danish America, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used a photo on this site of a family on a farm to show what life for many people was like before the
Industrial Revolution.

"Franklin D. Roosevelt." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Feb. 2014. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
I used a picture here of Roosevelt.

"Gold Certificates – Values, Information, & Sales." Antique Money. Antique Money, n.d. Web. 23 Feb.
2014.
There was a visual of a money bill during the 20th century. I used this image to show the importance
of money for city workers.

"Great Depression." Automobile in American Life and Society. University of Michigan, n.d. Web. 21
Feb. 2014.
This website contained an image of a unemployed worker who wanted work but not charity. Since
this was a sentiment many felt during the Great Depression, I used this picture.

"Great Depression ECA Project Images." Battle Creek Middle School. Saint Paul Public Schools, 2012.
Web. 19 May 2014.
I used an image from this website of small, broken houses during the Great Depression to illustrate
the horrible conditions.

"Great Depression." Immigration in America. N.p., 19 Dec. 2011. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used a graph on this website showing the unemployment rates during the Depression.

"Great Depression Picture - Unemployed Men at a Soup Kitchen." About.com. About.com, n.d. Web.
23 Feb. 2014.
I used this picture to show what the Depression forced many people to do, such as going to a soup
kitchen for food.

Gregory, James. "Hoovervilles and Homelessness." The Great Depression in Washington State.
University of Washington, 2009. Web. 22 Feb. 2014.
This website had images of "hoovervilles", the conditions many poor had to live in during the Great
Depression. I used these images to show the horrible conditions many suffered during the
Depression.

Hansan, J. "Economic Security: Part II." Social Welfare History Project. Social Welfare History Project,
n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
This report cut from another report by the Social Security Administration had two visuals of the
Townsend plan and the Share our Wealth.

Hansan, J. "Social Security: Early Promotional Posters." Social Welfare History Project. Social Welfare
History Project, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
There were several posters on this website I used that SSA had posted in the 1930s and 1940s
explaining the benefits of Social Security.

Hollis, Nicholas E. "JENNINGS FARM." Agriculture Business Council. N.p., n.d. Web.
I used a picture on this website of a farm to show what life was like before the Industrial Revolution.

Jefferson, Thomas. "The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription." National Archives and
Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, 4 July 1776. Web. 19
Apr. 2014.
I used the Declaration of Independence to explain the concept of rights and how government has a
responsibility to provide to its citizens certain rights. This document helped me connect my
subject to the theme.

Jones, Jasmine. "Alex Glasgow Hard Times at the Mill." YouTube. YouTube, 09 Feb. 2013. Web. 21 Apr.
2014.
I used this song to help illustrate the hardships workers had to go through.

"Library Collections: Visual Still: Enlargement." Disability History Museum. NEC, n.d. Web. 26 Feb.
2014.
I used the visual of a billboard promoting disability benefits in a social security amendment.

Lind, Michael. "The Case for Economic Rights." Saloncom RSS. Salon Media Group, n.d. Web. 21 Apr.
2014.
I used a picture here of the Economic Bill of Rights.

McElvaine, Robert S. "A Tale of 2 Depressions." POLITICO. Politico, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used a visual here of people lining up during an economic recession, to help provide the atmosphere
of the Depression.

"Millions of Civil War Records Now Available on FamilySearch Website." Mormon Newsroom.
Intellectual Reserve, 10 May 2011. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used a picture on this website of a civil war pension application form.

Moore, J. S. "A Mechanized Program Verifier." University of Texas at Austin. University of Texas at
Austin, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
This website contained a picture of 19th century factory workers. I used this picture to explain how
the Industrial Revolution caused the need for industrial workers.

"Over the Hills to the Poorhouse." The Toneway Project. The Abbott Family, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
I used this website for a song about poorhouses to show how poorhouses were degrading to people
who were forced to go there. Unemployment compensation is a more advanced version of
social insurance.

Peters, Gerhard, and John T. Woolley. "Franklin D. Roosevelt: "Statement on Signing the Social
Security Act.,"" The American Presidency Project. N.p., n.d. Web.
This is the speech Franklin Roosevelt delivered after signing the Social Security Act. I used several
quotes from this speech.

"Photograph of a Social Security Card." The National Archives Experience: DocsTeach. Records of the
Social Security Administration, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
This is a picture of what the Social Security cards looked like.

Potashov, Sergey. "The US Crisis: “The Great Depression of 1929-1933”." Market Leader : News.
Market Leader, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used a picture on here of unemployed people during the Great Depression with signs asking for work.
This showed the rampant unemployment during that time period.

"Presidential Quotes about Social Security." The Battle for Social Security. The Battle for Social
Security, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
I read many powerful president quotes on Social Security here that enhanced my understanding of
the subject. I used many quotes here on my website to explain the connection to theme further.

"Robert H. Jackson." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Feb. 2014. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
I used a picture here of Robert H. Jackson.

Rooselvelt, Franklin D. "Franklin Roosevelt Social Security." YouTube. YouTube, 20 May 2007. Web. 23
Feb. 2014.
The speech FDR made upon signing the Act. This greatly helped me understand the purpose of the Act.
I used this speech on my website to explain why this Act was necessary.

Runge, Pam. "1930s (The Depression)." Pinterest. Pinterest, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
I used a picture on this page of an educated man during the Great Depression unemployed due to
lack of opportunity.

Salinas-Sandoval, Diana. "Great Depression." Pinterest. Pinterest, n.d. Web. 19 May 2014.
I used a picture here of how children were forced to bath in large cans during the Great Depression.

"SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS, 1940." SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS, 1940. Records of the Social Security
Administration, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
This video made in 1940 in order to explain to citizens what Social Security was helped me understand
Social Security benefits.

"Social Security." History. Congress, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
This website contained links to the transcripts of the congressional debate of the Social Security Act. I
used a quote of a senator in the debate, and the debate helped me understand the opposition
to Social Security.

"Social Security Poster of an Old Man." The National Archives Experience: DocsTeach. Franklin D.
Roosevelt Library Photographs, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
A poster explaining what Social Security does.

"Social Security: Public Health Nursing Made Available through Child Welfare Services." The National
Archives Experience: DocsTeach. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library Public Domain Photographs, n.d.
Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used this picture of a child in the 1930s to help make my point of the poverty the Great Depression
caused that made Social Security necessary.

Storrs, Carina. "When the Economy Is in the Red, Are People Really in the Pink?" Scientific American.
Nature America, 10 Oct. 2009. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used a picture here of a person selling a car due to the stock market crash. It shows what effects the
Great Depression had on people.

"This Week In Roosevelt History." Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library. Franklin D. Roosevelt
Presidential Library, 22 Apr. 2011. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
I used a propaganda poster here that was used to promote dependent benefits.

"Transcript of Social Security Act (1935)." Our Documents. Our Documents, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
This very important source was the Social Security Act of 1935 itself. I learned exactly what elderly,
unemployed, and disabled benefits it gave by reading this document.

Tucker, Steven. "FDR & The Role of Government." Gather. Gather, 29 Aug. 2009. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.
This article included lots of quotes of a speech FDR made in 1932 that further explains why
government has a responsibility to guarantee its citizens the economic rights.

"The Workhouse Outside Britain." The Workhouse. Workhouses, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
I used pictures here of workhouses to show what the poor of society did before federal social security
programs.

Bibliography (Secondary Sources)

Alter, Jonathan. The Defining Moment: FDR's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope. New York:
Simon & Schuster, 2006. Print.
This book helped me build context of the Social Security Act. It explained what caused the Great
Depression and the effects of the Depression on Americans. It also told me why Roosevelt
wanted to pass his New Deal.

Altman, Nancy J. The Battle for Social Security: From FDR's Vision to Bush's Gamble. Hoboken, NJ: J.
Wiley, 2005. Print.
This book helped me understand the elderly benefits the Social Security Act provided and the
reasoning behind the structure of the benefits. It also helped me learn the argument against
privatization of modern-day social security.

Borsch-Supan, Axel, and Reinhold Schnabel. Social Security and Retirement in Germany. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, Jan. 1999. PDF.
This chapter helped me learn the ideas behind German Social Security and a brief timeline of what
happened.

The Development of the Disability Program Under Old-Age Survivors Insurance, 1935-74. N.p.: Social
Security Administration, n.d. PDF.
This excerpt from a book helped me learn more about the history of Social Security.

DeWitt, Larry. "The 1937 Supreme Court Rulings on the Social Security Act." Social Security Website.
Social Security Administration, 1999. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.
I used this article to further my understanding of the constitutionality of Social Security and have
more of the other side.

DeWitt, Larry. "The Development of Social Security in America." Social Security Website. Social
Security Administration, 2010. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
This article also detailed the history of Social Security and how benefits have increased.

"Florida Politics." SunSentinel.com. Sun Sentinel, Feb.-Mar. 2011. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
I used a picture of an unemployment form.

Folsom, Burton W. New Deal or Raw Deal?: How FDR's Economic Legacy Has Damaged America. New
York: Threshold Editions, 2008. Print.
This book helped me comprehend the arguments against the Social Security Act. It argued that the tax
harmed struggling businesses during the Depression and Social Security was inferior to private
plans.

Gabryszewski, Richard. "Social Security." Social Security. Social Security Administration, n.d. Web. 24
Feb. 2014.
This website documentary on Social Security allowed me to learn more about the most ancient types
of social security. I used a quote here from Aristotle to show even as early as ancient Greece
social security was an issue. It also teached me more about the modernization of Social Security.

Garza, George. "The History of Social Security." Catalogs.com. Catalogs.com, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
I used a quote in this article from William the First explaining why Germany needed Social Security.

Gokhale, Jagadeesh, and Kent Smetters. "Measuring Social Security's Financial Problems." Library of
Congress. Library of Congress, Jan. 2005. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
This essay explained the current economic problems Social Security is facing and how statistics are
clouding the issue.

Hardman, John. "The Great Depression and the New Deal." Stanford. Stanford, 26 July 1999. Web. 22
Feb. 2014.
This essay reinforced what I knew about the Great Depression and the ideas behind Social Security. It
also helped me learn a bit about how benefits have changed over the decades.

Hathorn, Billy. 19th Century Food Items, Bellamy Masion, Wilmington, NC. Digital image. Wikipedia
Commons. Wikipedia, 13 July 2012. Web. 5 Feb. 2014.
I used this picture to show how the all-important item of food is rivaled by the importance of money
after the Industrial Revolution.

Havemann, Joel. "The Great Recession of 2008-09: Year In Review 2009 (recession)." Encyclopedia
Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 18 May 2014.
I used this article to further my understanding of the Great Recession of 2008, which helped me see
why Social Security is still needed today.

"History of Weaving." Jill's Family Ancestory. Jill's Family Ancestory, 1 Apr. 2009. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
I used a sketch on here of weaving to contrast how weaving like many other types of labor changed
after the Industrial Revolution.

Hoskins, Dalmer D. "U.S. Social Security at 75 Years: An International Perspective." Social Security
Website. Social Security Administration, 3 Nov. 2010. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
This very useful source helped me understand the international context of Social Security, and how
American social security compares to other countries'. I learned about the large dependent and
survivor benefits American social security has.

Kearney, John R. "Social Security and the "D" in OASDI: The History of a Federal Program Insuring
Earners Against Disability." Social Security Website. Social Security Administration, 2005. Web.
21 Apr. 2014.
This article helped deepen my understanding of the disability portion of Social Security.

Lanset, Andy. ""Share the Wealth": Huey Long Talks to the Nation." History Matters. American Social
History Productions, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
This article teached me about Huey Long and his Share our Wealth plan. It helped me build context
for Social Security and see what programs pressured Roosevelt in his New Deal.

Liebenberg, Sandra. "Social Security as a Human Right." Circle of Rights. University of Minnesota, n.d.
Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
This article really explained the difference between social insurance and assistance. Insurance is
based on contributions. It also argued for why social security is a right and what social security
needs to achieve in order for the government to have protected the right.

Martin, Patricia P., and David A. Weaver. "Social Security: A Program and Policy History." Social
Security Website. Social Security Administration, 2005. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
This article gave a comprehensive history of Social Security and helped me record how the benefits of
the program have expanded over time.

Plumer, Brad. "Unemployment Benefits for 2.1 Million Workers Are Set to Expire Early next
Year." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 07 Nov. 2013. Web. 19 May 2014.
I used this article to learn more about what Congress did during the recession of 2008.

Price, Daniel N. "Unemployment Insurance, Then and Now, 1935-85." Social Security Website. Social
Security Administration, Oct. 1985. Web. 19 Feb. 2014.
This essay really helped me understand what the unemployment benefits of the Act were and how
they were implemented. It also explained what the Act had tried to achieve.

A sketch of a factory with a smokestack. Digital image. Budapest University of Technology and
Economics. Budapest University of Technology and Economics, n.d. Web. 8 Feb. 2014.
I used this picture to show the use of factories after the Industrial Revolution.

"Social Security Act of 1935." Desert Sands Unified School District. Desert Sands Unified School District,
n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
The article explained how Social Security meant the government was achieving one of its
responsibility to its citizens, giving them economic stability and control.

"Social Security: The Wisconsin Connection." Wisconsin Historical Society. Wisconsin Historical Society,
n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
The website article helped me understand more context. It described how the Industrial Revolution
and Great Depression put many people in unemployment and ruined their livelihoods.

Starr, Paul. "Why We Need Social Security." The American Prospect. Princeton University, Feb. 2005.
Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
This article aided me in understanding the effects of Social Security, including how it protects the
middle-class and the retired, and is a balance between equity and adequacy.

"Traditional Sources of Economic Security." Social Security Website. Social Security Administration,
n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
I used several pictures on this website for context. I also learned a lot on how Social Security
advanced.

"What Would Our Founding Fathers Think of America Today." What Would Our Founding Fathers
Think of America Today…. Americans for Prosperity, 3 July 2012. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.
I used a picture here of the founding fathers.