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I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’

í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 3 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2005
Kalyan: Hi Sasikanth, good to see you 1) When are you going to resign?
though after a long time. Where are 2) The company is going to open its branch
you and what are you? here.
î√©-®Ó-V© ûª®√yûª®·Ø√ îª÷úø-úøç î√© 3) I am going to be the first branch manager.
ÆæçûÓ≠æç. áéπ\-úø’-Ø√o´¤? àçîË-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤? 4) Is your salary going to be any the better?
Good to see you – °æ©-éπ-Jç°æ¤ ´÷ô; 5) There's going to be a difference.
(practise îËߪ’çúÕ conversation™) 6) I am going to buy a flat.
am going
Sasikanth: Equally glad to see you.
´’†ç àüÁjØ√ °æ-E-E, îË-ߪ’-¶-ûª’†o °æEE
to, is going to, are going to expressions
™«çöÀ ™
I am here very much. I am with a
tyre company now. I have had a
ûÁ©’°æ¤-ûª’çö«ç.
1) When are you going to resign?
better offer from one of the leading
á°æ¤púø’ ®√@-Ø√´÷ îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?
telecom company. I am leaving this regular word (am going to/ is going to/ are going
2) The company is going to open its branch d) ؈’ éÌûªh ÖüÓu-í∫ç™ îË®Ω-¶-ûª’Ø√o.
company. to sing, talk, etc)
áèπ◊\´ éπ*a-ûªçí¬, ï®Ω-í∫-¶ßË’
here. I am going to take a new job.
Company
Ø√èπÿ ÆæçûÓ-≠æç-í¬ØË ÖçC. ØËE-éπ\úË Ç ûª† ¨»ê†’ Ééπ\úø v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îª- Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ will/ shall
éπü∆? ÅN °æ
future
† ’- © †’ ûÁ © ’°æ ¤ - û √®·.
ÖØ√o†’. ã -õ„i®Ωx company ™ °æE-îË-Ææ’h- ¶-ûª’-†oC. ¢√úø-èπÿ-úøü∆? ¢√úø-´îª’a. ûª°æ¤p-™‰ü¿’. Å®·ûË, will/ shall ؈’ CM -†’ É¢√∞Ï éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«-†’/ -éπ-©’-Ææ’éÓ
Ø√o†’. Ê°®Ω’†o telecom company ™ éπçõ‰ èπÿú≈ am/ is/ are going to ņo-°æ¤púø’, °æE ï®Ω- -¶-ûª’-Ø√o†’–
Ø√éÀç-ûª-éπØ√o ´’ç* Å´-鬨¡ç ´*açC. í∫-¶-´-úøç éπ*aûªç, ü∆EE í∫’-Jç-* E®Ωg-®·ç--éÓ-´úøç I am going to meet the CM today.
Ñ job ´C-™‰-Ææ’hØ√o. Å®·-§Ú-®·çD, Ééπ ï®Ω-í∫-úø¢Ë’ ûª®Ω’-¢√-®· -Å-ØË Å®Ωnç Ç¢Á’ party ™ §ƒúø-†’çC –
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 64 ûª´Ææy®Ω’íhç¬C.ïJÍam/ is/ are going to ņo-°æ¤púø’ ÅC é¬Ææh She is going to sing at the party.
Kalyan: When are you going to resign this
Job? í Ææ÷îª-†©’ áèπ◊\´. ¢√∞¡Ÿx debate ™ §ƒ™Ô_-†-†’-Ø√o®Ω’ –
They are going to participate in the debate.
Now practise the following aloud in English:

He is going to..
Sasikanth: àçöÀ Åçûª £æ«ú≈-N-úÕí¬ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o´¤?
(Hurry ¢√úøçúÕ)
Ravikanth: °æ´Ø˛ bike é̆-¶-ûª ’-Ø√oúø’. ††’o
Selection èπ◊ ®Ω´’t-Ø√oúø’.
Sasikanth: É¢√∞Ï é̆-¶-ûª’-Ø√oú≈?
Sasikanth: In a week's time at the most. The 3) I am going to be the first branch manager. Ravikanth: Å´¤†’. ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o ü¿í∫_®Ω †’ç-* ¢√úÕéÀ
a) I will buy a car soon.
Telecom company is going to open first manager DD ®√¶-ûª’çC. ÅC BÆæ’èπ◊-E shop
Ç ¨»êèπ◊ ؈’ í¬ Öçúø-¶-ûª’-Ø√o†’. ؈’ ûªy®Ω™  car
its branch here and I am going to be 4) Is your salary going to be any the better? ü¿í∫_®Ωèπ◊ ´≤ƒhúø’. ؈-ûªEo shop ™
éÌçö«†’.
the first branch manager. F @ûªç ¢Á’®Ω’í¬_ Öçúø-¶-ûÓçü∆? éπ-©’Ææ’éÓ-¶-ûª’Ø√o.
Kalyan: Glad to hear that. Congrats. Is your
(E¨¡a-®·ç--èπ◊-Ø√o†’)
5) There's going to be a difference. b) I am going to a buy a Sasikanth: †’¢Áy-°æ¤púø’ é̆-¶-ûª’-Ø√o´¤ bike †’?
salary going to be any the better? Ravikanth: Bike Ø√ status èπ◊ ´’K ûªèπ◊\´.
àüÓ éÌçûª ûËú≈ Öçúø-¶-ûÓçC. car.
congrats.
ÆæçûÓ≠æç. @ûªç à´’Ø√o
6) I am going to buy a flat. ؈’ car é̆-¶-ûª’Ø√o Helicopter é̆-¶-ûª’Ø√o.
M. SURESAN
áèπ◊\-´í¬ Öçô’çü∆? Answer:
Sasikanth: There's going to be a difference of ؈’
é̆-¶-ûª’-Ø√o-†’. flat (O©-®·-†çûª ûªy®Ω™).
future ™ ï®Ω-í∫-¶-ûª’†o °æ†’©’, ´’†ç ´·çü¿Í® Sasikanth: Why are you in a hurry?
atleast Rs. 2000/- (ÉC °j-ü∆-EéπØ√o áèπ◊\´
éπFÆæç 2000 ®Ω÷-§ƒ-ߪ’© ûËú≈ Öçô’ç-C. ņ’èπ◊-E éπ*a-ûªçí¬ îËߪ’-¶ßË’ °æ†’-©èπ◊ am going to/ éπ*aûªç) Ravikanth: Pavan is going to buy a bike. He
Kalyan: Very glad then. Hope you will call is going to/ are going to + 1st regular doing word c) He will join duty soon. wanted me to help him in the selec-
me before you join. By the by, I am ¢√úøû√ç. duty
¢√úø’ ûªy®Ω-™ØË ™ îË®Ω-¶-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. tion.
going to buy a flat soon, that too, in a) She is going to buy a new dress. d) He is going to join duty soon. Sasikanth: Is he going to buy it today?
a week. I will move in soon after. Ç¢Á’ éÌûªh dress é̆-¶-ûÓçC. (éÌØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ E¨¡a- duty ¢√úø’ ûªy®Ω™ ™ îË®Ω’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’ Ravikanth: Yes. He is going to get the DD from
Here's the new address. his dad today. He will take it and
®·ç- î ª ’ - è π ◊ çC. Ééπ é̆- - ú ø ¢ Ë ’ ûª ® Ω ’ - ¢ √®·) will join (ÉC éπ Ø √o áèπ◊\´ éπ*aûªç)
Phone
éÌûªh éπç°-F™ îËÍ®-´·çü¿’ Ø√èπ◊ come to the shop. I am going to
b) ¢√úÕ-éπ\úø ¢√®Ωç-§ƒ-ô’ classes attend Å´-¶-ûª’- ÅC ûªy®Ω™  ï®Ω-í∫-¶-ûª’çC. †’¢Ëyç Cí∫’-©’-°æ-úøèπ◊.
îË≤ƒh-´-E -Ç-PÆæ’h-Ø√o. ņoô’x îÁ°æpôç
Ø√oúø’. It is going to happen. Don't you worry. meet him at the shop.
´’Jî√ (by the by) éÌûªh flat é̆-¶- Sasikanth: When are you going to buy a bike?
ûª’Ø√o, ã ¢√®Ωç-™ØË. ¢ÁçôØË îË®Ω’-ûª’Ø√o- He is going to attend classes here for a week. (î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x 'you don't worry' éÀ •ü¿’©’ 'Don't you
c) bank worry' Ravikanth: A bike is too low for my status. I am
†ç-ü¿’-™. ÉD éÌûªh address. Ñ ™ç* ¢Á · ûª h ç úø • ’s†’ BÊÆ- ß ª ’ - ¶ - û ª ’ - Ø √o®Ω ’ . ¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’).
going to buy a helicopter.
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ am going to, is going to, are They are going to withdraw all the money É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ ´’†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊†o N≠æߪ’ç: will/ shall
going to ©ûÓ ¢√úÕ† expressions îª÷úøçúÕ: from this bank. éπØ√o am going to/ is going to/ are going to + 1st
-v°æ-¨¡o: 1) House Åçõ‰ ÅüÁl-èπ◊-†o- É©’x, Home Åçõ‰ ≤Òçûªç É©’x-éπü∆! -v°æ-¨¡o: Present Continuous tense ™– -This land belongs -v°æ-¨¡o: Having †’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-TÆæ÷h A.Voice, P.Voice ™ éÌEo Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-
2) Åô’-´ç-ô-°æ¤úø’ House wife ÅE áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢√ú≈L. ÅÆæ©’ Home wife ÅE to him (Correct). é¬E This land is belonging to L´y-ç-úÕ. Having †’ à Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T≤ƒhç? to have †’
him ÅE áçü¿’èπ◊ ®√-ߪ’èπÿ-úø-ü¿’? 鬮Ωùç ûÁ-©’°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
– éπçü¿í∫ôx ®√Íé≠ˇ π◊´÷®˝, áv®Ω-¶„-Lx-í∫÷úÁç -ï-¢√-•’: Having AV ™ØË ´Ææ’hçC. Passive ™ ®√ü¿’éπü∆. Passive
áçü¿’èπ◊ îÁ°æp®Ω’?ØË-†’ -Ñ Ææç-üË£æ…-Eo -ã -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ -™„éπa®Ω®˝ -ü¿%-≠œdéÀ -B-Ææ’Èé-R-ûË ÅÆæ©’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-TÆæ÷h éÌEo Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-L-´yí∫-©®Ω’. – -á.--vQ-E-¢√Æˇ, -´÷®Ω÷d®Ω’
Homewife ņo-°æü¿ç ™‰ü¿’ ÅØ√o®Ω’. Homewife ÅE °œ©-´-éπ-§Ú-´-ú≈-EéÀ 鬮Ωùç
àN’öÀ? -ï-¢√-•’: éÌEo verbs, am+ing, is+ing, are+ing forms ™ ™ á°æ¤púø÷ past participle, ü∆E´·çü¿’ 'be' form ´≤ƒh®·.
House wife ÅØË áçü¿’èπ◊ °œ©’-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. ®√´¤. ¢√öÀ™x belong äéπöÀ. áçü¿’èπ◊ am Having ®√ü¿’. Active voice ™ having ûÓ áØÁj oØ√ sen-
ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©-®Ω’. belonging/ is belonging/ are belonging ®√ü¿’ tences ´≤ƒh®·. I am having coffee; My father is hav-
3) Communication skills °ç-éÓ-´-ú≈- Åçõ‰ Åçü¿’èπ◊ rule àç ™‰ü¿’. ÅC English ¶µ«≠æ ing a bath,etc. To have ûÓ– eg: I am happy to have a
EéÀ -Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫-éπ®Ω-¢Á’i-† ã ´’ç* ©éπ~ùç. É™«çöÀ verbs †’ í∫’-Jç-* î√™« N´-®Ωçí¬ car. To have a car like this makes me happy. É™«
°æ¤Ææh-éπç Ê°®Ω’ îÁ°æpçúÕ. Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿J lessons ™ îªJaçî√ç. îª÷úøçúÕ. áØÁj oØ√ ´≤ƒh®·.
– -áç.-á-™¸.-áÆˇ.®√-ߪ·-úø’, éπ®Ω÷o-©’ -v°æ-¨¡o: 1) I have to attend meeting 3) I ought to obey the order: Çïc §ƒöÀç-îª-úøç Ø√NCµ.
-ï-¢√-•’: House Åçõ‰ ÅüÁl É©’x é¬ü¿’. à ÉçöÀ-ØÁjØ√, Åçü¿’Ø√ ´’†’-≠æfl©’ E´-Æœç-îª-í∫© - 2) I must leave this place Ought to ÅØ√o èπÿú≈ äéπ °æE-îË-ߪ÷L ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC.
3) I ought to obey the order
ü∆-E-E (any building for people to live in) house Åçö«ç, ≤Òçûª, ÅüÁl ÅØË Å®·ûË ´·êuçí¬ DEo FA v°æ鬮Ωç, ØÁjAé𠶫üµ¿u-ûª†’ í∫’-Jç-*
The underlined words give same meaning. So
v°æÆæéÀh ™‰èπ◊çú≈.Home Åçõ‰ ≤Òçûª É©’x 鬆-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. ÅüÁl É©x-®·Ø√, ´’† kindly explain, is there any difference in mean-
ûÁ L - ß ª ’ - ñ ‰ÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ -¢√-úø-û√®Ω’.
èπ◊ô’ç-•-Ææ-¶µº’u-©ûÓ ´’†ç ÖçúË É©’x, home. O’èπ◊ £j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛™ ≤Òçûª É©’x You ought to respect elders – °ü¿l¢√∞¡x†’ íı®Ω-Nç-î √L.
ing? In what context those words are to used?- °ü¿ l ¢ √∞¡ x † ’ íı®Ω -Nç-îª-úøç ÅØËC ã E•ç-üµ¿ØÓ, îªôd¢Á÷, -Ç-ñ c
ÖçúÕ, éπ®Ω÷o™x ÅüÁl Éçöx O’J-°æ¤úø’ E¢√Ææç Öçô’çõ‰, éπ®Ω÷o™x O’®Ω’ç-ô’†o-C
É©’x, O’ home. Hyderabad ™ ≤Òçûª É©’x-†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, O’®Ω-éπ\úø E¢√Ææç -ï-¢√-•’: 1) I have to attend the meeting ؈’ meeting èπ◊
– -úÕ.Ææ’-¶«s-®√-´¤, é¬V-©÷®Ω’, ûª÷.íÓ. >™«x é¬ü¿’í∫ü∆. ØÁjA-éπçí¬, FA v°æ鬮Ωç ´’†ç íı®Ω-Nç-î√L.
-Öç-úø-úø癉ü¿’ 鬕öÀd you have a house in Hyderabad. Your home éπ®Ω÷o™x, É™«çöÀîÓôx ought to Åçö«ç.
¢Á∞«}L – Ééπ\úø ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç-™ Ø√ Å-´-Ææ®Ωç áèπ◊\´. a) She ought not to speak so rudely.
O’®Ω’ç-ô’†o É©’x ≤Òçûª-üÁj-Ø√, ÅüÁl-üÁjØ√. Éûª-®Ω’© order ´©x 鬴a– é¬F Ø√ Å´-Ææ-®√-EéÀ
2) Homewife ÅØË ´÷ô ¢√úø’-éπ™  ™‰ü¿’. Housewife ÅØËüË correct. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ áèπ◊\´ v§ƒ´·êuç – ¢Á-∞¡}-éπ-§ÚûË Ø√èπ◊ †≠ædç. Åçûª ü¿’®Ω’-Ææ’í¬ ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫÷-úøü¿’.
Housewife ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ home maker éÌûªhí¬ ¢√úø’-éπ-™ éÀ ´Ææ’h†o´÷ô. DE-éπçõ‰ b) You ought not to waste money.
2) I must leave the place - Ééπ\úø Éûª-®Ω’© order ´©x ؈’
Éçé¬ éÌûªh ´÷ô ´·êuçí¬ American usage™, houseworker (=housewife/ ¢Á-R}-§Ú-¢√Lq ÖçC ÅØË ¶µ«´ç, Ø√ Å´-Ææ®Ωç ´©x ؈’ Åçûª úø•’s ´%ü∑∆ îËߪ’-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
home maker). ¢Á-R}-§Ú-¢√L ÅØË ¶µ«´ç éπØ√o áèπ◊\´ Ææ’p¥J-Ææ’hçC. É´Fo †úø-´-úÕéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†N, îªö«d-©ûÓ Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰EN.
3) Communication skills °ç-éÓ--ú≈-EéÀ ´’ç* English newspaper v°æA-®ÓW ã I must do this. ØËEC îËߪ÷L, order ´©x 鬴a, -Ø√ You ought to have helped her
í∫çô-§ƒô’ îªü¿-´çúÕ. TV newscasts N†çúÕ. English story books *†o-*†o Å´-Ææ®Ωç 鬴a – îËߪ’-éπ-§ÚûË Ø√èπ◊ éπ≠dçæ 鬴a. must Ç¢Á ’ èπ ◊ Ææ £ æ … ߪ ’ç îËÆœ Öçú≈-LqçC.
¢√öÀ-ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç* °ü¿lN îªü¿-´çúÕ. ÅØËC have to/ has to éπØ√o é¬Ææh áèπ◊\´ powerful. É™«çöÀ îÓôx should, must, have to/ has to ®√´¤.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 6 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2005
Bhavan: I am going to apply for the job. What e) They are going to transfer him.
about you? transfer
¢√∞¡x-ûªEo îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. E®Ωgߪ’ç -BÆæ’èπ◊-
job
؈’ apply
èπ◊ îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o†’. F will transfer
Ø√o®Ω’. îË≤ƒh®Ω’. Ééπ\úø are going
èπ◊
´÷õ‰çöÀ? to transfer Åçûª éπ*aûªç™‰ü¿’.
Chalam: I have filled in the application. I will f) Once he gets this job, he will resign the pres-
post it as soon as I get my certificates. ent job. Ñjob job
®√í¬ØË, É°æpöÀ ´÷ØË-≤ƒhúø’.
Application certificates
°æ‹Jh î˨»†’. Ø√ Ééπ\úø 'will' resign
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ; Åûª-úø’
ready post
Å´-í¬ØË îË≤ƒh†’. job
îËߪ’-úø-´’-ØË-C ´’®Ó ®√´-úøç O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æúÕ
Bhavan: Haven't you got them yet? ÖçC. °æ‹Jhí¬ Åûª-úÕ- îËûª’™x ™‰ü¿’. Åçü¿’-éπE Ééπ\úø
-¢√-öÀ-Eçé¬ -ûÁ-aéÓ-™‰-ü∆? will.
Chalam: I am going to collect them from college g) If he doesn't get the transfer he will continue.
tomorrow. Nagaraj is going to apply transfer
Åûª-úø’ éÌ-†≤ƒí∫-úø-´÷ -™‰-ü∆ -Å-ØË-C Å´-úøç,
too. é¬éπ-§Ú-´-ú≈-Eo •öÀd Öçô’çC éπü∆– Åçü¿’-éπE will.
will/ shall am going to/ is going to/ are Sankar: We will, if we get a good price.
college
Í®°æ¤ ؈’ certificates
†’ç* ÉO èπÿ Venkat: Í®°æ¤ ´’ç*®ÓïE ´÷ Å´’t îÁ°œpçC. Í®°æ¤ -
going to + 1st RDW îË≤ƒh. -§ƒÆˇ-§Ú®Ω’dèπ◊ application, D.D. ÅFo Tarun: How long are you going to keep it
Nagaraj apply
-ûÁa-éÓ-¶-ûª’Ø√o. èπÿú≈ èπÿ Ö†o ûËú≈. Ñ ûËú≈
í∫´’-Eç* ´÷ö«x-úø-úøç spoken english ™ î√-™« Í®°æ¤ BÆæ’èπ◊çö«. é¬Ææh procedure à-N’ö vacant?
îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. If, unless, suppose, in case
Bhavan: Why? Isn't he happy with his present
´·êuç. ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ îÁ°æp¢√? (´’ç*-®ÓV = Auspicious day) Sankar: We are not in a hurry. We are going to
Ö†o sentences ™ am going to/ is going to/ are Akhil: let it out. Whenever we get a good
job? ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈. Å®·ûË ã Å®Ω-í∫ç-ô™ ´÷
going to (If = in case = suppose =
friend äéπúø’ ††’o éπ©-´-¶-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. price we will sell it (off)/ dispose it of.
job
áçü¿’èπ◊? É°æ¤p-úø’†o Åûª-EéÀ≠dçæ ™‰ü∆? ®√ü¿’. Å®·ûË,
unless–
Ç °æJ-Æœn-ûª’™x; Å®·ûË ûª°æp;) when = Å™«ç-
Chalam: They are going to transfer him to
am/ is/ are
ô-°æ¤púø’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’ èπÿú≈, Åûª-úÕ-E ؈’ doctor ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’-Èé-∞¡-û√-†’. Tarun: I will ask my father if he is interested.
Tamilnadu. His father is against it. So Åü¿-®·ç-ûª-®√yûª ´’†ç BJí¬_ èπÿ®Ω’a-E The other day he was talking of buying
going to ®√´¤.
once he gets this job he will resign the ´÷ö«x-úø’-éÓ-´îª’a. a house.
present job. But if he doesn't get the Venkat: Å®·ûË á°æ¤púø’ free í¬ Öçö«´¤? Sankar: No hurry at all. Find out from your
transfer he will continue in it. ≤ƒßª’çvûªç Ø√©’-Tç-öÀéÀ ®√Ø√? father if he is interested. We will
future actions (Ñ È®çúø’ exercises ™ Shall/ Will èπÿ
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 65
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ùçû√ †’ í∫’-Jç-îË reduce the price if it is for you.
future
≤ƒ-TçC éπü∆? éÌEoÆæç-ü¿-®√s¥™x will/
-ûÁ-©°æ-ú≈-EéÀ am/ is/ are going to èπ◊ ûËú≈©’
Tarun: I will let you know tomorrow.
shall ´’J-éÌEoîÓôx am going to/ is going to/ are í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.)
going to + 1st Regular doing word ¢√ú≈ç-éπü∆?
Shall/ Will, am going to/ is going to/ are going
to forms È®çúÕç-öÀFfuture ûÁ©°æ-ú≈-EÍé ¢√úøû√ç.
Å®·ûË ¢√öÀéÀ ûËú≈ ÖçC. Ç ûËú≈ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-úøç
î√-™« ´·êuç. éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ ´’†ç îª÷¨»ç éπü∆.
shall, will ´’† control ™ ™‰E future ûÁ©’°æ¤û√®·.
Am going to/ is going to/ are going to forms
When will you be free?
Éçü¿’èπ◊ éÌç-îÁç ûËú≈í¬ ´’† E®Ωgߪ’ç O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æúÕ Now practise the following aloud in English: 2) Akhil: Hi Venkat,
´’†ç îËߪ’-¶ßË’ °æ†’-©†’ ûÁ©’°æ¤-û√®·. îª÷úøçúÕ 1) Sankar: ¢Ë’-´· Í®°æ¤ éÌûªh ÉçöxéÀ ´÷®Ω-¶-ûª’Ø√oç. Akhil: ã Å™«Íí. What brings
a) I am going to apply for the job; Tarun: É°æ¤púø’†o É©’x Ţ˒t-Ææ’h-Ø√o®√? 3) Manoj: Hi Fareed, áéπ\-úÕ-†’ç* ´Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤? you here?
job apply Sankar: Fareed: bike é¬Ææh trouble ÉÊÆh, mechanic Venkat: I am going to
èπ◊ îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o†’. îËߪ’-úøç ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ´’ç*üµ¿®Ω ´ÊÆh Ţ˒t-≤ƒh-†ç--ô’Ø√oúø’ ´÷ Ø√
éπ*aûªç. E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’éÓ-´-úøç ïJ-TçC. Ø√†o. èπ◊ -É-*a ÉçöÀ-Èé-∞¡ŸhØ√o. apply for a
b) I will post it as soon as I get my certificates. Tarun: áçûª-鬩ç Ç ÉçöÀE ë«Sí¬ Öçîª-¶-ûª’- Manoj: F bike ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ trouble ÉÆæ’hç-üËçöÀ? passport. I
certificates®√í¬ØË Øˆ’ post îË≤ƒh†’. Ééπ\úø Ø√o®Ω’? (ë«S = vacant) Fareed: II hand bike é̆-úøç -ØË-† ’ îËÆ œ†
need your
application†’ post certificates
îËߪ’-úøç ûÁa-éÓ- Sankar: ´÷Íéç Åçûª ûÌçü¿®Ω ™‰ü¿’. É°æ¤púø’ ü∆Eo §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’. help. M. SURESAN
´-úøç O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æúÕ ÖçC. Certificates ®√´-úøç ÅüÁl-éÀ-´y-¶-ûª’Ø√oç. á°æ¤púø’ ´’ç* -üµ¿-®Ω ´ÊÆh Manoj: áçûª-é¬-©çí¬ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤ ü∆Eo?
apply condition Akhil: When are you
؈’ îËߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ 鬕öÀd Ééπ\úø Å°æ¤p-úø-¢Ë’t≤ƒhç. Fareed: È®çúË-∞¡Ÿxí¬. Ñ È®çúË-∞¡x™ repairs Íé ü∆ü∆°æ¤
will postÅçô’Ø√oç. É™«çöÀîÓôx I am going to (ÅüÁléÀ´y-úøç– let out. ûÌçü¿®Ω – in a hurry) going to apply?
È®çúø’¢Ë© ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ °ö«d.
post Tarun: ´÷ Ø√†o-†’ Åúø’-í∫’-û√†’, Çߪ’†Íé´’Ø√o Venkat: Mom says/ has said that tomorrow is
ņç. Manoj: á´J ü¿í∫_®Ω éÌØ√o´¤ ü∆Eo?
c) I am going to collect them from college an auspicious day. I will take the pass
ÇÆæéÀh ÖçüË-¢Á÷-†E. ¢Á·-ØÁo-°æ¤púÓ É©’x éÌ-†-úøç Fareed: ´÷ ü¿÷®Ω°æ¤ ôdç †’ç*. Çߪ’†üËç
tomorrow. ؈’ Í®°æ¤ ¢√öÀEcollege †’ç* ûÁa- í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-ú≈®Ω’. ûª°æ¤p ™‰ü¿’. Ç bike é̆--´ü¿lF îÁ§ƒpúø’. port application, DD, etc., tomorrow.
èπ◊çö«-†’. -¢Á-R} -ûÁ-a-éÓ-´-úø-¢Ë’ ûª®Ω’-¢√®·. ÉC ï®Ω’-í∫’- Sankar: ûÌçü¿Í®ç™‰ü¿’. O’ Ø√†oí¬J-Íé-´’Ø√o Interest ØËØË foolish í¬ éÌØ√o, ûªèπ◊\´ üµ¿®ΩéÌÆæ’hçC won't you (will you not) let me know
ûª’çC. DEéÀ conditions à--O’™‰´¤ 鬕öÀd am ÖçüË¢Á÷ éπ†’éÓ\. O’Íé Å´·tû√ç. éÌçûª üµ¿®Ω éπü∆ -ÅE. the procedure?
going to collect. will collect ¢√úø-´îª’aí¬F Ñ Akhil: Sure. But in half an hour my friend/
Manoj:
èπÿú≈ ûªT_≤ƒhç. Ţ˒t--ßÁ·îª’a éπü∆?
Å®Ωnç ®√ü¿’ éπü∆. Tarun: Í®°æ¤ îÁ§ƒhØË N≠æߪ’ç. a friend of mine is going to meet me.
Answers:
d) Nagaraj is going to apply too. Ø√í∫-®√ñ¸ èπÿú≈ 2) Akhil: Hi Venkat, àçöÀ-™«-´-î √a´¤? I am going to take him to doctor. Once
Sankar: We are moving into the new home
apply îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. îË≤ƒhúø’. He will apply Venkat: Passport èπ◊ apply îËߪ’-¶-ûª’Ø√o. é¬Ææh F
tomorrow. that's over we can sit over your pass-
too èπ◊ Ñ force ™‰-ü¿’. will apply -Å-ØË-C is going Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç 鬢√L. Tarun: Are you selling away/ going to sell the port business at leisure.
to apply Åçûª éπ*aûªçé¬ü¿’. Akhil: á°æ¤púø’ apply îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o´¤? house you are in? Venkat: When will you be free then? Shall I
-v°æ-¨¡o: Contrary sense & positive sense Åç-õ‰ -à-N’-ö N´-®Ωçí¬ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. 2) He might not have gone - ¢Á∞¡Ÿ}ç-úø-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a (¢Á∞¡Ÿ}ç-úø-´îª’a èπÿú≈) see you at 4 this evening?
Contrary sense Akhil: That's OK
™ -Ö†o Ñ -¢√é¬u-©’ -ûª°æ¤p -Å-E éÌEo ví¬´’®˝ °æ¤Ææh-é¬-™x Ê°®Ì\- Ééπ\úø contrary sense™‰ü¿’ – ÆæçüË£æ«ç.
3) Manoj: Hi Fareed, where are you coming
Ø√o®Ω’. -É-N áçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ éπÈ®éÓd ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. They might have seen you - E†’o ¢√∞¡Ÿx îª÷Ææ’ç-úÌa (îª÷úø-éπ-§Ú®‚
1. He should not have gone - -Ñ v°æßÁ÷-í∫ç ™‰ü¿’ ÅE ®√-¨»®Ω’. from?
Öç-úÌa) – No contrary sense - doubt. Fareed: My bike has had/ had some trouble. I
2. He might not have gone - -Ñ v°æßÁ÷-í∫ç ™‰ü¿’. 3) He must not have gone - Éü¿ç-ûªí¬ ¢√úø®Ω’. Ééπ\úø contrary sense
have left it at the mechanic's and am
3. He must not have gone - -Ñ v°æßÁ÷-í∫ç ™‰ü¿’.
®√´-úøç éÓÆæç, Ñ sentence ûª°æ¤p. (D†®Ωnç– ¢ÁR} Öçúøúø’– éπ*aûªç– ¢Á∞¡}-™‰ü¿’) on my way home/ am going home.
Mood and model verbs, subjunctive í∫’Jç* N´-®Ωçí¬ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
Ééπ\úø Ñ È®çúø÷ §Ú©açúÕ. Manoj: Why does your bike give trouble so
subjunctive usage, perfect subjunctive verbs í∫’Jç* -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’.
a) He should not have gone - ¢Á∞«}úø’ (contrary sense) - correct often?
– Èé-.-†-Jqç£æ…È®-úÕf, £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ b) He must not have gone - éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ¢ÁR} Fareed: Buying a used bike (modern word for
-ï-¢√-•’: Positive sense Åçõ‰ - '™‰ü¿’, é¬ü¿’— ÅE Öçúøúø’ – ¢Á∞¡}-™‰ü¿’ (ÉC contrary sense - ´uA- II hand) is the mistake I made/ I made
Å®Ωnç ®√èπ◊çú≈ Öçúø-úøç. Í®-鬮Ωnç ®√ü¿’) – positive sense ´Ææ’hçC. a mistake - buying a used bike.
Contrary sense - ´uA-Í®-鬮Ωnç ®√´-úøç -´’®Ó È®ç-úø’ -¢√é¬u-©-†’ -§Ú-La -îª÷-úøç-úÕ: Manoj: How long have you been using it?
1) He should not have gone. Fareed: For two years now/ For the past two
a) He should have gone - ¢Á∞¡Ÿ}ç-ú≈-LqçC – ¢Á∞¡}-
Åûª†’ ¢ÁR} Öçúø-èπÿ-úøü¿’ years. I have spent Rs 2000/- on
™‰ü¿’ – contrary sense.
(¢Á-∞¡Ÿ}ç-ú≈-LqçC é¬ü¿’) – é¬F ¢Á-∞«}úø’. repairs so far.
b) He must have gone - ¢Á∞Ï} Öçö«úø’ ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈
Ééπ\úø 'He should not have gone' ÅØË-ü∆- Manoj: Who did you buy it from?
EéÀ '¢Á∞«}úø’— ÅE ´uA-Í®-鬮Ωnç ´≤ÚhçC, – ¢Á∞«}úø’ Positive sense. Fareed: From a distant relative of ours. I can't
(cannot) blame him. He told me not
鬕öÀd ÉC contrary sense - ÉC ûª°æ¤p é¬ü¿’. O’®Ω’ ÉC à gram-
-´’®Ó -Ö-ü∆£æ«®Ω-ù:
mar book™ îª÷¨»®Ó ®√ߪ’-™‰ü¿’. He must have passed the exam. Otherwise he would not have applied to buy it/ He advised me/ warned me
They should not have talked like that. for the job. against buying it. I bought it foolishly
Å™« ´÷ö«x-ú≈-LqçC é¬ü¿’ (é¬F Å™« ´÷ö«x-ú≈®Ω’) - contrary sense. -Å-ûªúø’ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ pass Å®· Öçö«úø’. (pass Åߪ÷uúø’– positive sense) because I got it cheap.
They should have done that. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ job èπ◊ apply îËÆœ Öçúøúø’ (î˨»úø’– contrary sense). Manoj: Why don't you sell it (off)?
¢√-∞¡x-C îËÆæ’ç-ú≈-LqçC (é¬F îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’) - contrary sense. Subjunctive usage, etc., ûªy®Ω™  N´-J≤ƒhç-.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 8 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2005
Kapil: Hi Subhash, Well met. Any idea of how
´’†ç-ü¿-Jéà ûÁL-Æœ† N≠æߪ’ç – say éÀ, tell éà î√™«
many of us are going on the picnic next
Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x Å®Ωnç äéπõ‰ – îÁ°æp-úøç, ņ-úøç ÅE.
weekend?
Å®·ûË OöÀ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫ç™ î√™« ûËú≈ ÖçC. °j
éπ-©’Ææ’éÓ-´-úøç ´’ç*-ü¿-®·çC(well met). ´îËa- Ææ綵«≠æù™ØË îª÷ü∆lç.
¢√®Ωç picnic èπ◊ áçûª´’çCN’ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’Ø√oç? A (tell)
Suhas: About 15 of us. ã °æC-Ê£«-†’-´’ç-ü¿-´îª’a.
i) I told him of it
Kapil: Does Rahul know about it?
B (say)
®√£æ›™¸èπ◊ ûÁ©’≤ƒ? i) What did he say?
Suhas: He does. I told him of it yesterday.
ii) He said that he was not sure.
ûÁ©’Ææ’. ØË-†’ E†o Åûª-úÕ-éÀ -îÁ-§ƒp†’.
iii) All that he said was ...
Kapil: What did he say? Is he joining us?
tell Tell me why you have done it. (say to me why
π◊ Ææç-•ç-Cµç-*-† -´’-JéÌ-Eo... The teacher told the students to sit down
you have done it
à´’-Ø√oúø’. ´Ææ’h-Ø√oú≈?
ii) Didn't he tell you and to note down the points.
é¬ü¿’).
Suhas: He said that he was not sure. g) Tell Story
Why he was doubtful? É™«çöÀ îÓôx say ®√ü¿’ éπü∆. (The teacher said á´-JéÀîÁ°œpçDûÁ©’-°æ-èπ◊çú≈ †’ éÀ ¢√úøû√ç.
®√´-úøç éÌçûª ÆæçüË-£æ«¢Ë’ ÅØ√oúø’. Please tell a story. old fashioned.
Å®·ûË ÉC
iii) ... tell him to come to the pupils to sit down
é¬ü¿’.)
Kapil: Didn't he (Did not he) tell you why he ÉO Tell, Say èπ◊ Ææç-•ç-Cµç-*-† N´-®√©’. É´Fo
d) say ûª®√yûª thanks, good bye, hello, sorry, a
was doubtful? Has he any other pro- èπÿú≈Practice -ûÓ, îªü¿´-úøç ´©x ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´îª’a.
few words, a little/ little (about something/
gramme that day? Practise the following aloud in English:
some one) ÅE ¢√úø-´îª’a. É™«çöÀîÓôx tell ®√ü¿’. a) Raghu:
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 66
®√´-úøç áçü¿’èπ◊ ÆæçüË-£æ«¢Á÷ FûÓ îÁ°æp-™‰-ü∆?- ®ΩN FûÓ áçü¿’èπ◊ ®√´--úøç-™‰üÓ îÁ§ƒpú≈?
e) Tell ¢Áç•úË to ¢√úøç. He told to me to go/
Ç®Ó-V -¢ËÍ® °æ-ØË-¢Á’i-Ø√ -Öç-ü∆? Ram: ™‰ü¿’
He told to her that he liked cricket ™«çöÀ
Raghu: ††’o éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-úøçí∫’-Jç-* à´’Ø√o îÁ§ƒpú≈?
Ram: -Å-D -îÁ°æp-™‰-ü¿’.

What did he say?
Raghu: -ØË-Eéπ\-úø’-Ø√o-†-E -îÁ-§ƒp-¢√-?
Ram: îÁ§ƒp†’. ¢√úÕo-éπ\-úÕéÀ ®Ω´’t-Ø√o†’ èπÿú≈. ÆæÍ®
ÅØ√oúø’. ¢√úÌîËa time -Ø√-ûÓ -îÁ°æp-™‰-ü¿’.
Raghu: avoid
-†-ØÁoç-ü¿’èπ◊ îËÆæ’h-Ø√o-úÓ -†’-¢Ëy-´’®·-Ø√ -
îÁ-°æp-í∫-©-¢√?
b) Pavan: Hi Ravi, EØÁo-éπ\-úø’-Ø√o´¤ †’´¤y?
Suhas: I don't know. All that he said was he was iv) ... tell him not to disappoint us. sentences ¢√úøç. áçü¿’- Ravi: ØËØ√ N≠æߪ’ç É°æ¤púø’ îÁ°æp-™‰†’
doubtful about coming. I was in a hurry. v) tell stories éπçõ‰ Ééπ\úø tell °æéπ\ØË to Pavan: àçôçûª ®Ω£æ«Ææuç?
I had no time to ask him. A tell sentences B say
éÀçü¿ ûÓ †’, éÀçü¿ ûÓ Ö†o ®√ü¿’ 鬕öÀd. Ravi: ûª®√yûª îÁ§ƒh àçöÀ Åçûª ®Ω£æ«Ææuç ÅE
Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’. ûª†’ îÁ°œpçü¿-™«x ûª†’ sentences †’ §Ú©açúÕ. -É-°æp-öÀÍé í∫´’-Eç* Öçö«®Ω’. f) ÉN îª÷úøçúÕ: a) He told Pavan: O’Ø√-†o-í¬-Í®-´’Ø√o îÁ§ƒp®√ FûÓ?
®√´-úøç ÆæçüË-£æ«-´’E. ؈’ éÌçîÁç ûÌçü¿-®Ω™ 1) tell ûª®√yûª á´-JûÓ îÁ°œpçD ÅØËC éπ*aûªçí¬ me why he was happy. Ravi: üËEo-í∫÷Ja?
ÖØ√o. Åçü¿’-éπE Åûª-Eoç-ÍéO’ Åúø-í∫-™‰ü¿’. ´≤ÚhçC éπü∆ ( Sentence V ™ ûª°æp) – ÅüË 'say' Pavan: ؈C îÁ°æp†’ Fèπ◊. †’´¤y ´·çü¿’ F ®Ω£æ«Ææuç
b) He said to me why
Kapil: OK. I'll call him and tell him to come °æéπ\† á´JûÓ îÁ°œpçD ®√´--úøç-™‰ü¿’. ¢Á·ü¿öÀ ûËú≈, he was happy. Ééπ\úø M. SURESAN îÁ°æ¤p. ûª®√yûª ØËç îÁ§ƒh
without fail. Without him the picnic can't tell èπÿ, say èπÿ. tell ûª®√yûª á´-JûÓ îÁ°œpçD Answers:
be fun. sentence (a) ´÷vûª¢Ë’
éπ*aûªçí¬ ®√¢√-LqçüË. say ûª®√yûª Åéπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. say Raghu: Has Ravi told you why he is not coming?
ÆæÍ®™‰! ؈’ Phone îËÆœ ûª°æpéπ ®Ω´’tç-ö«†’. correct. (b) ™ ™«í∫ said á°æ¤púø÷ ¢√úøç. Åçõ‰
ûª®√yûª á´-JûÓ îÁ°œpçD ûÁ©-§ƒ-©çõ‰ to ¢√úøû√ç. Ram: No.
Åûª†’ ™‰éπ-§ÚûË picnic èπ◊ ¢ÁR}-†õ‰d Öçúøü¿’. a) He told her that he was busy, 'wh' words ûÓ begin ÅßË’u clause (verbûÓ Ö†o
Raghu: Did he say anything about meeting me?
Suhas: That's true. Tell him not to disappoint b) He said to her that he was busy. ´÷ô© Ææ´‚£æ«ç)- Tell ûª®√yûª ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ´Ææ’hçC. Ram: Not that either.
us. He makes jokes and tell stories too. Å®·ûË -Ñ È®ç-úÕç-öÀ-™ (b) éπØ√o (a) áèπ◊\-´í¬ ÅC èπÿú≈ á´-JûÓ îÁ°œpçD ûÁL-ߪ’-°æ-J-ÊÆhØË. (a) ´’Sx Raghu: Have you told him (that) I am here?
He is good at these. You had better call ¢√úø’-ûª’çö«ç. Åçõ‰ ´’†ç îÁ°œpçC á´-JûÓ ÅE îª÷úøçúÕ: Ram: I did. I told him to come here too. He
him now itself. îÁ°æ¤h-†o-°æ¤p-úø™«x 'tell' better. He told me why he was... (me ´·çü¿’, Ç said yes. He did not tell me the time of
Correct. ´’†Lo E®√-¨¡-°æ-®Ωa-´-ü¿lE îÁ°æ¤p. ¢√úø’ 2) äéπ®Ω’ îÁ°œp† ´÷ô-©†’ ¢√∞¡Ÿx îÁ°œp-†-ô’xí¬, repeat ûª®√yûª why ûÓ -v§ƒ®Ω綵º-´’ßË’u clause ´Ææ’hçC). his coming here
Jokes ¢Ëߪ’-í∫-©úø’, éπü∑¿©’ îÁ°æp-í∫-©úø’. †’´¤y îËÆœ-†-°æ¤p-úø÷, ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ¢√∞¡x ´÷ô-©†’ report îËÆœ-†- Pranav: Did he attend class yesterday? Raghu: Can you say why he is avoiding me?
¢√úÕ-éÀ-°æ¤púË §∂ÚØ˛ îËߪ’úøç ´’ç*C. °æ¤púø’, say ¢√úøû√ç. Praveen: No, he didn't. b) Pavan: Hi Ravi, Where were you yesterday?
{Had better do (some thing) = îËߪ’úøç a) 'sit down', said the teacher/ the teacher said. Ravi: I cannot tell you now about it. / I Can't
Pranav: Why?
´’ç*C. Ééπ\úø had Ö†o-°æp-öÀéà ÉC b) He said that he was happy. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: °j Praveen: He did not tell me why he was absent
say anything about it now.
Present N≠æ-ߪ÷ØËo îÁ°æ¤ hçC. You have sentences ™ á´-JûÓ îÁ°œpçD ûÁ-L-ߪ’-úøç ™‰ü¿’. Pavan: What is so secret about it?
yesterday.
better buy that book = †’¢√y °æ¤Ææhéπç c) 'sit down', said the teacher to the pupils. Ravi: I'll tell you later what the secret about it is.
é̆-úøç ´’ç*C} 'Note down the points'. teacher
ÉC ´÷ô-©†’ Ééπ\úø He did not say to me why... ®√ü¿’. Pavan: Did your father tell you anything?
-Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ say, tell ¢√úøéπç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. He never tells me where he goes, what he
repeat
ߪ’-ü∑∆-ûª-ü∑¿çí¬ said
îËÆæ’hØ√oç. Ééπ\úø Ravi: What about?
(Say - past tense and past participle - said; •ü¿’©’ told ®√ü¿’. ÅüË Ñ ´÷ô-©†’ report does, when he studies or how he studies. Pavan: I will not tell you that. First you tell me of
tell - past tense and past participle - told) îËߪ÷-©-†’-éÓçúÕ. Å°æ¤púø’– (Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ ´÷´‚-©’í¬ say ®√ü¿’). your secret. Then I will tell you of mine.

v°æ-¨¡o: Ø√èπ◊ Indirect Speech í∫’-Jç-* éÌçûª ÅÆæp-≠ædûª -Öç-C. Ñ ¢√é¬u©’ -v°æ-¨¡o: - Please clarify the difference between simple present we were here some time ago, say 10 minutes ago/ an
hour ago, and since then, we have continued to be here
°æ-J-Q-Lç-* Ææç-üË£æ…-©’ -B®Ωaí∫-©®Ω’. and present perfect tenses used in these sentences.
till now/ we are here even now.
1) "An amount of Rs.104 Crores would be paid in Rajampet con- 1) We are inside. We have been inside.
stituency of Cuddappah District on Saturday. Ñ ¢√é¬u-Eo ؈’ What's the difference?
¢Ë’ç Ééπ\úø Öçúøôç í∫ûªç™ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº-´’®·, É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊
Indirect Speech
Ê°°æ-®Ω’™ îª÷¨». Ñ ¢√éπuç ™ -Öç-ü∆? 2) We are behind them.
ïJ-Tç-C/ -Éçé¬ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûÓçC, ÅE.
Abdul Kalam is our President (Çߪ’† ´’† president -
news paper
(™‰ü∆) Fact
¢√®Ω’ Íé´©ç Ç (will be paid
†’ We have been behind them.
†’ would paid í¬) îÁ°æ¤p-ûª’-Ø√o®√? Éçûªéà ؈’ Ê°°æ®Ω’ 3) She is in town.
ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’†o N≠æߪ’ç)
Abdul Kalam has been our president for the past two
îª÷Æœ†Ø√öÀéÀ Ç úø•’s °æç°œ-ùÀ/ -îÁ-Lxç°æ¤ ïJ-T-†ö«x? ™‰ü∆? She has been in town.
and a half years= president
È®çúø’-†o-Í®-∞¡Ÿxí¬ Çߪ’† ´’† í¬
2) As the Offense was not cognisable a Magistrate 4) I am uneasy about the situation.
would carry out a investigation.
ÖØ√o®Ω’. (È®çúø’-†o-Í®∞¡x véÀûªç †’ç* É°æpöÀ ´®Ω-èπ◊/-Éçé¬)
Ñ Ææç°∂æ’-ô† -äéπ®Ó-V I have been uneasy about the situa-
would carry
Å™«Íí N’í∫û√ sentences èπÿú≈:
ïJ-TûË -Ç ´’®Ω’Ææ-öÀ®Ó-V Ê°°æ-®Ω’™ ´*açC. -Ñ ¢√éπuç™ tion. -O-öÀ Å®Ωnç™ ûËú≈ -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. 2) i) We are behind them = ¢√∞¡x ¢Á†’éπ ¢Ë’ç ÖØ√oç (É°æ¤púø’)
outÅE -Öç-C. -Ç v°æ鬮Ωç ü¿®√u°æ¤h ïJ-T-§Ú-®·-†ö«d? ï®Ω-í∫-´-©Æœ -Öç-ü∆? As per tense rule, I know the difference of above each
ii) We have been behind them.
sentence which are in simple present as well as in present
-ï-¢√-•’: Sentence No 1 - ÉC indirect speech™ Öçü∆ ™‰ü∆ ÅØËC ü∆E
– -áÆˇ. FL´’, ¶Ô-©x-´®Ωç éÌçûª-é¬-©çí¬ ¢√∞¡x ¢Á†’éπ ¢Ë’ç ÖØ√oç.
perfect tense. But, what is/ may the meaning of above
3) She is in town = Ç--¢Á’ Ü∞x ÖçC (É°æ¤úø’)
´·çü¿®Ω ¢√é¬uEo •öÀd ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC. ÅC Mr x said ÅE ÖçúÕ, Ñ sen- sentences whether they are used in simple present or
She has been in town = éÌçûª-é¬-©çí¬ Ç¢Á’ Ü∞x ÖçöçC.
tence ü∆E continuation Å®·ûË, ÅC indirect speech Å®·ûË, present perfect? Please explain it in detail.
4) I am uneasy about the situation.
would correct. Ñ sentence †’ independent í¬ BÆæ’èπ◊çõ‰ Ééπ\úø
-ï-¢√-•’: 1) We are inside = we are inside NOW.
– -Ê≠é˙ -¢Á·£œ«-†’-Cl-Ø˛, éπ®Ω÷o-©’ °æJ-ÆœnA Ø√èπ◊ É•sç-Cí¬ ÖçC É°æ¤púø’.
would ûª°æ¤p; will correct Å´¤-ûª’çC. I have been uneasy about the situation.
Sentence No 2 - Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ °j rule ´Jh-Ææ’hçC. Independent sen- É°æ¤úø’ ¢Ë’ç ™°æ© ÖØ√oç. éÌçûª-é¬-©çí¬ °æJ-ÆœnA É•sç-Cí¬ ÖçöçC.
tence í¬ BÆæ’èπ◊çõ‰ will carry out, better. Å®·ûË indirect speech We have been inside. Please refer to the earlier lessons on 'be' forms for
ņ’-èπ◊çõ‰ would carry out ņo-°æ¤púø’ ü¿®√u°æ¤h ï®Ω-í∫-´-©Æœ Ö†oõ‰x. é¬ÊÆ-°æöÀ†’ç* É°æpöÀ´®Ωèπ◊ ¢Ë’ç ™°æ© ÖØ√oç. more information.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ í∫’®Ω’¢√®Ωç 10 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2005
Preethi: Mom, can I have some more milk?
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ some, any Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ í∫´’-Eç-
Å´÷t, Éçé¬Ææh §ƒ©’ 鬢√L Ø√èπ◊. îªçúÕ.OöÀ Å®√n©’ ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπü∆? Some=
Laxmi: Sorry child. You can't have anymore. éÌçûª, éÌEo. Åçõ‰ some †’ Countables ûÓ†÷
There is some milk left, of course, but ¢√úø-´îª’a, uncountablesûÓ†÷ ¢√úø-´îª’a. Some
we need it for the payasam this milk = éÌCl-§ƒ©’, Some books = éÌEo °æ¤Ææh-鬩’.
evening. Any = àüÁjØ√, à¢ÁjØ√. DEo èπÿú≈ Countables ûÓ,
Éçéπ-™‰-´´÷t. éÌEo §ƒ©’-Ø√o-®·-í¬F, ÅN Uncountables ûÓ È®çúÕç-öÀûÓ†÷ ¢√úø-´îª’a. Any
≤ƒßª’çvûªç §ƒßª’≤ƒ-EéÀ 鬢√L. book = à °æ¤Ææh-éπ-¢Á’iØ√; any milk = à¢ÁjØ√ §ƒ©’.
Preethi: Can I have something to eat? I am Some, any Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç English ™ î√™«
hungry. áèπ◊\´. áçûª éπÈ®é˙dí¬ ¢√úÕûË conversation Åçûª
AØËçü¿’Íé¢Á’iØ√ Öçü∆? Ø√èπ◊ Çéπ-Lí¬ ÖçC. ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC. Å™«Íí plenty = áèπ◊\´ – counta-
Pranav: Can you lend me some money?
Laxmi: There are plenty of biscuits in the bles, uncountables ûÓ È®çúÕç-öÀûÓ ¢√úø-´îª’a. Ratnakar:
á´®Ω÷ ™‰®Ω’. Fèπ◊ ÉçÈé-´-®ΩØ√o ûÁ©’≤ƒ?
Can you lend me any money?
-™‰-ü∆
Plenty of milk = Ææ´’%-Cl¥í¬ §ƒ©’; plenty of time; Venkat:
fridge. Have as many as you want. not
éÌç-îÁç -Å°œp-´yí∫-©-¢√? (-Ééπ\-úø -™‰-ü¿’) äé¬-ߪ’† ÖØ√oúø’. Å®·ûË Çߪ’† Ü∞x-
plenty of money, etc. Plenty of books = î√™« ™‰®Ω’.
There is bread too. Eat it if you like. Prakash: I'm afraid, I haven't any. Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω ™‰ü¿’.
°æ¤Ææh-鬩’; plenty of runs - î√™« °æ®Ω’-í∫’©’; plen- Ratnakar: Sumanèπ◊ Ç éπç°-F™ á´®Ó friend
Fridge™ 鬴-©-Æœ-†Eo / î√™« biscuits I am afraid -
( Nî√®Ωç ´uéπhç îËߪ’úøç)
ty of eggs, plenty of biscuits etc. Pranav: Haven't you any. really?
ÖØ√oúø’. Åûª†’ Suman èπ◊ à infor-
ÖØ√o®·. Fé¬\-´©Æœ†Eo A†’. bread èπÿú≈ °j Ææ綵«-≠æù™expressions îª÷úøçúÕ mation Å®·Ø√ É´y-í∫-©úø’.
Eïçí¬ ™‰ü∆?
ÖçC. É≠ædç Öçõ‰ A†’. 1) You can't have any more. 2) Manoj: Ø√èπ◊ Botany O’ü¿ ´’ç* °æ¤Ææh-鬩’
(Ééπ\úø not ÖçC 鬕öÀd any)
Preethi: I'll (I will) have bread then. Can I have 2) There's some milk left. Prakash: I Have some money of course, but I
鬢√L. O’ ü¿í∫_-Í®-´’Ø√o ÖØ√oߪ÷?
some jam or butter go with it? 3) Can I have something to eat? Shopkeeper: ´÷ ü¿í∫_®Ω éÌEo ´’ç* °æ¤Ææh-é¬-©’-
need it for paying fees. I shan't (shall
Å®·ûË bread Açö«ØËx. ü∆EéÀ jam é¬F 4) Can I have some jam or butter...? not) have any left after that. Ø√o®·.Botany O’ü¿ à ´’ç* °æ¤Ææh-éπ-
¢Á†o-é¬F à¢Á’iØ√ Öçü∆? 5) No butter any more. éÌçûª ÖçC. é¬F ÅC fees éπôd-ú≈-EéÀ ´’Ø√o îÁ°æpçúÕ. ÅC ´÷ ü¿í∫_®Ω
(go with= äéπ ǣ慮Ω °æü∆®Ωnç ÉçéÓ Ç£æ…®Ω 鬢√L. ÅC éπõ‰dÆœ† ûª®√yûª àç N’í∫-©ü¿’. Öçô’çC.
Not ™‰E-îÓô some ´≤ÚhçC. Not Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ any Manoj: O’ ü¿ í ∫ _ - ® Ω’†o ¢√öÀ™ x éÌEoç-öÀE îÁ°æpçúÕ.
°æü∆®ΩnçûÓ ÆæJ-§Ú-´úøç.Idli goes well with sam- Shopkeeper: éÌØË o áçü¿’èπ◊? Ñ list îª÷úøçúÕ.
bar ÉúŒxûÓ ≤ƒç¶«®Ω’ ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC. We have only
´≤ÚhçC éπü∆. ÉC ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓ¢√L.
2) No any ÅE á°æ¤púø÷ ņç. ÅEo °æ¤Ææh-鬩 Ê°®Ω÷x Åçü¿’™
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 67
chapathis, no kurma to go with it. ƒ-B©’
No ÅØÁjØ√ Åçö«ç. not any, contracted form- ÖØ√o®·. Åéπ\-úø’†o ¢√öÀ™ x àüÁjØ√
´÷vûªç ÖØ√o®·. ü∆EûÓ ÆæJ-§ÚßË’ èπ◊®√t ™‰ü¿’) n't any ÅØÁjØ√Åçö«ç. ÅçûË-é¬F no any ®√ü¿’. ´’ç* °æ¤Ææh-éπ¢Ë’.
Laxmi: No butter any more for you. You put on
weight. Have jam.
Butter àç ´ü¿’l. ™«¢Á-èπ◊\-û√´¤.
Preethi: What about you? You haven't had any-
thing since morning. Why don't you
have something to eat?
Have you any?
´’J O’ Ææçí∫-ûË-N’öÀ? §Òü¿’l-†’oç* àç A†- 6) You haven't had anything since the morning. 3) Suseela: I have nothing to do today. (I Manoj: Thank you.
™‰ü¿’. àüÁjØ√ A†-èπÿ-úøü∆? 7) Don't you eat anything then? haven't any thing to do today). Answers:
Laxmi: We are fasting today. You know today -Ñ -´÷-ô-™x -àç -ûÁ-©’-≤Úhç-C? Have you any novel that I can 1) Ratnakar: Have you /
is Karthika Somavaram. i) not ´*a-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x any ´≤ÚhçC. Not ™‰†-°æ¤púø’ read? Have You
¢Ë’O’®ÓV Ö°æ-¢√Ææç. é¬Khéπ ≤Ú´’-¢√®Ωç éπü∆. some ´≤ÚhçC éπü∆? ÉC important point. Ñ®Óñ‰ç °æE-™‰ü¿’. F ü¿í∫_-Í®-´’Ø√o †´© had / Do
(fast = Ö°æ-¢√Ææç/ Ç®Óí∫u 鬮Ω-ùçí¬ AçúÕ ´÷ØË- ii) Questions ™ èπÿú≈ ÅçûË. ™‰ü¿’ (not) ÅØË Öçõ‰ É´y¢√? you have
ߪ’úøç, starve = AçúÕéÀ ™‰éπ °æÆæ’hç-úøúøç. ¶«í¬ Çéπ- answer †’ repeat îËÆ œ-†-°æ¤púø’ èπÿú≈ question Chandana: There are some here. Take any of any news
™ any ´Ææ’hçC. them. from
™‰-≤Úhç-ü¿E £æ…Ææuçí¬ îÁ°æpúøç– I am starving. Let suman?
M. SURESAN
me have something to eat) a) He has some money. Ééπ\úø éÌEo ÖØ√o®·. àüÁjØ√ BÆæ’éÓ.
'not' Suseela: Let me have some novel that I can Venkat: No. (I don't have / haven't had any.)
Preethi: Don't you eat anything then?
éÌçûª ÖçC (Ééπ\úø ™‰ü¿’)
b) He hasn't any money. finish in a day. What about?
O’Í®ç A†®√ ´’J? novel Ratnakar: Don't you remember? We asked
(ÅÆæ©’) ™‰ü¿’ (Ééπ\úø not ûÓ) äéπ\®ÓV™ °æ‹JhîËߪ’-í∫© àüÁjØ√
Laxmi: Not until after the pooja after sunset.
He hasn't any money = He has no money. Öçõ‰ É´¤y. him for some information about a
<éπöÀ°æúøf ûª®√yûª °æ‹ï-ßË’uç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ àç A†ç. Å®·ûË conversation He hasn't any money
™ Chandana: I'm afraid that there aren't any job.
Preethi: Why do people fast on Kartheeka such. All of them are lengthy. Venkat: I haven't had any phone call from
ÅØËC more common. ÅC áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√úø’-
Somavaram? Have you any money
ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’. ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈ Å™«çöÀ¢ËO’ ™‰´¤. ÅFo °ü¿l †´-©™‰. him (No Phone call from him so
é¬Khéπ ≤Ú´’-¢√®Ωç áçü¿’èπ◊ Ö°æ-¢√Ææç ņo-°æ¤púø’answer No, I haven't any
í¬ ÅE Suseela: Any by Chase? far). Isn't there anyone else who
Öçö«®Ω’? Åçö«®Ω’ money (repeat
´C-™‰Æœ îËߪ’-èπ◊çú≈). Chase †´-™‰x-´’Ø√o ÖØ√oߪ÷? can give us this information?
Laxmi: Good question. But I haven't the time No, I haven't any
Ééπ\úø °æ‹Jhí¬ àüÁjØ√ ÅØË Å®Ωnç-ûÓØË ¢√ú≈ç.
™‰èπ◊çõ‰, ÅE èπÿú≈ Å-†-´-a. (Anyone= á´-®ΩØ√o, Anyone else=
now to tell you. not
鬕öÀd Ééπ\úø any
™‰èπ◊Ø√o ´Ææ’hçC.
Questions ™ èπÿú≈ 'not' some
-Ö-†o-°æ¤púø’, ®√ü¿’, ÉçÈé-´-®ΩØ√o)
i) Any novel = novel
à Å®·-Ø√/-à-üÁjØ√ novel.
´’ç* v°æ¨¡o. é¬F Ø√éÀ-°æ¤púø’ îÁ°æp-ú≈-EéÀ time any ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ´Ææ’hçC.Not some, any
™‰éπ-§ÚûË Ratnakar: None. (Do) you know anyone?
ii) Any by Chase = Chase ®√Æœ† †´-™‰-üÁjØ√?
™‰ü¿’. È®çúø÷ ®√´îª’a. Venkat: I know some one, but he is not in
iii) Some novel = novel.
àüÁjØ√
-v°æ-¨¡o: 1) ؈’ E†o Ø√ £«®·®˝ éπöÀçí˚ E†o ؈’ (barber îËûª) éπ~´®Ωç îË®·ç-- Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËÊÆ ¢√∞Îx-´È®jØ√ ÖØ√o®√?
Any one/ anybody who can help me?
town/ out of town (out of station
é¬ü¿’)
îË®·ç--èπ◊-Ø√o†’. èπ◊-Ø√o†’. Ratnakar: Suman has some friend in the com-
I got/ had my hair cut yes- Some
í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: àüÓ äéπ / á´®Ó äéπ ÅØË
Got, had- ÉçéÌ-éπJîË ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC.
terday. Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úø’-ûª’çö«ç. pany. He can give suman any infor-
2) I will get my hair cut tomorrow
2) Some book was lying on the table. mation he wants.
؈’ Í®°æ¤ -Ø√ £«®·®˝ éπöÀçí˚ Í®°æ¤ ؈’ éπ~´®Ωç(Barber îËûª) îË®·ç--èπ◊ç-
table O’ü¿ -à-üÓ °æ¤Ææhéπç ÖçC / °æúÕ ÖçC. 2) Manoj: I want some good books on Botany.
îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«†’. ö«†’. (hair cut
¢ËÍ®, ¢ËÍ®)– D†®Ωnç O’®Ω-†’-èπ◊-
I will get my hair cut tomorrow I came here with the hope that some Do you have/ Have you any?
†oô’d îËÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’ é¬ü¿’. teacher will help me.
3) ¢Ë’´· E†o ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ Ææ’†oç Shopkeeper: We do have some good books.
3) We had/ got our house white washed
¢Ë®·çî√ç. á´®Ó äéπ / à teacher Å®·Ø√ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç Name any good book on botany,
(white wash correct
Ééπ\úø é¬ü¿’)
we had/ got our house white wash yesterday îË≤ƒh-®ΩØË Ç¨¡ûÓ ´î√a. and we have them.
4)
¢Ë’ç ÉçöÀéÀ Ææ’†oç ¢Ë®·ç-î√´·.
¢Ë’´· Í®°æ¤ ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ Ææ’†oç ¢Ë®·≤ƒhç Now practise the following aloud in Manoj: Please let me know some of the good
4) We will have/ get our house white washed.
we will get our house white wash tomorrow. English:
(White wash tomorrow. books you have.
had
é¬ü¿’)
-Å®√n-Eo -N-´-JÆæ÷h, éπÈ®éÓd é¬--¢Ó -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’.
Í®°æ¤ ÉçöÀéÀ ¢Á©x ¢Ë®·≤ƒhç. 1) Ratnakar: FÍé-´’Ø√o news ´*açü∆ Suman Shopkeeper: Why only some? Please see go

-ï-¢√-•’: Hair-cut (äÍé-´÷-ô) = -éπ~-´®Ωç
– -áÆˇ.-´ç-Qéπ%-≠æg, £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ ûËú≈ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. †’ç*? through this list. It has all the
I will wash my clothes tomorrow. Venkat: ™‰ü¿’. üËE-í∫’-Jç*?
I have a hair-cut once a month- titles. Any book on the list is a
Ratnakar: í∫’®Ω’h-™‰ü∆? ÅûªEo ´’†ç äéπ\ job
؈’ ØÁ©-éÓ-≤ƒJ éπ~´®√-EéÀ ¢Á∞«h†’. Í®°æ¤ ؈’ Öûª’-èπ◊\ç-ö«†’. good book (go through= îªü¿-´úøç
I will have/ get my clothes washed tomor-
í∫’Jç* éÌçûª Ææ´÷-î √®Ωç ÅúÕí¬ç éπü∆. titles =
He had a hair-cut (äÍé´÷ô) yesterday °æ¤Ææh-鬩 Ê°®Ω’x – Ééπ\úø)
Venkat: ÅûªE ü¿í∫_®Ω †’ç* É°æpöÀ´®Ωèπÿ à
E†o Åûª†’ éπ~´-®√-EéÀ ¢Á∞«xúø’. row. Ø√ •ôd©’ Í®°æ¤ ÖA-éÀ-≤ƒh†’. Manoj: Thank you.
phone call ®√™‰ü¿’. ´’†èπ◊ Ææ´÷-î √®Ωç
1) I got/ had my hair cut yesterday. have/ get ûª®√yûª á°æ¤úø÷ past participle
Ééπ\úø hair cut
¢ËÍ® ´÷ö«, ¢ËÍ® ´÷ô. ´Ææ’hçC.
îÁÊ°p-¢√∞¡Ÿx ÉçÈé-´®Ω÷ ™‰®√?
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ - Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 13 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2005
Prabha: Hi Vineela, how was the movie yester-
Åçõ‰ English usage there are two
v°æ鬮Ωç,
day? I am sure you enjoyed it.
kinds of future:
movie
-N-F-™«, E†o ᙫ ÖçC? ¶«í¬ a) Future from the present
enjoy î˨»-´-†’-èπ◊çö«. b) Future from the past
Vineela: What a bore! I thought it would be fun
1. Important:
watching the movie, but it was thor-
i) will, shall future from the present
á°æ¤púø÷ †’
oughly disappointing.
Å•s î√™«bore. áçûÓ NØÓ-ü¿çí¬ Öçô’ç- îÁ§ƒh®·.
ii) WOULD, SHOULD future from the
á°æ¤púø÷
ü¿-†’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’. é¬F î√™« E®√¨¡°æJ-*çC. past †’ îÁ§ƒh®·.
Prabha: Thank god, I didn't go with you. I
2. Future from the present will future
èπ◊ ¢√úËîÓô,
thought I would, but fortunately my
from the past would, future from the pres-
èπ◊
music class came in the way.
ent shall
èπ◊ future from the past
¢√úË-îÓô èπ◊ Krishna: I knew India would win but didn't
•AéÀ§Úߪ÷†’. F-ûÓ ®√éπ-§Ú-´-úøç ´’ç*-ü¿- Krishna:
Ø√èπ◊ Å°æ¤púË ûÁ©’Ææ’ †’´¤y ¢Á∞¡x-¶-´F, tick-
should would
¢√úøû√ç. É°æ¤púø’ °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù-™E think/ never thought that Sri Lanka
®·uçC. Åü¿%-≠d-´æ -¨»ûª÷h Ø√ music class verbs
ets cancel îË≤ƒh-´E, úø•’s †≠æd-§Ú-û√-´-F†’.
ûÓ Ö†o í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ Ñ would lose by so many wickets.
ÅúÌf-*açC. Kumar: Rajkot ™ -´÷ ´÷´’ߪ’u ÖØ√oúø’ 鬕öÀd
éÀçCsentences §Ú©açúÕ. Kumar: I was sure that Tendulkar would score
(Thank God - àüÁjØ√ v°æ´÷ü¿ç ™«çöÀC 3. a) He says (that) he will buy the book this
¢Á∞«l-´’-†’-èπ◊Ø√o. Å®·ûË match N≠æߪ’ç
ûª°œp-§Ú-ûË 'Thank God' Åçö«ç. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ à´’-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? another century.
evening. Krishna: Sri Lanka's was a low score. I thought
'•A-éÀ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’— ņ’-éÓ-´îª’a) Ñ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç °æ¤Ææhéπç éÌçö«-†ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’– ÉC Krishna: ÅEo
Indians Èí©’-≤ƒh-®ΩE ûÁ©’Ææ’é¬F, Sri Lanka
NÈé-ô-x ûËú≈ûÓ ãúÕ-§Ú-ûª’ç-ü¿†’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. Gambhir and Tendulkar together
É°æ¤púø’. É°æ¤púø’ – present ™ Åçô’-Ø√oúø’... Kumar: Tendulkar ´’®Ó Century éÌ-úø-û√-úø-E would score all the runs needed for
≤ƒßª’çvûªç – future ™ éÌçö«-†E. ÉC pres- éπ * a- û ª ç í¬ Å†’- èπ◊Ø√o. (sure ¢√úøçúÕ) the victory.
ent †’ç* future 鬕öÀd will buy.
Krishna: Sri Lanka C î√™« low score. í∫çHµ®˝, Kumar: I was confident too that they would
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 68
b) He told me yesterday that he would buy
-õ„ç-úø÷-©\®˝ Éü¿l®Ω÷ éπ©Æœ (together) Ç win without losing a single wicket.
the book soon.
score ≤ƒCµ-≤ƒh-®Ω-†’-èπ◊Ø√o. Krishna: Did you think Yuvraj would play so
well?
Kumar: I thought Kaif would score more runs

He would buy me a... than Yuvraj. I didn't think that RP
Singh would bowl so well/ I didn't
expect RP Singh to bowl so well.
2) Dayakar: I came to your place / for you yes-
terday.
Vineela: You are right. When you told me you Kumar: Prabhakar: I didn't know you would come. Why
ÉC– past told
– – E†o îÁ§ƒpúø’ – ûªy®Ω™ – -Ø√èπ◊ N¨»y-Ææç-í¬ØË
would not come I felt sorry you were didn't you call me before coming?
future – éÌçö«-†E – 鬕öÀd would buy – Åçõ‰ ÖçúÕçC – äéπ\
going to miss a lot. But now I know I Dayakar: I didn't think you would go out at
Ééπ\úÕ future, past†’ç* future 鬕öÀd would Wicket §Úèπ◊çú≈
am wrong.
buy. Èí©’-≤ƒh-®ΩE. that time/ I didn't expect you to be
†’´¤y right. †’´¤y ®√†-†o-°æ¤púø’ †’´¤y 4. ´’S} §Ú©açúÕ: Krishna: Yuvraj Åçûª-¶«í¬ out at that time. Aren't you usually
´’ç* ÆœE´÷ miss Å´¤-û√-´E ¶«üµ¿-°æú≈f. a) I think (that) he will help me. Ç-úø-û√-úø-E at home at that time?
é¬E §Ò®Ω-§ƒ-ôE É°æ¤púø’ ûÁ©’-≤ÚhçC. b) I thought (that) he would help me. †’´y†’èπ◊Ø√o¢√? Prabhakar: That's true. But my mother wanted
Prabha: Did Smitha accompany you?
[(a)
Å®Ωnç – ¢√úø’ ≤ƒßª’ç îË≤ƒh-úøE ؈-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’- Kumar: Yuvraj éπçõ‰ Kaif M. SURESAN me to take her to the doctor. I did-
Æœtûª FûÓ ´*açü∆? (b)
Ø√o†’. Å®Ωnç – ¢√úø’ ≤ƒßª’ç îË≤ƒh-úøE ؈-†’- áèπ◊\´ runs éÌ-úø- n't think you would come. / I didn't
(accompany = éπ©Æœ ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç– á´-J-ûÓ-ØÁjØ√) ]
èπ◊-Ø√o†’ û√-úø-†’-èπ◊Ø√o. R.P. Singh Åçûª ¶«í¬ expect you at that time. sorry.
Vineela: No. Smitha said she would accompa- É°æ¤úø’ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ Ö†o would verbs
ûÓöÀ bowl îË≤ƒh-úø-†’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. Dayakar: That's Ok. Did Sumanth tell you
ny me to the movie if her cousin came í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: v°æ¶µº, NF™« E†oöÀ N≠æߪ’ç í∫’Jç*
along. 2) Dayakar: E†o O’ ÉçöÀ-éÌ-î √a-ØËo†’. †’Nyçöx that he would buy a bike?
´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o-®ΩE í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓçúÕ. Prabhakar: No. Is he buying one?
®√-™‰-ü¿’. ¢√∞¡x cousin ´ÊÆhØË ûª†’ ´≤ƒh-†E 1) I thought (that) it would be fun: NØÓ-ü¿çí¬ Öçö«-´-†’-èπ◊Ø√o.
îÁ°œpçC Ø√ûÓ. Prabhakar: †’´¤y ´≤ƒh-´E Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ-L-ߪ ’-ü¿’. Dayakar: Yes. He said that he would be buy-
Öçô’ç-ü¿E ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o. (ņ’-éÓ-´-úøç ÆœE´÷èπ◊ -¢Á-∞Ï}- ing it this week. His father told him
Prabha: By the way, what is your programme ´·ç-ü¿’ - past ™ - îª÷úø-¶ßË’ ÆœE´÷ í∫’-Jç-* - †’¢Áyç-ü¿’èπ◊ Phone îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’.
this evening? Dayakar: †’¢√y time ™ •ßª’-ôèπ◊ ¢Á∞«h-´-†’-éÓ- that he would send the money
future)
Vineela: My dad told me that he would buy me would be - 'be' form - Öçúø-úøç ™‰ü¿’. ´÷´‚©’í¬ Ç time ™ ÉçöxØË shortly.
a new dress for my birthday next 2) I thought (that) I would (go to the movie) Öçö«-´¤í¬? Prabhakar: Luck fellow. Dad told me yesterday
week. So I will go shopping. would go - - (future from the past)
¢Á∞«l-´’E Prabhakar: Eï-¢Ë’-†-†’éÓ. é¬E E†o ´÷ -Å-´’t very strongly / Dad made it clear
Next week Ø√birthday éÀ Ø√†o éÌûªh 3) You told me you would not come - -ûª-†-†’ doctor ü¿í∫_-®ΩéÀ BÆæ’Èé-∞¡}-´’ç-C. Ç yesterday that he would not buy
dress éÌE-≤ƒh-†-Ø√oúø’. 鬕öÀd Ñ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç †’´¤y ®√¶-´-úøç ™‰ü¿E ÅØ√o´¤. time ™ †’´¤y- ´-≤ƒh-´E ؈-†’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. me a bike for another year.
shopping ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√o. 4) Smitha said that she would accompany me. Sorry.
Prabha: All the best then. Bye. Sunitha Ø√ûÓ ´≤ƒh-†E -Åç-C. Dayakar: ÆæÍ®-é¬F, Ææ’´’ç-ûË-´’Ø√o bike éÌçö«-†E
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ would ûÓ ´*a†verbs í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. 5) Dad told me that he would buy a new dress. îÁ§ƒp-ú≈ -FûÓ?
1) I thought (that) it would be fun. dress
Ø√èπ◊ éÌûªh éÌçö«-†E ´÷ Ø√†o îÁ§ƒp®Ω’. Prabhakar: àç îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’. éÌçô’-Ø√oú≈?
2) I thought (that) I would ÉD 'would' past future
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç. Åçõ‰ †’ç* Dayakar: Ñ ¢√®Ωç™ éÌçö«--†E îÁ§ƒpúø’. ¢√∞¡x
3) You told me you would not come
v°æ-¨¡o: To be ÅØË Phrase -†’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-TÆæ÷h Ñ vÊ°∂ñ¸
îÁ°æp-ú≈-EéÀ ¢√-úø-û√ç. Ø√†o úø•’s °æç°œ-≤ƒh-†E îÁ§ƒp-úøô.
4) Smitha said (that) she would accompany me. a) would be - be form - Öçúøúøç
Prabhakar: Eïçí¬ Åü¿%-≠æd-´ç-ûª ’úË. ´÷ Ø√†o
5) Dad told me (that) he would buy me a new b) would + 1st Regular Doing Word (would go, áEo Nüµ∆-©’í¬ Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçüÓ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’.
dress. would come, would see, etc) - action (°æEE ´÷vûªç îÁÊ°p-¨»úø’ E†o éπ*a-ûªçí¬, ÉçéÓ happened + to + verb1; sub+V2
1) Ñ ØÁ© November November-
. v°æÆæ’hûªç– ûÁ © ’°æ ¤ - û ª ’ çC) Ææç´-ûªq®Ωçü∆é¬ Ø√èπ◊ bike é̆-†E. ®Ω÷-§ƒ-™x-†÷ éÌEo ¢√é¬u©’ -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’.
present. December - future (¶µºN-≠æuûª’h) éπü∆. a i) ¢√úø-éπ\úø Öçö«-úøE ؈-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o– Answers:

-ï-¢√-•’: To be phrase È®çúø’ Nüµ∆©’:
I think he will be there
– ®√ñ¸- π◊-´÷®˝, -ü¿-Jz
ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: 1) Krishna: Didn't you (Did you not) go to
November †’ç*, Åçõ‰ present †’ç*, ii) ¢√úø-éπ\úø Öçö«-úøE ؈-†’-èπ◊Ø√o –
Rajkot to see the cricket match?
December future. É™«çöÀ future †’ îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ I thought he would be there. 1) to be + ing form;
Kumar: I thought I would, but dropped the
will, shall ¢√úøû√ç. [will, shall ©-†’ future îÁ°æp- b i) Ø√èπ◊ I Class ´Ææ’hç-ü¿E ؈-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o – 2) To be + Past participle.
I think I will get a first class. idea. We would enjoy it better viewing
ú≈-EéÀ -á-™« -Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T≤ƒh-¢Á÷ Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ les- it on the TV than watching it live.
OöÀûÓ áEo ¢√é¬u-©-®·Ø√ îËߪ’-´îª’a.
sons ™ î√-™« N´-®Ωçí¬ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç] ii) Ø√èπ ◊ I Class ´Ææ ’hç-ü¿E ņ’- èπ◊Ø√o – 1) to be + ing form -™..
2) August 2005 - ÉC í∫ûªç - Past. I thought that I would get a I class. (Ééπ\úø live = ™„j¢˛ – v°æûªu-éπ~çí¬) a) We expect him to be studying now
September 2005 - ÉC èπÿú≈ í∫ûªç - past. Krishna: I told you, there wouldn't (would not)
Now practise the following aloud in english: b) We found to be sleeping soundly, etc.
Å®·ûË August 2005 †’ç* September 2005 1) Krishna: Å®·ûË †’´¤y Rajkot èπ◊ ¢Á-∞¡}-™‰-ü∆, be the replays, the slow motion views.
2) to be + pp -™..
à´’-´¤-ûª’çC? Future (¶µºN-≠æuûª’h) éπü∆? Å®·ûË Kumar: You are right. My brother told me that
Cricket match îª÷-úø-ö«-EéÀ? a) We ordered the work to be finished in
á°æp-öÀ-†’ç* – August (past) †’ç* September Kumar: ¢Á∞«l-´’ØË Å†’-èπ◊Ø√o, é¬E ´÷†’-èπ◊Ø√o. he would cancel the train tickets yes-
terday itself. an hour
2005 future. Åçõ‰ August 2005 †’ç*, Åçõ‰ v°æûªu-éπ~çí¬ îª÷-úø-úøçéπ-Ø√o, TV ™ îª÷ÊÆhØË
Krishna: I knew that you wouldn't be going, b) He wanted them to be seen there.
past †’ç* September 2005 future Å´¤-ûª’çC. ¶«í¬ enjoy îËߪ’-í∫©ç éπü∆ ÅE.
that you would cancel the tickets and Ñ 'to be...' phrases subject
†’ sen- í¬
鬕öÀd – ´’†ç É°æ¤púø’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çC: Krishna: ØË-†’ îÁ§ƒp†’ éπü∆ – TV ™ ™«í¬ replays,
a) November 2005 †’ç* December 2005 - that you would lose money. tences
slow motion view Öçúø´¤ ÅE, -†’-´¤y
®√ߪ’çúÕ.
Present †’ç* future. N†-™‰ü¿’. Kumar: You know my uncle is in Rajkot. So I a) I wanted to see him (sub + vb2)
b) August 2005 †’ç* September 2005 - Kumar: †’´¤y right. Train tickets E†o ≤ƒßª’ç- thought I would go. So what do you b) She tried to meet him (sub + v2)
past †’ç* future. vûª¢Ë’ cancel îË≤ƒh-†-Ø√oúø’, ´÷ ûª-´·túø’. think of the match? c) They wished to succeed (sub + v2)
I Ðû¦è[ª- ÷ªÙÞœüŒî¦ô¢Ù 15 ì÷Ùñô¢ª 2005

Spken English ð§êŸ î¦uþ§õ ÚÁú£Ù Ú¨xÚ à¶óŸªÙè…...
URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
Dinesh: Hi Saleem, Welcom. Good to see ê¦Þœª-ê¦ô¢ª. ÎóŸªû¶ Ú¥íƈ TÙáõª í£æ¨dÙ#,
you though after a long time. Have a ð»è… à¶ô³Ù# Ú¥íƈ ÎóŸªû¶ à¶ú£ªÚÛª-û¶-î¦ô¢ª.)
seat. How about some Coffee? Ground - ÏC grindÚ¨ past tense.
(óÀª ú£Mîª! à¦ö°-ôÁ-V-öµjÙC ÚÛLú‡. grind = ð»è…/ í‡Ùè… à¶óŸªè[Ù. grinder= í‡Ùè…/
Ú¥ú£h Ú¥íƈ Bú£ª-ÚÛªÙ-æ°î¦?) ð»è… machine ÍC grind à¶ú£ªhÙC.
Saleem: No Coffee for me, Dinesh. Thanks ground coffee = ð»è… à¶óŸªè[Ù.
all the same. Coffee seeds/ Coffee beans =Ú¥íƈ TÙáõª.
(Ú¥íƈ ÷ë]ªl ëǯÙÚÂq.) fresh = ê¦â°.
all the same = please. Thanks. (÷« û¦ìo-Þ¥ô¢ª ö¶ì-í£±pè[ª ÷« vñë]ôÂ
Íô³-ì-í£p-æ¨Ú© (ÍÙç¶ Ú¥íƈ Bú£ª-ÚÁ-ÚÛ- šíj ú£ÙòÅ°-ù£-éö˺ wouldêÁ ÷#aì verbs Þœ÷ª-EÙ- (Ïí£±pè¶ ê¦Þ¥ìª. ÏÚÛ-÷ë]ªl. ëǯÙÚÂq.) àŸ«ú£ªÚÛªÙ-æ°è[ª.
ð¼-ô³-ì-í£p-æ¨Ú©). àŸÙè….
Dinesh: Would you fancy tea then? b) Ï#aì offer, accept ඛúåxô³ê¶– c) Mind your (own) business.
1. Would you fancy?
English î¦üŒx í£ë]lÄA ví£Ú¥ô¢Ù Ï#aì offer ìª Bú£ªÚÁ- (F í£E ìª÷±y àŸ«ú£ªÚÁ.)
(Íô³ê¶ æ© Bú£ª-ÚÛªÙ-æ°î¦?) 2. Would you mind waiting for a while?
î¦-õE Ñìoí£±pè[ª, -÷«-åí£è¶å-í£±pè[ª Don't poke your nose in others' affairs.
3. Would you move aside a little?
responses-

Ú¥ú£h... Ú¥íÆ̂ Bú£ªÚÛªÙæ°ô¦?
4. He would drink.
(ÏêŸ-ô¢ªõ ÷u÷--ô¢Ùö˺ êŸõ-ë]«-ô¢aÚÛª.)
i) I don't mind (a little coffee/ tea), thanks. ÷ªìÙ êŸõ-ë]«-ô¢ª-ú£ªhÙæ°Ù. English î¦üŒ‰x ÷³ÚÛª\
5. My dad would never drink.

6. He would have the coffee ground.
Ú¨Ùë]æ¨lessons 'would' use-
ö˺ êµõªú£ª-ÚÛªìo (Î... Ï÷yÙè… íÆ£ô¦y-ö¶ë]ª.) ë]«ô¢ªþ§hô¢ìo-÷«å.
ii) That'd (that would) be welcome, thanks. d) Mind you. Don't make any mistake.
would expresses future from the past ÍE, iii) That'd (that would) certainly be a pleas- (â°vÞœêŸh ð»ô¢-ð§åªx à¶óŸªÚÛª.)
ÍÙç¶ past future
ìªÙ# would
൛ípÙ-ë]ªÚÛª ure, thank you. Now practise the following in English.
î¦è[ê¦Ù. iv) That's kind of you, thanks. Kishore: óÀª ú£yô¢«íÃ, ìª÷±y ·ôè†û¦? çµjîª
Ramana: He wrote to me that he would see
would
Ïö°Ùæ¨ ú£Ùë]-ô¦sÄö˺x offers.
Ñí£-óµ«ÞœÙ Íô³uÙC ÚÛë¯!
me last weekend. But he did not
★ Would ìª Present requests
ö˺ ÚÛª ÚÛ«è¯ Swaroop: Ú¥›úí£± îµô³æËÀ à¶þ§hî¦? û¶ìª Ù
turn up.
(ÞœêŸ î¦ô¢Ù ÚÛõª-ú£ª-ÚÛªÙ-æ°-ìE öµåô î¦è[ê¦Ù. ÚÛè[ª-Ú•\E ÷þ§hìª.
Kumar: Can I see your Kishore: F ðƼûË ڥú£h î¦è[ª-ÚÁ-E-þ§hî¦? ÚÛª÷«ôÂÚÛª
ô¦ø‹è[ª. Ú¥F ô¦ö¶ë]ª.) father? ðƼûË à¶ú‡ î¦è…E ÚÛ«è¯ ô¢÷ªtÙæ°.
Bhaskar: Please come Swaroop: êŸyô¢Þ¥ Ú¥F. î¦è…E ·ôè†Þ¥ ÑÙè[-÷ªìª.
Would you care for some coffee? in. Have a seat. ë¯Jö˺ î¦è…E í‡ÚÛíà à¶ú£ª-ÚÛªÙë¯Ù.
Would you Kishore: Íö°¸Þ.
fancy =
prefer
Ïù£d-í£-è[è[Ù. ÏÚÛ\è[ fancy ñë]ªõª, like/
î¦è[-÷àŸªa.
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é 69 mind waiting
some time?/
Answer
Kishore: Hi Swaroop, Are you ready? It's
Would you wait time.
ÏÙæ¨Ú¨ ÷#aì î¦üŒxìª ‘Ú¥íƈ Bú£ªÚÛªÙ-æ°ô¦, æ©
for some time? M. SURESAN Swaroop: Would you wait for minutes? I will
Bú£ªÚÛªÙ-æ°ô¦?’ ÍE Íè[-Þœè[Ù, ÷ªì í£ë]lÄ-꟪õ ví£Ú¥ô¢Ù Write = öµåô ô¦óŸªè[Ù. Kumar: Not at all. I don't wash my face and come.
ú£JÞ¥ ÷ªô¦uë] à¶óŸªè[Ù Ú¥ë]ª-ÚÛë¯? Ú¥íƈ, æ© Bú£ª- turn up = ô¦÷è[Ù/ á-ô¢-÷è[Ù. mind waiting. Kishore: Mind my using your phone? I would
Ú•#a ÷#a-ì-î¦-üŒxìª Bú£ªÚÁ-÷ªÙæ°Ù. Íô³ê¶ Kesav: He called me yesterday to tell me
English í£ë]lÄ-꟪õ ví£Ú¥ô¢Ù Coffee/Tea Bú£ªÚÛªÙ- ÏÚÛ\è[ àŸ«è[Ùè… 'would' question from
ìª ö˺ call Kumar and ask him to come.
that he would be very busy till next
you
÷³ÜuÙÞ¥ êÁ request ÚÛª î¦è[è[Ù– Swaroop: Be quick. Tell him to be ready. We
æ°ô¦ ÍE Íè[-Þœè[Ù êŸí£±p-Ú¥ë]ª. ÍA-ëÇ]ªõª ÚÛ«è¯ ÷ªì- week, so he wouldn't be able to
a) Oªô¢ª Ú¥ú£h û¦êÁ-÷-þ§hô¦! can pick him up on our way.
ö°Þ¥ Gè…-óŸª-í£-è[-ÚÛªÙè¯ ‘Bú£ªÚÛªô¦’ ÍE ö¶ë¯ ‘ÑÙç¶ come until after next week.
Ú¥î¦L’ ÍE Íè…T Bú£ªÚÛªÙ-æ°ô¢ª. Would you accompany me? Kishore: Ok
(÷à¶a-î¦-ô¢Ù-ë¯Ú¥ G@Þ¥ ÑÙæ°-ìE û¦ÚÛª b)
Saleem: I don't mind tea. Eìo ðƼûË à¶ø‹è[ª. ÍÙë]ª-÷õx ÷à¶a î¦ô¢Ù ÏÚÛ\è[ Ú¥›úí£± ÚÛ«ôÁa-÷à¦a!
( æ© û¦ÚÛª ÍòÅ¡uÙ-êŸô¢Ù ö¶ë]ª.) Would you let me sit here for a while? ÏC
êŸô¦y-êŸ-Þ¥F ô¦ö¶-ì-û¦oè[ª.) would
Mind = ÍòÅ¡uÙ-êŸô¢Ù. ÏÚÛ\è[ àŸ«è[Ùè…. would ìª past ìªÙ# future ÚÛª ÚÛª ÏÙÚÁ Ñí£-óµ«ÞœÙ.
Dinesh: Would you mind/ Mind waiting for a Mind: Mind ÚÛª Íô¦nõª ·ôÙè[ª–
î¦è[ª-꟪û¦oÙ ÚÛë¯. ÍÙç¶ past ìªÙ#, ÏÚÛ ÷³Ùë]ª 1) Mind
while? I'll make the tea in no time. áJ¸Þ future ÚÛª ÚÛ«è¯ would î¦è[ê¦Ù. ÍÙç¶ ÍòÅ¡uÙ-êŸô¢Ù šíådè[Ù, ÷³ÜuÙÞ¥
questions ö˺ î¦è[ê¦Ù.
(Ú¥›úí£± ÎÞœª-ê¦÷± ÚÛë¯? #æ¨-·Úö˺ à¶þ§h.) Ïí£±pè[ª vð§ô¢Ù-òÅ¡Ùö˺E ú£ÙòÅ°ù£éö˺ would ÚÛª Ñìo a) Do you mind waiting for some time?
In no time = ¤ÛéÙö˺/ #æ¨-·Úö˺) ÷ªJ Ú•Eo Ñí£-óµ«-Þ¥õª àŸ«ë¯lÙ.
Saleem: Take your (own) time. No hurry. wait
(Ú¥›úí£± à¶óŸªè[Ù Oª¸Ú-÷ªû¦o ÍòÅ¡uÙ-êŸ-ô¢÷«?
Would you fancy = FÚÛª Ïù£dû¦?
(BJÞ¥_ àµô³u. ê•Ùë]-¸ôÙ-ö¶ë]ª.) ìª÷±y Ú¥íƈ Bú£ªÚÛªÙ-æ°î¦? Dû¶o ô NëÅ]ÙÞ¥– wait
Ú¥›úí£± à¶þ§hô¦? ÍE request.) ví£øŒo: tell, say... Oæ¨E Ôó¶ª ú£Ùë]-ô¦sÄö˺x Ñí£-
take your (own) time = ÏÚÛ\è[ Do you mind Íû¦o Would you mind?
F Ïù£dÙ ÷#aìÙꟛúí£± Would you mind/ Would you like/ Would you
Íû¦o ÖÚÛç¶. Íô³ê¶ would you mind? Íû¶C óµ«-TÙ-à¦L?c ͤÛ-ô¦Eo Ú•Eo-þ§ô¢ªx ú‡ ÍE
Bú£ªÚÁ. like to take/ Would you take/ Would you care Ú•Eo-þ§ô¢ªx ·Ú ÍE Ñí£-óµ«-Tþ§hÙ ÚÛë¯.
Dinesh: Would you move aside a little? The ÓÚÛª\÷ polite and formal– ÍÙç¶ ÍÙêŸ í£J-àŸóŸªÙ
for some coffee? Óö°Ùæ¨ ú£Ùë]-ô¢sÄÙö˺ Ô Í¤Û-ô¦Eo ÑàŸa-JÙ-
tea tin is in the shelf behind you. ÍEoÙ-æ¨Ú© Ö¸Ú Íô¢nÙ. Oªô¢ª Ú¥ú£h Ú¥íƈ Bú£ªÚÛªÙ-æ°ô¦/ ö¶E î¦üŒxêÁ.
b) (Would you/ Do you) mind my sitting here? à¦L?
– ô¢N-ÚÛª-÷«ôÂ, Ú¥Ú¨-û¦è[
(Ú¥ú£h í£ÚÛ\ÚÛª áô¢ª-Þœª-ê¦î¦? æ© è[ò°s Fîµ- Ú¥íƈ Bú£ªÚÁÙè… ÍE. conversation
êŸyô¢Þ¥ ÷«æ°xè¶ Do you/
ö˺
áî¦ñª: Usually
ìªÚÛ Ñìo šùöËÀpÄö˺ ÑÙC.) ÍÙç¶ would ìª you êÁ question form ö˺ Would you
Saleem: Not at all. offerÚÛª (ÏÙæ¨Ú¨ ÷#aì î¦üŒxÚÛª, friends ÚÛª Ôëµjû¦
÷C-ö¶-ú£ªhÙæ°Ù. ÏD ò°Þ¥û¶ ÑÙåªÙC. when the letter 'c' is fol-
c) Mind my using your pen/ Mind if I use your lowed by 'e', or i, it is pronounced as s, as
(ÔÙ í£ô¦y-ö¶ë]ª.) coffee ö°Ùæ¨N offer à¶óŸª-è¯-EÚ¨) î¦è[ê¦Ù.
Dinesh: So you like tea more than coffee. pen?
Would you like a little tea? certificate, or as in cinema. In most other
(Oª pen î¦è•à¦a.)
How about a little tea?
î¦è¶ Bô¢ª: cases it is pronounced as k. So rule about it.
(FÚÛª Ú¥íƈ-ÚÛÙç¶ æ© Ïù£dÙ Íìo-÷«å)
Saleem: That's right. I think I got it from my mind mind 'ing' form
êŸô¦yêŸ Þ¥F/
What about some tea? only the dictionary can help us.
mind if
grandad. He would drink a lot of
ví£øŒo:
Ï÷Fo ÚÛ«è¯ offer à¶óŸªè[Ù. ÍÙç¶would ÚÛª ·ôÙèÁ Ú¥F ÷ú£ªhÙC.
d) Mind of I accompany you? I don't think you should buy it ÍÙç¶
tea, my dad often says. offer (present
Ñí£-óµ«ÞœÙ ö˺).
(Í÷±ìª. ÷«ê¦-êŸ-Þ¥J ìªÙ# û¦Ú•-#aÙ-ë]C. Ïåª-÷Ùæ¨ offer ÚÛª responses àŸ«ë¯lÙ. ÍÙç¶ (OªêÁ û¶ìª ô¦÷à¦a?) Íô¢nÙ ÔNªæ¨?
Mind my accompanying you?
÷« ê¦êŸ à¦ö° æ© ê¦¸Þ-î¦-ô¢E ÷«û¦ìo Ú¥íƈ/ æ© ö°Ùæ¨N Ó÷·ôjû¦ offer ඛúh, Ú¥î¦L– ÷ë]ªl ‘û¶ìª ÷« Í÷«t-ô³E Oª ð§ôÈ¢-ø‹-õÚÛª í£Ùí£-
ÍÙåªÙ-æ°-·ô-í£±pè[«.) Mind conversation
Ïö° practice
ö˺ à¶óŸªÙè…. ö¶ìª’ Íû¦-õÙç¶ ÏÙTx-ùÃö˺ Ô÷ª-û¦L?
– ÚÛOÙ-ë]ôÂ, ÷ô¢Ù-ÞœöËÀ
Íì-è¯-EÚ¨ î¦è¶ ÷«åõª. 2) Mind manage
Dinesh: My dad would never drink tea. He a) Offer ÷ë]ªl Íû¦-õÙ綖
ÚÛª ·ôÙèÁ Íô¢lÄÙ à¶óŸªè[Ù, Ôëµjû¦
would always prefer coffee. He áî¦ñª: îµ³ë]æ¨ î¦Ú¥u-EÚ¨ Íô¢nÙ– Oªô¢ª ë¯Eo Ú•û¦-
i) No, thanks
÷u÷--ô¦Eo àŸ«ú£ªÚÁ-÷è[Ù.
would have the coffee ground fresh, a) Who minds the office here?
ii) Not now, please. Thanks all the same. õE ö¶ë]ª/ Oªô¢ª ë¯Eo Ú•û¦õE û¶ìª ÍìªÚÁè[Ù-
and make coffee for himself. (Ïí£±pè¶Oª Bú£ªÚÁö¶ìª. ëǯÙÚÂq.) (Ð ÎíƈúÃ àŸ«›ú-ëµ-÷ô¢ª?
b) My brother minds the office when my ö¶ë]ª. ·ôÙèÁ î¦Ú¥uEo ÏÙTx-ùÃö˺ Ïö° Íì-÷àŸªa–
(÷« û¦ìo Óí£±pè[« æ© ê¦Þœô¢ª. Ú¥íƈ iii) I have had some just now. No more
father is away. I cannot send my daughter to your school.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 17 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2005
Anand: Janaki, how about giving us a song?
-ñ«-†éÃ, ã §ƒô §ƒúø¢√? ´÷ teacher time Ö†o-°æ¤p-úø™«x °æE-í∫-ô’d-èπ◊E NØËC.
Ñ ´‚úø’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x 'would' ã past habit/
(give a song = §ƒô §ƒúøôç)
habitual action in the past †’ ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûÓçC éπü∆?
Janaki: Me? giving a song? Are you Joking? Åçõ‰ í∫ûªç™ àüÁjØ√ véπ´’ç-ûª-°æpE °æEéÀ èπÿú≈
Joke
ØËØ√? §ƒ--úø-ô´÷? îËÆæ’h-Ø√o¢√? would ¢√úøû√ç.
Bhanu: Oh. Can Janaki sing? This is news to d) ¢√úø’ *†o-°æ¤púø’ ®√v-A°æ‹-ô ûÁí∫ àúËa-¢√úø’.
me. As a child he would cry a lot at night.
Åçõ‰, ñ«†éÀ §ƒúø-í∫-©ü∆? ÉC Ø√èπ◊ éÌûªh e) î√™«-ü¿÷®Ωç †úÕ-îË-¢√úø’.
N≠æߪ’ç. He would walk for long distances.
(news to me = Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-E ÉO 'would' ´’J-éÌEo Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’. -¢√u´-£æ…-J- Suguna: It is my mother's. She wouldn't Brahmam: Would you stop telling me of his his-
-N-≠æߪ’ç É°æ¤púø’ ûÁLÊÆh, This is news to éπçí¬ English Would
¢√úø-éπç™ î√™« ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ (would not) let me lend it. If you want tory? Would you atleast tell me
me Åçö«ç. conversation ™ ¢√úøçúÕ) Do
´Ææ’hç-ô’çC. ûÓ begin ÅßË’u î√™« ques- I can lend you my chain. Would you where he is?
Anand: O, She would sing for hours when we tions would
E begin
ûÓ èπÿú≈ îËߪ’ôç ¢√úø’Íé. like it? / Do you like it? Damodar: I don't know.
were at school. That too very well. Å®·ûË would Å™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x éÌçîÁç for- Jayanthi: That'd be (That would be) fine. Practise the following:
School mal. Thank you. When shall I take it?
¢Ë’-´· ™ Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ í∫çô© ûª®Ω-•úÕ ´’J-éÌEo N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ -ûª®√y-ûª îª÷ü∆lç! Mounika: áØ√o-∞¡Ÿxí¬ °æE-îË-Ææ’h-Ø√o-N-éπ\úø?
Suguna: When is the function? Isn't it the day
§ƒúËC, Å-D -î√-™« -¶«í¬. Now Practise the following aloud in English: Sarika: âüË-∞¡Ÿxí¬.
(That too = ÅC èπÿú≈) after (tomorrow)? I'd very much like
(O©-®·-†EoîÓôx 'would' ¢√úøçúÕ) Mounika: Åçõ‰ †’´¤y Ñ company v§ƒ®Ω綵ºç
to give you the chain. You look beau-
a) Jayanthi: Function èπ◊ -¢Á-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’-Ø√o. F tiful/ splendid/ gorgeous with it
†’ç* Ééπ\úË -ÖØ√o¢√?
Necklace é¬Ææh É≤ƒh¢√? (Do you mean/ Does it mean ¢√úøçúÕ)
around your neck.
Sarika: v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µºç†’ç-* é¬ü¿’. v§ƒ®Ω綵ºç Å®·†
(lend = Å®Ω’-N-´yôç) Jayanthi: Really I don't / wouldn't like to borrow
éÌEo ®ÓV©†’ç*. Ç.. ü∆ü∆°æ¤ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µºç
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 70
Suguna: ÅC ´÷ Å´’tC. ´÷ Å´’t ä°æ¤p-éÓü¿’. it. All my Jewels are in the bank lock-
鬢√-©çõ‰ Fèπ◊ Ø√ chain É≤ƒh. É≠æd-¢Ë’Ø√? er. The keys are with my father. He'll
-†’ç-îË Å†-´îª’a. Å®·ûË É´Fo O’È®ç-ü¿’èπ◊
-Å-úø’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’?
Mounika: Ø√ friend †´u éÌEo®ÓV-L-éπ\úø °æE-

Wouldn't you sing?
îË-ÆœçC. FÍé-´’Ø√o ûÁ©’-ÊÆ-¢Á÷-†E.
Sarika: †¢√u? Ø√èπ◊ î√™« ¶«í¬ ûÁ©’Ææ’.
Mounika: É°æ¤p-úÁ-éπ\-úø’çC? ûª††’ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÌE ü∆ü∆°æ¤
´‚úË-∞¡x-®·çC.
Sarika: ûª†èπ◊ °∞¡x-®·ç-ü¿E -O’èπ◊ û-Á-L-ߪ’ü∆? Last
September ™. É°æ¤púø’ India ™ ™‰ü¿’.
Bhanu: Janaki, wouldn't you sing for us now? ¢√∞¡x husband ûÓ states èπ◊ ¢Á-R}-
Jayanthi:
ÅD ¶«í¬ØË Öçô’çC. Thanks. á°æ¤púø’ be back only
just one song. §Ú-®·çC.
B≤Ú\†’? the day after
-ñ«-†éÃ, -´÷éÓÆæç §ƒô §ƒúø¢√? äéπ\-≤ƒJ. Mounika: ؈’ ´îËa ØÁ© ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√o. O’ ü¿í∫_®Ω Ç¢Á’
Suguna: á°æ¤púø’ function? á©’xçúÕ éπü∆? Í®°æ¤ (tomorrow). He
Janaki: Would you stop bothering me, please? address í¬F, phone number í¬F
≤ƒßª’çvûªç ´÷ ÉçöÀéÌ≤ƒh¢√? FéÀ-´yôç wouldn't/ does-
é¬Ææh ††’o trouble îËߪ’ôç Ç°æ¤-û√®√? Ø√èπ◊ Eïçí¬ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ¢Ë’. Ç chain ™ n't allow us to
Öçü∆. Öçõ‰ é¬Ææh É≤ƒh®√?
Anand: She would sing on. I mean, at school Sarika: ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬.
†’´¤y î√™« Åçü¿çí¬ Öçö«´¤. keep even a
even if none were there to listen to her. Answer:
Jayanthi: Eïçí¬ B≤Ú\ôç É≠ædç-™‰üË. Ø√ †-í∫-©Fo single orna-
My English teacher would, when she Mounika: How long have you worked/ have
had the time make it a point to listen to
´÷ bank locker ™ ÖØ√o®·. ´÷ Ø√†o- ment at home. M. SURESAN
á©’x çúÕéÀí¬E ®√®Ω’. locker û√∞«©’ Çߪ’† Suguna: Would you you been working here?
her sweet songs. Sarika: For the past five years/ for the last
ü¿ í ∫ _ - ® Ω’-Ø√o®·. äéπ\ †í∫ èπÿú≈ Éçöx Öçúø- stop it? No more words please. I am
NØË-¢√-∞Îx-´®Ω÷ ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√ Å™«Íí §ƒúø’-ûª’ç- giving it to you willingly. Come tomor- five years/ for five years now.
úËC. Å°æ¤p-úø-°æ¤púø’ ´÷ English Teacher °æE- Suguna: Ééπ Ç°æä°æ¤-û¤√¢√?
ö«- E éÀ p-éÓ®Ω’ Ø√†o-.
Mounika: (Do) you mean/ Does it mean that
ÉEo ´÷ô-©-´-Ææ-®Ω´÷? row and take it.
í∫-ô’d-èπ◊E Janaki §ƒô NØËC. you have been here since the begin-
ØË † ’ É≠æ d ç - í ¬ØË ÉÆæ ’ hØ√o éπü∆. Í®°æ¤ ®√. Jayanthi: Thank you.
Janaki: Ok. I am going to sing just to please ning of the company?
Jayanthi: Thank you. b) Brahmam: Is Sekhar staying on for the
you. Sarika: Not right from the beginning. A few
b) Brahmam: Sekhar O’öÀç-í˚èπ◊ Öçô’-Ø√oú≈? meeting? / Would Sekhar stay
Å™«Íí O’ ÆæçûÓ-≠æç-éÓÆæç §ƒúø-¶-ûª’Ø√o. (Öçô’-Ø√oú≈ = Stay on) days after the beginning. You can
Ééπ\úø would ûÓ ´*a† verbs í∫’-Jç-* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØË- on for the meeting?
Damodar: FûÓ àç îÁ§ƒpúø’? í∫çô™ meeting say, almost from the beginning. But
´·çü¿’, would †’ í∫’-Jç-* Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊†o (Is Sekhar staying on...? better,
begin Å´¤-ûª’çC. é¬Ææh Ç chairs †’ Ñ why do you ask? / Why are you ask-
would Sekhar? éπçõ‰)
N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ îª÷ü∆lç. stage O’ü¿ °-úø-û√¢√? ing all this? (Almost = ü∆ü∆°æ¤)
1) 'I thought he would help me' - Damodar: What did he tell you? The meeting
(°ôdúøç= put/ place/ keep) Mounika: My friend Navya worked here for
will begin in an hour. Would you put
Ø√èπ◊- ¢√úø’ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îË≤ƒh-úø-†’-èπ◊Ø√o. Brahmam: ؈’ ¢√úøo-úÕ-í¬†’ é¬E ¢√úËç îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’. some time. I was wondering if you
Ééπ\úø 'would help' - future from the past †’ those chairs on the stage / dais?
Damodar: Ø√ûÓ ÅØ√oúË ûª°æpèπ◊çú≈ Öçö«-†E. Ñ knew her. wondering
(Ééπ\úø Åçõ‰
Brahmam: I asked him but he wouldn't say
'I was wonder-
ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûÓçC. table é¬Ææh stage O’ü¿ °ôd-ú≈-EéÀ Ǩ¡a®Ωuç é¬ü¿’. ¢√úø’-éπ™
2) Would you like some tea? anything / didn't say anything.
≤ƒßª’ç îË≤ƒh¢√? ing' Åçõ‰ àüÁjØ√ ïJ-Tç-üË¢Á÷ ÅE ÆæçüË-
tea
é¬Ææh BÆæ’èπ◊ç-ö«®√? (Wouldn't Åçõ‰ É≠ædç ™‰ü¿’ ÅØË -¶µ«´†
Brahmam: ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬. Å®·ûË ¨Ïê®˝ N≠æߪ’ç é¬Ææh £æ«çí¬ Å†’-éÓ-´ôç)
É™«çöÀîÓôx 'would' offer
èπ◊ ¢√-úø-û√ç– you ûÓ ´Ææ’hçC– îÁ°æp-ö«-EéÀ É≠æd癉éπ îÁ°æp-™‰-ü¿E)
clear í¬ îÁ°æp¢√? ¢√úÕûÓ Ø√é¬\-Ææh-°æE Sarika: (Do) you mean Navya? I know her
question form™. Damodar: He told me he would stay on. Would
ÖçC. very well, of course.
3) Would you wait for a while? you help me place the table on the
Damodar: ¢√úøç-ûªí¬ ´÷ö«x-úø-úøE ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆ Fèπ◊? Mounika: Where is she now? It is three years
é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ wait îË≤ƒh®√? stage?
*†o-°æ¤púø’ èπÿú≈ ÅçûË -¢√úø’. áèπ◊\´ since I met her/ I met her last three
Ééπ\úø ´·êuçí¬ you question form
ûÓ ™ Brahmam: With pleasure / that'd be a pleasure.
´÷ö«x-úË-¢√úø’ é¬ü¿’. á°æ¤púø÷ äçô-Jí¬ years ago.
request èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. Would you mind telling me more
É°æ¤púø’ Ñ lesson v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µºç™E Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ èπÿ®Ω’aE àüÓ Ç™-*Ææ÷h ÖçúË-¢√úø’. Éûª- clearly about Sekhar? I have some
(ûª††’ ´‚úË∞¡xvéÀûªç éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√o)
®Ω’-©ûÓ Çô™x éπL-ÊÆ-¢√úø’é¬ü¿’. Sarika: Don't you know she has been / is
'would' Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç îª÷ü∆lç. work with him.
Brahmam: ¢√úÕ îªJvûª îÁ°æpôç Ç°æ¤-û√¢√? §ÚF married? She got married last
a) She would sing for hours when we were at Damodar: You know he doesn't talk much.
¢√úÁ-éπ\-úø’-Ø√oúÓ îÁ§ƒh¢√? September. She has with her hus-
School. Even as a boy he was like that. He
Damodar: Sorry, Ø√èπ◊ ûÁMü¿’. band for the states.
´÷ School ®ÓV™x í∫çô© ûª®Ω-•úÕ §ƒúËC. wouldn't talk much. He would
Answers: Mounika: I am going to the states too, next
b) She would sing on = Å™«Íí §ƒúø’-ûª’ç-úËC. always sit alone and think of some-
month. Do you have / have you her
c) My English teacher would, when she had the a) Jayanthi: I am attending a function. Would thing. He would not join others at
address or phone no.? would you
time, make it a point... you lend me your necklace? play.
mind giving them to me if you have
-v°æ-¨¡o: -ØË-†’ Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ Grammatical mistakes -™‰èπ◊ç-ú≈- -v°æ-¨¡o: 'Do' -E -N-E-ßÁ÷-TÆæ’h-†o°æ¤p-úø’ 1st person example -í¬
I know English, them?
´÷-ö«x-úø-™‰-†’. Spoken English, Grammar -ØËÍ®p We watch English movies questions
-Å-E -É-î√a®Ω’. é¬-E2nd -™ -´÷-vûªç Sarika: With pleasure.
Institutes -áéπ\-úø’-Ø√o®·? -•’é˙q -™‰-ü∆ Æ‘-úŒ-©’, é¬uÂÆ-ô’x person (you) 1st person
-¢√-ú≈®Ω’. -Åç-õ‰ ûª-†-†’ -û√-†’ -v°æ-Po-ç-éÓèπÿ-úø-ü∆?
-Åç-ü¿’-¶«-ô’-™- -Ö-Ø√o-ߪ÷? For example: Do I know English? Do we watch English movies ¢- ÷Á ú- ™-ø ¸ éÌy¨- a¡ Ø- q˛ ï- †- ®Ω™- ¸ á- G- L- ö- À ï-¢√-•’-©’
Do I go there every sunday?, Do we sing
-ï-¢√-•’: Spoken English Institutes î√-™« Öç-ô’Ø√o®· v°æA
– -áç.-Å°æ‹®˝y, -îª-©÷x®Ω’ -Å-†èπÿ-úø-ü∆? -O’Í® éÌ-Eo-îÓ-ôx 1.c 2.a 3.c 4.a 5.a 6.b 7.d 8.a 9.b 10.c
well? Å--E -îÁ-§ƒp®Ω’. -à-C éπÈ®éÓd -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. 11.b 12.d 13.b 14.b 15.b 16.a 17.d 18.a
-°ü¿l-Ü®Óx. -áéπ\-úø áçûª ¶«í¬ îÁ§ƒh-®Ω-ØËC ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-L. CD,
-ï-¢√-•’: Å™«
– -¢Á÷-£æ«-Ø˛ π◊-´÷®˝, -vQé¬ π◊-∞¡ç 19.c 20.a 21.c 22.d 23.c 24.a 25.a 26.b
Casettes - Spoken English èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†N î√™«ØË Ist person
™ äéπ®Ω’ ûª´’†’ -û√-´· v°æPoç--éÓ-´îª’a. Å®·ûË 27.c 28.c 29.b 30.b 31.d 32.a 33.b 34.c
ÖØ√o®·. CIEFL- Central Institute of English and Foreign English ™ ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª÷-ØË 'Do I know English?' ÅE Åúø-í∫ôç áçûª 35.b 36.a 37.c 38.a 39.a 40.b 41.d 42.c
Languages ¢√J casettes, CDs °ü¿l Ü∞¡x™  üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-û√®·. Ææ£æ«ïç?Do we watch English movies? ņôç ûª°æ¤pé¬ØËé¬ü¿’. Å®·ûË ¢Ë’ç 43.a 44.a 45.b 46.c 47.a 48.a 49.d 50.b
Oô-Eo-öÀ-éπçõ‰ O’®Ω’ TV English news channels regular í¬ English movies îª÷≤ƒh´÷? ÅE ÅúÕ-T-†-°æ¤púø’ ´’†ç expect îËÊÆ Answer 51.c 52.b 53.b 54.d 55.a 56.d 57.c 58.d
watch îËߪ’çúÕ. O’ îÁNéÀ Å©-¢√ô’ îËÆæ’éÓçúÕ. àN’öÀ? -Å£æ…, îª÷úø®Ω’ ÅE, éπü∆. Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo•öÀd E®Ωg-®·ç--éÓ-´îª’a. 59.b 60.c 61.a 62.b 63.b 64.c 65.d.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 20 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2005
Sukumar: Hi Bhaskar, am I late?
English Conversation ™ -É´Fo èπÿú≈ ûª®Ω-í¬
-¶µ«-Ææ \®˝, -ØË-ØË-´’-Ø√o Ç©-Ææuçí¬ ´î√aØ√? ¢√úË expressions. °j¢√-ô-Eo-öÀéà ü∆ü∆°æ¤ Å®Ωnç, ´’†ç
Bhaskar: You are, of Course. But (that/ it)
´÷´‚©’ Conversation ™ ¢√úË '°∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰-ü¿’™‰/ àç
doesn't matter. The function hasn't
yet begun.
°∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰ü¿’/ °ü¿l §Ú®·ç-üËç-™‰ü¿’— ÅØË ´÷ô-©èπ◊
late
†’´¤y func-
é¬F °∂æ®√y-™‰-ü¿’™‰, Éçé¬ Ææ´÷†ç. ´’†ç àü¿Ø√o °ü¿lí¬ -°æ-öÀdç--éÓ-éπ-§ÚûË
Doesn't matter = It does'nt matter Åçö«ç.
tion v§ƒ®Ω綵ºç Å´-™‰-ü¿’-éπü∆. a) Bhavan: Did he come here or did you go to
Sukumar: Where is Shekhar? He always
him?
claims that he is punctual.
Rekha: Never mind where I bought it. Is it real-
punctual
¨Ïê®˝ àúÕ? ûªØÁ-°æ¤púø÷ ÅE ¢√úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ´î√aú≈, †’´y-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞«x¢√? Shriya:
Eïçí¬ î√™« ¶«í∫’çC. ؈’ èπÿú≈
Sumanth: What does it matter? We met. ly good?
Åçô’ç-ö«úø’. é̆’-èπ◊\çö«. áéπ\úø éÌØ√o´¤?
That's important. Rekha: ´ÆæY-≤ƒ-í∫-®˝™ . Fèπ◊ gift èπÿú≈ É≤ƒh®Ω’, ®Ω÷. Shriya: How much is it?
(punctual = time èπ◊ ÆæJí¬ ®√´ôç)
(It doesn't matter/ Doesn't matter Rekha: It doesn't matter how much it is. Is it
Shekhar: I am here. I was here exactly at 4.30 200/– N©’´ îËÊÆC.
whether he came here or I went to good or not?
-Ééπ\-úø’-Ø√o-†’. Ææ-Jí¬_ 4.30 éπ-™«x -´-îËa-¨»-†’. 3) Jagan: Í®°æ¤ †’Oy time ™ Éçöx -Öçö«¢√?
him. we met) Suman: àçöÀ N≠æߪ’ç? Shriya: It is really marvellous. I want to buy it
Sukumar: I am just a few minutes late. A few
ÅC ´·êu´÷ É°æ¤púø’?/ ¢√úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ®√´- Jagan: Ø√èπ◊ Physics ™ éÌEo doubts ÖØ√o®·. (one like that) too. Where did you buy it?
minutes' delay makes no difference.
ô´÷, ؈-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞¡x-ô´÷ ÅØËC é¬ü¿’, ¢√öÀØË´’Ø√o Clear îËߪ’-í∫-©-¢Ë-¢Á÷-†E? Rekha: At Vasthra Sagar. You can also get a
؈’ éÌCl EN’-≥ƒ™‰ Ç©Ææu-´’-ߪ÷u-†’. éÌCl gift worth Rs. 200/-
EN’-≥ƒ© Ç©Ææuç àç °∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰ü¿’. ´·êuç. ¢Ë’ç éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. ÅD Suman: ؈’ Fèπ◊ îÁ°æp-í∫-©-†E †’¢Áyç-ü¿’-éπ-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o-
´¶«s? 3) Jagan: Will you be at home tomorrow at this
Bhaskar: It makes little difference whether you ´·êuç.
b) Santan: Have you the money? Jagan: †’´¤y Physics ™ Ø√éπçõ‰ ¢Á’®Ω’í∫-E. time?
are a few minutes late or half an
Suman: ÆæÍ®, v°æߪ’-Ao≤ƒh. îÁ°æp-™‰-éπ-§ÚûË ´÷vûªç †’´¤y Suman: What's the matter?
hour late. You are late. That's the (F ü¿í∫_®Ω úø-•’sçü∆?)
Krishna: Yes. I have it. (ÖçC) disappoint Å´èπ◊. Jagan: I have some doubts in Physics. I feel
point.
Santan: How did you get it? (ᙫ ´*açC?) Jagan: Ø√èπ ◊ disappoint Å´-†ØË †´’téπç ÖçC. you can clear them.
†’´¤y éÌCl EN’-≥ƒ©’ Ç©-Ææu-´÷, Å®Ω-í∫çô Suman: Å™« Å®·ûË OK. Best of luck. Suman: Just what makes you think I can clear
Ç©-Ææu-´÷ ÅØËC é¬ü¿’ ´·êuç. †’´¤y 4) Pramod: Hi Venkat, Éçûªéà College ™ them?
Ç©Ææuç ÅØËüË -Åç-¨¡ç. îË®√¢√? Jagan: Because you are better at Physics
Shekhar: Let's not talk any more of it. What
Venkat: Éçé¬-™‰ü¿’. ´÷Ø√†o -Ü∞x ™‰®Ω’. Çߪ’† than me (Than I correct)
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 71
are there for the dinner after the
èπÿú≈
Í®§Ò-≤ƒh®Ω’. à College ™ îË®√™ Suman: OK. I'll try. But don't be/ get disap-
function? Çߪ’†ûÓ ´÷ö«xúÕ îË®√h†’. pointed if I cannot.
Function
Ç N≠æߪ’ç ´C-™‰-ߪ’çúÕ.
dinner

It doesn't matter
ûª®√yûª èπ◊ -à´·-Ø√o®·?
Sukumar: As for me so long as things are good
to eat, it makes no difference to me
what I eat.
A†-ú≈-EéÀ ®Ω’*í¬ Öçõ‰ àç ÖØ√o®·
A†-ú≈-EéÀ -Å-ØË-C Åçûª- ´·êuçé¬ü¿’ Ø√èπ◊.
Krishna: Never mind how I got it. I have it. Jagan: I am sure I
Bhaskar: So long as the things are tasty, I Pramod: à group BÆæ’èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤?
shan't (shall
never mind what I eat. (ᙫ ´*açüÓ Å†-´-Ææ®Ωç. Ø√ ü¿í∫_J°æ¤p-úø’ Venkat: ØËØË¢Á÷ MPC îËߪ÷-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. ´÷
úø•’sçC. ÅD ´·êuç) Ø√†oèπ◊ ´÷vûªç ؈’ BiPC îËߪ÷-©E not) be disap-
A†-ú≈-EéÀ ®Ω’*í¬ Öçõ‰ Ø√Íé-üÁjØ√ °∂æ®√y-™‰ü¿’
c) It makes little difference/ It makes no differ- ÖçC. ´÷ family ™ Éçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ doctors pointed.
Shekhar: I'd have none of the hot stuff.
ence whether you come at 10.30 or 11.00 ™‰®Ω’. ´÷ Ø√†oèπ◊ ؈’ ¢Á·ôd-¢Á·-ü¿öÀ doc- Suman: Then it's OK.
Ø√èπ◊ 鬮Ωç ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ É≠æd癉ü¿’/ BÆæ’éÓ-†’
when you do not come at 10. tor Å¢√-©E ÖçC. Best of luck.
Bhaskar: Never mind. You have a variety of
things to eat. (†’´¤y °æCç-öÀéÀ ®√†-°æ¤púø’, Ç ûª®√yûª á°æ¤p-úÌ-*aØ√ Pramod: Ç °æØË îÁ®·u-´’J. 4) Pramod: Hi Venkat,
àç °∂æ®√y-™‰-ü¿’™‰. ®Ωéπ-®Ω-鬩 ´Ææ’h-´¤-©’-Ø√o®· °∂æ®√y-™‰ü¿’/ °æC-†o-®Ω-éÌ-*aØ√ äéπõ‰, °æü¿-éÌç-úø’-éÌ-*aØ√ Venkat: é¬F Ø√èπ◊ Åçûª interest ™‰ü¿’.Biology ™ have you M. SURESAN
AØËç-ü¿’èπ◊. äéπõ‰.) î√™« Ê°®Ω’x ñ«c°æéπç Öç-éÓ-¢√L. joined any
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù-™E Ñ expressions í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. í∫ - ´ ’-Eç-î√®√? -É-´-Fo.. •öÀd-°æ-ôdôç Ø√èπ◊ îËûª-é¬ü¿’. college?
a) What does it matter? Pramod: ÅC éπÈ®é˙d. Biology éÀ ´’ç* ñ«c°æ-éπ-¨¡éÀh Venkat: Not yet. Dad is not in town. He will
1. Doesn't (Does not matter)
2. Makes no difference b) It matters little/ It matters nothing/ It doesn't Å´-Ææ®Ωç. Å®·ûË O’ Ø√†oèπ◊ -á-™« †îªa come back tomorrow. I will talk to dad
3. Makes little difference matter much
îÁ°æp-í∫-©´¤? what college I am going to join.
Venkat: ᙫ †îªaîÁ°æp-í∫-©†’? ÅüË Ç™-*-Ææ’hØ√o. Pramod: What group are you going to take?
4. Never mind. c) What difference does it make?/ It doesn't
5) Mohan: Ø√éÓ È®çvúÓ-V™« °æ¤Ææhéπç É´y-í∫-©¢√? Venkat: I want to do MPC. But dad wants me
make any difference/ It makes no/ Little dif-
John: ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈, BÆæ’éÓ. ¨¡E-¢√-®√-EéÀ AJT´yôç to do BiPC. There hasn't been a doc-
ference
d) Never mind ÅØË expressions èπ◊ Å®Ωnç, Ö°æ-ßÁ÷- ´’Ja-§Úèπ◊. tor in our family so far (No doctor so
Mohan: Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çüË ÉîËa-≤ƒhØËx. Å®·ûË äéπ far in my family). Dad wants me to be
í¬-©÷†’. OöÀE Conversation ™ ¢√úøçúÕ. -î√-™«
natural í¬ effective í¬ Öçô’çC.
N≠æߪ’ç Åúø-í∫Ø√ E†’o? †’¢Ëy-´’-†’-éÓ-éπ-§ÚûË. the first doctor in the family.
John: àçôC?
-v°æ- ¨¡o: 1) How to express the Telugu word Now practise the following aloud in English:
Mohan: †’´¤y v°æA °æ¤Ææhéπç éÌçö«´¤. ¢√öÀ™ x áEo
Pramod: Go ahead then.
Venkat: But I am not so interested. A lot of
in English.
''Üûª-°æü¿ç—— 1) Mukund: ؈’ ®√Ø√ ´ü∆l Station èπ◊?
Shankar:
§ÒíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊ç-ö«´¤? names to remember in biology. I am
2) What can I do to get 'American Accent' àüÁjØ√ °∂æ®√y-™‰-ü¿’™‰. †´¤y ´îËa-ôd-®·ûË John: Åü¿-´-Ææ-®Ω´÷ É°æ¤púø’? °æ¤Ææhéπç 鬢√™« ´ü∆l
Phone poor at mugging.
3) Why do we use the word 'spoken' in îË®·. Fèπ◊?
Mukund: Phone (mugging = •öÃd °æôdôç)
"spoken English"? îËߪ’ôç Ø√éπ-¶µºuç-ûª®Ωç ™‰ü¿’é¬F Answers:
´’Ja-§Ú-û√-†E. Pramod: That's right. Biology needs good

-ï-¢√-•’: 1) Üûª-°æü¿ç = catch word.
– ®√-ñ‰-¨¸ Ƒ£«-î˝, -Ø√í¬-ߪ’-©çéπ 1) Mukund: Shall I go to the station with you or memory. Then how can you convince
Shankar: §ÚF™‰. ØË-†’ ¢ÁR} džç-ü¿’†’ receive
not? your dad? (convince = †îªaîÁ°æpôç)
2) You can get American accent by listening to îËÆæ’èπ◊çö«. †’´¤y ¢√úÕE ûª®√yûª éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ- Shankar: It makes no difference/ Little differ-
Venkat: Yes, how can I? That's what I think of.
CNN news channels and also with the help ´îª’a. ence (Whether you go with me or
of Webster's dictionary. Other English dic- Mukund: -DEéÀ ††’o ŧƒ®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ-´-ü¿-lE -¢√-úÕéÀ 5) Mohan: Can you/ would you lend me the
not). If you are coming just call me.
tionaries also give American spelling, pro- book for two days?
Mukund: I don't mind giving a call. But I'm
îÁ°æ¤p. ¢√úÕ-E -ØË-†’ ûª®√yûª ûª°æpéπ éπ©’-Ææ’-
nunciation and accent. Watching Hollywood John: Certainly. Take it. Don't forget to return
èπ◊çö«. afraid I will forget.
movies will help. Shankar: àç °∂æ®√y-™‰-ü¿’™‰. ؈’ ¢√úÕéÀ îÁ§ƒh †’¢Áyç- Shankar: Doesn't matter. I will receive Anand it by saturday.
3) 'spoken' is past participle and not past
Ééπ\úø ü¿’èπ◊ ®√™‰-ü¿-E. at the station. You can meet him later. Mohan: I will return it even before that. Shall I
tense. Past participle èπ◊ á°æ¤púø÷ '•úø’-ûª’-†o,— 2) Shriya: Hi Rekha, áéπ\-úø -éÌ-Ø√o´¤ F dress? Mukund: Tell him not to misunderstand me. I ask you one thing if you don't mind?
'•úÕ†— ÅØË Å®√n©’ ´≤ƒh®·. spoken english áçûª ¶«í∫’çüÓ? will meet him later, certainly. (don't mind = -à-´’-†’-éÓ-éπ-§ÚûË)
English
Åçõ‰ ´÷ö«x-úø-•-úË/ -•-úø’-ûª’†o ÅE Å®Ωnç. Rekha: áéπ\úø éÌØ√o-†ØË N≠æߪ’ç Åô’ç. Eïçí¬ Shankar: Never mind. I will tell him why you John: What is it?
English
ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®·ûË ´÷ö«xúË Åçö«ç. ¶«í∫’çü∆? aren't able to come. Mohan: You buy every book. How many of
'The boy bitten by the snake,' Åçõ‰ – §ƒ´·îËûª Shriya: áçûª-®·uçüË? 2) Shriya: Hi Rekha, where did you buy your them do you lose?
éπ®Ω-´-•úøf Ŷ«s®·. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ É™« ņç éπü∆. Rekha: üµ¿®Ω N≠æߪ’ç ´·êuç é¬ü¿’. îÁ°æ¤p. ¶«í∫’çü∆, (the/ this) dress. It's really fine/ fan- John: Is that important now? Do you want
§ƒ´· éπJ-*† Ŷ«s®· Åçö«ç. ™‰ü∆? tastic/ gorgeous. the book or not?
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 22 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2005
Sandhya: Where are you going so early, I hope I'll (I will) get a class.
Shyam? I hope that I will get a class.
áéπ\úÕéÀçûª ûªy®Ωí¬ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o´¤ -¨»uç? ´’†ç ¢Á·ôd-¢Á·-ü¿öÀ lessons ™ îª÷¨»ç– English
Shyam: Mom, I told you yesterday (that) I ™ Question structure èπÿ, statement struc-
would go to Ram's today. I have ture èπÿ Ö†o ûËú≈:
some difficulty with Physics, and he Statement ™ á°æ¤púø÷ subject ¢Á·ü¿ô, ü∆E
said (that) he would help me. ûª®√yûª verb -´Ææ’hç-C.
E†o îÁ§ƒp-éπ-ü¿´÷t, ®√ç ¢√-R}ç-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞«h- -¢√-úø’ -´-î√aúø’ = He has come (sub + verb)
†E. Ø√èπ◊ Physics éÌçûª éπ≠dçæ í¬ ÖçC. ÅüË question Å®·ûË:
¢√úø’ ≤ƒßª’ç-îË-≤ƒh-†E îÁ§ƒpúø’. 1) verb + subject
Is he here?
Sandhya: But Dad said (that) he would take Srikar: What happened / What has happened
2) Å®·ûË verb ™ È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ ´÷ô-©’çõ‰, Å°æ¤púø’ i) ¢√úÁ-éπ\-úø’ç-ö«úø’? = Where does he live?
you to the eye specialist today. You Venkat? Why are you so late?
question structure: ¢√úÁ-éπ\-úø’ç-ö«úÓ Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’≤ƒ?
were complaining of frequent Venkat: The traffic was very heavy and the
1st word of the verb + subject + other word(s) Do you know where he lives?
headaches. auto broke down on the way.
of the verb (Ééπ\úø ¢Á·ü¿öÀ Do you know ´÷vûª¢Ë’ question
doctor ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ Srikar: Didn't you find a phone any where
Ø√†o E†’o Is he coming?
- È®çúÓ ¶µ«í∫ç, ¢√úÁ-éπ\-úø’ç-ö«úÓ question é¬ü¿’ - there?
BÆæ’Èé∞«h†Ø√o®Ω’ éπü∆. †’´¤y ´÷öÀ, ´÷öÀéÀ verb, Is coming-
(Ééπ\úÕ Éçü¿’™ È®çúø’ ´÷ô©’
statement) Venkat: I didn't. Even the auto driver did not
ûª©-ØÌ-°æpç-ô’ç-ö«´¤. éπü∆?) know where a phone was.
Shyam: Not today. I have the Physics exam 3) 'wh' words begin
ûÓ questions
ÅßË’u ™ Now practise the following aloud in English:
tomorrow. I told dad (that) I would 'wh' word + verb + sub.
Å®·ûË Ñ ´÷ô©’ îª÷úøçúÕ:
1) Naresh: Hi Ajitha,
O’ Ø√†o-í¬®Ω’ áéπ\úø?
not be able to go to the doctor today. where is he? 1) amuse = (Å´‚uñ¸ – ´‚u ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç, ñ¸
4) 'wh' question verb
Å®·, ™ È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ Ajitha: Çߪ’† •ßª’-öÀ-Èé-∞«}®Ω’. size ™ z ™«í¬) †´¤y °æ¤öÀdç-îªôç, NØÓü¿ç é-π-L-
´÷ô-©’çõ‰: Naresh: áéπ\-úÕ-Èé-∞«}®Ω’?
Tç-îªôç.
'wh' word + 1st word of the verb + subject + Ajitha: Çߪ’-ØÁ-éπ\-úÕ-Èé-∞Ï-}-C Ø√ûÓ îÁ°æp®Ω’. á°æ¤púø’ He amuses us with his jokes.

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 72 other words of the verb.
where is he going?
AJ-íÌ-≤ƒh®Ó Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’.
Naresh: ØË-†’ -E-†o Çߪ’† éÓÆæç ´î√a-†E îÁ§ƒp¢√?
(Jokes ûÓ †Ny-≤ƒhúø’)
The boy in the girl's dress amused us.
Å´÷t®· dress ™ Ŷ«s®· ´÷èπ◊ †´¤y
-ûÁ°œpç-î√-úø’.

He said that..
An amusing movie/ situation - NØÓü¿ç éπ-L-
Tç-îË/- £æ…-Ææu-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† ÆœE-´÷/- °æ-J-ÆœnA.
2) annoy = (ÅØÌß˝’ – 'ØÌ— ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©-éπçúÕ)
NÆœ-Tç-îªôç; éÓ°æç ûÁ°œpç-îªôç.
a) The way he talks annoys me
¢√úø’ ´÷ö«xúË B®Ω’ Ø√èπ◊ éÓ°æç éπL-T-Ææ’hçC.
Ñ¢√∞¡ é¬ü¿’™‰. Í®°æ¤ Ø√èπ◊ physics exam Ñ°j N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ O’èπ◊ í∫’®Ω’h-Ø√o-®·-éπü∆. É°æ¤púø’ Ñ Ajitha:
Ç. îÁ§ƒp†’. O’È®ç-ü¿’-éÌ-î√a®Ó -ÅúÕT ûÁ©’-Ææ’- b) His silly jokes annoys us
sentence îª÷úøçúÕ:
silly jokes
ÖçC éπü∆. Ø√†oûÓ îÁ§ƒp™‰ Ñ®Ó-V éÓ-´’-Ø√o®Ω’. ¢√úÕ ´’´’tLo NÆœ-T-≤ƒh®·.
I know where he is Naresh: FûÓ îÁ°æp-™‰-†’™‰, Í®§Ò-≤ƒh†’. c) Don't be annoyed =
ú≈éπd®Ω’ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ ¢Á∞¡x-™‰-†E. éÓ°æp-úø-èπ◊/ -éÓ-°æp-úø-éπçúÕ.
Sandhya: That's OK. Would you promise me ¢√úÁ-éπ\-úø’-Ø√oúÓ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. 2) Omkar: Hi Srikar, †’-´¤y -á°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-©’- üË®Ω’- 3) bitter= (Gô – 'G— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç) îËü¿’
(that) you would go tomorrow? No Ñ sentence statement. Question é¬ü¿’. ûª’-Ø√o-´¤? Coffee/ Tea without milk and sugar is bitter.
more postponement, understand? I 'where' ÅØË 'wh' ´÷ô
Srikar: ØËØÁ-°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-©’-üË-®Ω’-û√ØÓ -Ø√Íé -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’.
warn you (that) it will worsen if you Öçúø-ôç-´©x Ñ sen- Åçû√ Venkat ´îËa-ü∆-E-O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-úÕ-
§ƒ©’, °æçîª-ü∆®Ω éπ©-°æE 鬰∂‘/ öà îËü¿’.
neglect. tence question à¢Á÷ éÓ°æç: He is bitter that he did not get the pro-
ÅE ÅE°œç-îª-´îª’a. é¬F ÖçC. motion.
ÆæÍ®. Í®°æ¤ ¢Á∞«h-†E ´÷öÀ-≤ƒh¢√? Éçéπ Omkar: ¢√úÁ-°æ¤p-úÌ-îËaC Fèπ◊ phone îËߪ’-™‰ü∆?
é¬ü¿’. ÉC ¢Á·ûªhç state- Promotion ®√™‰-ü¿ØË ¶«üµ¿ûÓ éÓ°æçí¬ ÖØ√oúø’.
¢√®·ü∆ ¢Ëߪ’èπ◊. †’´¤y ü∆Eo ÖÊ°-éÀ~ç- Srikar: àç ïJ-TçüÓ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’. ¢√úÁç-ü¿’èπ◊ phone
*†éÌDl áèπ◊\´´¤ûª’çC. ment. Åçü¿’-éπE state- bitter pill = îËü¿’-´÷vûª.
(worsen- éÃ~ùÀç-îªôç) ment structure (sub-
îËߪ’-™‰üÓ èπÿú≈ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ôç ™‰ü¿’. 4) Chair (îµËÅ) – ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç èπ◊Ka. é¬F I want
Omkar: ¢√úÕéÀ O’ train time ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü∆? him to chair the meeting ÅØË sentence ™
°jÆæç-¶µ«-≠æ-ù™ that ¢√úøéπç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: ject ´·çü¿÷, verb
Srikar: ûÁ©’Ææ’. ؈’ èπÿú≈ îÁ§ƒp†’. chair Åçõ‰ Åüµ¿u-éπ~ûª ´£œ«ç-îªôç (Çߪ’† Æ涵ºèπ◊
1) I told you yesterday that I would go... ûª®√yûª ´≤ƒh®·) Omkar: ÅCíÓ ´Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. Worry Å´èπ◊.
2) he said that he would... ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Öçô’çC. M. SURESAN Srikar: à´’-®·çC ¢Áçéπö¸? Éçûª late àçöÀ?
Åüµ¿u-éπ~ûª ´£œ«ç-î√-©E Ø√ éÓJ-éπ/ -Å-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’)
3) I told Dad that I wouldn't be... É™«çöÀ sentences ™. Venkat: Traffic î√™« áèπ◊\-´í¬ ÖçC. Ø√ auto
5) Chase = îµÁß˝’b – ¢Áçô-•úÕ ûª®Ω-´’ôç.
4) Would you promise me that you would... E†o áçü¿’èπ◊ ®√™‰-ü¿E ¢√-úÕ-E ÅúÕ-í¬†’ The tiger chased the deer - °æ¤L >çéπ ¢Áçô-
I asked him why he was absent yesterday.
´’üµ¿u™ ÇT-§Ú-®·çC.
5) I warn you that it will worsen. Srikar: Åéπ\úø ü¿í∫_-È®-éπ\ú≈ phone ™‰ü∆?
•-úÕçC. – ¢Ëô, ¢Ëö«-úøôç ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ÖçC.
(why was he absent é¬ü¿’éπü∆?)
Ñ sentences ™ that èπ◊ Å®Ωnç 'ÅE— ÅE. ã a) Where can I get some good tea? Venkat: Ø√Íéç éπ-E°œç-îª-™‰ü¿’. Ç auto ¢√úÕéÀ èπÿú≈
N≠æߪ’ç á´-®ΩØ√o îÁÊ°h, Ç N≠æߪ’ç ´·çü¿’ 'that' (´’ç* tea áéπ\úø üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-ûª’çC?) phone áéπ\-úø’çüÓ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-™‰-ü¿’.
´Ææ’hçC. b) Tell me where I can get some good tea. Answers:
He told me that he would go.
¢√úø’ ¢Á∞«h-†E Ø√ûÓ îÁ§ƒp-úø’/- Å-Ø√oúø’. (´’ç*tea áéπ\úø üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-ûª’çüÓ îÁ°æ¤p)
sentence (a) question, can I
Åçü¿’-éπE ü∆ØÓx
1) Naresh: Hi Ajitha, where is your father?
Ajitha: He has gone out.
-v°æ-¨¡o: Iam poor at spellings. Please, give
a) I told you yesterday that I would go information about pronunciation
get Åçö«ç. Naresh: Where has he gone?
Åéπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞«h-†E E†o FûÓ ÅØ√o. casettes and CDs.
sentence (b) statement; question é¬ü¿’– Ajitha: He doesn't tell me / He never tells me
b) He said that he would help me
where I can get
-ï-¢√-•’: A Number of Pronunciation casettes
Åçü¿’-éπE Åçö«ç. where he goes. I do not know when he
– -öÀ-.-ñÂÆ°∂ˇÈ®-úÕf, -´®Ωçí∫-™¸
≤ƒßª’ç îË≤ƒh-†E ÅØ√oúø’. c) where does he go every evening?
c) I told dad that I wouldn't be... (would not be) will return / he will be back.
and CDs are available in leading
(v°æA ≤ƒßª’çvûªç áéπ\úÕéÀ ¢Á∞«húø’?) Naresh: Did you tell him / Have you told him
؈’ ¢Á∞¡}™‰-†E Ø√†oûÓ îÁ§ƒp. d) Ask him where he goes every evening. Book Shops. Pronunciation and
d) Would you promise me that you would go that I came for him yesterday?
spelling casettes and CDs prepared
tomorrow?
(v°æA ≤ƒßª’çvûªç áéπ\-úÕ-Èé-∞«húÓ ¢√-úÕ-†-úø’í∫’) Ajitha: I did / I have. He told me / wanted me
Í®°æ¤ ¢Á∞«h-†E ´÷öÀ-≤ƒh¢√? sentence (c) question 鬕öÀd where does by Central Institute of English and
e) I warn you that it would worsen to find out why you had come.
he go? Foreign Languages are also avail-
Naresh: I can't tell you (of it). I'll (will) come
£«îªa-J-Ææ’hØ√o– ÅC áèπ◊\-´-´¤-ûª’ç-ü¿E. sentence (d) statement 鬕öÀd where he able in Hyderabad. A number of for-
tomorrow.
鬕öÀd °j sentences ÅEoç-öÀ™ that Åçõ‰ 'ÅE—. goes. ÉC English ™ î√-™« ´·êu-¢Á’i† ûËú≈. eign books on Conversation, pronun-
2) Omkar: Hi Srikar, when are you starting?
Å®·ûË ´÷´‚©’ conversations ™, writing ™ e) ¢√úÁ-éπ\úø éÌØ√oúø’ Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç? ciation and spelling carry casettes
Srikar: I myself do not know when I am
(Ø√Íé)
èπÿú≈ 'that' ´C-™‰-ߪ’ôç Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ωùç. ¢√úø’éπ. Where did he buy the book? and CDs with them. Enquire for them
going to start. (It) depends on when
f) He did not tell me where he had bought the in the market.
-v°æ-¨¡o: -ØË-†’ -Å-¨é¬ -ô÷u-≠æ-Ø˛ ÂÆç-ô-®˝ °--ö«d-©-†’èπ◊ç-ô’-
ûª°æ¤p-é¬ü¿’. Venkat comes here. / On venkat's com-
°j sentenses that ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ņçúÕ– Å®Ωnç™ ûËú≈ book ing here.
Ø√o-†’. -î√-™«-´’ç-CTutorials, tution cen-
àç Öçúøü¿’. Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç áéπ\úø éÌØ√oúÓ Ø√ûÓ îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’. Omkar: Has'nt he phoned you when he is com-
I told you I would go. tre, tuition centre -Å-E ®√Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. -à-C
(°æ¤Ææhéπç é̆ôç ´·çü¿’, îÁ°æpôç ûª®√yûª – 鬕öÀd ing.
I told you that I would go. had bought) éπÈ®èπ◊d? -ØË-†’ Asoka's tutorials, Asoka
Srikar: I don't know what has happened. I
He said he would help me. g) = Where has he gone? tutorial's
– -à-C ®√-ߪ÷-L?
¢√úÁ-éπ\-úÕ-Èé-∞«}úø’? don't know either (not either)
ûÓ èπÿú≈ =
He said (that) he would help me. (Question - So, has he gone?)
-ï-¢√-•’: Tuition ÅØËC Correct spelling. Asoka
why he has'nt phoned. – -áç.-N.-ï-ߪ’ π◊-´÷®˝, -†-Kq°æ-ôoç
She says she can't sing any more. h) No one knows where he has gone Omkar: Doesn't he know the time of your train.
she says that she can't sing any more. ¢√úÁ-éπ\-úÕ-Èé-∞«}úÓ á´-Jéà ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’. Srikar: He does / He knows. I told him too. Tutorials correct. Ñ È®çúø’ -°æü∆™x üË-EéÃ
Éé𠧃úø-™‰-†E ÅçöçC. (Statement; so - he has gone. Omkar: There he is. Don't worry. Apostrope (') s ('s) ®√ü¿’.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 24 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2005

spoken english -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ..
URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
Raghav: Good morning Doctor
4) Doctor (patient ): examina-
E®Ωy-£œ«çîË °æKéπ~ èπ◊
Doctor: Good morning. Come in. Name and
tion. A doctor examines a patient.
other things please.
5)
®Óí∫¢Ë’çö ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ îËÊÆ °æK-éπ~©’.
Raghav: I am Raghav, aged 19, doing my 3rd
Tests: Blood test, urine test, motion
(´‚vûª)
year degree.
(´’©) test, sputum
(éπ ∞ Î test, etc.
x )
rd year
Ø√ Ê°®Ω’ ®√°∂æ’¢˛, 19 à∞¡Ÿx, 3 6) Diagnosis
(úøߪ’-íÓo-ÆœÆˇ) – 'íÓo— ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊ü∆ç = 3 a) v°æé¬≠ˇ °æü∑¿uç BÆæ’èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’ Doctor:
ï©’-•’çü∆?
degree îËÆæ’h-Ø√o†’. ®Óí∫ E®Ωgß ª ’ç = ¢√uCµ °∂晫Ø√C ÅE E®Ωg-®·ç-îªúøç. Prakash is on diet. Ramesh:
Ç. îªLí¬ èπÿú≈ ÖçC.
Doctor: Your complaint? (-F -¶«-üµË-N’-öÀ?) 7) °j† îÁ°œp† tests ÅFo èπÿú≈ diagnostic tests. b) ؈’ E†o-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ °æü∑¿u°æ¤ Ç£æ…-®Ωç BÆæ’èπ◊-Ø√o†’ Doctor: O.K.
Raghav: I have had a fever since yesterday
Ñ ´’çü¿’©’ BÆæ’éÓçúÕ. ÅN
and a headache since last night. I feel
(Åçõ‰ ¢√uCµ -à-N’-ö E®Ωg-®·ç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊îËÊÆ °æK-éπ~©’) I was on diet till yesterday. †ßª’ç îË≤ƒh®·.
8) Prescription - Doctor ´’çü¿’©’ ®√ÆœîËa é¬Tûªç. c) Öûªh-§ƒ©’, bread ´÷vûª¢Ë’ BÆæ’èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’ Ramesh: °æü∑¿uç à´’Ø√o -§ƒ-öÀç-î √-™« doctor?
rather weak too.
E†oöÀ †’ç* ïy®Ωç, ®√vA †’ç* ûª©-ØÌ-°œpí¬ 9) (pronunciation - v°œvÆœ\-°æ{Ø˛ 'vÆœ\— ØÌé¬\L)
Prescribe: Doctor Ñ ´’çü¿’©’, Ñ ¢Ájü¿uç
He has been on diet of milk and bread for Doctor: §ƒ©’, bread ´÷vûª¢Ë’. Barley
ÖçC. éÌçûª F®ΩÆæçí¬ èπÿú≈ ÖçC. the past four days/ BÆæ’éÓçúÕ.
(rather - é¬Ææh áèπ◊\-´í¬) BÆæ’éÓç-úøE îÁ°æpôç. Doctor ´’çü¿’©’ ®√Æœ-´yôç. He has been taking only bread and milk for 2) Ramana: Hi Ravi, àçöÀ N¨Ï-≥ƒ©’?
(Prescribe - v°œwÂÆj \¶¸ – 'wÂÆj \— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç)
Doctor: You have a temperature of above 100. the past four days. Ravi: éÌçîÁçbad news. ©éπ~ t-ù˝Íéç ¶«í¬-™‰ü¿’.
10) treat - ¢Ájü¿uç îËߪ’ôç/ *éÀûªq îËߪ’ôç
Well, take these tablets and have
11) treatment - ¢Ájü¿uç/- *-éÀûªq
ÉO doctors èπÿ, medicines èπÿ, patients èπÿ Ramana: ÅÈ®. Eïçí¬ ¶«üµ¿í¬ ÖçC. áEo
complete rest. Avoid solids today.
12) A course of tablets/ injections - ´÷vûª©,
Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† conversational expressions. ÉC ®ÓV-©’í¬ ¶«üµ¿-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’?
Only liquids. That's my prescription. èπÿú≈ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: Ravi: Ø√©’í∫’ ®ÓV-©’í¬ temperature
100 úÕvU©Â°jí¬ temperature ÖçC. 13) injections ¢Ájü¿uç §Òçü¿
Ææçêu – Doctor EÍ®l-¨»-†’-≤ƒ®Ωç.
’ûª’çúøôç = to be under treat- 4) He is suffering from a fever- ÖçúÕçC. Ñ®Ó-V Doctor îÁ§ƒpúø’
-Ñ®Ó-V solids - °∂æ’†-°æ-ü∆-®√n©’ – ņoç ment, to undergo treatment, to take treat-
ÉC common í¬ ¢√úø’-ûª’çö«ç. ÉC éÌç-îÁç typhoid ©éπ~-ù«-©E. 3 ¢√®√©’ ¢Ájü¿uç,
™«çöÀN ´ü¿’l. vü¿´ °æü∆®√n™‰ BÆæ’éÓ. ment.
§ƒçúÕûªuç. conversational í¬ (spoken form) rest BÆæ’éÓ-´’-Ø√oúø’.
( temperature - pronunciation - õ„çv°æµ Å®·ûË– Ramana: ûªy®Ωí¬ éÓ©’-éÓ-¢√-©E éÓ®Ω’-èπ◊çü∆ç.
'õ„ç— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. a) He has a fever/ He is down with a fever. (éÓ©’-éÓ-´ôç = recover)
Prescription - Doctor ®√ÆœîËa ´’çü¿’©’) b) She has been down with 'flu for the past 2 Answers:
Raghav: What's the dosage doctor?
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 73
days.
1) Doctor: How long have you had this fever?
à ´÷vûª©’ áØÁoEo á°æ¤púø’ -¢ËÆæ’éÓ-¢√L? 'flu
È®çvúÓ-V-©’í¬ Ç¢Á’èπ◊ í¬ ÖçC.
Doctor: The first one, three times a day, after Ramesh: For the past/ last two days.
taking in something. The second one
at bed time. See me again tomorrow
evening.
¢Á·ü¿-öÀ-N ®ÓVèπ◊ ´‚úø’ – àüÁjØ√ ǣ慮Ωç
BÆæ’-èπ◊†o ûª®√y-ûË. È®çúÓC ®√vA °æúø’-éÓ-
¶-ßË’-´·çü¿’ äéπöÀ. Í®°æ¤ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç ´’S}
®ΩçúÕ.
He has a fever
Raghav: Hope it isn't any thing serious, doctor? 5) Doctor Doctor: Why didn't
14) diet:ǣ慮Ωç/ °æü∑¿uç °æ‹Jh Nv¨»çA BÆæ’éÓ-´’çõ‰–
serious
àç Doctor
é¬ü¿’ éπü∆, ? The doctor's (the doctor has) advised her you come
15) symptoms = ¢√uCµ ©éπ~-ù«©’
Doctor: I don't think so. Don't Worry. It's just complete rest (for a week/ ten days, etc.) earlier?
an ordinary fever. If it doesn't come Look at the following :
6) ï•’s = illness/ ailment/ disease. Ñ ´‚úø÷ (early =
down by tomorrow, let's have some (Read it aloud two or three times)
èπÿú≈countables. plurals – illnesses,
OöÀéÀ ´·çü¿’,ear-
tests done. Nothing to worry about. a) He had had a fever and (a) headache since
ailments, diseases ¢√úø’-éπ™ ÖØ√o®·. OöÀE lier = Åçûª-
Take complete rest. yesterday. The doctor examined him this
singular a/ an
í¬ ¢√úÕûË ûª°æpéπ -Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T≤ƒhç. éπçõ‰/
Worry morning and prescribed some tablets. He
ØË-††’-éÓ-´-ôç-™‰ü¿’. Å´-éπçúÕ. a) He is very weak because of an illness/ an Éçûªèπ◊
´÷´‚©’ ïy®Ωç ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. Í®°æ-öÀéÀ took the prescription to the medical shop and
ailment/ a disease. ´·çü¿’) M. SURESAN
ûªí∫_-éπ-§ÚûË éÌEo °æK-éπ~©’ îË®·ü∆lç. àç bought the medicines. The doctor advised
him complete rest. The doctor put him on a
Çߪ’† àüÓ ï•’s-´©x F®Ω-Ææçí¬ ÖØ√oúø’. Ramesh: I took some medicine to bring
°∂æ®√y-™‰-ü¿’. b) The doctor is unable to diagnose their dis-
liquid diet. (Put this passage in Telugu) down the temperature.
(ïy®Ωç, temperature ™«çöÀN ûªí∫_ôç = eases
come down) Practise the following: Doctor: Did it cure you?
¢√∞¡x ¢√uüµ¿’-™‰-N’ö Çߪ’† E®√l¥-Jç-îª-™‰-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
°j Ææ綵«-≠æù™– ï•’s-©èπ◊, patients èπ◊, doctors c) He has serious ailments Ramesh: No. That's why I am here/ I came
1 a) This doctor is treating my friend/ the
èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç*† expressions í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. patient Çߪ’-†èπ◊ Bv´-¢Á’i† ï•’s©’ ÖØ√o®·. to you.
1) Complaint = Patient (®ÓT) ¶«üµ¿, Ææ´’Ææu. Ñ doctor friend/
Ø√ ®ÓTéÀ ¢Ájü¿uç îËÆæ’h-Ø√oúø’. 7) ¢√uCµ E¢√-®Ωù = cure = †ßª’ç îËߪ’ôç Doctor: O.K. What are your complaints?
2) English™ fever, headache, temperature ÅFo b) My friend/ the patient is taking treatment a) Doctor ÅûªE ï•’s†’ †ßª’ç î˨»úø’ Ramesh: Temperature, headache and body
countables. Åçõ‰ ¢√öÀéÀ singular, plural num- from this doctor The doctor has cured his disease/ cured ache/ pains all over the body.
bers Öçö«®·. Singular ´·çü¿’ a/ an ´≤ƒh®·. friend/ doctor him.
Åçü¿’Íé a fever, a temperature, a headache.
´÷ ®ÓT Ñ ü¿í∫_®Ω *éÀûªq §Òçü¿’- Doctor: Have you/ Do you have a cold
ûª’-Ø√oúø’. b) The medicine is a good cure
3) Weak = (Åçü¿-Jéà ûÁ©’Ææ’) F®ΩÆæçí¬ Öçúøôç. too?
c) My friend/ the patient is under this doctor's Ñ ´’çü¿’ ´’ç*C.
c) The medicine has cured him of his illness (Cold = ï©’•’ – countable)
F®ΩÆæç é¬Ææh áèπ◊\´ ®ÓV©’çúÕ •©-£‘«-†-ûªí¬ Öçõ‰ treatment
= debility (EÆæq-ûª’h´) My friend/ the patient is undergoing treat- ÅûªE ï•’s†’ Ç ´’çü¿’ †ßª’ç îËÆœçC. Ramesh: Yes. And I fell very cold.

-v°æ-¨¡o: 1) Cheer (n&v), cheerful (adj) and yacht ment. Oô-Eo-öÀéà äÍé Å®Ωnç.
My friend, patient I, we, you, he,
8) ï•’sí¬ Öçúøôç = ill.
Åûª-EéÀ ï•’sí¬ ÖçC/- Å-ûª†’ ï•’s-°æ-ú≈fúø’ Doctor:
(feel cold - îªLí¬ Öçúøôç)
O.K. Take these medicines. They
(n) pronunciation
-™ -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. •ü¿’©’
she, they, any name, any relationship He is ill. ÉC î√-™« simple expression. will cure you.
2) 2X5 = 10. two, five
-D-Eo '-ñ«u— ten -Å-E
(brother, cousin, uncle, etc) sen- He has been ill for a week
-îª-ü¿-¢√-©ç-ö«®Ω’. -E-ï-¢Ë’-Ø√? †’ ¢√úÕ Â°j Ramesh: What about the diet?
3) Retired èπ◊ Retd. -™‰-ü∆ Rtd.-©-™ ÆæÈ®j-† tences †’ N’í∫û√ times of action ™ (í∫ûªç™, -Å-ûª-úø’ -¢√®Ωçí¬ ï•’sûÓ ÖØ√oúø’ Doctor: Just bread and milk. You can take
future practice He has been ailing for a week.
abbreviation -à-C? Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊, ™) îËߪ’çúÕ (Åçõ‰
barley.
different tenses These are symptoms of Malaria
-ï-¢√-•’: – -öÀ.-P-´, -†ç-CéÌ-ô÷\®Ω’ ™).
Just one example: ´’™‰-Jߪ÷ ©éπ~-ù«©’. 2) Ramana: Hi Ravi, what news?
1) Cheer- *µßª’ (Jߪ’-™ ¸™ Jߪ’-™«í∫). cheerful: Ramesh took/ has taken/ has been taking/ Now Practise the following in English. Ravi: A bit of bad news. Lakshman isn't
*µßª’-°∂ˇ™ ¸; yacht=ߪ’ö¸/-ߪ÷ö¸. (ߪ’ö¸ will take treatment from this doctor- É™« °j† well/ Lakshman is ailing.
1) Doctor: Ñ ïy®Ωç FÈéçûª 鬩çí¬ ÖçC?
ņo°æ¤púø®·ûË, °ü¿-´¤-©†’ í∫’çvúøçí¬ A°œp Ø√©’éπ îÁ°œp† ÅEo-®Ω-鬩 sentences practice
†’ Ramana: I'm (I am) really sorry. How long
Ramesh: í∫ûª È®çvúÓ-V-©’í¬
éÌçîÁç ™°æ-LéÀ §ÚE-´yçúÕ; ߪ÷ö¸ ņo-°æ¤úø’ îËߪ’çúÕ. Doctor: ´·çüË áçü¿’èπ◊ ®√™‰ü¿’? has he been suffering?/ How long
Ø√©’éπ flat í¬ Â°ôdçúÕ) 2) We take treatment from a doctor for a dis-
Ramesh: ØËØË àüÓ ´’çü¿’-¢√-ú≈†’, temperature has he been down?
2) 2$5=10†’ two five 'ñ«u— ten ņôç ûª°æ¤p. DEo ease.
Ravi: He has had a temperature for the
îªü¿-¢√-LqçC, Two fives are ten ÅE. a) He is taking treatment from Dr. Sankar for ûªÍí_ç-ü¿’èπ◊.
Pronunciation: ô’ °∂j¢√b-õ„Ø˛ ÅE; Ééπ\-úø '-ï— -´ûª’h Jaundice (Jaundice= 鬢Á’®Ω’x) Doctor: Fèπ◊ ü∆E-´©x †ßª’-´’-®·çü∆? past four days. The doctor told him
size ™ z ™«í∫ °æ©-éπçúÕ. Are E 'Ç— í¬ °æ©-éπçúÕ; b) She is undergoing treatment for typhoid Ramesh: ™‰ü¿’. Åçü¿’Íé O’ ü¿í∫_-®Ω-éÌ-î √a†’. that it is typhoid. He advised him
*´J 'r' silent. (Tu faivza : ten) - ÉC English (Typhoid èπ◊ ¢Ájü¿uç îË®·ç--éÌç-öçC) Doctor: ÆæÍ®, O’¶«üµ¿-™‰çö îÁ°æpçúÕ.(complaint) rest and treatment for three weeks.
pronunciation. c) He has been under treatment for a week Ramesh: Temperature, headache, -ä∞¡Ÿx Ramana: Let's wish him a speedy recovery.
3) Retd correct.
ÅØËC now. (¢√®Ωçí¬ Çߪ’† *éÀ-ûªq -§Òç-ü¿’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’) ØÌ°æ¤p©’.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 27 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2005
Bhaskar: Hi Krishna, When are you leaving for Charan: It arrives at 10 and departs at 10.10.
Delhi? It reaches the destination next morn-
Delhi
éπ%-≥ƒg, á°æ¤p-úÁ-∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o´¤? ing at 9.
Charan: On Sunday, by the AP Express. 10 éÀ ´Ææ’hçC, 10–10éÀ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω’hçC.
AP Express
´îËa ÇC-¢√®Ωç, ™. Destination (= í∫´’uç/ îË®Ω-´-©-Æœ† îÓô’,
Next Sunday
í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: 'The' ´·çü¿’ Delhi)
Ééπ\úø ûª®√yA §Òü¿’l†o 9 í∫çô-©èπ◊
Sunday next
¢√úøç; Å®·ûË sunday ņo-°æ¤púø’ îË®Ω’hçC.
The
´·çü¿’ Trains
¢√úøû√ç. 'TheÊ°®Ωx ´·çü¿’ Bhaskar: Have you booked your return jour-
´Ææ’hçC. ney?
Bhaskar: Have you booked the ticket? / Reserve
A®Ω’í∫’ v°æߪ÷-ù«-EéÀ îËÆæ’èπ◊Ø√o¢√?
reserve your ticket? Charan: I am not sure when I return. Depends
ticket reserve
-F -îËÆæ’èπ◊-Ø√o-¢√? on what my uncle says. High on the waitlist (wait list ™ ´·çü¿’ç-úøôç) 12) arrival = îËJéπ; Departure = •ßª’-™‰l-®Ωôç. -´’®Ó
(Ticket = öÀéÀö¸ – 'öÀ— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç) á°æ¤púø’ AJ-íÌ-≤ƒhØÓ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’. low on the wait list (wait list ™ éÀçü¿ Öçúøôç) ®Ωéπçí¬ – ®√éπ (arrival), §Úéπ (departure)
Charan: yes, yesterday. I am travelling II ´÷ uncle îÁÊ°p ü∆Eo •öÀd Öçô’çC. 8) Make do with = ÆæJ-°æ¤-a-éÓ-´ôç/ Ææ®Ω’l-èπ◊-§Ú-´ôç. 13) Destination = í∫´’uç, îËÍ®/ -îË-®Ω-´-©-Æ œ† îÓô’.
sleeper class. There was no accom- Bhaskar: OK then, see you tomorrow at sta- a) Fèπ◊ ؈’ ´çü¿ ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ É´y-í∫-©†’. The destination of the AP express from
modation in the AC classes. tion. ü∆çûÓ Ææ®Ω’léÓ. Hyderabad is New Delhi.
II sleeper ™ Ø√ v°æߪ÷ùç. AC Í®°æ¤ Station
™ éπ©’ü∆lç. I can give you only Rs 100/-. Make do AP Express
£j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛ †’ç* •ßª’-™‰lÍ® í∫´’uç
Classes ™ îÓô’-™‰ü¿’. Charan: Bye! with it. New Delhi.
Accommodation =
( Å鬴’úÁ-ß˝’-≠æØ˛ – 'úÁß˝’— Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ´*a† v°æߪ÷-ù«-EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† b) †’NyîËaü∆çûÓ Ææ®Ω’l-èπ◊ç-ö«†’. 14) On the train/ on board the train = train ™,
ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. ´·çü¿’-†o '-Å— ü∆ü∆°æ¤ °æ©éπç. ´÷ô©’ îª÷ü∆lç. I'll make do with whatever you give. on the journey = v°æߪ÷ùç™ (during the
Å®Ωnç = îÓô’, ´ÆæA) 1) Leaving - leave = •ßª’-™‰l-®Ωôç. ¢Á∞¡xôç. 9) Catering service (Èéß˝’-ô-Jçí˚ ÆæNÆˇ) = ´çô, journey ÅE èπÿú≈ Åçö«ç)
Bhaskar: Why didn't you go earlier? I leave for college at 9 every day. ´úøf†. on travel = while on travel = -v°æ-ߪ÷-ùç-™
(´·çüË áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢Á-∞¡}™‰ü¿’?) (leave - left - left) äéπ îÓ-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡xôç/ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ωôç Cater = ´çúÕ ´úÕfç-îªôç, ´·êuçí¬ parties èπÿ, travel = v°æߪ÷ùç, v°æߪ÷-ùÀç-îªôç (vö«´™¸);
leave for a place. °Rx∞¡⁄x ´Èíj-®√-©èπ◊ (cater = Èéß˝’-ô®˝) Comfort = Ææ’êç/ -≤˘-éπ®Ωuç
a) Çߪ’† îÁØÁj o †’ç* Delhi éÀ E†o -¢Á-∞«xúø’ catering = Èéß˝’-ô-Jçí˚ – -Ñ -Å-Eo °æ-ü∆-©-™  'Èé— - Travel in comfort with less luggage
He left Chennai for Delhi yesterday. ØÌéÀ\ °æ-©é¬-L. ûªèπ◊\´ luggage ûÓ Ææ’êçí¬ v°æߪ÷-ùÀç-îªçúÕ.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 74
b) Ç¢Á’ E†o Ééπ\úø †’ç* ¢ÁRxçC. áéπ\-úÕéÓ caterers = Èéß˝’-ô®Ω-ñ ¸ = ´çúÕ, ´úÕfçîË¢√∞¡Ÿx (com-
Now practise the following in English.
ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’. pany/ restaurant, etc)
Gowtham:
O’ v°æߪ÷ùç ᙫ ïJ-TçC?
Sekhar:
î√-™« Ææ’êç-í¬ØË ïJ-TçC.

How was your journey?
Gowtham:
Ééπ\úÕéÀ á°æ¤púø’ îË®√®Ω’?
Sekhar: train
îË®√-Lq† time 10.35 é¬E 15
EN’-≥ƒ©’ Ç©-Ææu-´’-®·çC.
Gowtham: ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ á°æ¤p-úÌ≤ƒh®Ω’?
Sekhar: Í®°æ¤, á©’xç-úŒ ؈’ busy. Ç ûª®√yûª
Charan: The booking clerk told me that by last
®ÓV university ™ °æ†’çC. Ç ®ÓV
She left here yesterday. No idea where for. 10) See off = send off = time Öçõ‰ ´≤ƒh. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ îÁ°æpôç
sunday itself the AC classes were (No Idea É™«-¢√-úøôçpractice
îËߪ’çúÕ)
full. If I wanted AC, I would be 34 on
OúÓ\-©’/-O-úÓ\©’ éπ≠d¢æ Ë’.
2) Train /bus /plane by train, by bus,
Gowtham: Ç ûª®√yûª ®ÓV ®√´îª’a éπü∆?
™ ™ ™ = É´yôç
the wait list. by plane. a) ؈’ ´÷ friend †’ Sekhar:
sunday AC class-
ÅüË癉ü¿’. éÀç-ü¿-öÀ Íé AP express ™ = By the AP express
Ç®ÓV ؈’ AJT ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ûª’Ø√o.
es clerk
°æç°œç-îª-ö«-EéÀ Gowtham: Ç ®ÓV O’ train á°æ¤púø’? ≤ƒßª’çvûªç
ÅFo EçúÕ-§Ú-ߪ÷-ߪ’E îÁ§ƒpúø’. 3) Tickets reserve îËÆæ’éÓ-´-ôç/ -éÌ-†’-éÓ\-´ôç = (OúÓ\©’ É´y-ö«-EéÀ –
wait (waiting list)
鬢√-©çõ‰ ™ 34 - book tickets. (book journey. buy tickets éπü∆, ´÷ Éçöx lunch èπ◊ ®ΩçúÕ.
ÉC ûÁ©’-í∫’™ éÌçîÁç Sekhar: ´÷ ÇNúø shopping ¢Á∞«x-
üÌ®Ω’èπ◊-ûª’ç-ü¿-Ø√o-úø’.
Bhaskar: That's risky. You can't be sure of
ņ-´îª’a. Reservation buy tickets in
Å®·ûË §ƒçúÕûªuç, ´÷´‚©’ M. SURESAN Ç®ÓV
advance) ´÷ô™x ¢√úøç ©ç- -ö çC.
accommodation when you are so low Advance booking (´·çü¿’í¬ éÌE Öç-éÓ-´ôç) Gowtham: Ç®ÓV O’ tickets book Åߪ÷uߪ÷?
on the wait(ing) list. current booking (á°æpöÀéπ°æ¤púø’ é̆’-éÓ\-´ôç) éπü∆?) station èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√o ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ûª®√yA ®ÓV ¢Á∞¡xçúÕ.
I am going to the station to see my friend
Waiting list ™ 34 Å®·ûË Æ‘ô’ üÌ®Ω-éπôç éπ-≠d-¢æ Ë’. [current = ]
ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’†o/ v°æÆæ’h-ûª Sekhar: Ç. -Åߪ÷u®·. ûª®√yûª ´‚úø’ ®ÓV©
off (to Delhi)/ to send off my friend (to
Charan: That's why I preferred II sleeper. And 4) ã class
™ v°æߪ÷-ùÀç-îªôç = travel a class. à train ™ ë«S ™‰ü¿’. O©-®·-
Delhi) ´®Ω è π ◊
I got the berth of my choice. a)Åûª†’ á°æ¤púø÷ II sleeper ™ v°æߪ÷ùç îË≤ƒhúø’ b) ؈’ stationèπ◊ ®√Ø√ †’¢Áy-∞Ïx-ô°æ¤p-úø’? †çûª ´®Ω èπÿ Ç ®ÓV O’ ÉçöÀéÀ ®√´-ö«-
II Sleeper
Åçü¿’Íé áç-èπ◊Ø√o. Ø√é¬\-´- He always travels II class sleeper
shall I see you off at the station. EéÀ v°æ ß ª’-Ao-≤ƒh†’. ®√éπ-§ÚûË à´’-†’-éÓ-
berth
©-Æœ† üÌJ-éÀçC. b) Ç¢Á’ I class ™ v°æߪ÷-ùÀ-≤ÚhçC
c) Çߪ ’† Nü∆u-®Ω’n© ’ î√-™«´’çC Çߪ ’-†èπ◊ ´ü¿’l. -Ñ≤ƒJ ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ O’ ÉçöÀéÀ
berth pronunciation 'ber', 'bird'
( 'bir' ™ ™«í¬ She is travelling I class
'r' silent. (by/ on/ in first class é¬ü¿’) OúÓ\-L-î√a®Ω’ (station ™) ´≤ƒh†’.
A numbers of his students saw him off at Gowtham: ††’o E®√¨¡ °æ®Ω’-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. (disappoint)
(of my choice = of your choice
Ø√é¬\-´-©-Æœ†. 5) Accommodation = Train
´ÆæA. ™ Å®·ûË îÓô’
(seat/ berth) the station. OK. Å®·ûË Øˆ’ Ç®ÓV station èπ◊
= Fé¬\-´-©-Æœ†)
6) Wait (ing) list = Berths/ seats wait 11) See off X receive ´≤ƒh†’ O’èπ◊ O-úÓ\-L-´y-ö«-EéÀ. O’èπ◊
Bhaskar: What about your food on the jour- éÓÆæç îËÊÆ
Receive Åçõ‰ á´È®j oØ√ BÆæ’-èπ◊-®√-´ôç station train ™ AØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ food èπÿú≈ BÆæ’éÌ-
ney? I suggest you take it from home. v°æߪ÷-ùÀèπ◊© ñ«Gû√. á´-È®jØ√ v°æߪ÷ùç ´÷†’-
The food on the train is expensive èπ◊çõ‰ ¢√∞¡x Æ‘ô’x ´®Ω’Ææ véπ´’ç™ wait(ing) list™ èπ◊ í¬E, bus stand èπ◊ í¬F ¢ÁRx. ≤ƒh†’.
a) She has gone to the station to receive Sekhar: Station èπ◊ ®ΩçúÕ. é¬E food ´ü¿’l. train
and not so good. Ö†o ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ É≤ƒh®Ω’.
her father
v°æߪ÷-ùç™ ǣ慮Ωç Ææçí∫-ûËçöÀ? †’´¤y 7) Wait(ing) list™ Ö†o ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ seat/ berth ë«ßª’- ™ food ûÓ í∫-úÕÊ°≤ƒhç -™„çúÕ.
ÉçöÀ †’ç* BÆæ’Èé-∞¡}-ô-¢Ë’ ´’ç*C. ÅüË ´’-´ôç - confirmed. ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o-†’ BÆæ’èπ◊-®√-´-ö«-EéÀ station èπ◊ Gowtham: ††’o BÆæ’-èπ◊-®√-E-´yç-úÕ. Ø√éπüÓ
Ø√ Ææ©£æ…. Train ™ Ţ˒t-C üµ¿È®-èπ◊\-¢Ë My tickets/ accommodation has been con- -¢Á-R}ç-C. ÆæçûÓ≠æç.
firmed. b) There was none to receive him at the Sekhar: OK.
é¬èπ◊çú≈ Åçûª ¶«í∫’ç-úøü¿’.
Charan: Mom is not in town. I am going to
Ø√èπ ◊ îÓô’ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ - berth/ seat - ÖçC – ë«ßª’- station
make do with the food on the train.
´’- ® ·uçC. Çߪ’† éÓÆæç á´®Ω÷ ®√™‰ü¿’.
I've (I have) heard that the catering
service on the AP Express isn't so -v°æ-¨¡o: 1. Key words Åç-õ‰ -à-N’-öÀ? -O-öÀ-E Ê°®√-ví¬°∂æ¤-™ -à -N-üµ¿çí¬ í∫’-Jhç-î√-L?
È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ -´÷-ô-™-ûÓ -Öç-úÕ, verb ™«í¬ °æEE ûÁ-LÊ° expression, phrasal
bad. 2. 'Phrasal verbs'
í∫’-Jç-* -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’. i) Transitive, ii) intransitive verb. He put out the light -
Ééπ\úø put out ÅØËC Phrasal verb, ÇÍ®p-¨»úø’ ÅØË
´÷ Å´’t Ü∞x-™‰ü¿’. Train™ AçúÕ-ûÓØË verbs
-†’ -á-™« í∫’-Jhç-î√-L? Å®ΩnçûÓ. take care of -
ÉC èπÿú≈ phrasal verb.
ÆæJ-°-ô’d-éÓ-¢√L. AP Express ¢√∞¡x 3. She will be awarded. -D-E-E She will be award -Å-ØÌ-î√a? i) Transitive verb - object
Ö†o verb. 'Buy' (é̆ôç) – DEéÀ object ÖçC –
(á´Jo), üËEo é̆ôç Åçõ‰ – àüÓ äéπ-ü∆Eo é̆ôç ÅØË answer ´Ææ’hçC– 鬕öÀd
- ï - ¢ √- • ’:
ǣ慮Ωç °∂æ®√y-™‰-ü¿ØË NØ√o. – -Åçéπç Ææ’-üµ∆éπ®˝, °-ü¿l-´’-™«xÈ®-úÕf, -Gµ πÿo®˝
Bhaskar: I wish to see you off at the station. 1. Key words Åçõ‰ äéπ passage ÉC transitive. Å™«Íí 'see' (îª÷úøôç) á´Jo (üËEE îª÷úøôç Åçõ‰, äéπJo/
à N≠æ-ߪ’ç í∫’-Jç-* îªJa-Ææ’hçüÓ ûÁLÊ°
What are its times of arrival and ´÷ô©’. Paragraph/ Passage †’ îªC-¢Ë-°æ¤púø’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC.¢√öÀE äéπ ´Ææ’h-´¤†’ îª÷úøôç ÅØË answer ´Ææ’hçC 鬕öÀd ÅC transitive verb.
departure? When do you reach í∫’Jhç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æûËu-éπ-¢Á’i† °æü¿l¥-ûªçô÷ à-D-™‰-ü¿’. ÉC îª÷úøçúÕ. ii) Intransitive verb: á´Jo, üËEE ÅE v°æ¨¡o ¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊çõ‰ answer ™‰EC. He goes
Delhi? The important task before any government is to provide the to Hyderabad every week. go = ¢Á∞¡xôç – á´Jo/ üËEE ¢Á∞¡xôç Åçõ‰
؈’ Fèπ◊ OúÓ\©’ É´y-ö«-EéÀ Station èπ◊ people with the minimum level of education. Ñ sentence ™ answer ™‰ü¿’ 鬕öÀd, ÉC intransitive.
´≤ƒh. Train ®√éπ-§Ú-éπ© times àçöÀ? key word - 'education' ÅE ûÁ©’-≤Úhç-C -éπü∆. Åçõ‰ Ñ sentence 3. She will be award - Å®Ωnç ™‰ü¿’. Ééπ\úø be form ûª®√yûª ®√´--©ÆœçC past par-
Delhi á°æ¤púø’ îË®√h´¤? ÖçúË Passage Ñ N≠æ-ߪ÷ØËo îªJa-Ææ’hç-ü¿-†o-´÷ô. ticiple – awarded. It will be seen Åçö«ç é¬F, It will be see ņç éπü∆.
(see off = send off = OúÓ\-©’/-O-úÓ\©’ É´yôç) 2. Phrasal verbs - verb ™«í∫ ¢√úø - í ∫ - L - T - † ´÷ô© èπ ÿ ®Ω ’ p†’ Phrasal verb Åçö«ç. v°æA¶µº lessons ™ six forms of the verb ´’®Ó´÷®Ω’ îª÷úøçúÕ.

spoken english -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 29 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2005
Prahlad: Hi Nagaraj, where were you yester- îª÷Ææ’èπ◊ç-ô’ç-D N≠æ-ߪ÷-©-†Eo)
day? you didn't turn up for the meet- Nagaraj: I like the work. I can't bear to see a
ing.(E-†o -áéπ\-úø’-Ø√o´¤? meeting èπ◊ thing out of place. I want the home
®√™‰üËç?) turn up £æ…ï-®Ω-´-úøç; turn up is (Öçú≈-Lq† îÓô ´Ææ’h´¤ ™‰éπ-§ÚûË Ø√èπ◊
always followed by 'for' ûÓîªü¿’. bear to see = (îª÷Ææ÷h) ¶µºJç-
Nagaraj: I was home all the day. I was busy îªúøç.) I didn't leave out even the attics
tidying up the place. I had thought it (Åô-éπ©’ èπÿú≈ ´ü¿-™‰xü¿’) What a lot of
doing two days before, but didn't find dust! (áçûª ü¿’¢Á÷t) I had to throw
the time (®Óïçû√ ÉçöxØË ÖØ√o. É©’x Ææ®Ω’l- away a number of useless things. (Ö°æ-
ûª’Ø√o.È®ç-úø’ ®Ó-V© éÀçü¿ Ææ®Ω’l-ü∆-´’-†’-èπ◊Ø√o. ßÁ÷í∫ç ™‰E ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ §ƒÍ®¨») I bundled Answers:
é¬F time üÌ®Ω-éπ-™‰ü¿’.) up all the newspapers. I will dispose 8) give a good wash = ¶«í¬ éπúø-í∫úøç
Prahlad: Why? was it so untidy? Koumudi: Hi Priya, You are not to be seen.
them of today. 9) reset = Öçú≈-Lq† îÓô ´’Sx °ôdúøç
Priya: We met just the day (before). I went to
(Åçûª *çü¿-®Ω-´ç-ü¿-®Ωí¬ Öçü∆?) (§ƒûª news papers Å-Fo éπôd©’ éπö«d†’. 10) cobwebs = ≤ƒ™„-í∫÷∞¡Ÿx, •÷V
Nagaraj: It was. The whole place was in a my uncle's yesterday. They were tidying
¢√öÀF Ñ ®ÓV Ţ˒t-≤ƒh†’.Bundle = éπôd; 11) make up bed = °æéπ\ Ææ®Ωlúøç
mess. I had neglected for two weeks. up their home. I lent a hand.
éπôdúøç. dispose of = Ţ˒t-ߪ’úøç) 12) dirt = ´·JéÀ, dust = ü¿’´·t
Nothing was in its proper place (lend a hand = ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úøúøç)
Prahlad: You appear to be a stickler for clean- 13) attic = ÅöÀé˙ = Åôéπ
Koumudi: You are good at tidying up and
(-É-™xç-û√ í∫ç-ü¿®ΩíÓ-∞¡çí¬- Öç-C. È®ç-úø’ -¢√®√-©’ éÌç--îªç liness (¨¡Ÿv¶µºûª Åçõ‰ î√-™« °æöÀdç-°æ¤í¬ Ö†o- 14) I was through = °æE °æ‹Jh î˨»†’.
keeping things neat. You had better
-ÖÊ°éÀ~ç-î√...-Åç-ûË àD Öçú≈-Lq† îÓô ™‰ü¿’) ô’dçC, Fèπ◊.stickler= àüÁjØ√ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo a) He is through with his homework =
Prahlad: I'm afraid you are too worried about do a course in interior decoration.
í∫öÀdí¬ °æöÀdç--èπ◊ØË ¢√®Ω’ stickler for punc- Homework °æ‹Jh î˨»úø’.
tidiness (†’´¤y É©’x Å´’-Jéπ í∫’-Jç-* ´’K You can earn a lot (of money).
tuality = Ææ´’-ߪ’-§ƒ-©† °æöÀdç°æ¤çúË ¢√úø’) b) Are you through? = F °æE °æ‹®Ωh-®·çü∆?
Priya: I just wonder how people can keep their
°æöÀdç--èπ◊ç-ö«-´-†’-èπ◊çö«) Nagaraj: You can say that. By the time I was 15) Vessels = dishes = utensils = ´çô, ´úøf-†èπ◊
Nagaraj: No. My table was untidy, with a lot of places untidy. Even a chair out of place
through it was 6 in the evening you ¢√úË §ƒvûª©’
at home upsets me.
know mom will be pleasantly sur- 16) pan/ frying pan = °†ç/ ´‚èπ◊úø’
Koumudi: I like tidiness, but I am not very par-
prised to see the glittering stove, and 17) ewer (Ñ´) = îÁç•’
ticular about it ( be particular =
the utensils. ´÷ Å´’t ûª∞¡-ûª∞¡ ¢Á’JÊÆ 18) front room = Éçöx ´·çü¿’ í∫C – ÅA-ü∑¿’-©†’,
°æöÀdç-°æ¤í¬ Öçúøúøç) You overdo things.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 75 stove©†’ §ƒvûª-©†÷ îª÷Æœ ÆæçûÓ≠æçûÓ
Ǩ¡a-®Ωu°æúø’ûª’çC.utensils = vessels =
visitors †’ èπÿ®Óa-¶„õ‰d room ÅüË Å®·-ûË ÅC draw-
ing room Å´¤-ûª’çC.
Priya: Call it what you like\ say whatever you
like. I am upset when I see even a speck
of dust.

home •ü¿’©’ place Koumudi: Yours appears to be abnormal psy-
chology.
Priya: I don't mind your saying so. (I don't mind
= Ø√èπ◊ °æ®√y-™‰ü¿’)
Koumudi: How are you able to tolerate your
servant girl's untidy hair?
paper and books piled up or lying all Priya: (Do) you want me to comb her hair (into-
dishes = §ƒvûª©’ – ´çôèπ◊ 19) Portico = °ü¿l É∞¡x™ x,
´úøf-†èπ◊ -¢√úËN
over. The front room was a chatter of plait= ïúø). Then I shall be her servant.
glitter = ûª∞¡-ûª∞¡ ™«úøôç) •çí¬x™ x Æœç£æ«-ü∆y®Ωç
furniture. The TV stand-well, let me °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ÉçöÀéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ´÷ô©’ -ÖØ√o®· ´·çü¿’†o Covered area
not talk about all that. Now that I tided éπü∆. É°æ¤púø’ ¢√öÀE îªJaü∆lç. 20) Balcony = ¢Ë’úø -O’-ü¿ -
up every thing I feel relieved. (°æ¤Ææhé¬-©’
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù–74-™
1) Home = ´’†ç ´’† ¢√∞¡}ûÓ (members of our †’ç* îª÷úø-ö«-E-èπ◊çúË -É-*a-† -ûÁ-©’í∫’ Ææç-¶µ«-≠æ-ù π◊ -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ- -¢Á®Ω{-Ø˛
, é¬-T-û√-©-ûÓ -Ø√ -õ‰-•’-™¸ -Åç-û√ -*ç-ü¿®Ω-´ç- family) ÖçúË É©’x ÅüÁl-üÁjØ√ 鬴a, ≤Òçûª-¢Á’iØ√ ë«S Ææn©ç
ü¿®Ωí¬ -Öç-C.Piled up = üÌçûª-®Ωí¬ Öçúøôç Gowtham: How was your journey?
Ŵa). ´’† ÉçöÀ-éÀ-´-*a† guest ûÓ à´’çö«ç? = 21) Ceiling = ÉçöÀ-™ -°æL M. SURESAN Sekhar: Very comfortable/quite comfortable
Chatter = furniture ™«çöÀC *çü¿®Ω ´çü¿- Please feel at home. (O’ É™‰x ņ’-éÓçúÕ Åçö«ç.) éπ°æ¤p, roof =°jéπ°æ¤p. Gowtham: When did you arrive here?
®Ωí¬ Öçúøôç. 2) Place = éÌEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x home (´’†ç Öçô’†o 22) Tiles = °çèπ◊; (Mosaic/ Floor tile) Sekhar: The arrival times / time of arrival of the
Prahlad: Was there none else at home to help É©’x) •ü¿’©’ place Åçö«ç. Å®·ûË ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ my 23) bolt = ûª©’-°æ¤- í∫úÕߪ’, í∫úÕ-ߪ’-°-ôdúøç.(latch ÅE train is 10.35. But it was late by 15 min-
you? home/our home ÅE, I am going to my/our home èπÿú≈ Åçö«®Ω’) utes.
(Éçöx ≤ƒßª’ç îËÊÆç-ü¿’-Èé-´®Ω÷ -™‰®√?) /it is at my/our home ÅE ņç. Å°æ¤púø’ my place. 24) Cupboard = -îÁéπ\-ûª-©’-°æ¤© Å™«t®√. Gowtham: when are you visiting me?/ when
Nagaraj: Mom and sister are out of town. Dad ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ ®ΩçúÕ = come (down) to my place: 25) Oven = (Å-¢˛Ø˛) §Ò®·u. oven fresh = Å°æ¤p-úø- are you calling at my place?/ when are you
is too old. I gave the toilet a good come to my home ÅE ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ Å†®Ω’. °æ¤púË ûªßª÷È®j† ´çô (oven fresh Dosa) coming to my place?/ when can I have the
wash. I cleaned up the cupboards and 3) tidy = (É©’x, í∫C, Office, etc) Öçú≈-Lq† îÓô 26) Stale= ÂÆdß˝’™¸– E-©y ÖçúÕ îÁúÕ-§Ú-®·† (ǣ慮Ω pleasure of your visit? ( formal.)
*´-JC
reset all things. (Å´’t, îÁLx -Ü-∞ x™‰®Ω’. ´Ææ’h´¤-©’ Å´’-J-éπí¬ Öçúøôç. °æü∆-®√n-™«xç-öÀN) Stale food, Stale bread. Sekhar: I am busy with my work tomorrow and
Ø√†o °ü∆l-ߪ’†. Toilet ¶«í¬ éπúÕT, cup- His home is very tidy = É©’x î√™« Å´’-J-éπí¬ (Stale joke èπÿú≈) the day after, the next day I have some work at
boards ™ ´Ææ’h-´¤©Fo ÆæÍ®l-¨»†’) Öçô’çC. Tidy x untidy. Now practise the following: the university. If I have any time left that day, I will
Prahlad: What a job! (áçûª °æE-îË-¨»´¤!) go to your place. Otherwise, it is difficult to say
4) untidy = ´Ææ’h-´¤-©Fo ã order ™ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ -*ç-ü¿®Ω- Koumudi: Hi Priya, àçöà éπ†-°æ-úøúøç ™‰ü¿’?
Nagaraj: That wasn't all. I cleaned the cob- Priya : ¢Á·†oØË éπü∆ ´’†ç éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. E†o ؈’ (If I can visit you or not)
´ç-ü¿®Ωí¬ Öçúøúøç. Gowtham: You can come the day after that.
webs. I cleaned the kitchen, I made The place is untidy= Ç v°æü˨¡ç / É©’x î√™« *çü¿- ´÷ ´÷´’ߪ’u ÉçöÀ-Èé∞«x. ¢√∞¡xçû√ É©’x Ææ®Ω’l-
up the beds. I washed the dishes. Sekhar: That's the day of my return (journey)
®Ω-´ç-ü¿-®Ωí¬ ÖçC. èπ◊ç-ô’çõ‰ ؈÷ ≤ƒßª’-ç -îË-¨»-†’. Gowtham: What is the time of departure of
(ÅçûË-é¬ü¿’. •÷V ü¿’L°œ ´çöÀ-©xçû√ ¨¡Ÿv¶µºç (*çü¿-®Ω-´ç-ü¿-®Ωí¬ Ö†o Vô’d =untidy hair Koumudi : ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ Å´’-®Ωa-úøç™ †’´¤y Eïçí¬
your train that day? isn't it in the evening? you
îËÆœ §ƒvûª-©-Fo éπúÕ-í¬†’. °æéπ\-©-Fo Ææ®√l†’) í∫>-G->í¬ Ö†o ®√ûª = untidy writing) íÌ°æp ü∆E¢Ë. £æ…®·í¬ interior can have lunch with us.
Prahlad: My elder sister takes care of all these He has a tidy appearance =neat í¬ éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. Decoration (É∞¡x ™°æL Å©ç-éπ-®Ωù) Sekhar: My wife wants to go shopping/
things at home. (´÷ Éçöx ´÷ Åéπ\ߪ’u 5) tidy = Å´’-J-éπí¬ É©’x-™«ç-öÀN Ææ®Ωlúøç = áéπ\úø Öçú≈- course îÁ®·u. ¶«í¬ Ææ秃-Cç--éÓ-´îª’a. do some shopping that day
Lq† ´Ææ’h´¤ -Åéπ\-úø neat í¬ Öçîªôç. Priya : ÅÆæ©’ Ø√éπE-°œ-Ææ’hçC... É©xçû√ *çü¿-®Ω-´ç-ü¿- Gowtham: Have you booked tickets for that
-v°æ-¨¡o -: -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù–7-™ -Ç-¢Á’èπ◊ -Ñ -vúÁÆˇ -î√-™« a) Let me tidy up the home first = ¢Á·ü¿ô É©’x ®Ωí¬ á™« Öç-èπ◊ç-ö«-®Ó -ÅE. ´÷ Éçöx ã day?
-É-≠ædç. -Å-ØË-¢√é¬u-Eo... She likes this Ææ®ΩlF. èπ◊Ka éÌçîÁç éπC-LØ√ Ø√èπ◊ *é¬í¬_ Öçô’çC. Sekhar: Yes. All trains are full the next three
dress Å--E -Å-Ø√o®Ω’.-Éç-ü¿’-™ -î√-™« -É-≠ædç b) He tidied up the room yesterday = E†o í∫ü¿çû√ (*é¬èπ◊ – upset) days. I'll try my best to go to your place that
-Å-ØË -¶µ«-´ç Ææ’p¥-Jç-îª-úøç -™‰-ü¿’ éπ-ü∆! -Å-™«Íí- Ææ®√lúø’. Koumudi : Ø√èπÿ tidy í¬ Öç-éÓ-´úøç É≠æd-¢Ë’-é¬E, day. If I am not able to, don't misunderstand
me. When I come here next, I will certainly
Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù –8-™ -†’--¢Áy°æ¤p-úø÷ -Ç-©Ææ-uçí¬ ®√-´¤ -Å-ØË- c) We must keep our homes neat and tidy = Åçûª °æöÀdç°æ¤ ™‰ü¿’. †’-´¤y ´’K áèπ◊\-´™‰!
¢√é¬u-Eo You do not come late -Å-E -É-î√a®Ω’.Éç-ü¿’- Priya : à´’Ø√o ņ’éÓ. äéπ ü¿’´·t-éπùç èπÿú≈ Ø√èπ◊ come to your place.
É∞¡x†’ ¨¡Ÿv¶µºçí¬ (tidy) Öç-éÓ-¢√L. Gowtham: You disappoint me / that's very
™- á°æ¤p-úø÷ -Å-ØË-¶µ«-´ç Ææp-≠ædçí¬ -™‰-ü¿’. -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. 6) Feel relived = •®Ω’´¤ CT-†-ôx-†’-éÓ-´úøç when I éÓ°æç ûÁ°œp-Ææ’hçC.Speck of dust = ü¿’´·t-
disappointing. I will come to the station that day
– Èé.-Ç®˝. -v°œ-ߪ’-ü¿-Jz-E, é¬éÀ-Ø√-úø heard that I had passed I felt relieved = pass éπùç)
-ï-¢√-•’: -She likes this dress -Å-ØË -¢√éπuç -•-ü¿’-©’í¬ to see you off. I'll get you some food to eat on
Koumudi : FC éÌçûª Å≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ωù ´’†-Ææh-ûªy¢Ë’.
She likes this dress a lot \very much Å--E -Öç-
Åߪ÷u-†E N†-í¬ØË N´·éÀh ™«çöÀ ¶µ«´† éπL-Tç-C. the train.
Once the exams are over, students feel relived Priya: †’´y™« ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o Ø√Íéç ¶«üµ¿-™‰ü¿’. Sekhar: Do come to the station, but don't
ú≈-L.-You do not come late •-ü¿’-©’í¬You never = It is a great relief = Exams Å®·-§Ú-´úøç ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ Koumudi: ´’K O’ °æE °œ©x Vô’d *çü¿-®Ω-´ç-ü¿-®Ωí¬ bother about the food. I'll manage (make do)
come late -Å-E -Öç-ú≈--Lqç-C.-- O’®Ω’ -Éç-ûª -ñ«-ví∫-ûªhí¬
N´·éÀh. ÖØ√o ¶µºJ-Ææ’h-Ø√o¢Ëç? with the food on the train.
í∫-´’-Eç--*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ -üµ¿-†u-¢√-ü∆-©’. We appreciate it. 7) chatter = *çü¿-®Ω-´ç-ü¿®Ω (furniture - chairs, sofas Priya: Ç Å´÷t-®·éÀ ††’o ®ÓW ïúË-ߪ’-´’ç-ö«¢√? Gowtham: Let me get it. It is my pleasure.
Keep it up.
™«çöÀN *çü¿-®Ω-´ç-ü¿-®Ωí¬ Öçõ‰,) Å°æ¤p-ú≈´÷t®·éÀ ؈’ servant Å´¤û√. Sekhar: OK

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
I Ðû¦è[ª- Þœªô¢ªî¦ô¢Ù 1 è…šúÙñô¢ª 2005

Spoken English ð§êŸ î¦uþ§õ ÚÁú£Ù Ú¨xÚ à¶óŸªÙè…...
URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
Bhanu: Ravi, you are late. But what's the óµ«ÞœÙ àŸ«ë¯lÙ.
matter? You appear to be in a shock.
(ô¢N, ìª÷±y Îõ-ú£uÙÞ¥ ÷à¦a÷±. ÔÙæ¨ Traffic accident ÚÛª ú£ÙñÙ-CÅÙ#ì ÷«åõª
ú£ÙÞœA? ÔëÁ ÿ§ÚÂö˺ Ñìo-åªx-û¦oîËÂ!) 1) hit, crash into, ram
èņڕ-ìè[Ù =
Ravi: You can say that. Some thing terrible a) The lorry hit the cyclist.
happened. (ö°K šújÚ¨xúÃdìª èņڕÙC.)
(Í÷±ìª. íÆ£ªËºô¢Ù áJ-T-ð¼-ô³ÙC.) b) The truck crashed into the bus.
terrible = òÅ¡óŸªÙ-ÚÛ-ô¢-iì, íÆ£ªËºô¢-iì (våÚ Óë]ª-ô¢ªÞ¥ ÷ú£ªhìo/ Ñìo ñúÃìª èņڕÙC.) d) With severe injuries he joined a hospital. lorry hit/ crashed. In another acci-
Bhanu: But what happened Ravi? crash ÚÛª ÷³ÜuÙÞ¥ Óë]ª-ô¢ªÞ¥ ÷ú£ªhìo î¦ï£°- (Bv÷-iì Þ¥óŸ«-õêÁ Îú£p-vAö˺ à¶ô¦è[ª.) dent a lorry ran over a man, while
(ÔÙ áJ-TÙC?) û¦Eo èņڕìè[Ù ÍE Íô¢nÙ. they were taking him to hospital,
Ravi: Just wait. Let me recover. e) severe injury = major injury (major -
c) The truck rammed the bus. ' with severe injuries, he died on the
(Ú¥ú£h ÎÞœª. ììªo ê¶ô¢ª-ÚÁF) x minor injury.
óÀªá)
(ñúÃìª våÚ à¦ö° Þœæ¨dÞ¥ èņڕÙC.) 6) die of an injury = way.

íÆ£ªËºô¢Ù áJTð¼ô³ÙC...!
recover = ê¶ô¢ªÚÁ÷è[Ù, ÚÁõªÚÁ÷è[Ù d) The truck ran into the bus from behind/
Þ¥óŸªÙ ÷õx àŸEð¼÷è[Ù
7) spilling of blood = Venu: The other day I saw a man bleeding
Recover from fever. rammed the bus from behind.
ô¢ÚÛhÙ #Ùë]è[Ù
8) bleed = ô¢ÚÛhÙ Ú¥ô¢è[Ù from injuries. An auto hit him. While
áyô¢Ù ìªÙ# ÚÁõªÚÁ÷è[Ù. he was crossing the road in peak
traffic, the auto knocked him down.
Kiran: Did he die? (Hope he did not die)
Venu: I don't know. But his injuries were
serious. It is difficult for any one to
survive such injuries.
(survive = ë¶E ìªÙ# Íô³û¦ ñóŸª-å-
í£è… ñêŸÚÛè[Ù)
(ñúÃìª våÚ îµìªÚÛ ìªÙ# èņڕÙC.) bleeding injuries = Kiran: The number of people dying in traffic
recovery = ú£yú£nêŸ e) The car crashed into a tree.
ô¢ÚÛhÙ-
accidents is more in our country than
Wish you a speedy recovery. Ú¥-ô¢ªêŸªìo Þ¥óŸ«õª
(Ú¥ô¢ª àµåªdÚÛª èņڕÙC.) uncontrollable bleeding in many other countries.
(ìª÷±y/ Oªô¢ª êŸyô¢Þ¥ ÚÁõª-ÚÁ-î¦-õE û¦/ ÷« ÚÁJÚÛ) f) The vehicle ran over the boy.
= Îí£-ö¶E ô¢ÚÛh-vþ§÷Ù
Bhanu: OK OK. Take your time. Calm down. (Î î¦ï£°ìÙ ÚÛªvô¦è… Oªë] ìªÙ# îµRxÙC.) Bleed- bled (past)- bled
(ú£¸ô. BJ-Þ¥_û¶ àµí£±p. ÷³Ùë]ª ÚÛªë]ª-å-í£è[ª.) (past participle)
Ravi: (After a few minutes) I was on my way
They admitted him into
here on my bike. Just as I took the turn
hospital with bleeding
at the last cross roads, I heard a loud
injuries.
noise. I stopped and turned round to
see what it was. Oh, God! a lorry had
(Þ¥óŸ«-õêÁ ô¢ÚÛhÙ Ú¥ô¢ª-꟪ìo M. SURESAN
hit a boy on his cycle. Believe me, the
ÍêŸè…E î¦üŒ‰x Îú£p-vAö˺
à¶JpÙ-à¦ô¢ª.) ví£øŒo: 1. Where do we keep Quotation
boy and his cycle flew into the air and marks at the end of the sentence?
Hospitalise = Îú£pvAö˺ à¶JpÙàŸè[Ù
landed on the road. The boy hit the ( after full stop or before full stop)
ground head on. Blood spilled all over. 2. Kindly give a Pronunciation Guide’

In no time a large crowd gathered. The for all the typical words which we
boy in no more. Spot dead, I am sure. use in regular English.
(û¦ òµjÚ Oªë] ÏÚÛ\è[ Ú•ú£ªhû¦o. Î vÚ¥úÃ-ôÁèÂq
ë]Þœ_ô¢ ÷ªõªí£± Aô¢ª-Þœª-꟪û¦o. šíë]l øŒñlÙ. ÎT ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é 76 3. Tatas and Birlas are tycoons. Is this
correct to say the above sentence
AJT àŸ«ø‹. šújÚ¨öËÀ Oªë] Ñìo ÚÛªvô¦è…E ö°K as Both the Tatas and Birlas are
‘‘
èņڕÙC. ì÷³t... ì÷ªt-ÚÛð¼ šújÚ¨öËÀêÁ ú£ï£„ Î Tycoons .’’
9) peak traffic = ÍêŸuÙêŸ ô¢DlÞ¥ Ñìo væ°íƇÚÂ
ÚÛªvô¦è[ª šíjÚ¨ ÓTJ Ú¨Ùë]-í£-è¯fè[ª êŸõ ôÁè[ªfÚ¨ 4. Kindly give some examples with the
10 cross roads =
) û¦õªÞœª OëÅ]ªõ ÚÛ«è[L
êŸTö¶ö°. ÍÙê¦ ô¢ÚÛhÙ #ÙCÙC. áìÙ ÍÙê¦ operators must, need, dare, used
11) overtake = ÷³Ùë]ªìo î¦ï£°-û¦Eo ë¯æ¨-îµ-üŒxè[Ù
ð¼Þœ-óŸ«uô¢ª. ÚÛªvô¦è[ª ÍÚÛ\-è…-ÚÛ-ÚÛ\è¶ àŸE- to, ought to (Positive statement,
12) cross = î¦ï£°-û¦-EÚ¨ Óë]ª-ô¢ªîµüŒxè[Ù
ð¼óŸ«è[ª.) Negative, Yes-No Q, wh-Q)
overtake x cross (opposites)
spill = #Ùë]è[Ù/ Öõ-ÚÛè[Ù. 5. Is it correct to say passive forms for
All over = Î àŸªå«d Oh, God! a lorry had hit a boy on his cycle Now practise the following in English present perfect continuous,
In no time= ¤ÛéÙö˺ future continuous and future perfect
1) Kiran: Ð ö°K, Îæ˺ wèµj÷ô¢ªx Óí£p-æ¨Ú© êµõª-ú£ª
No more = àŸE-ð¼÷è[Ù run over = Oªë] ìªÙ# îµüŒxè[Ù (passiveö˺ continuous tenses.
spot dead = ÍÚÛ\-è…-ÚÛ-ÚÛ\è¶, Íí£p-æ¨-ÚÛ-í£±pè¶
ÚÁô¢ª!
– ÓúÃ. ô¦@, ꟪E
ÓÚÛª\-÷Þ¥ î¦è[ê¦ô¢ª). Venu: ÔÙæ¨ ú£ÙÞœA?
spot= àÁåª The man was ran over by the car.
Kiran: Ð ì«uúà ›íí£ôÂ àŸ«è[ª. ·ôÙè[ª ví£÷«-
flew= ÓT-ô¦è[ª (past tense of fly) (ÍêŸè… Oªë] ìªÙ# Ú¥ô¢ª îµRxÙC.) ë¯õª. ÖÚÛ-ë¯Ùæ˺x Óë]ª-ô¢ªÞ¥ ÷ú£ªhìo áî¦ñª:
Head on= êŸõ êŸTö¶ NëÅ]ÙÞ¥ (Óë]ª-·ô-ë]ª- g) knock down ÚÛ«è¯ î¦è[ê¦ô¢ª. 1. If the whole sentence is to be placed in
The lorry knocked down the man.
ñúÃE èņڕìo ö°K. í£C-÷ªÙC Þ¥óŸª-í£-
ô¢ªÞ¥ – ÏêŸô¢ ú£Ùë]-ô¦sÄö˺x) è¯fô¢ª. ÏÙÚÁ ví£÷«-ë]Ùö˺ ÷ªEù‡ Oªë] quotations, they are placed after the full
Bhanu: How shocking! (ö°K ÍêŸè…E Ú•ç¶d-ú‡ÙC.) stop\ question mark\ exclamation.
2) die in an accident =
ìªÙ# ö°K îµRxÙC. Þ¥óŸªí£è…ì ÍêŸ-è…E
(ÓÙêŸ òÅ¡óŸªÙ-ÚÛô¢Ù!) ví£÷«-ë]Ùö˺ àŸEð¼÷è[Ù Îú£p-vAÚ¨ Bú£ª·Ú-üŒ‰-꟪Ùç¶ ÷ªëÅ]uö˺û¶ àŸE- She said, I am no longer interested in it
‘‘ .’’
Ravi: The body is lying there in a pool of 3) fatal = ÷ªô¢-é°-EÚ¨ Ú¥ô¢-é-÷ªó¶ªu He said, How can you do that?
‘ ’
blood. I was unable to bear the sight fatal accident =
ð¼-óŸ«è[ª.
÷ªô¢-é°-EÚ¨ ë¯J-B›ú ví£÷«ë]Ù Venu: îµ³ìo Îæ˺ èņ Ú•ì-è[ÙêÁ ÖÚÛ-JÚ¨ Bv÷ÙÞ¥ The tourist said, How beautiful the Taj is
‘ !’
any longer. I came away. Poor boy. A fatal road accident- three died in a fatal If a word or group of words is to be placed
road accident.
Þ¥óŸ«öµj ô¢ÚÛhÙ Ú¥ô¢è[Ù àŸ«ø‹. ÍêŸè[ª
(ÍêŸè… ë¶ï£°Ù ô¢ÚÛhÙ ÷ªè[ªÞœªö˺ í£è… ÑÙC. væ°íƇÚ ÓÚÛª\-÷Þ¥ Ñìo-í£±pè[ª ôÁè ë¯åª- in quotation the full stop comes after the
û¶ìª àŸ«è[-ö¶ÚÛ ÷à¶aø‹. ð§í£Ù!) (÷ªô¢-é°-EÚ¨ Ú¥ô¢-é-iì ví£÷«ë]Ù – íÆ£ªËºô¢ví£÷«- ꟪Ùç¶ Îæ˺ èņڕÙC. question.
pool = ÷ªè[ªÞœª (÷«÷´-õªÞ¥ Íô³ê¶ FüŒx ë]Ùö˺ ÷³Þœª_ô¢ª àŸE-ð¼-óŸ«ô¢ª.) The Minister wants this to be, Indiraraj
' óÀª-æËÀöËÀ (‘šíÆóÀª’ ûË•Ú¨\ í£õ-Ú¥L) Kiran: àŸE-ð¼-óŸ«è¯? ‘‘ ’’.
ÞœªÙåõª) fatal - šíÆ 2. We will do it, in fact we are doing it.
' áJ – ‘ÏÙ’ ûË•Ú¨\ í£õÚ¥L) = Þ¥óŸªÙ Venu: û¦ÚÛª êµMë]ª. Ú¥F ÍêŸè… Þ¥óŸ«õª ÷«vêŸÙ
bear = òÅ¡JÙàŸè[Ù 4) injury (ÏÙ 3. Correct sentences:
any longer = ÏÙÚÛ Ô÷«vêŸÙ. '
5) injure (ÏÙ á – ‘ÏÙ’ ûË•Ú¨\í£õÚ¥L) =
à¦ö° Bv÷-i-ìî¶. êŸõÚ¨ ÚÛ«è¯ Þ¥óŸªîµªiÙC.
ÍÙêŸ-šíë]l ëµñs-õêÁ ñêŸ-ÚÛè[Ù ÚÛù£d. a) The Tatas and the Birlas are tycoons.
Bhanu: Let's go and see. Where exactly is it? Þ¥óŸªí£ô¢àŸè[Ù b) Both the Tatas and the Birlas are
Kiran: væ°íƇÚ ví£÷«-ë¯ö˺x àŸE-ð¼-ó¶ª-î¦J ú£ÙÜu
(îµRx àŸ«ë¯lÙ í£ë]. ÓÚÛ\è[ áJ-TÙC?) a) People have/ suffer/ sustain injuries in tycoons.
Ravi: I told you. At the cross roads. You go. I an accident.
à¦ö° ë¶ø‹ö˺x ÚÛÙç¶ ÷ªì-ë¶-øŒÙö˺ ÓÚÛª\î¶.
(a) is better than (b) 'Both’ is unneces-
am still in a shock. I can't bear to see it (ví£÷«-ë]Ùö˺ ví£áõª Þ¥óŸª-í£-è[-ê¦ô¢ª) Answers sary here as even without it the meaning is
again. b) The accident killed one and injured at clear.
1) Kiran: These lorry, auto drivers never
(àµð§pìª ÚÛë¯. Î vÚ¥úÃ-ôÁ-èÂqö˺. ìªîµyüŒ‰x. least five. 4. We are going to discuss all these in the
learn.
û¶EÙÚ¥ ÿ§ÚÂ-ö˺û¶ Ñû¦o. ÷ªSx àŸ«è[-ö¶ìª) (ví£÷«-ë]Ùö˺ ÖÚÛô¢ª àŸE-ð¼-óŸ«ô¢ª, ÚÛFú£Ù Venu: What is the matter? coming lessons. please wait.
ÏÚÛ\è… ú£ÙòÅ°-ù£é traffic, traffic accidents ÞœªJÙචÍô³-ë]ª-Þœªô¢ª Þ¥óŸª-í£-è¯fô¢ª.) Kiran: See this newspaper. Two acci- 5. It is bookish. The best thing is to avoid
c) severe (ú‡' NóŸª)/serious injury = Bv÷-iì them totally.
ÚÛë¯. î¦æ¨Ú¨ ú£ÙñÙ-CÅÙ#ì ÷«åõª, î¦æ¨ Ñí£- dents. In one of the accidents, a
Þ¥óŸªÙ