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II -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ - ≤Ú-´’¢√®Ωç 2 -ï-†-´

-J 2006
Anu: Hi Suma, Wish a very Happy New Year
É°æ¤úø’ Ñ lesson v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µºç™E Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™...
of better communication.
question tags sentences
Ö†o í∫´’-Eü∆lç.
English
(†’´¤y -Ñ Ææç-´-ûªq®Ωç-™ ¶«í¬ 1. aren't we? 2. didn't she? 3. aren't I?
´÷ö«x-úø-í∫©-´-E ؈’ éÓ®Ω’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o). 4. am I? 5. aren't you? 6. doesn't it, etc.
Suma: Same to you, Anu. We are going to have
OöÀ™x aren't we? didn't she? aren't you? etc.,
a party on the occasion, aren't we?
Ñ question tags-´’†èπ◊ éÌûËhO’é¬ü¿’.ÉN ᙫ
(´’†ç Ñ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ party -îËÆæ’éÓ-¶- formîËߪ÷™ ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. É°æ¤úø’ ´’†èπ◊ éÌûªhí¬
ûª’Ø√oç éπü∆?) ´*a† question tags....
Anu: Pavani said so yesterday, didn't she?
1. aren't I? 2. am I? sentences:
( -§ƒ-´-E -E-†o -Å-™« -Åç-C. éπü∆? ÉN Ö†o
1) I am giving the party, aren't I?
Suma: I am giving the party, aren't I?
party
(؈’ éπü∆ É´y-¶-ûª’-†oC?) ´’†ç Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊†o rule
v°æ鬮Ωç
Anu: Yes, it is your turn this time. Ééπ\úø stem 'I am giving the party'™ verb, am f) might..., - mightn't? (¢Á’iõ„Ø˛d) – î√© Å®Ω’ü¿’. 2) Santhi: O’®Ω’ Ø√ O’ü¿ jokes ¢ËÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ω’, éπü∆?
(Å´¤†’ Ñ≤ƒJ F´çûª’... turn= ´çûª’) giving 鬕öÀd, question tag
™ am,
ü∆E ûª®√yûª g) have..., - haven't...? has..., hasn't...? Revathi: ؈-Ææ©’ ´÷-ö«xúøôç ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆, Jyothi?
Suma: I am giving the party alright, but I am not n't (stem not
™ ™‰ü¿’ 鬕öÀd), ü∆E ûª®√yûª ´*a, I h) had..., - hadn't...? i) need..., needn't...? Jyothi: ØËØË¢Á÷ Ñ †´© îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o†’.
making the arrangements, am I? ¢Á·ûªhç question tag, amn't I?
Å¢√L éπü∆. (pron: j) should..., shouldn't ...?
FØ˛d) åØ√?
(؈’party ÉÆæ’h-Ø√o†’. à®√pô’x -ØË-†’ é¬E Ééπ\úø aren't I I?)
(ÇØ˛d ÅE ´≤ÚhçC. ÉC k) would..., wouldn't...?
(≠æflØ˛d...?) (ÖØ˛d?) Santhi: ØËØË §Ò®Ω-°æ-ú≈f†’, éπü∆? O’®Ω’ ´’ç*-¢√∞¡Ÿx
îË-ߪ’ôç -™‰-ü¿’ éπü∆?) î√™« ´·êu-¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç. ûÓ I begin
ÅßË’u sen-  stem not
™ Öçõ‰ Ææ´’ÊÆu ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆? verbs
™ §ƒ°æç.
tence ™ verb, am+ not
í¬ ÖçúÕ, ™‰éπ-§ÚûË, ques- ¢Á·ü¿öÀ ´÷ô îÁ°œp,subject
îÁ§ƒhç. Revathi: ØËØË serious type éπü∆? Ø√éπ-Ææ©’
tion tagá°æ¤púø÷ aren't I?
í¬ØË Öçô’çC. amn't I? example îª÷ü∆lç. jokes †îªa´¤.
ÅØË question tag English™ ™‰ü¿’. ÅüË stem
™ 1) a) Sachin could play well, couldn't he? Jyothi: ؈’ studies ™ØË interested, éπü∆?
notÖçõ‰, Å°æ¤úø’ question tag
´’Sx am I? b) Sachin could not play well, could he? Ø√éπ-Ææ©’ joke îËߪ’ôç ®√ü¿’, éπü∆?
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 91 ( I am not making the arrangements, am I? 2) a) Ramesh will help you, won't he? Santhi: O’®Ω-Ææ©’ Éûª-®Ω’© O’ü¿ jokes ¢Áߪ’u®Ω’,
Ééπ\úø stem not
™ ÖçC) b) Sudha will not / won't help you, will she? éπü∆?
Revathi: Jyothi N≠æߪ’ç Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’. ؈’
´÷vûªç á°æ¤púø÷ serious.

do you, don't you? Answers:
1)Ganesh: Hi, Mahesh, you went to a movie
last night, didn't you.
Mahesh: I told you (that) I would (go), didn't
I?
Anu: Ah here comes Bhargavi. Hi Bhargavi, 3) a) Ameet has scored Ganesh: You told me, yes. But I didn't think
´’J-éÌEo examples îª÷ü∆lç.
We are talking about the party. You are you'd go.
a) I am Andhra, aren't I? (stem not good marks, hasn't
Mahesh: When I say something, I am seri-
™ ™‰ü¿’)
making all the arrangements, aren't he?
b) I am not an American, am I? ous, aren't I?
you? b) Ameet hasn't (has
(stem not
™ ÖçC) Ganesh: But I am not serious about movie
party
(ÉCíÓ ¶µ«®Ω_N. ¶µ«®Ω_O, ¢Ë’ç í∫’-Jç-* not) passed, has
2) a) I am getting good marks, aren't I? matters, am I?
ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√oç. à®√p-ôxFo †’´¤y îËÆæ’h-Ø√o´¤ he?
(No not in the stem) Mahesh: I feel happy when I go to a movie
éπü∆?) É™« N’í∫-û√-N ¶«í¬
b) I am not troubling you, am I? with my friends, don't I ? Why did-
Bhargavi: I am. I am getting the money from
(Not in the stem)
practice îËÊÆhØË M. SURESAN n't you come?
Suma, aren't I? question tags éπÈ®-
suma 3) a) I am an Indian like you, aren't I? Ganesh: I was very busy yesterday. I am
(îËÆæ’h-Ø√o†’. ü¿í∫_®Ω úø•’s©’ BÆæ’éÓ-
؈÷ O’™«í∫ ¶µ«®Ω-B-ߪ·-úÕØË éπü∆? èπ◊dí¬ form îËߪ’-í∫©ç. Question tags ™‰E the fan of the hero of the movie.
¢√L éπü∆?) Ææ綵«-≠æù î√-™« EKb-´çí¬ Öçô’çC.
Suma: I am ready. Thank you for making all (No not in the stem) Yesterday aren't I? I am sorry I
b) I am not a fool, am I? Now practice the following in English: missed the movie.
the arrangements. You are taking
trouble. aren't you? (ØËØËç ´‚®Ω’^-úÕo é¬ü¿’, éπü∆? (not in the stem) 1) Ganesh: Hi Mahesh, E†o ®√vA †’´¤y ÆœE´÷èπ◊ 2) Santhi: Hey, you are joking at me, aren't
trouble
(ØËE-´y-ö«-EéÀ Æœü¿l¥ç. é¬F †’´¤y 鬕öÀd 'I' N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓ-¢√-LqçC– -¢Á-∞«}´¤ éπü∆? you?
BÆæ’èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤ éπü∆?) a) Stem™ not ™‰èπ◊çõ‰, question tag aren't I? Mahesh: Å´¤†’, ¢Á∞«h-†E îÁ§ƒp†’. åØ√? Revathi: I am not at all talking, am I, Jyothi?
Bhargavi: That doesn't matter as long as I Ganesh: îÁ§ƒp-´¤™‰. é¬F †’´¤y ¢Á∞«h-´-†’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. Jyothi: I am reading the novel, aren't I?
(verb, 'am+' Å®·ûË)
don't spend. Santhi: I am mistaken, aren't I? You are
b) stem ™ not ÖçúÕ, verb 'am+' Å®·ûË Mahesh: ØËØË-ü¿-®·Ø√ -îÁ-G-ûË serious í¬ØË
good people.
(؈’ úø•’s ê®Ω’a °ôd-†ç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ °∂æ®Ω-¢√- question tag, 'am I?' Öçö«†’, éπü∆? Revathi: I am the serious type, aren't I ? I
™‰-ü¿’-™‰) ´’Sx éÌEo Éûª®Ω verb farms éÌîËa question tags Ganesh: cinema N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ ؈’ ´÷vûªç seri-
as long as- so long as = ÅC ïJ-Íí-´-®Ωèπ◊, Ç don't like jokes at all.
ous 鬆’, éπü∆?
Jyothi: I am interested only in studies,
Ééπ\úø ÉÆæ’hØ√oç. í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓçúÕ. É´Fo èπÿú≈
°æü¿l¥-A™.so long as ´÷´‚-©’í¬ 'not' Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ stem™ not Ö†o-°æ¤púø’. Mahesh: ؈’ Ø√ friends ûÓ ÆœE-´÷-Èé∞Ïh ÆæçûÓ-≠œ-
¢√-úøû√ç. As long as á°æ¤p-úÁjØ√ ¢√úø-´îª’a. aren't I ? I don't know how to joke,
a) Shall..., - shan't...? b) will.., - won't..? ≤ƒh†’ éπü∆? E†o †’´¤y Ø√ûÓ ®√™‰üËç? do I?
Suma & Anu: Thank you.
c) can..., _can't...? d) could..., couldn't...? Ganesh: E†o î√-™« busy í¬ ÖØ√o. †’-´¤y Santhi: You never joke at others? do you?
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù í∫-ûªç-™- -´-*a-† È®çúø’ lessons ™ (couldn't - pronunciation - ¢Á-Rx-† cinema hero fan éπü∆ ؈’?
(question tags °j -´-*aç--C) -™«í¬-ØË -Öç-C éπ-ü∆. (èπ◊Ø˛d) Revathi: I don't know about Jyothi, but I am
e) may..., - mayn't? (¢Á’ß˝’Ø˛d?) ؈’ ®√™‰-ü¿E ¶«üµ¿-°æ-úø’-ûª’Ø√o. always serious.
äéπ\-≤ƒJ ´’Sx, don't, doesn't, didn'tûÓ ´îËa
-v°æ-¨¡o: Spoken -ï-¢√-•’:
question tag N≠æߪ’ç îª÷ü∆lç.
Bhushan: You get up quite early, don't you? English èπ◊ Ææç-•ç-Cµç-* -´’ç-*
books 1) Spoken English î√™« simple í¬, Å®Ωl¥-´’-´-ú≈-
– -P-K-≠æ, -ïçí¬È®-úÕfí∫÷-úÁç
(†’´¤y î√™« °çü¿-™«úË Evü¿-™‰-≤ƒh´¤, éπü∆) -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’.
-ï-¢√-•’:
Dhiraj: That's right, do you, don't you? EéÀ 鬮Ω-ùç Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬, Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬ Öç-úø-úøç. °æ‹Jh
(†’´¤y èπÿú≈ ÅçûË éπü∆?) Ñ´’üµ¿u innerwear ÅØË word èπÿú≈ ¢√úø’-éπ-™éÀ sentences Öçúø-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a. Written English
Bhushan: Your college begins at 10, doesn't it? Spoken English books market ™ î√™« ´≤ÚhçC. Innerwear correct Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéà ÉçéÌçîÁç °æü¿l¥-Aí¬, °æ‹Jhí¬ grammatical í¬,
so you can get up late, can't you? ÖØ√o®·. ¢√öÀ™x éÌçîÁç ´’ç*N. English con- (usage ™éÀ ´≤ÚhçC), î√™«-´’ç-CéÀ Å®Ωnçé¬éπ-§Ú- éÌClí¬ éÀx≠d-¢æ Á’i† ´÷ô©’, ¢√é¬u-©ûÓ Öç-úÌa.
college
(O’ 10éÀ éπü∆, †’´¤y Ç©-Ææuçí¬ versation by Grant Taylor; Spoken English ´îª’a. áèπ◊\-´-´’ç-CéÀ Å®Ωnç ÅßË’u-´÷ô under- 2) Having been = Å®· Ö†oç-ü¿’-´©x
Evü¿-™‰-´îª’a, éπü∆?) for you by G.Radhakrishna Pillai and wear. Having been deceived by him once, I don't
Dhiraj: But our school started at 7.30, didn't K.Rajeevan. 2) ´®Ω-Ææ-véπ-´’ç™ E©-•úÕ Öçúø-ö«-EéÀ English Åéπ~®Ωç
it? so I got used to getting up early. -v°æ-¨¡o: 1) ≤ƒ-üµ∆®Ω-ùçí¬ -™--ü¿’Ææ’h-©-†’ -É-ç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ Q é¬ü¿’ – Q Ü®Ω-éπØË Å™« ¢√úø-û√®Ω’, Thank you
trust him any more
äéπ-≤ƒJ ؈-ûª-E-îËûª ¢Á÷Ææ-Tç-îª-•úÕ Ö†oç-ü¿’-´©x
(´’† school 7.30 èπ◊çúËC éπü∆? Åçü¿’- Underwear (-Åç-úø®˝-¢Ë®˝) -Åç--ö«®Ω’. ™ You èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ Thank U ¢√úÕ-†ô’x. ´®Ω-Ææ ÅûªEo ؈’ ´’Sx †´’t†’.
éπE Å©-¢√-ô-®·-§Ú-®·çC.) Innerwear (-É-†o®˝-¢Ë®˝) -Å-E -á-ç-ü¿’éπ-†®Ω’?- -véπ-´’ç™ Å®Ωnç ´îËa English word Queue. Having been selected he is happy
Get used to = Å©-¢√-ô’-°æ-úøôç. I have got 2) •Ææ’q -áÍé\-ô°æ¤p-úø’, Æœ-E-´÷£æ…-∞¡x -ü¿í∫_®Ω -öÀÈé\-ôxèπ◊ - Please queue up ÅØË -•-ü¿’©’, Please Q up select Å®· Ö†oç-ü¿’-´©x Åûª†’ ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬
used to the hot weather here = (Ééπ\úÕ ¢ËúÕéÀ ´®ΩÆæ-véπ-´’ç-™ ®√-´-ú≈-EéÀ 'Q' '°æ-ü¿l¥-A -§ƒ-öÀç-îªç-úÕ Åçö«®Ω’, fancy í¬. ÖØ√oúø’.
؈-©-¢√ô’ °æúÕ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’). ´’Sx í∫’®Ω’h-îË-Ææ’èπ◊çü∆ç Å-E -¶®Ω’f-©’ç-ö«®·. Íé-´-©ç Q -Åéπ~®Ωç ´÷-vûª-¢Ë’ People queued for the tickets.
-v°æ-¨¡o: 1) Spoken english èπ◊,
3) Spelling mistakes ûªí¬_-©çõ‰ ´÷ô-©†’ sylla-
1) 'Get up' ÅØË Regular doing word verb Ê°®Ì\ç-ö«®Ω’. -´®ΩÆæ-véπ-´÷-EéÀ, -Ñ -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ -Åéπ~®√- written english èπ◊ bles í¬ N¶µº->ç* spelling Ç™-*ç-îªçúÕ. ûªí∫’_-
Å®· not ™‰ü¿’ 鬕öÀd. Question tag, 'don't
– -vQ-E-¢√Æˇ, -N’®√u-©í∫÷-úø
EéÀ Ææç-•ç-üµ¿ç -à-N’-öÀ?
you?' 2) 'Begins' ÅØË second regular doing
-ûË-ú≈-©-†’ -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. û√®·. Syllable Åçõ‰ ÅaûÓ Ö†o °æü¿-¶µ«í∫ç.
word verb Å®· not ™‰ü¿’ 鬕öÀd, question tag, -ï-¢√-•’: 2) having been -à Ææç-ü¿®Ωs¥ç-™ -´Ææ’hç-C?
3) Spelling mistakes
Construction. DØÓx con, struc, tion -Å-ØË
'doesn't it?' 3) 'started' ÅØË past doing word 1) Underwear - (Underware é¬ü¿’)– ™ü¿’-Ææ’h©’– Ææ-J-îËÆæ’-éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ -´‚úø’ syllables ÖØ√o®·. É™« devide
verb Å®·, not ™‰ü¿’ 鬕öÀd, question tag, 'did- Ææ-©£æ… -É-´yí∫-©®Ω’. îËÆæ’èπ◊E spelling Ç™-*ç-îªçúÕ. ûª°æ¤p©’
– °œ.-á-Ø˛.-†Í®-¨¸, °æ-J-T
´’†ç •ßª’-öÀéÀ éπ†-°æúË ü¿’Ææ’h©- éÀç-ü¿ üµ¿JçîË
n't it?' (Didn't pronunciation - úÕØ˛d) ü¿’Ææ’h©’ é¬-•-öÀd Underwear Åçö«®Ω’. ûªí∫’_-û√®·.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
II Ðû¦è[ª- ñªëÅ]î¦ô¢Ù 4 áì÷J 2006

Sunil: Hi Ramesh, the Megastar phoned ú£ô¢Ù. Íö°¸Þ question tags Ú¥ÚÛªÙè¯, Ð lesson
me last night and asked for a few tips ö˺E Ramesh responses ö˺E short questions
on acting. - Oæ¨E response questions ÍÙæ°Ù. Ïö°Ùæ¨N
(óÀª ô¢î¶ªøÉ Eìo-ô¦vA ޥ-þ§dô û¦ÚÛª ÚÛ«è¯ conversation ÚÛª ú£ï£°-á-ê¦y-Eo-þ§hô³.
ðƼûË à¶ú‡ ìåì ÞœªJÙ# Ú•Eo ú£«àŸ-ìõª Question tags ö°¸Þ ÏN-ÚÛ«è¯ ÍÙêŸ-ÚÛª÷³Ùë]ª
Íè…-Þ¥è[ª.) sentenceìª ñæ¨d ÷ú£ªhÙ-æ°ô³. î¦æ¨-E-ñç¶d Oæ¨Ú¨
Ramesh: Oh, did he? Íô¢nÙ ÷ú£ªhÙ-åªÙC. Íô³ê¶ êµõª-Þœªö˺ Oå-Eo-æ¨Ú© Ö¸Ú
(Íö°Þ¥?) Íô¢nÙ– Íö°Þ¥? ÍE. ÏN ÓÚÛª\-÷Þ¥ ÖÚÛô¢ª àµí‡pì
Sunil: And what is more, he wanted to see Nù£óŸªÙ ÷ªìÙ ì÷ªt-ö¶-E-CÞ¥ Ñìoí£±pè[ªÞ¥E, ÷ªìÚÛª
me about a future movie of his. ÎøŒaô¢uÙ/Îú£Ú¨h ÚÛL-TÙචNù£-óŸª-i-ì-í£±p-è[ª-Þ¥E
Unfortunately I am very busy you î¦è[ê¦Ù.
know. So I couldn't give him an šíj ú£ÙòÅ°-ù£-éö˺ Ramesh ú response ques-
appointment. tions ÍFo ÍêŸìª ì÷ªt-ö¶E Nù£-óŸ«-õìª êµLóŸª-â¶-
(ÏÙÚ¥ ÔÙæ˺ êµõªþ§, ÍêŸè[ª ìæ¨Ù-àŸ-ò˺- ú£ªh-û¦oô³ ÚÛë¯! Sunil ÚÛª Megastar phone (ÍJÚ¥ö˺ ÚÛí£±p Ú¥íƈ ÖÚÛ è¯õôÂ. ÍÙç¶ ÑÙC Ú¥F ÍÙêŸ-ö¶ë]ª.
Tarun:

Í÷±û¦... Íö°Þ¥!?
꟪ìo Ú•êŸh ú‡E÷« ÞœªJÙ# ììªo ÚÛõª-ú£ª-ÚÁ- à¶óŸªè[Ù, ú£«àŸ-ì-õ-è[-Þœè[Ù ö°Ùæ¨N. Ïö°Ùæ¨ ë¯ë¯í£± 50 ô¢«ð§-óŸªõª.) ÍÙêŸ àŸL-öËºì« àŸFoüŒxêÁ þ§oìÙ à¶ø‹.
î¦-õ-ìª-ÚÛªÙ-åª-û¦o-ìE Íû¦oè[ª. Ú¥F ë]ªô¢-ë]'- responses Oªô¢« practice à¶óŸªÙè…. Íô³ê¶ Ð Preethi: Does it? Kumar: Íö°Þ¥? ÓÙë]ª-ÚÛE?
ù£d-÷-ø‹êŸªh û¶ìª à¦ö° G@ ÚÛë¯? ÎóŸª-ìÚÛª (Í÷±û¦?) Tarun: û¦ ô¢«Ùö˺ Þ¥uúà Íô³-ð¼-ô³ÙC. ðƼûËÂ
ඛúh ·ôÙè[ª-ôÁ-Võª í£è[ªêŸªÙ-ë]-û¦oô¢ª.
Kumar: F ô¢«Ùö˺ Uáô ö¶ë¯?
Tarun: FÚÛªÙë¯?
Kumar: ÏC ÍÙêŸ àŸL-ví£-ë¶øŒÙ Ú¥ë]ª ÚÛë¯?
ÍÙë]ª-ÚÛE Uáô Í÷-ú£ô¢Ù ö¶ë]ª.
Tarun: ÍEo ÎëÅ]ª-EÚÛ ÷ú£-꟪-õêÁ Ñìo ðƧxæËÀìª
û¶ìª êŸyô¢ö˺ Ú•ì-ò˺-꟪-û¦oìª.
responses ÍÙêŸ-ÚÛª-÷³Ùë]ª sentence ö˺E verb Kumar: Í÷±û¦? ëÅ]ô¢ ÓÙêŸ ÑÙè•àŸªa.
û¶ìª Íð§-ô³Ù-æËÀ-ÙæËÀ Ï÷y-ö¶-ÚÛ-ð¼-óŸ«ìª.) subject
ìª ñæ¨d, ìª ñæ¨d form à¶þ§hÙ. ÏÚÛ\è[ costs II Regular Doing Word Ú¥ñæ¨d Tarun: ë¯ë¯í£± 20 õ¤Ûõ ô¢«ð§-óŸªõª.
Appointment ÷«÷´õª Íô¢nÙ ÑëÁuÞœÙ. Ú¥F response 'does', coffee 'it'
ÍÙç¶ ÍÙë]ª-ÚÛE
Pramod: Two or three ministers consult me Answers:
appointment ÚÛª ÏÚÛ\è[ î¦è…ì NëÅ]ÙÞ¥ Íô¢nÙ = 'Does it?'
whenever they have problems.
Tarun: It was very cold the whole of yester-
Prema: Though she is not healthy, her hus-
ÚÛõªú£ªÚÁè¯-EÚ¨ ú£÷ªóŸªÙ, àÁåª Eô¢g-ô³Ù-àŸè[Ù. (Ïë]lô¢ª ö¶ë¯ ÷³Þœª_ô¢ª ÷ªÙv꟪õª ú£÷ª-
Ramesh: Oh! Is that so? I didn't know (I day in Hyderabad./ Hyderabad was
band does not help her.
haven't known) that you very cold the whole of yesterday.
(ÎÚÛª ÎôÁÞœuÙ ò°ÞÁ-ö¶-ÚÛ- Kumar: Was it? It wasn't so cold here.
are so great.
ð¼-ô³û¦ Î òÅ¡ô¢h ÔÙ Tarun: I went about in sweater the whole
(Íö°Þ¥, ìª÷yÙêŸ Þ•í£p-î¦-è…- ú£ï£„óŸªÙ à¶óŸªè[ª.) day.
Sujana: O, Doesn't he?
÷E û¦ÚÛª ÏÙêŸ ÷ô¢ÚÛª
êµLóŸªë]ª). Kumar: Did you? It was cold here too, but it
(à¶óŸªè¯?) wasn't so bad.
Sunil: Only the megastar knows
verb does (not) help - Ú¥ñæ¨d
my greatness. Tarun: Even in such cold,/ Though it was so
response 'does.
ö˺ cold, I had a cold water bath/ a cold
Kumar: The actor who played
(ޥ-þ§d-ôÂ¸Ú û¦ Þ•í£p-ë]ìÙ
bath.
Samson fought with a
êµõªú£ª)
Ramesh: Does he? That's news to Kumar: Did you?/ Had you? But why?
real lion, you know?
me. But I have a doubt, Tarun: I ran out of gas/ The cylinder was
(ø‹uîª-ú£ûË ð§vêŸ î¶ú‡ì empty/ The gas was exhausted.
my dear Sunil.
ìåªè[ª Eá-iì When I called the gas company, they
(Íö°Þ¥? ÏC û¦ÚÛª Ú•êŸh ú‡ÙÙêÁ ð¼æ°x-è¯è[ª,
Nù£óŸªÙ. Íô³ê¶ û¦ÚÁ said it would take two days/ I had to
êµõªþ§) wait for two days.
Sudheer: Did he? (Í÷±û¦?)
ú£Ùë¶ï£°Ù ÑÙC.)
'That's news to me = ÍC û¦Ú¨Ù-êŸ- ÷- Kumar: Don't you have a geiger?
ô¢ÚÛª êµLóŸªE Nù£óŸªÙ. šíj sentence ö˺ verb 'fought'. Tarun: Do you?/ Have you?
conversation ö˺ practice à¶óŸªÙè….
ÏC Past Doing word Ú¥ñæ¨d, did Kumar: This place is not so cold./ It is not
Sunil: What's it?
÷ú£ªhÙC. Subject 'actor' ñë]ªõª so cold here, is it? So we don't
'he' ÷ú£ªhÙC. need a geiger, do we?
(ÔÙåC?)
Ramesh: Are you mentally sound?
Ïö°¸Þ Am, is, are, was, were, Tarun: I am going to buy a flat soon. A
shall, will, can, could, may, might, must, have, modern construction with all ameni-
(FÚÛª ÷ªA-ú‡n-Nª-êŸÙÞ¥ ÑÙë¯ ÍE.) ú£uö¶îµjû¦ ÷›úh ììªo ú£Ùví£-C-þ§hô¢ª.) has, had etc. combinations verbs ties.
mentally sound = ÷ªA-ú‡n-NªêŸÙêÁ ÑÙè[è[Ù
êÁ ÷à¶a ÚÛª
Prasad: O, do they? responses
mentally unsound = í‡#a
ÍEoÙ-æ¨ö˺ Ïî¶ Kumar: Are you? What's the price?/ What
Sunil: Is that your doubt? Call the Megastar
(Í÷±û¦, Íö°Þ¥? – ì÷ªt-øŒÚÛuÙ Ú¥ÚÛ-ð¼ê¶ ÑÙæ°ô³. is the price likely to be?
and ask him himself.
÷ªìÙ Ïà¶a response) Charan: I can bat better Tarun: Around Rs. 20 lac.
(Íë¯ F ú£Ùë¶ï£°Ù. Íô³ê¶ ޥ-þ§d-ôÂ¸Ú Pramod sentence ö˺E verb 'consult'. ÏC 1st than Tendulkar.
Regular Doing Word- Ú¥ñæ¨d responseö˺ 'do'
÷ú£ªhÙC (MinistersÚÛª ñë]ªõª 'they'êÁ). ÏÚÛ\è[
ðƼûË à¶ú‡ ÚÛìªÚÁ\) (çµÙè[«-õ\ô ÚÛû¦o ò°Þ¥
Ramesh: Should I? (Do) you want me to be ò°uæ¨ÙÞ à¶óŸª-Þœ-õìª.)
another fool like you? Come on. Sravan: O, can you?
Cut all that stuff about his calling Can't you bowl
you and taking your suggestions. better than
M. SURESAN
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é 92
You look a real fool. Pathan?
(Íö°Þ¥? Fö°¸Þ û¶ìª ÚÛ«è¯ ÷´ô¢ª^è[- (Íö°Þ¥?÷ªJ
E-í‡Ù-àŸª-ÚÁ-÷ªÙ-æ°î¦? ÏÚÛ Îí£±. ޥ- í£ôȦûË ÚÛû¦o ò°Þ¥ ò®öËÀ à¶óŸª-ö¶î¦?) ví£øŒo: It is not short form it's not/ it isn't.
Ú¨
þ§dô FÚÛª ðƼûË à¶óŸªè[Ù, F ú£«àŸ-ìõª
question tags ö˺ö°Þ¥ not ÑÙç¶ tag ö˺ not ô¦÷- Ïö°Ùæ¨ responses ò°Þ¥ practice à¶óŸªÙè…. î¦æ¨ pronunciation ÏæËÀq-û¦æËÀ/ ÏæËÀ ÐâµûËÂd
Bú£ª-ÚÁ-è[Ù-ö°Ùæ¨ í‡#a î¦Þœªè[ª ÚÛæ¨d-
ÚÛð¼÷è[Ù-ö°Ùæ¨C ÔOª ÑÙè[ë]ª. Ú•ÙàµÙ vøŒë]lÄÞ¥ Þœ÷ª-E›úh Ð responses question Þ¥ í£õ-ÚÛ-÷à¦a? ÏæËÀ ÐâÉÀ û¦æËÀ Þ¥û¶ í£õ-
šíåªd. ìª÷±y EáÙÞ¥ íÆ£²öËÀ-ö°¸Þ tags ö°Þ¥ à¦ö° ú£ªõòÅ¡Ù. Ú•ÙàµÙ practice êÁ Ú¥ö°? Short forms writing ö˺û¶ Ú¥ÚÛªÙè¯
Pramod: Most ministers are my friends.
Ñû¦o÷±.) Oªô¢ª ú£ªõ-òÅ¡ÙÞ¥ form à¶óŸª-Þœ-õô¢ª. ví£óŸª-AoÙ-àŸÙè…. spelling Ú¨ ÚÛ«è¯ ÷Jh-þ§hóŸ«? ÖÚÛ-î¶üŒ
Cut = Îí£±, ÚÛæ¨d-šíåªd , stuff = þ¼C, î¦Þœªè[ª. (÷ªÙv꟪ö˺x à¦ö°-÷ªÙC û¦ ›úo-꟪õª.)
ÏÚÛ\è[ verb 'are'. Ú¥ñæ¨d ministers ñë]ªõª they . Now practise the following in English spellingÚ¨ ÚÛ«è¯ ÷Jh›úh I would- short
Sunil: Do I? (Íö°Þ¥?)
form I'd. He has - He's, I have - I've
šíj ú£ÙòÅ°-ù£-éö˺ îµ³ë]æ¨ òÅ°ÞœÙö˺ Sunil ÷«å-õÚÛª Prasad: O, are they? Tarun:EìoÙê¦ šïj°ë]-ô¦-ò°ëÂö˺ à¦ö° àŸLÞ¥
– Nî¶ÚÂ, ìö˹_Ùè[
Ramesh responses Þœ÷ª-EÙ-àŸÙè…. (Íö°Þ¥– ÎøŒa-ô¢u-ÚÛ-ô¢-iì Nù£óŸªÙ Íô³û¦ îµ³ë]-öµj-ì-î¦-æ¨E Óö° ÑàŸa-JÙ-à¦L?
ÑÙC.
★ Did he? response Ïö°û¶ ÷ú£ªhÙC.) Kumar: Íö°Þ¥? ÏÚÛ\-è[ÙêŸ ö¶ë¶.
★ Is that so? I didn't know (I haven't
Suraj: In the US, a cup of coffee costs a dol- Tarun: EìoÙê¦ šúyåô î¶ú£ªÚÛªû¶ AJÞ¥. áî¦ñª: It's not = ÏæËÀq not;
known) Kumar: Íö°Þ¥? ÏÚÛ\è[ ÖÚÛ îµ«ú£hô¢ª àŸLÞ¥ It isn't = ÏæËÀ ÐáûËÂd– Ïö°¸Þ í£õ-Ú¥L. Ïö° í£õª-
lar, that is, about Rs. 50/-
★ Does he? ÚÛªê¦Ù Ú¥ñç¶d writingö˺ î¦æ¨-ìö° ô¦þ§hô¢ª. NªÞœê¦
★ Should I? contracted forms (short forms) Nù£-óŸªÙ-ö˺ì«
ÏÙêŸ-÷-ô¢ÚÛª ÷ªìÙ question tags Óö° form Spoken English ð§êŸ î¦uþ§õ ÚÁú£Ù Ú¨xÚ à¶óŸªÙè…... Ïö°¸Þ ÑàŸa-J-þ§hô¢ª.
à¶óŸ«L, conversation ö˺ î¦æ¨ ð§vêŸ ÞœªJÙ# êµõª- I'd = ÕèÂ; He has = he's =âÉÀ
I've = ÕîËÂ. ÍEo contractions îµ³ë]å spoken
ú£ª-ÚÛªû¦oÙ. Conversation lively Þ¥, effective Þ¥ URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm forms Ú¥ñæ¨d writing ö˺ Íö° Í÷±-꟪ÙC.
ÑÙè¯-õ-ìª-ÚÛªÙç¶ question tags î¦è[ÚÛÙ à¦ö° Í÷-
II -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -¨¡Ÿ-véπ¢√®Ωç 6 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Laxman: Hi Ramu, may the new year bring you Ravi: Please go ahead. What is the matter?
all happiness. (àçö îÁ°æpçúÕ)
(éÌûªh Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç Fèπ◊ ÆæçûÓ≠æç ûÁ*a Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ 'May' ņ’-´’A – Permission
°ö«d-©E éÓ®Ω’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’.) Åúø-í∫-ö«-EéÀ ¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç éπü∆. ´’†-éπçõ‰ °j≤ƒn®·
Ramu: So may it to you, Laxman. ¢√∞¡x permission í¬E, ´’†ç î√-™« íı®Ω-NçîË
(Fèπÿ Å™«Íí ï®Ω-í¬-©E Ø√ éÓJéπ) ¢√∞¡x permission í¬F Åúø-í¬-©-†’-èπ◊-†o-°æ¤púø’, May,
question form ™ I/ we ûÓ ¢√úøû√ç.
Laxman: Thank you.
1) May I sit here?
Lessons
Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ ™ May Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ permission
(ØËE-éπ\úø èπÿ®Óa-´î√a?)
éÌEoç-öÀE ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç éπ∫ü∆. Ñ Â°j 2) May I use your phone?
Sentences ™ May Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç îª÷úøçúÕ. ÉN (O’ phone permission
¢√-úø’éÓ´î√a?)
Wishes èπÿ, Greetings (ÅGµ-†ç-ü¿-†©’) èπÿ 3) May I know your name? / May I know who 4) 'May' in statement forms some times is used
Bhavan: -•£æ›-¨» -Öç-úÌ-a. ؈’ ´’Sx °œ©’≤ƒh-†’.
¢√úøû√ç. Éçü¿’™ îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’ éπü∆, Laxman, you are? in place of 'shall' to express orders in a polite Åçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ •ßª’ô wait îËߪ’-´îª’a O’®Ω’.
Ramu †’ wish îËÊÆ--ô°æ¤púø’, Ramu, Laxman (O’ Ê°-Í®ç-ö/ -O’-È®-´®Ó ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´î√a?) and formal way. O’®Ω’ front room ™ èπÿ®ÓaçúÕ.
†’ wish îËÊÆ--ô°æ¤púø’ May ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. Å®·ûË ÉC °æ‹Jhí¬ Å°æ-J-*-ûª’-©ûÓ. 5) May in the beginning of a statement is used Interview Å®·ç-ûª-®√yûª èπÿú≈ O’®Ω’
É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x May á°æ¤púø÷ Sentence 4) How long may I keep this book? for expressing wishes and blessings. âü¿’í∫çô© ´®Ωèπ◊ ¢Á∞¡x-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
´·çü¿’ç-ô’çC, Åçõ‰ Sentence May ûÓ (ØËF °æ¤Ææhéπç áEo ®ÓV-©’ç--éÓ-´îª’a?) Sravan: result á°æ¤úø’ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-´îª’a?
v§ƒ®Ω綵ºç Å´¤-ûª’çC. May ûÓ v§ƒ®Ω綵ºç ÅßË’u Now practice the following in English.
May official/ formal í¬ permission É´y-ú≈-E-éÀ Bhavan: Í®°æ¤ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç ´®Ωèπ◊ O’®Ω’ expect
É™«çöÀ sentences, blessings èπ◊ èπÿú≈, Åçõ‰ statement form ™ (you ûÓ ´·êuçí¬) a) Anil: Good morning, Sir. O’®Ω’ ´÷èπ◊ high îËߪ’-éπçúÕ.
ÇQ-®Ωy-îª-Ø√-©èπ◊ èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç. school ™ teacher, Sir. -N’-´’t-Lo äéπ-≤ƒJ Answers:
¢√úøû√ç. Superior status ™ Ö†o-¢√∞¡Ÿ} éÀçC
éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-ú≈-EéÀ ´î√a†’. Anil: Good morning sir. You were our
¢√∞¡xûÓ ´÷ö«x-úøôç °æ‹®Ωh-®·† ûª®√yûª, O’Jéπ ¢Á∞¡x- teacher in the high school. I have
´îª’a ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ May ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. Murthy: -†’-´¤y -Ø√èπ◊ í∫’®Ω’h-Ø√o-´¤ -Å-E-™¸. -î√-™«é¬-©ç come to see you.
1) You may go now. Murthy: I remember you, Anil. (I am) happy to
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 93
-ûª®√y-ûª -E-†’o éπ-©’Ææ’éÓ-´-ôç Ææç-ûÓ-≠æç.-
O’Jéπ ¢Á∞¡x-´îª’a. (permission É´yôç) É°æ¤p-úËç -îËÆæ’h-Ø√o-´¤? see/ meet you, though after a long
time. What are you (now)?
Anil: (I am) going to the states for higher
studies. I got the visa the day before

When may I know the result? (yesterday). I've come for your bless-
ings.
Murthy: You have my blessings always. May
you have a happy journey and may
2) You may use my phone if you want. you study well and prosper (°jéÀ
Keshav: Hi Jagan, when are you starting for Anil:
°j îªü¿’-´¤-©èπ◊
(O’®Ω’, 鬴-LÊÆh Ø√ phone -¢√-úø’éÓ-´îª’a) ®√´-ôç)there!
Delhi?
Anil: Today is my birthday too, sir.
Å¢Á’-Jé¬ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-
(Delhi éÀ á°æ¤úø’ •ßª’-™‰l®Ω’ûª’Ø√o´¤?) permission É´yôç. Sir.
Ø√o†’, Murthy: I am very happy. May you live long in
Jagan: In a few hours from now. The train is Å™«Íí éÌçîÁç ´’®√u-ü¿í¬ (Åçûª E≠æ \-®Ω{í¬ ¢Á·†oØË visa health and happiness!
at 3.30 é¬èπ◊çú≈) orders É´y-ö«-EéÀ èπÿú≈ statement ´*açC. O’ ÇQ- Anil: Thank You, sir.
Train 3.30
(Ééπ éÌCl í∫çô-©èπ◊. éÀ) form ™ May ¢√úøû√ç. Ææ’q© éÓÆæç Murthy: You are welcome.
Keshav: I am going home now. I may not be 1) You may not leave office before 5 (May you have a happy journey = Wish you
able to come to station to see you off.
´î√a†’. M. SURESAN
(âü¿’í∫çô-©èπ◊ ´·çü¿’ O’®Ω’ Ç°∂‘Ææ’†’ç* ¢Á-∞Ô}-ü¿’l) Murthy: Fèπ◊ Ø√ ÇQ-Ææ’q- a happy journey; may you live long = Wish
May you have a very happy journey! you a long and healthy life)
(ØËEç-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√oE°æ¤púø’. Fèπ◊ OúÓ\-L-´y-ö«- order ™„-°æ¤púø÷ Öçö«®·. F v°æߪ÷ùç Ææ’êçí¬
b) Sravan: May I come in (sir)?
EéÀ station èπ◊ ®√™‰éπ§Ú´îª’a. F v°æߪ÷ùç 2) You may not smoke here ïJT, †’´yéπ\-úø ¶«í¬ îªCN °jéÀ ®√¢√-©E
Ø√ ÇQ-Ææ’q©’ (May ¢√úøçúÕ). Bhavan: Please do/ do come in. Have a seat/
ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ≤ƒí¬-©E Ø√ éÓJéπ.) (O’J-éπ\úø smoke îËߪ’-èπÿ-úøü¿’) – order. Please sit down.
Jagan: May you have a happy time in your Anil: Ñ®Ó- V Ø√ birthday èπÿú≈. Sir.
3) You may leave office only after five. Sravan: I have come to attend an interview
new course! When do your classes Murthy: î√™« ÆæçûÓ≠æç. †’´¤y î√-™«-鬩ç Çߪ·-®√-
begins?
(O’®Ω’ âü¿’ ûª®√yûªØË •ßª’öÀéÀ ¢Á-∞¡x-´îª’a) – order ®Ó-í¬u-©ûÓ Öçú≈-©E éÓ®Ω’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. (May here. I am Sravan. When may I have
(Åçõ‰ Åçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ ¢Á∞¡xèπÿúø-ü¿E order). the interview?/ When may be my
course
É´-Fo May Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’: äéπ-≤ƒJ Ææçví∫-£æ«çí¬ Anil: î√-™« thanks, Sir.
(F éÌûªh ™ †’´¤y ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ¢√úøçúÕ). interview?
classes
îª÷ü∆lç.
Öçú≈L. O’ á°æ¤púø’ -¢Á·-ü¿-©-´¤-
Bhavan: Wait a minute. Let me see... Yes. Your
)
û√®·. Murthy: ´’ç*C.
interview is at 2 in the afternoon.
Keshav: They begin the day after tomorrow. 1) 'May' expresses probability (ïJÍí Å´-鬨¡ç) b) Sravan: ؈’ ™°æ-LéÀ ®√´-î √açúŒ?
Sravan: It's already 1.30 sir. May I
(É°æ¤púË)
(á©’xçúÕ) 2) 'May' expresses doubt (ÆæçüË£æ«ç) Bhavan: ®ΩçúÕ. èπÿ®ÓaçúÕ. have the interview now itself ?
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ 'May' ûÓ v§ƒ®Ω綵ºç ÅßË’u sen- 3) May in the question form, especially with I/ Sravan: ØËE-éπ\-úÕéÀ interview attend Å´-ú≈-EéÀ
tences ÅFo wishes †’ ûÁ-©°æ-ôç í∫´’-Eç-î √®Ω’ Bhavan: That may be possible. I'll call you
éπü∆. -É-N îª÷úøçúÕ.. We is used for asking for permission in a very ´î√a†’. Ø√ Ê°®Ω’ Sravan. Ø√èπ◊ inter- again. Till then you may wait outside.
u May you live long! formal and polite manner. view á°æ¤p-úø’ç-úÌa? You may sit in the front room. You
Bhavan: îÁ§ƒh-†’ç-úøçúÕ. Ç... O’èπ◊ ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç may not leave here till 5, even after
O’®Ω’ î√-™«é¬©ç @Nç-î√-©E. 'May' for permission is used to ask for per-
(*®Ωç-@´! ÅØË ûÁ©’í∫’ ÇQ-Ææ’qèπ◊ Ææ´÷†ç) mission in a more polite and formal manner
È®çúø’ í∫çô-©èπ◊ interview Öçô’çC. the interview.
u May your business prosper! Sravan: É°æ¤púË äçöÀ í∫çô-†o®Ω Å®·çC éπü¿çúÕ. Sravan: When may I know the result?
than 'can' and 'shall', with I/ We, and 'will',
O’ ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç ÅGµ-´%Cl¥ îÁçü∆L! (éÓJéπ, ÇQÆæ’q) Ø√ interview É°æ¤púË ÖçúÌî√a? (May Bhavan: Well, you may not expect it before
u May you celebrate many more birth days like and 'would' with you (in the question form) ¢√úøçúÕ). tomorrow evening.
this!
É™«çöÀ °æ¤öÀd† ®ÓV©’ î√™« î√-™« -îËÆæ’éÓ-¢√-©-E!
u May you live to be a hundred.
-v°æ-¨¡o: Bí∫ ´çTçC, 鬩’ NJ-TçC, -v°æ-¨¡o: Idioms, usage í∫’-Jç-* -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. Öûªh´’´÷®Ω_ç English Newspapers, The Hindu
<´’ ´·E-TçC, °æ¤Ææhéπç – ®Ω£æ…-Ø√-¶‰í∫ç, éπ-©÷x®Ω’ ™«çöÀN, *†o *†o story books ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç*
´çüË∞¡Ÿx @Nç-î√L.
u May God bless you!
*J-TçC.. -É-™«ç-öÀ -¢√--öÀ-E -ï-¢√-•’: °ü¿l novels îªü¿-´ôç, ´·êuçí¬ English news
-ߪ’-ü∑∆-ûª-ü∑¿çí¬ (--´ç-îª-•-úÕç-C,- Idioms ÅØ√o usage ÅØ√o ü∆ü∆°æ¤ äéπõ‰. ¢√úø’-éπ™ magazines îªü¿-´ôç. Vocab books ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀ-
üË´¤úø’ E†’o ÇQ-®Ωy-Cç--í¬éπ! ´©x words, their meanings ûÁ©’-≤ƒh®·, but we
F 'May' È®çúÓ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç ÉC. Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ ´·-†í∫-•-úÕç-C, -Å-E é¬èπ◊ç-ú≈) Ö†o ´÷ô© èπÿ®Ω’p, Ç ´÷ô© èπÿ®Ω’p ¢Á·û√h-EéÀ
don't know how to use them. So read, read
Lessons ™ ´’†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†oC. May, proba-
-Ççí∫xç-™éÀ -á-™« -Å-†’-´- Ö†o Å®√n-EéÃ, Ç ´÷ô© èπÿ®Ω’p™ Ö†o äéÌ\éπ\
and read- that's the best way to improve. Åçû√
bility E ûÁ©’°æ¤-ûª’çC, ÆæçüË-£æ…Eo ´uéπh°æ®Ω’-Ææ’hç-ü¿E Cç-î√-™ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’.
– ®√°∂æ’-´, -´÷®√\°æ¤®Ωç-
´÷ô Å®√n-EéÀ Ææç•çüµ¿ç Öçúø-éπ-§ÚûË, Ç ´÷ô©
èπÿ®Ω’p idiom Å´¤-ûª’çC. ÅüË ¢√úø’-éπ-™éÀ ´Ææ’hçC idioms,
îªü¿-Nç-ûª-®√yûª Åv°æ-ߪ’-ûªoçí¬ O’èπ◊ í∫’®Ω’h†o
éπü∆! Åçõ‰ Ŵa, Å´-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.
words language
-ï-¢√-•’: 鬕öÀd ÅC usage Å´¤-ûª’çC. use Åçõ‰ ¢√úøéπç.
u 'May' ´‚úÓ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç É°æ¤púø’ îª÷ü∆lç.
O’ ™ ¢√úË-≤ƒh®Ω’. îªC-¢Ë-Æœç-ûª-®√yûª
Åçõ‰ äéπ word †’ sentence ™ use îËߪ’ôç. Å®Ωnç-é¬E ´÷ô™‰´Ø√o Öçõ‰ Å°æ¤púø’ dictionary
Srinath: May I come in? (؈’ ™EéÀ ®√´î√a?)
i) Bí∫ ´çTçC = the wire bent O’®Ω’ vocabulary, idioms, improve îËÆæ’éÓ-¢√-©çõ‰ Commercials/ Ads
îª÷úøçúÕ. èπÿú≈ ¶«í¬ îªü¿-´çúÕ–
Ravi: Please do.
ii) 鬩’ NJ-TçC = the leg broke Vocabulary O’ü¿ books (Norman Lewis's Word Modern expression ´Ææ’hçC. O©’-†o-°æ¤p-úø™«x
Srinath: May I have a few minutes of your
iii) <´’ ´·E-TçC = The ant drowned. Power Made Easy ™«çöÀN) éÌçûª-´-®ΩÍé Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫- English ™ ´÷ö«x-úøçúÕ.
time?
(O’ Æ洒ߪ’ç é¬Ææh BÆæ’éÓ-´î√a) iv) °æ¤Ææhéπç *J-TçC = The book got torn. °æ-úø-û√®·. Idioms O’ active use ™éÀ ®√¢√-©çõ‰

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
II -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 8 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Brahmam: Hi Vishnu, any idea where Siva b) Might + 1st Regular doing word (see, go,
might be? come, etc) Might see = îª÷úø-´îª’a (ÆæçüË£æ«ç),
(P´ áéπ\-úø’ç-úÌîÓa à¢Á’iØ√ ûÁ©’≤ƒ)? Might go = ¢Á∞¡x-´îª’a, Might come = ®√´îª’a.
Vishnu: Not in the least. You call Ganesh. ´’† Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ sentence äéπ-≤ƒJ îª÷ü∆lç.
He might know. a) Any idea where Siva might be?
Ganesh
(ÅÆæ©’ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’. phone
èπ◊ P´ áéπ\-úø’ç-úÌîÓa à´’Ø√o ûÁ©’≤ƒ?
îË®·. Åûª-EéÀ ûÁL-ߪ’-´îª’a.) b) You call Ganesh. He might know
Not in the least= ÅÆæ©’ ™‰ü¿’.
í∫ù‰-≠ˇèπ◊ phone îÁß˝’. Åûª-EéÀ ûÁL-ߪ’-´îª’a.
Brahmam: Has he a cell? Let me have the
c) He fears it might affect his heart...
number
cell
(Åûª-EéÀ Number
Öçü∆. É´¤y) í∫’çúÁ üÁ•s A†-´-îªaE... ÅûªE ¶µºßª’ç.
Vishnu: He hasn't a cell/ He has no cell. He
d) You might be able to contact him there  Might èπ◊ ´’®Ó Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç: Manager: ؈÷ ÅüË Å†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o, Å®·ûË î√-™«
fears it might affect his heart if he
Féπ-ûª†’ Åéπ\úø üÌ®Ωéπ-´-a/ -ûª-í∫-™Ôa. a) You might try his office phone number if you ê®Ω’a Ŵa éπü∆ ÅE ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o.
e) But they might all be out are unable to get his home. Supdt.:
carries it in his pocket, and his ear, é¬E, O’Í®-´’-†’-éÓ-éπ-§ÚûË, ´’†èπ◊ ü∆E-´©x
if he hears from it- because of radi- Åçü¿®Ω÷ •ßª’-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡Ÿxç-úÌa. Phone
Åûª-EçöÀ Office phone try
üÌ®Ω-éπ\-§ÚûË, business áèπ◊\´´¤ûª’çC, sir. áèπ◊\´
ation. 鬕öÀd îª÷¨»®Ω’ éπü∆, might, present ™, future ™ îËߪ’çúÕ. customers ´îËa Å´-鬨¡ç Öçô’çC éπü∆,
heart
(™‰ü¿’. ÅC ñ‰•’™ °ô’d-èπ◊çõ‰ èπ◊, Åçûª éπ*a-ûªç-é¬E N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo ûÁ©’°æ¤ûª’ç-ü¿E– Might b) You might call the helpline in sir.
be/ Might + 1st RDW (Regular Doing Word) case of trouble. Manager: Ñ Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç budget ™ adjust
ü∆EoNçõ‰ îÁNéÀ üÁ•s ÅE ÅûªE ¶µºßª’ç)
trouble,
O’Íé-´’Ø√o help line
Öçõ‰, èπ◊ phone
Brahmam: So how do I get at him now? ≤ƒüµ¿u-¢Á’i, ï®Ω-í∫-éπ-§Ú-´-îªaØË N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo îËߪ’-´-îªaç-ö«®√?
(´’J ÅûªEo °æô’d-éÓ-´ôç ᙫ?) ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC. îËߪ’çúÕ. Supdt.: ؈’ budget prepare îËÊÆ-¨»†’.
In case of= Å®·ûË, helpline= äéπ ÆæçÆæn ´©x
Get at = îË®Ω’-éÓ-´-ôç/- °æ-ô’d-éÓ-´ôç O’®Ì-éπ\-≤ƒJ ÅC -îª÷Æœ E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’éÓ-
Vishnu: He might be at office now Ringup
Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç §Òçü¿-ö«-EéÀ îËߪ÷-Lq† phone) ´îª’a, sir.
his office. You might be able to con-
Ñ È®çúø’ Sentences ™ ™«í¬ might †’ Ææ÷îª- Answers:

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 94
tact him.
†-©’/- Ææ-©-£æ…©’ É´y-ö«-EéÀ èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç– a)
(Åûª-E°æ¤púø’ office ™ Öçúø-´îª’a. Åéπ\- ´·êuçí¬ ´’†-éπçõ‰ °ü¿l-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊, ´’†éπçõ‰ °j≤ƒn®· Prabhu: We are playing the match today, aren't
úÕéÀ Phone îÁß˝’. †’´y-ûªEo Åéπ\úø ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ Ææ÷îª-†-L-´y-ö«-EéÀ î√™« ´’®√u-ü¿-éπ-®Ωçí¬. we?
°æô’d-éÓ-´îª’a).

You might call the helpline
Contact: Ææç•ç-üµ¿ç/- ä-éπ-JûÓ communication
Öçúøôç
Brahmam: Any idea who else might know
Siva's whereabouts now? I want
him urgently.
Siva
(§ÚF É°æ¤-úÁ-éπ\-úø’-Ø√oúÓ îÁ°æp-í∫-©- Varma: Yes. But (I'm
Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ Might èπÿ, Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊†o Rajasekhar (Senior Manager):
¢√∞¡Ÿx ÉçÈé-´-®ΩØ√o ÖØ√o®√?ÅûªEo éπ©’-Ææ’- Manmohan, the power bills are going up. afraid) it might
May èπ◊ î√™« §ÚLéπ Ö†oô’x ûÁ©’-≤ÚhçC éπü∆.
éÓ-´ôç î√-™« Å´-Ææ®Ωç). Can't we make do with two air conditioners rain.
Vishnu: Try his home. Here's the number. Might, may éπØ√o áèπ◊\´ ÆæçüË-£æ…Eo ´uéπh-°æ-®Ω’-
instead of four? Prabhu: In case/ If it
But they might all be out. Ææ’hçC. Åçõ‰ May -¢√-úÕ-†°æ¤p-úø’ áèπ◊\´ rains when
(Manmohan, billséπÈ®çö¸ ¶«í¬ áèπ◊\-´®·§Úûª’-
phone
(¢√Rxç-öÀéÀ îÁß˝’. -É-CíÓ -†ç-•®˝. ≤ƒüµ¿u´’ßË’u Å´-鬨¡ç -Öç-ô’ç-ü¿-†o-´÷-ô. Ø√o®·.3 AC machines •ü¿’©’ È®ç-úÕçöÀûÓ might the
1 a) Sunil may come this evening
Å®·ûË ¢√∞Îx-´®Ω÷ Éçöx ™‰éπ-§Ú-´îª’a). Ææ®Ω’l-éÓ-´îª’a éπü∆? match we?
(Try= v°æߪ’-Aoç* îª÷úø’. ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπü∆: out: Ñ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç Ææ’F™¸ ®√´îª’a. Manmohan (Manager): Varma: (It) might be this M. SURESAN
Éçöx ™‰éπ-§Ú-´ôç; In = Éçöx Öçúøôç) b) Sunil might come this evening That might not be much use, sir. Power bills weekend.
É´Fo might combination ûÓ Ö†o verbs Ö†o Ñ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç Sunil ®√´-îËa¢Á÷. may be less, but the staff might not work so Prabhu: What might be our chances of win-
sentences éπü∆. I mean, °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù-™ -EN. Sentence (a) ™éπØ√o (b) ™ ÆæçüË£æ«ç áèπ◊\´. efficiently. ning?
Might combination ûÓ verbs English ™ ûª®Ω- Sunil may come ņo-°æ¤úø’ Ææ’F™¸ ´îËa Ææ÷îª- cur-
(Åü¿ç-ûª Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ®Ωç é¬éπ-§Ú-´îª’a. ü∆E´©x Varma: Ah... we might win...
îª’í¬ ¢√-úø’-ûª’ç-ö«ç. Åçü¿’-éπE might combina- †©’ áèπ◊\´, Sunil might come ņo-°æp-öÀ-éπØ√o. rent ê®Ω’a ûªí∫’_-ûª’ç-üË¢Á÷ é¬E, Æœ•sçC Åçûª Prabhu: What's the doubt?/ Why the doubt?
tion ûÓ ´îËa verbs †’ í∫’-Jç-* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç 2 a) It may rain (´®Ω{ç ®√´îª’a) – doubtful sir)
Ææ´’-®Ωn-ªçí¬ °æE-îË-ߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a, Varma: The pitch might not help our players.
´·êuç/ -Ö-°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ®Ωç. b) It might rain (Highly doubtful) Manager, Sr Manager
í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’ éπü∆. éÀîËa Prabhu: You might try Gopala Rao among our
Might Combination Verbs:
´’†ç Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊†o might ¢Á·ü¿öÀ Ö°æ- Might
´’®√u-ü¿-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† Ææ÷ – ¢√úÕ. bowlers. The pitch might favour him.
a) Might be ('be' form); 'What do you think of this method?'
ßÁ÷í∫ç. It expresses possibility/ uncertain- b)
b) Might+ 1st Regular doing word - might know,
ty/ doubt in the present or in the future. (Ñ °æü¿l¥-A í∫’-Jç-* O’Í®-´’-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’?) Manager: I want to get rid of all the furniture in
might come, might like, etc. 'It might not increase our profits, sir'
(A) India might win the coming cricket series the office and get a new set in its
1) Might, present ™é¬F,future ™é¬F, Åçõ‰
with Pakistan, atleast Inzamam says so
(ÅC ´’† ™«¶µ«-©†’ °çîª-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a). place./ I want to replace all the old
É°æ¤úø’é¬F, Ééπ-´·çü¿’é¬F, expresses doubt
ï®Ω-í∫-†’†o cricket series ¶µ«®Ωû˝ Èí©--¢Ìa. Now practise the following in English: furniture by a new set.
(ÆæçüË£æ«ç) and uncertainty (Ææç-Cí∫l¥-ûª). Åçõ‰
a) (È®çúÓC simple, better.)
ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Öçúø-´îª’a, ®√´îª’a ÅE '´îª’a— °æü∆©èπ◊ Éçï-´÷¢˛’ Å™« Åçô’-Ø√oúø’.
Prabhu:
´’†ç Ñ®Ó-V match -Çúø’-ûª’Ø√oç, éπü∆? Superintendent:
Ææ´÷†ç. India may win Åçõ‰ ¶µ«®Ωû˝ ÈíLîË chances
Varma: That might be a good idea. It might
a) Might be - ÉC 'be' form; Å®Ωnç: Öçúø-´îª’a. Éçé¬Ææh áèπ◊\´ ņo-´÷ô. Å´¤†’. Å®·ûË ´®Ω{ç ´Ææ’hç-üË¢Á÷?
Prabhu:
´®Ω{ç ´ÊÆh á°æ¤p-úø’ -ÇúÌa ´’†ç? be good to have the walls painted
too, sir.
-v°æ-¨¡o:
Varma:
Ñ ¢√®√çûªç Ŵa.
iii) Seminar Ææç-ü¿®√s¥-™x how can we intro- Prabhu:
´’†ç ÈíLîË Å´-é¬-¨»-™‰çö? (That might not be a bad idea, after all. Ñ
duce ourselves? Varma: sentence áèπ◊\´ ¢√u´-£æ…-J-éπç–- ´·-êuçí¬
– -áÆˇ.-ûªéÀs-ߪ÷, -´’-*-M°æ-ôoç
-Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ -¶«í¬ -´÷-ö«x-ú≈-©ç-õ‰ -àç ´’†ç... Èí©-´-îËa¢Á÷?
Prabhu: éÌçîÁç °ü¿l¢√∞¡xûÓ ´÷õ‰x-ô-°æ¤úø’, í∫’®Ω’hçC éπü∆:
-ï-¢√-•’:
-îË-ߪ÷-™ Ææ-©£æ… -É-´yí∫-©®Ω’. àçöÀ ÆæçüË£æ«ç?
– -áç.-¢Áçéπ-õ‰-¨¡y®ΩÈ®-úÕf, -<®√-© Varma: Pitch´’† Players èπ◊ help îËߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´- not bad= very good.)

-ï-¢√-•’: i) consist = éπØ˛-Æ œÆˇd – Æœ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç îËa-¢Á÷-†E!
Prabhu: ´’† bowlers ™ Gopala Rao †’ O’®Ω’
Manager: That's what I think too. But it might
cost a lot.
Spoken English
v°æA-¶µº™ ÉÆæ’h†o collapse = éπ ™«°ˇq – ™« ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç
cultivation = éπLd-¢Á-ß˝’-≠æØ˛ – ¢Áß˝’ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç try îËߪ’-´îª’a. Åûª-Eéà pitch ņ’-èπÿ- Supdt.: If I might say so, (O’Í®O’ ņ’-éÓ-éπ-§Ú-ûË-
exercises regular practice
í¬
ii) A. How do you go to home ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’– Lç-îª-´îª’a. †çúŒ)We shall have more business,
English paper
îËߪ’çúÕ. îªü¿-´ôç
How do you go home? - correct. b) sir. We might have more customers,
continue îËߪ’çúÕ. *†o *†o English story
Home 'to' Manager: Ñ §ƒûª furniture Åçû√ BÊÆÆœ éÌûªh fur- sir.
books èπÿú≈ îªü¿-´çúÕ. ûª°æpéπ ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©®Ω’– ´·çü¿’ ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ ®√ü¿’.
B. I go home by rickshaw, ... niture Å´’-®√a-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. Manager: Can we adjust this in this year's
üµÁj®Ωuçí¬ ´÷ö«x-úøôç v§ƒ®Ωç-GµÊÆh.
-v°æ-¨¡o: i) -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™... consist, collapse, cultiva- iii) Good morning, every body, I am... (name) Superintendent: ÅC ´’ç* idea, sir. ´’† Office budget?/ You feel we can adjust it in
presenting this paper on... (subject). ™‰éπ-§ÚûË èπ◊ èπÿú≈ ´’ç* ®Ω÷°æç ´Ææ’hçC. this year's budget?
tion... -O-öÀ-E -á-™« °æ-©é¬-L? Éçé¬, sir, ´’† íÓúø-©-Eoç-öÀéà Supdt.: I've prepared the budget, sir. You
My name is..., presenting this paper on...
ii) A. How do you go to home? paint -¢Ë®·ç-îªôç èπÿú≈ ´’ç*- might just look at it and decide.
B. I go home by rickshaw. éπÈ®Íéd-Ø√? üË¢Á÷, sir.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
II -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 10 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Charan: Hi Dheeraj, long time, no see. How's 2) I thought (that) you might be interested in
every body? them.
(î√™«-é¬-©-´’-®·çC, îª÷Æœ. ᙫ ¢√öÀ™ Fèπ◊ ÇÆæéÀh Öçúø-´-îªaE ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o – Past
ÖØ√o®Ωçü¿®Ω÷?) 3) I expected (that) it might go on -
Dheeraj: Fine. Thank you. How's life? Éçé¬ é̆-≤ƒ-í∫’-ûª’ç-ü¿E ÇPçî√. Past
(èπ◊™«-≤ƒØË. †’¢Áy™« ÖØ√o´¤?) Åçõ‰ might past †’ èπÿú≈ ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC – àüÁjØ√
Charan: Getting along. (àüÓ ïJ-T-§Ú-ûÓçC.) Past ™ ÖçúÌ-îªaF, ï®Ω-íÌ-îªaF Å®ΩnçûÓ.
Well, what brings you here? (àçöÀ™« Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ, Might, may éÀ past form. Compare.
´î√a´¤?) a) I think he may help me
Question English ™ î√™« common. bad
Ñ (-Å-ûªúø’ Ø√èπ◊ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îË≤ƒh-úøE ØË-††’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o–
manners é¬ü¿’. Present/ Future) b)
Can, shall, may © ´’üµ¿u Ñ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ Ö†o
Dheeraj: I thought I might see you at the book b) I thought he might help me Namrata: E†o †’´¤y ††’o movie éÀ BÂÆ\-∞«h-¢Ë-¢Á÷-
fair yesterday, but I didn't
ûËú≈-©-†’ -Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ N´-Jçî√ç. É°æ¤púø’ ´’Sx
(-Å-ûªúø’ Ø√èπ◊ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îË≤ƒh-úË-¢Á÷-†E ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o– N´-J-Ææ’hØ√oç. Might ûÓ éπL°œ. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ, †E ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o.
(E†o book fair- °æ¤Ææhéπ v°æü¿-®Ωz†™ †’´¤y Past) Priya: Ç movie FéÀ≠dçæ Öçúø-üË-¢Á÷-†E ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o.
í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓçúÕ.
éπ†-°æ-úø-´-îªa-†’-èπ◊Ø√o. é¬F ®√™‰ü¿’) a) ™ I think ÅE present N≠æߪ’ç îÁ°æ¤h-†-o°æ¤púø’ For asking for permission with I/ we in the Ç hero, heroine ©’ F favourites 鬮Ω’.
Charan: I was out of town yesterday. In fact I Might (Å®Ω’ü¿’) R Namrata: ؈’ F phone éÓÆæç wait îËÆæ’hØ√o, ´÷
may ´Ææ’hçC. question form.
A
had been away for 3 days. I returned May Most R îÁ™„x©’ †’´¤y phone îËߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´-îªaE
b) ™ I thought ÅE past N≠æߪ’ç ûÁ-LÊ°-ô-°æ¤púø’
very E
only this morning. Shall formal L
might ÅE past form (May èπ◊) ´≤Úhç-C-éπü∆. îÁ°œpØ√ èπÿú≈.
Can slightly formal & Y
c) -Å-ûª-úÕ-éπ\-úÕ-éÌ-≤ƒh-úË-¢Á÷-†E ¶µºßª’-°æú≈f. U Priya:
least formal formal & very polite S
Åçûª ¶«üµ¿-°æ-úøèπ◊. ÅüË-´’çûª ¶«í¬-™‰ü¿’. Ø√Íé
I feared/ was afraid that he might come here. & least polite & polite polite E bore éÌöÀdçC.
D
ÉC might 2nd use. It is used as the past form Answers:
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 95
Now practise the following in English:
of May. Mallesh: How long might you be here?
Mallesh: F¢Á-Ø√o-∞¡Ÿxç-úÌ-*a-éπ\úø?
Jagan: My course may last/ may go on for 15
days. I might stay for two or three

Might I come in? Jagan:
days more after that.
Mallesh: Then you might stay at our place for
two days. My brother might come in a
few days.
It might be possible only after the
(E†o Ü∞} ™‰†’. ÅÆæ©’ ´‚úø’®ÓV-©’í¬ a) I went there because you told me that he Jagan: Ø√ Course 15 course. Our directors might ask us to
™‰†’. É¢√∞¡ Öü¿-ߪ’¢Ë’ AJ-íÌî√a.) might be there. ®ÓV-©’ç-úø-´îª’a. stay in the Training Center during the
Dheeraj: I bought some books at the fair yes- †’´¤y -Å-ûªúø-éπ\úø ÖçúÌ-îªaE îÁ°œp†çü¿’-´-©x -ØË-†-éπ\-úÕéÀ ؈’ ÉçéÓ È®çúø’ course.
terday. Look. Here they are. I thought ¢Á∞«x†’. (Past) ´‚úø’ ®ÓV-©’ç-ö«- Mallesh: What will you do/ are you going to do
you might be interested in them. b) He feared that they might reveal his secret ØË¢Á÷ Ç ûª®√yûª. after classes every day?
Mallesh: Å°æ¤púø’ -†’´¤y
(E†o éÌEo °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ éÌØ√o. É¢Ë. Fèπ◊ ûª† ®Ω£æ«-≤ƒuEo ¢√∞¡Ÿx •ßª’-ô-°--úø-û√Í®-¢Á÷-†E Åûª†’ Jagan: We shall know the exact programme
¢√öÀ™ interest Öçúø-´-îªaE BÆæ’-éÌî√a) ¶µºßª’-°æ-ú≈fúø’ (Past) ´÷ Éçöx È®çvúÓ-
M. SURESAN only after classes begin. I might then
Charan: When is the fair closing? 3) May ™«í¬ØË, Might èπÿú≈ î√-™« -´’-®√u-ü¿í¬, formal V-©’ç-úø-´îª’a
be able to tell you clearly about it.
(á°æ¤púø’ ´·í∫’-≤ÚhçC?) í¬ permission Åúø-í∫-ö«-EéÀ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. éπü∆! ´÷ ņoߪ’u èπÿú≈ ÉçéÌ-Cl-®Ó-V™x
Mallesh: OK. Till then let's be in touch over
Might I come in?
´≤ƒh-úË¢Á÷.
Dheeraj: It closed yesterday. phone.
(More formal than 'May I come in?') Jagan: Åü¿çû√ course Å®·ç-ûª-®√yûË ≤ƒüµ¿u-´’-´¤-ûª’ç-
(E†o Å®·-§Ú-®·çC) Jagan: When might your brother come?
Charan: I expected it might go on for a few
'May I come in?' - ÉüË î√-™« formal í¬, Polite ü¿-†’-èπ◊ç-ö«†’. Course period ™ training
Mallesh: I thought he might come yesterday
í¬ permission Åúø-í∫-ö«-EéÀ ¢√úøû√ç-éπü∆? center ™ØË Öçúø-´’-†-´îª’a ´÷ directors.
more days. itself. But he called to say that he
'Might I come in?' - ÉC Éçé¬ áèπ◊\´ formal í¬, Mallesh: ®ÓW classes Å®·ç-ûª-®√yûª àç îË≤ƒh´¤?
(ÉçéÌEo ®ÓV-©-®·Ø√ Öçô’ç-ü¿E ÇPç-î√†’.) might not come for another two days.
polite í¬ Öçô’çC, permission Åúø-í∫-ö«-EéÀ. Jagan: ÅÆæ©’ programme àçö course begin
Dheeraj: So did I. Jagan: I expected very much that I might
'Might I use your phone?'
(-ØË-†÷ Å™«Íí ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o) Å®·çûª®√y-ûªØË ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC. Å°æ¤-úø-®·ûË Øˆ’ meet both of you.
Charan: One of the salesmen told me that it
O’ phone äéπ-≤ƒJ ¢√úø-´î√a?
'Might I come a little late tomorrow?'
Fèπ◊ clear í¬ îÁ°æp-´îª’a. b)
might go on for a few days after the Mallesh: OK. Åçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ phone ™ touch ™ Namrata: I thought you might take me to the
date.
Í®°æ¤ ؈’ é¬Ææh late í¬ ®√´î√a?
Å®·ûË permission Åúø-í∫-ö«-EéÀ î√™« Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ Öçü∆ç. movie yesterday.
(- ´ ’-JéÌ-Eo ®Ó-V-©’ §ÒúÕ-Tç-îª-´-îªaE äéπ Priya: I thought that you might not like the
salesman Ø√ûÓ ÅØ√oúø’)
¢√úø-û√®Ω’. áèπ◊\´ May ü¿í∫_Í® ÇT-§Úû√ç. Jagan: O’ ņoߪ’u á°æ¤púø’ ®√´îª’a?
´’†ç Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√oç-í∫ü∆? Can, movie. The hero and the heroine are
Dheeraj: I thought of visiting it the first day Mallesh: ؈’ E†oØË ´≤ƒh-úË¢Á÷ ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o. é¬F
Shall, May, are used with I/ We in the ques- not your favourites.
itself. But feared that there might be phone îËÆ œ îÁ§ƒpúø’. -É-çé¬ È®çvúÓ-V©ü∆é¬
tion form for asking for permission. É°æ¤púø’ Namrata: I was expecting your call though my
too much of crowd. Yesterday there ®√-ØË-¢Á÷-†-E. sister told me you might not call.
ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç– 'Might' too is used with I/ we in
was no crowd, and not many books Jagan: ؈’ î√™« expect î˨», O’ Éü¿l-JE Ñ ®ÓV
the question form for asking for permission. Priya: Don't worry. The movie wasn't good.
either.
But there are differences among them. éπ©-´-îªaE. It bored even me.
(¢Á·ü¿öÀ®Óñ‰ ¢Á∞«l-´’-†’-èπ◊Ø√o é¬F ï†ç
áèπ◊\´í¬ Öçö«-®ΩE ¶µºßª’-°æ-ú≈f†’. E†o ï†ç
-™‰®Ω÷, áèπ◊\´ °æ¤Ææh-鬩÷ ™‰´¤) -v°æ-¨¡o: Get, got Åçõ‰ í∫’-Jç-* -N-´-Jç-îªç-úÕ.  The bus is come = Bus ´*a ÖçC ÅE; é¬F DE-éπØ√o better, the bus has
Rama has come to Guntur. -Ñ -¢√éπuç -à tense? come. The bus is come ûª°æ¤p é¬ü¿’.
°j Ææ綵«-≠æù™ might combination ûÓ Ö†o  I shall have written a letter = (Future ™ àüÓ time èπ◊ í¬F Åçûª-èπ◊-´·ç-ü¿’-
Verbs í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. ´’†ç É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ Might Ö°æ- Bus is come -Åç-õ‰ -Å®Ωnç -à-N’-öÀ? has come -Å-E éπ-ü∆-! í¬F) letter ®√ÊÆÆœ Öçö«-†E.
ßÁ÷í∫ç í∫’-Jç-* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†oC – Might, Present I shall have written a letter -Åç-õ‰ I shall write a letter -Å- I shall write a letter = (Future ™; á°æ¤púÓ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’) letter ®√≤ƒh†’.
™í¬F, future ™í¬F uncertainty E/ doubt E E éπ-ü∆-! -É-™«ç-ô°æ¤p-úø’ -õ„iç í∫’-Jç-* -îÁ-§ƒp--Lqç-üË-Ø√? È®ç-úÕç-öÀ -´’-üµ¿u -î√-™« -ûË-ú≈ Öçü¿E ûÁ©’-≤ÚhçC éπü∆.
ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-Ææ’hç-ü¿E. I shall be going -Åç-õ‰ -à-N’-öÀ?  Shall be doing it = Future ™ îËÆæ÷h Öçö«†’(´·)/ ¢√∞¡Ÿx, O’®Ω’, Åûª†’/ Ç¢Á’
a) He might pass = ¢√úø’ pass Ŵa. (Doubt) – -áç.-¢Ë-ù’, -ûÁ-Ø√-L
-v°æ-¨¡o: I want to see a doctor, He wants to meet a doctor,
îËÆæ÷h Öçú≈L.
b) They might agree to it = ¢√∞¡Ÿ} ä°æ¤p-éÓ-´îª’a.
-Ñ È®ç-úø’ -¢√é¬u-©’ future.
-ï-¢√-•’:  get Åçõ‰ §Òçü¿ôç, ûÁa-éÓ-´ôç, äéπ-îÓ-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡xôç, é̆ôç, ûË´ôç, It is better to
etc. got, get èπ◊ past tense and past participle. consult a doctor-
–- -úÕ.Ææ’-¶«s®√-´¤, -Q-™«é¬-V-©÷®Ω’
-O-öÀ -Å®Ωnç -à-N’-öÀ?
c) She might be at college now
Ç¢Á’ É°æ¤púø’ college ™ Öçúø-´îª’a. – Present.  He got going - É™«çöÀîÓôx get Ææ£æ…-ߪ’éπ véÀߪ’ Ŵa. (Å®·Ø√ English
´÷ö«x-úø-ö«-EéÃ, ®√ߪ’-ö«-EéÀ àC à ®Ωéπ-¢Á’i-† véÀߪ’ ÅE ûÁ-L-ߪ÷-Lq-† -Å´-Ææ-®Ωç-™‰ü¿’ -ï-¢√-•’:
É°æ¤púø’ °j Ææ綵«-≠æù™ might combination ™ éπü∆.)  It is better to consult a doctor = Doctor †’ Ææçv°æ-Cç-îªôç ¢Ë’©’.
verb Ö†o sentences îª÷ü∆lç. Consult =
 Rama has come. Has come Ééπ\úø present tense. Å®·ûË É™«çöÀ ¢√é¬u™x
Ææçv°æ-Cç-îªôç
1) I thought (that) I might see you at the fair.
ÅC past action, time not stated (í∫ûªç™ ïJT, à time, day, year  I want to see a doctor = ؈’ Doctor †’ éπ©-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’.
fair ™ -†’-´¤y éπ†-°æ-úø-´-îªaE ņ’-èπ◊Ø√o – Past ûÁ©’-°æ-éπ-§Ú-ûË) †’ Ææ÷*-Ææ’hçC.  He wants to meet a doctor = Åûª†’ doctor †’ éπ©-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
2 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ í∫’®Ω’¢√®Ωç 12 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Ramana: Excuse me, how do I go from here
How do I go there/ get there please? ÅE
Livewell Hospital?
Livewell Hospital
(Ééπ\-úÕoç* èπ◊ ᙫ èπÿú≈ ņ-´îª’a.
Can you/ Could you direct me/ guide me..
¢Á∞«x-©çúÕ?) É-ü¿çû√ éÌçîÁç §ƒçúÕûªuç, ´÷´‚©’conversa-
Strangers Åçõ‰ éÌûªh ¢√∞¡x†’ °æ©-éπ-Jç-îË-ô°æ¤p-úø’,
tion ™ ®√ü¿’.
Excuse me ņúøç good manners ´÷vûª¢Ë’
a) Nizam college
¢Ë’ç èπ◊ -á-™« ¢Á∞«x-©çúŒ?
é¬èπ◊çú≈ ¢√∞¡x ü¿%≠œdE ÇéπJ{ç-îª-ö«-EéÀ èπÿú≈ How do we go to/ get to Nizam College,
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç. please?/
'Excuse me' ¢√úË Éûª®Ω Ææçü¿-®√s¥©’: Åúøfçí¬ Ö†o-
Could you tell us/ let us know how to go to/
¢√-∞¡x†’ é¬Ææh ûª°æ¤p-éÓ-´’-ØË-ô-°æ¤púø’, éÌûªh ¢√∞¡x °æéπ\† to get to/ We can go to Nizam college,
restaurants ™, ÉçÈé-éπ\-úÁjØ√ èπÿ®Óa-¢√Lq please?
´*a-†-°æ¤púø’, etc.) b) What's the best way to get to Nizam college,
Raghu: I can manage. Thank you. I'll be back To the left/ right; on the left/ on the right.
Manohar: Are you a stranger here? in an hour and a half or two. Where Turn/ go verbs to the left/
please? ÅE èπÿ-ú≈ ņ-´îª’a. È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ ™«çöÀ °æéπ\† Å®·ûË
(O’J-éπ\-úÕéÀ éÌûªh-¢√∞«x?) can I find you? to the rightÅçö«ç.
stranger = éÌûªh-¢√úø’
ü∆®Ω’-©’ -Öç--úø´-îªaE -¶µ«-Nç-*-†°æ¤p-úø’. Manage =
c) Bus áéπ\úøç. Get into the bus,
(؈’ ¢Á∞¡x-í∫-©-†’™‰. à °æØÁjØ√ äéπ ´uéÀh, É©’x ™«çöÀN -Öçúøôç Å®·ûË on the
Ramana: I am totally new to this place. îËÆæ’éÓ-í∫-©-í∫ôç. ؈’ í∫çô-†o®√, È®çúø’ right/ on the left
bus Cí∫úøç = get down from/ get off the bus. Åçö«ç.
(ØËE-éπ\-úÕéÀ °æ‹Jhí¬ éÌûªh) d) Ééπ\-úÕoç* bus/ auto ™ ¢Á∞¡xçúÕ. í∫çô-©éπ-™«x ´îËa-≤ƒh†’. -ØË-†’ -E-ØÁoéπ\-úø éπ©’- He is on my right.
Manohar: Where exactly do you want to go? Ææ’-éÓ-í∫-©-†’ (-Å°æp-öÀéÀ -F-¢Áéπ\-úø’ç-ö«-´-E?)
Take a bus/ an auto. (Ø√ èπ◊úÕ -¢Áj°æ¤-Ø√oúø’).
Subash: Let's meet for lunch at Eatwell's. Food
(O’®Ω’ éπÈ®-é˙dí¬ áéπ\-úÕ-Èé-∞«xL?) number bus
°∂晫-Ø√ ™/Çö™ ¢Á∞¡xçúÕ/ Auto The school is on the left of the shop.
Ramana: To Vantage Company somewhere is good there. Take bus no. 22A, get
BÆæ’éÓçúÕ. (Shop School
áúø´’ -¢Áj°æ¤ ÖçC)
around the Hospital. down at Samir plaza stop. Walk along
Take/ Get into bus no./ Take an auto. ÉN ü∆J îÁ°æp-ö«-EéÀ ¢√úË ´÷ô©’. ¶«í¬ practice
Hospital
(Ç Vantage
èπ◊ ü¿í∫_®Ω Ö†o for a few yards and there you find the
Train Take a train.
™ ¢Á∞¡xçúÕ = îËߪ’çúÕ.
Company eatery. I'll be waiting for you there.
(-´’-†ç
éÀ) Practise the following in English:
Manohar: Don't worry. A number of buses go to lunch eatwell
éÀ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç,
thatway: 125K, 15M, 62, etc. Take restaurant ™. Åéπ\úø food ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC. Tej: ´’Lxé˙ ÉçöÀéÀ ᙫ ¢Á∞¡xôç? Ééπ\-úÕoç* áçûª
15M; that takes you directly to the 22 A bus áèπ◊\,samir plaza stop ü¿í∫_®Ω ü¿÷®Ωç?
Hospital. Facing the hospital is this
Vantage Company.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 96 CT éÌCl ü¿÷®Ωç †úÕÊÆh Ñ
(restaurant) éπ-E°œÆæ’hç-C.)
eatery Nikhil: Ŷs î√™« ü¿÷®Ωç. †’´¤y È®çúø’ bus ©’
´÷J ´’Sx é¬Ææh ü¿÷®Ωç †úø-¢√L.
bus
(àç °∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰ü¿’. Åô’ ¢Áj°æ¤ ¢Á∞Ïx ©’
125K, 15M, 62..

How do I get there ?
î√™«ØË ÖØ√o®·.
15M Hospital
áéπ\çúÕ. ÅC A†oí¬ èπ◊
¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’çC.Hospital -áü¿’-®Ω’-í¬ØË
Vantage Company).
Ramana: (Do) you suggest I take an auto.
(Auto BÆæ’éÓ-´’ç-ö«®√? (Çö™ ¢Á∞¡x-
´’ç-ö«®√?) Éçé¬ É™« èπÿú≈ ņ-´îª’a. go by bus/ go by
Manohar: That'd be very expensive. Don't
Éü¿çû√ directions É´yôç í∫’-Jç-* éπü∆. Åçõ‰ Tej: †’´¤y BÆæ’Èé-∞¡x-í∫-
auto/ go by train (Bus ™/ auto ™/ train ™ ü∆J îÁ°æpôç. expressions ¢√úÕ†N îª÷úøçúÕ;
worry. Buses on this route, especial- ©¢√?
ly 15M is very frequent.
¢Á∞¡xçúÕ ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊.) O’®Ω÷ ¢√úÕ practice îËߪ’çúÕ: Nikhil: -Ñ®Ó-V ØË-†’ -î √-™«
(ÅC î√--™« áèπ◊\-´-´¤-ûª’çC. àç °∂æ®Ω-¢√- Å®·ûË ÅEoçöxéÀ simplest: Take. 1 a) walk down/ walk along/ walk up the road = busy í¬ ÖØ√o.
11.30 train ™ ¢Á∞¡xçúÕ. Í®°æ¤- -Öü¿ßª’ç -Ç®Ω’ Road
™‰ü¿’. Ñ route ™ buses frequency ¢Áç•úË †úø-´çúÕ. ü¿÷®Ω-¢Ë’-í¬E É©’x
áèπ◊\¢Ë.) í∫ç-ô-©éπ-™«x Åéπ\úø Öçö«®Ω’ b) Turn to the left/
áúø´’ -¢Áj°æ¤/ èπ◊úÕ-¢Áj°æ¤ A®Ω-í∫çúÕ= éπ†’éÓ\-´ôç ûËLÍé.
take the 11.30 train; you will be there by 6 to the right. take a turn to the left/ to
frequency = ûª®Ω, áEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x ®√´ôç ÅØËC ™‰éπ-§ÚûË Tej: éÌEo éÌçúø-í∫’-®Ω’h©’
Ramana: OK. Thank you. I see 15M coming. tomorrow morning. the right.
(at 6= by 6
îÁ°æ¤p. ؈’ éπ†’- M. SURESAN
I'll take it. ÇJç-öÀ-éÀ; = ÇJç-öÀ-éπ-™«x = ÇJç-öÀ-éÀ- ÅD é¬éπ-§ÚûË turn left/ turn right. èπ◊\çö«.
(15M í¬F Ç™-°æ™‰í¬F) c) A†oí¬ ¢Á∞¡xçúÕ= go straight/ walk straight Nikhil: ü¿éÀ~ùç -¢Áj°æ¤ †úÕÊÆh Bus stop ´Ææ’hçC, éπü∆?
´≤ÚhçC. ؈-üÁ-èπ◊\-û√†’).
catch ÅE èπÿú≈ ņ-´îª’a– ¢Á∞¡Ÿx/- ¢Á-∞¡xçúÕ ÅØË
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ùçû√ ´’†èπ◊ éÌûªh v°æüË-¨¡ç™ ü∆J ûÁ©’- d) Ç post office ü∆é¬ †úø-´çúÕ: walk on upto the 13 ´ number bus áèπ◊\. Ééπ\-úÕéÀ 6 ´ stop
Å®ΩnçûÓ, é¬F ÅEoç-öÀ-éπçõ‰ take ÅØËC best.
Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç, ûÁL-ߪ’-E-¢√-JéÀ ü∆JîÁ°æpôç í∫’Jç* ÅE post office. ™ Cí∫’. -ü∆-E-E Gulab Restaurant Stop
ûÁ©’-Ææ÷hØË ÖçC éπü∆? Ç expressions îª÷ü∆lç Raghu: Is Ramesh's very far off/ a long way off
from here? e) Walk on upto the post office and then turn Åçö«®Ω’. Åéπ\úø 27 bus áèπ◊\. Urdu
É°æ¤púø’.
left. Post office ü∆é¬ †úÕ* áúø-´’--¢Áj°æ¤ A®Ω-í∫çúÕ. School stop ü¿í∫_®Ω Cí∫’. Urdu School ü∆é¬
1) How do I go to Livewell Hospital? (®Ω¢Ë’≠ˇ ¢√∞¡x É©’x Ééπ\-úÕéÀ î√-™« ü¿÷®Ω´÷?) †úÕ*, Åçõ‰ ûª÷®Ω’p -¢Áj°æ¤, Åéπ\úÕoç* ü¿éÀ~ùç -
2) somewhere around 3) buses go that way Subash: (Do) you want to see him today? 2.
Cèπ◊\© Ê°®Ω’x Ææç-ü¿®√s¥-™x..
(É¢√∞¡ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o¢√ ÅûªEo?) a) ûª÷®Ω’pí¬ ¢Á∞¡xçúÕ. Go east/ Walk to (towards) ¢Áj°æ¤ A®Ω’í∫’. Åéπ\úø Fèπ◊ éÌçúø í∫’®Ω’h–
4) Take the bus 15M 5) facing the Hospital £æ«†’-´÷Ø˛ ǩߪ’ç. Ç Ç©ßª’ç †’ç*
6) take an auto. Raghu: Yea, because I am leaving tomorrow. the east. ´‚úÓ É™‰x ´’†-¢√-úÕC.
°∂晫-Ø√ îÓöÀ-È陫 ¢Á∞«xL ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ simplest (Å´¤†’. ؈’ Í®°æ¤ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o†’ éπü∆?) b) à Cèπ◊\-¢Áj-°æØ√o, A®Ω-í∫ôç= Turn (to the) South/
Subash: Sorry I can't take you there today. Tej: áçûªÊÆ°æ¤ °æúø’-ûª’çC?-
expression: How do I go? north, etc. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. Turn to the South =
simplest question. Let's go tomorrow. Nikhil: éπFÆæç 45 E-N’-≥ƒ-©’.
ÉC Åûªuçûª Ææ£æ«-ï-¢Á’i†, turn South.
could you let me know/ please tell
ÉC é¬éπ-§ÚûË, (É¢√∞¡ E-†o-éπ\-úÕéÀ BÆæ’Èé-∞¡x-™‰†’. Í®°æ¤ Answer:
c) Road ü¿éÀ~ùç -¢Áj°æ¤ A®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC= The road turns
me how to go/ how to get there? -¢Á-∞¡-ü∆-ç) Tej: How to go to/ how do I go to Malliks?/
Raghu: I'll be busy tomorrow. Just tell me how (to the) South
OöÀ Å®Ωnç Åéπ\-úÕ-È陫 ¢Á∞«x™ é¬Ææh îÁ•’-û√®√? ÅE Malliks place?
´’®√u-ü¿í¬ Åúø-í∫ôç. to get/ go there. I can go on my own. d) Road ´’©’°æ¤ A®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC= The road takes a Nikhil: O, it's a long way off. You need to walk
busy
(Í®°æ¤ ؈’ î√-™« í¬ Öçö«†’. ᙫ bend. some distance after changing two
on my own
-v°æ-¨¡o: My
¢Á∞«x™ îÁ°æ¤p. ؈’ ¢Á∞¡x-í∫-©†’. e) Road ´’©’°æ¤ ü¿í∫_Í® Ç building= buses.
brother was come- -Å-ØË- = Ø√ Åçûªô ØËØË) The building is at the bend of the road= Tej: Can you take me there?
¢√éπuç -ûª°æ¤p -Å-Ø√o®Ω’. é¬-E VIth Subash: OK. Walk down the street. Turn to the You find the building (Fé¬ building éπE-°œ- Nikhil: I am very busy today. The place is dis-
form of verb -™ beform+pp - left and wait for Bus No. 4. It's quite tant but is easy to find.
Ææ’hçC) at the point where the road takes a
Å-E -îÁ-§ƒp®Ω’. -Ç -v°æ鬮Ωç -Ñ - frequent. Get off at Head Post Office Tej: Give me/ Let me have some land marks.
bend.
¢√éπuç éπÈ®Íéd éπ-ü∆! stop. Walk along in the direction as I'll manage.
– -á-Ø˛.°æ%-D∑y, ®√-V-§ƒ-™„ç the bus goes, turn to the right and
f) Road ™ Ö†o äéπîÓô’= a point. Nikhil: Walk South and you get the bus stop,
-ï-¢√-•’: then left. The fourth house on the right g) Ñ îÓöÀ†’ç* Åéπ\-úÕéÀ 2 éÀ.O’. don't you? Take bus no. 13. Get off / get
My brother was come- was come
Ééπ\úø was
†’ is Ramesh's. You can't miss it. Just It is 2 km from the point. down at the 6th stop from here. That is
+ past participle passive
ÅE BÆæ’èπ◊çõ‰ Å°æ¤púø’ opposite the place is Golconda super ´’†ç directions îÁÊ°p-ô-°æ¤púø’ ¢√úË éÌçúø í∫’®Ω’h©’= the Gulab Restaurant stop. Catch Bus
voice Å´¤-ûª’çC– Å®Ωnç – Åûªúø’ ®√•-ú≈fúø’– DEéÀ market. land marks . no. 27 there. Get off at Urdu School
sentence street stop. Walk up to Urdu School, that is,
Å®Ωnç ™‰ü¿’, 鬕öÀd ÅC Å´ü¿’ éπü∆? ÅD (Ñ ¢Áç•úË †úø÷. áúø´’ -¢Áj°æ¤ A®Ω’í∫’. a) Åéπ\-úÕéÀ ü¿í∫_J éÌçúø í∫’®Ω’h
beform + pp - verb form, subject Bus Post Office stop walk (to the) east, and then turn South.
é¬èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúË -Ø√-©’íÓ -†ç-•®˝ áèπ◊\. the nearest land mark to the place.
verbs Bus There you have a land mark- Hanuman
b) Hyderabad central is a famous land mark
(Åçõ‰ á´-JE, üËEE ÅE v°æ¨¡o ¢ËÆæ’èπ◊çõ‰ ü¿í∫_®Ω Cí∫’. ¢Á∞Ïx ¢ÁjÊ° é¬Ææh ü¿÷®Ωç †úÕ*, èπ◊úÕ-
ï¢√•’ ´îËa verbs) èπ◊ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Öçô’çC– ÉC road
¢Áj°æ¤ AJT ´’Sx áúø-´’--¢Áj°æ¤ A®Ω’í∫’. Ç ™ Temple. The third from the temple is our
'Hyderabd Central' Åçü¿-Jéà ûÁL-Æœ† éÌçúø í∫’®Ω’h. friend's.
Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ Lessons explain
™ î˨»ç– you can't miss it
èπ◊úÕ-¢Áj°æ¤ -Ø√-©’íÓ É™‰x ®Ω¢Ë’-≠ˇC.
c) How do I find your home? Any land mark? Tej: How long will it take?
îª÷úøçúÕ. Å®·ûË He is come/ He is gone- Ñ = ÅC éπ†-°æ-úø-éπ-§Ú-´ôç Åçô÷ Öçúøü¿’. áü¿’-®Ω’í¬
Nikhil: At least 45 minutes.
sentences correct, é¬F Åçûªí¬ ¢√úø®Ω’. super market
íÓ™Ô\çúø Öçô’çC. O’ É©’x ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÌ-ØË-üÁ™«? àüÁjØ√ éÌçúø í∫’®Ω’hçü∆?

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡-E¢√®Ωç 14 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Ranjan: Hi Sajjan, what brings you here so Ranjan: Ok, I'll give you another route. Drive
early in the day? along, take the 3rd right, proceed till
(àçöÀ, Éçûª °ç-ü¿-®√∞Ï É™« ´î√a´¤?) you see a Ganesh temple with a large
Sajjan: Just to see you, Ranjan, long since we neem tree behind it. Go on further
met you know.
along. Then turn left. You find the
(Ç, E†’o îª÷úø-ö«-EÍé, ´’†ç éπ©’-Ææ’èπ◊-E sales Tax Office there. You can't miss
-î√-™« ®ÓV-©-®·ç-C-éπü∆?)
it because in front of it there is an STD
Ranjan: That's right/ so it is, of course. What's
(what has) happened to you all these booth. The 2nd house from it is
days? You forgot me. Didn't you? Bhushan's. So, distant perhaps, but
(éπÈ®Íéd™‰. ÉEo®ÓV-™‰-´’-ߪ÷u´¤ †’´¤y?/ easy to locate, isn't it? 5) Close by = near by = close to = near = Now Practise the following aloud in English:
à´’®·çC Fèπ◊? ††’o ´’Ja-§Ú-ߪ÷´¤, (ÉçéÓ route îÁ§ƒh. É™« ¢Á∞¡Ÿx, ´‚úÓ- èπ◊úÕ (Åéπ\-úÕéÀ) ü¿í∫_-®Ω™, Ç ü¿J-ü∆-°æ¤™x Pavan: Arjun, O’ ÉçöÀéÀ -dž’-èπ◊†o Building àçöÀ?
road -¢Áj°æ¤ A®Ω’í∫’. Å™«Íí ¢Á∞¡Ÿx í∫ù‰¨»-©-ߪ’ç a) You know the collectorate, don't you? The
Arjun: Net Centre
éπü∆?) Ææçí∫û√ -†’-´y-úÕ-ÍíC?
Sajjan: I could say the same about you, electricity office is close by/ nearby/ close
´®Ωèπ◊. ǩߪ’ç ¢Á†’éπ °ü¿l ¢Ë°æ îÁô’dç- Pavan: Net Centre O’ ÉçöÀéÀ èπ◊úÕ-¢Áj°æ¤. ؈-úÕ-ÍíC
couldn't I? to it/ near it =Fèπ◊ collectorate ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆?
(E†’o í∫’-Jç-* èπÿú≈ ؈üË Å†-´îª’a éπü∆?)
ô’çC. Éçé¬Ææh ü¿÷®Ωç-¢Á∞¡Ÿx, áúø-´’ -¢Áj°æ¤
( Collector, Director, Commissioner ™«çöÀ áúø´’ -¢Áj°æ¤ Building Ææçí∫A.
A®Ω’í∫’. Åéπ\úø sales tax office Öçô’çC. Arjun: ÅC Telephone Engineering Company
Ranjan: Ok, Ok, let's not quarrel. Happy we've °æü∆-©èπ◊' - ate'
îËJÊÆh ¢√J 鬮√u-©-ߪ÷-©ØË Å®Ωnç
met atleast now, aren't we?
ÅC miss Å´-™‰´¤ †’´¤y. áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ ü∆E ´Ææ’hçC.) Ç electricity office ü∆EéÀ ü¿í∫_Í®. ¢√∞¡xC. ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ á°æ¤púø÷ •ßª’ô °æE áèπ◊\´.
(ÆæÍ®x, íÌ-úø-¢Ì-ü¿’l. É°æpöÀÈéjØ√ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†oç- ´·çüË ã STD booth Öç-C. Åéπ\-úÕ-Eç-* 6) Proceed = Å™«Íí ¢Á∞¡xôç/ -¢Á-∞¡x-ôç. Åçü¿’-éπE ü∆ü∆°æ¤ á°æ¤púø÷ ´‚ÊÆ Öçô’çC.
ü¿’èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ≠æç éπü∆?) È®çúÓ É™‰x Bhushan C.) a) Ñ road ¢Áç•õ‰ A†oí¬ ¢Á∞¡xçúÕ Pavan: -Ç -ã-†®˝ -áéπ\-úø’ç-ö«-úø’?
éÀç-ü¿-öÀ lesson ™ ™«Íí Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æù èπÿú≈ ü∆J proceed straight along this road. Arjun: Çߪ’-†’çúËC X®√ç-†-í∫-®˝™ . †’Ny-éπ\-úÕoç*
Åúø-í∫-ö«-EéÃ, ü∆J îÁ°æp-ö«-EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† b) Proceed to the east = ûª÷®Ω’p -¢Áj°æ¤ ¢Á∞¡xçúÕ ¢Á∞«x-©çõ‰ ûÌN’t-üÓ-†ç-•®˝ Bus áèπ◊\.
Ææ綵«-≠æù‰ éπü∆? c) If you proceed for a KM, you will see the Pavan: Ø√èπ◊ bike ÖçC.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 97 Ééπ\úø ´÷ô©’ îª÷ü∆lç: cross roads, behind, place = Å™«Íí ã éÀ-™-O’-ô®Ω’ ü¿÷®Ωç ¢Á∞Ïh Ç Arjun: Ñ ®Óú˛ ¢Áç•úË ¢ÁRx, èπ◊úÕ-¢Áj°æ¤ AJ-TûË éÌçûª-
in front of, proceed, go further along. îÓô’ O’èπ◊ éπE°œ-Ææ’hçC. ü¿÷®Ωç ûª®√yûª §ƒ© booth éπ-E°œÆæ’hç-C. ü∆E
¢Á†-éπØË Çߪ’-E©’x. Çߪ’EçöÀ °æéπ\ building
†’ Åü∆l© ¢Ë’úø Åçö«®Ω’. Åéπ\-úÕéÀ ü¿í∫_Í® ´’†

Need not walk further Maths lecturer É©’x.
Pavan: OK Thank you.
Answer:
Pavan: Arjun, What's in the building beside/
Sajjan: You can very well say that. How about 1) Cross Roads/ road junction = 7) farther, further: farther,
Ø√©’í∫’ ®Óúøx next to yours?
disturbing Bhushan now? X roads far èπ◊ Comparative;
-èπÿ-úøL = DEo ÅE -èπÿú≈ ®√≤ƒh®Ω’. Arjun: Are you talking of the Net Centre?
(†’´y-ØËC correct. Bhushan ¢√Rxç-öÀéÀ áèπ◊\´í¬ center ÅF, î¯é˙ ÅF- Åçô’çö«ç. far: ü¿÷®Ωç.
Pavan: The Net Centre is on the right of your
¢Á∞«l´÷?) chowk £œ«çD- ´÷ô. center ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. i) farther: áèπ◊\´ ü¿÷®Ωç.
place. I am asking you about the build-
you can say that/ you can very well say that 2) behind = ¢Á†éπ. DE •ü¿’©’ ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ î√-™«- Mumbai is farther
from Vijayawada, ing on the left of your place.
= †’´y-ØËC correct. ´’çC backside/ at the back side Åçô’ç-ö«®Ω’.
Disturbing Bhushan Åç-õ‰ – ¢√Rxç-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞«l´÷? than from Arjun: That belongs to a Telephone
é¬E english ™ backside = buttocks
ÅØË é¬F ÅûªEo trouble îËߪ’-ö«-E-éπE é¬ü¿’) (°œ®Ω’-ü¿’©’). Åçûªí¬ back ¢√ú≈-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰, at the Hyderabad. M. SURESAN Engineering Company. Most of their
Ranjan: (I) Like to, but I'm not for going so far back of Åçõ‰ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC. ´·ç¶„j £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛ work is outdoors (•ßª’ô). That's why it
off now? a) The car is behind/ at back of the bus. éπç-õ‰ Nï-ߪ’-¢√-úø- †’ç* áèπ◊\´ ü¿÷®Ωç. is almost (ü∆ü∆°æ¤) always closed.
(É≠æd¢Ë’ é¬E, -É°æ¤p-úø’ Åçûªü¿÷®Ωç ´îËa °æJ-Æœn- (At the backside of the bus é¬ü¿’.) ii) further: Éçé¬. I can't walk any further: Pavan: Where does the owner live? Do you
A™ ™‰†’) 3) In front of =
´·ç-ü¿’ -Å-E ( space Ææç-ü¿®Ωs¥ç-™). ÉçÈé-èπ◊\´ ü¿÷®Ωç (Éçéπ) ؈’ †úø-´-™‰†’. know?
Sajjan: far off? His place is/ He lives close (Ééπ\úø farther= further éπü∆?)
ÉC behind/ at the back of èπ◊ opposite. DE Arjun: He lives in Sriram Nagar. If you are
by, doesn't he? b) Don't talk any further: ÉçÍéç ´÷ö«x-úøèπ◊.
•ü¿’©’ èπÿú≈ before áèπ◊\´ ¢√úø’-ûª’çö«ç. going from here take bus No.9
(ü¿÷®Ωç Åçô’-Ø√o-¢ËçöÀ? Ééπ\-úÕéÀ ü¿í∫_Í® éπü∆ Before Time c) Walk further (farther) along:
¢√Rx-©’x?/-É-éπ\-úÕéÀ ü¿í∫_®Ω™ØË Öçö«úø’ éπü∆?) Åçõ‰ '´·çü¿’— ÅØË Å®Ωnç, é¬E ÅC Pavan: I have my bike.
™ ´·çü¿’ ÅE space ™ é¬ü¿’. Å®·ûË The Å™«Íí Éçé¬ †úø-´çúÕ.
Arjun: Drive along this road, turn right and go
Ranjan: That was till 2 months ago. He moved
School comes before the cloth shop - d) Go further down the street:
to surendranagar.
Ééπ\úø on for some distance; you find a milk
Correct, à Å®ΩnçûÓ? Ç cloth shop èπ◊ É´-ûª™‰ Çroad ¢Áç•úÕ Éçé¬-ü¿÷®Ωç †úø-´çúÕ.
(Å-C È®ç-úø’-ØÁ-©-© éÀç-ü¿-öÀ Ææçí∫-A. -¢√-úø’ e) You need not walk further than the statue booth. The house behind it is his. The
Surendra nagar èπ◊ É©’x ´÷®√-úø’.) ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ÅçûËé¬F äéπ building èπ◊ ´·çü¿®Ω
Ç Nví∫£æ«ç ü∆öÀ †úø-´-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. building next to his is called Addala
-É-©’x -´÷®Ωôç-= move; shift Åçûª- Ææ-J-é¬ü¿’. ÅE é¬ü¿’.
meda. Our Maths lecturer's place is
a) ´÷ ÉçöÀ´·ç-ü¿’ -ã éÌ•sJ-îÁ-ô’dçC. There is a Lesson No 96 ´÷ô©÷, Ñ Lesson ´÷ô©÷,
Å™«Íí 2 months ago, correct, 2 months
Coconut tree in front of our home. closeby.
back ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’)
ü∆J ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-ôç™, Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ ü∆J îÁ°æp-ôç™
Sajjan: That's news. The fellow didn't even call b)¢√∞¡x É©’xPost Office Their place
É´-ûª™‰ = ¢√úøôç Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ--üµ∆®Ωùç. O’ conversation ™ Pavan: OK. Thank you.
to tell me of it. I wish to see him urgent- is/ comes before the post office. Practice îËߪ’çúÕ.

-v°æ-¨¡o: Main verbs (tell, drinks), -¢√-öÀéÀ -´·ç-ü¿’-´-îËa
ly about something important. How do 4) Beside = The Collectorate is beside
°æéπ\† –
I go to him? I didn't tell him= ؈-ûª-EéÀ îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’
the swaraj Maidan. (Ææy®√ñ¸ ¢Á’iü∆Ø˛ °æéπ\ØË
helping verbs (do, did) tenses
-©’- -¢ËÍ®y®Ω’ I never told him = -
(ÅC Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’. ¢√úø’ Ç N≠æߪ’ç Collectorate = Collector's office. Collector,
phone îËÆæ-®·Ø√ îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’.¢√ùÀo-°æ¤púø’ ´·êu- (present tense, past tense)
-™ -Ö-†o°æp-öÀéà ؈-ûª-E-Èé-°æ¤púø÷ îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’.
director, Commissioner, etc, 'ate' èπ◊ îËJÊÆh ¢√∞¡x
¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç í∫’-Jç-* éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√L. ᙫ?) È®ç-úÕç-öÀ- Å®Ωnç -äéπ\-õ‰-Ø√? (never = á°æ¤púø÷ ™‰ü¿’/ é¬ü¿’)
鬮√u-©-ߪ÷-©ØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC). eg. I didn't tell, I never told
Ranjan: I'll tell you. Listen carefully. You have a I might tell him:
a) The Cloth shop is beside the Post Office -
bike, haven't you. Drive straight along I might tell, I might have told ؈-ûª-EéÀ îÁ°æp-´îª’a (îÁ§ƒh-ØË¢Á÷)– (future)
Å®·ûË beside 'next to' better,
éπçõ‰ èπÿú≈
the road. At the next cross roads, turn I did not tell, I have not told. I might have told him =
left. Take the third right turn again.
áèπ◊\´. – Èé.-A®Ω’°æ-A, ®√-´÷-ߪ’çÊ°-ô
-ï-¢√-•’:
b) The cloth shop is next to the jewellery on
؈-ûª-EéÀ îÁ°œp Öçúø-´îª’a (îÁ§ƒp-ØË¢Á÷– past)
(îÁÊ°pC ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ N†’. F bike ÖçC, îª÷úøçúÕ: 'tell' ûª®√yûª á´-JûÓ îÁ°œpçC èπÿú≈
the left of/ on the right of it = shop
Helping verbs helping verb
road Drive =
Ç †í∫©
éπü∆?Ñ ¢Áç•úË ¢Á∞¡Ÿx. (
shop,
¢√úËîÓôx, ûª®√yA îÁ§ƒpL. 'say' and 'tell' èπ◊ ûËú≈ -É-C-´®Ω-™
Motor ¢√£æ«-†ç™ ¢Á∞¡xôç.) Ç ûª®√yûª ´îËa °æéπ\ØË Ç •ôd© èπ◊úÕ -¢Áj°æ¤/-á-úø´’ ¢Áj°æ¤ main verbs tense, helping verb tense †’•õ‰d
(Beside, besides. beside = by the side of =
N´-Jç-î√ç.
Centre ™ áúø´’-¢Áj°æ¤ A®Ω’í∫’. ´’Sx ´‚úÓ- Öçô’çC. I did not tell him =
°æéπ\†– ´’†ç Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ °æéπ\† ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ eg: He does not know this:
time,
èπ◊úÕ- ¢Áj°æ¤ -BÆæ’éÓ) ؈-ûª-EéÀ îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’ (í∫ûªç™, Åçõ‰ á°æ¤púø’
Sajjan: You are confusing me. Why don't you ¢√úÕ-†-´÷ô. Ééπ\úø'does' present tense verb
鬕öÀd, ÅE îÁ°æpúøç ïJ-TûË– äéπ time, date, year,
come along too. Besides = also, èπÿú≈, ü∆E-ûÓ-§ƒô’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. 'does know' present tense.
week, etc)
confuse
(†’´¤y ††’o îËÆæ’h-Ø√o´¤. †’-´‹y- I lost my pen besides my book. Book ûÓ §ƒô’ I did not tell him - 'did' past tense; so verb
I have not told him = ØËEçûª´®Ωèπ◊ îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’.
®√-èπÿ-úøü∆? pen èπÿú≈ §ÚíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊Ø√o) did tell- past tense.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
iII Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 17 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Varun: Hi Tarun, Congrats on scoring a hun- Tarun: I want to do a PG course in IISC,
dred percent in Maths. Bangalore.
(†÷öÀéÀ †÷®Ω’ ´÷®Ω’\©’ Maths ™ ´*a-†ç- (ÉüÁjçûªª®√yûª Bangalore ™ IISC îË®√-©E)
ü¿’èπ◊ congratulations. Cent percent PG course= Post graduate. (MA, M.Sc
É°æ¤púø’ §ƒûª-•úÕ §Ú®·çC. A / One hun- ™«çöÀ Master courses †’ PG courses
dred percent ÅØËC É°æp-öÀ- ¢√-úø’éπ.) Åçö«®Ω’. BA, B.Sc, ™«çöÀ B ûÓ Courses=
Tarun: Thank you. Congrats to you too. You Bachelor/ degree/ graduate courses
scored the highest in English, didn't Åçö«ç. Post = ûª®√y-ûª. Post graduate =
you? graduate ûª®√y-ûª.
(Fèπÿ Congrats. Fèπ◊ English ™ Åçü¿-J- Varun: That's a good idea. You are good at
éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ´÷®Ω’\©’ ´î√a®· éπü∆?) Sciences. Shankar: May I Know what you are?
b) ؈’ Ñ -àú≈C *´®Ω Inter exams ®√ߪ’-¶-ûª’-
Varun: I am happy about it. My marks in Maths (Fèπ◊ Sciences ¶«í¬ ´Ææ’hç-C é¬-•-öÀd ÅC (O’Í®ç îËÆæ’hç-ö«®Ó ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-î√a?/ Ø√o†’
aren't bad either, though didn't get a ´’ç* idea ØË.) O’Í®ç îËÆæ’hç-ö«®Ω’?) (I am taking/ will take the Inter exams at the
hundred percent. When I joined the Dinakar: I am a student
Tarun: I think the time has come for us to apply end of this year/ I am sitting the Inter exams
course a few months I was not that con- Shankar: Studying...?
for the entrance exams of these cours- at the end of this year/ I sit the exam.
fident about Maths. My hard work has Appear for an exam - expression
es which are usually in December every (àç îªü¿’´¤ûª’Ø√o®Ω’) Ñ É°æ¤p-úøçûª
paid off. The marks in this exam have
year. Dinakar: I am doing my II year Inter/ I am at ¢√úø-ôç-™‰ü¿’.
given me confidence. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: °æKéπ~ ®√ߪ’ôç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ a) give
(´’†ç Ñ entrance exams – v°æ¢Ë-¨¡-°æ-K-éπ~- college in the degree course/ I am in
(Ø√èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ-≠æç-í¬ØË ÖçC. Maths ™ èπÿú≈ an exam, b) write an exam ÅE î√-™« ´’çC
©èπ◊ apply îËߪ÷-Lq† time ´*aç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«. the 10th Class/ I am doing my X
Ø√èπ◊ ´’ç* Marks ´î√a®· †÷öÀ-éÀ -†÷®Ω’ Åçô’ç-ö«®Ω’ – OöÀ™x àC-èπÿú≈ correct é¬ü¿’.
鬧Ú-®·Ø√. course ™ join Å®·-†-°æ¤púø’ ≤ƒ-üµ∆®Ω-ùçí¬ Ñ entrance exams ÅFo class.
(say either, 'Take an exam' or 'sit an exam'.)
Åçûª- †-´’téπç ™‰ü¿’ Maths N≠æ-ߪ’ç™. Ñ èπÿú≈ December ™ Öçö«®·.) 2 a) School/ College ™ îË®Ωôç= Join a School/ Å™«Íí am appearing/ is appearing/ are
exam ™ marks Ø√™ †´’téπç éπ-L-Tç-î √®·. college - join in é¬ü¿’. appearing for an exam èπÿú≈ ûªÊ°p. É™«çöÀ
Aren't bad either = ÅC èπÿú≈ -îÁúËç é¬ü¿’ b) äéπ course îªü¿-´ôç = studying a course. îÓôxçû√ taking ¢√úÕûË ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC.
¶«í¬ØË ´*açC. English ™ not ûÓ also ®√ü¿’. äéÓ\-°æ¤púø’ taking a course. Éçé¬ Do an exam ÅE èπÿú≈ ņ-´îª’a.
either ´Ææ’hçC. Confidence = †´’téπç; paid
off= ´’ç* îËÆ œçC/ ™«¶µºç éπL-Tç-*çC.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 98 c) She is taking a course in Software She is going her final year B.Tech exam at
the end of this year.
Software course îªü¿’-´¤-ûÓçC.
Tarun: How come you joined this college, when
you have so many colleges in your
place?
O’ Ü∞x á-ØÓo College ©’ -Öçúøí¬, Ééπ\úø
-áç-ü¿’èπ◊ join Åߪ÷u--´¤?
How come= áçü¿’èπ◊, purely conversational
expression. O’ conversation ™ ûª®Ω-í¬
I am taking the exams
¢√úøçúÕ: Varun: Yesterday's papers carried the ads 3 a) She is taking lessons in music/ dance, etc:
about the entrance exams. The last
Ç¢Á’ Ñ Ææç´-ûªq-®Ωç™
How come you are here? = -àçöÀ-éπ\-úø’-Ø√o¢˛? Music, dance ™ Péπ~ù §Òçü¿’-ûÓçC/ ØË®Ω’a-éÌç- B.tech *´J Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç
How come you don't know this? date for sending in the filled in applica- öçC = She is learning music/ dance =
FéÀC ûÁ-L-ߪ’éπ-§Ú-´ôç àçöÀ? tions is the 12th of next month. She is doing taking a course in music/
°æKéπ~ ®√Ææ’hçC.
(E†oöÀ papers ™ Ñ v°æ¢Ë¨¡ °æK-éπ~© ads 8 °æK-éπ~™x ´÷®Ω’\©’ ûÁa-
Varun: Dad wasn't happy with any of those col- dance.
leges, so he admitted me into / to this ´î√a®·. °æ‹-Jh-îËÆœ-† applications °æ秃-Lq† ÅC í∫ûªç™ Å®·ûË took, learned, etc ¢√úøû√ç. éÓ-´ôç get/ score/
secure. OöÀ™ x secure
college. *´--J-ûËC ´îËa ØÁ© 12) b) I want to take this software course
(´÷ Ø√†oéπ¢Ë-O’ †îªa-™‰ü¿’. Åçü¿’-éπE Ééπ\úø Tarun: Then we had better get ready. Ok, then, ØËFsoftware course îªü¿-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. éÌClí¬ §ƒçúÕûªuç – ¢√úø- M. SURESAN
îËJpç-î√®Ω’.) see you. 4 i) ¶«í¬ îªü¿-´ôç= éπ-§Ú-´ôç ´’ç*C.
(Å®·ûË ´’†ç ready Å´ôç ´’ç*C. -´’-S} study well/ do well at studies. Rama Rao: How much/ How many marks did
Tarun: Where did you do your schooling?
(†’´¤y à School ™ îªü¿’-´¤-èπ◊-Ø√o´¤?) éπ©’Ææ’èπ◊çü∆ç) a) 'How is he studying?/ Is he good at studies? you get/ score in last week's
Varun: Upto the 7th Class in Teachwell School Varun: Bye. 'O, he is doing very well at studies/ He is exam?
and from the 8h to the 10th in Learnwell Students, Studies, courses èπ◊ Ææç-•ç-Cµç-*-† studying very well; he is hardworking.' (éÀç-ü¿-öÀ-¢√®Ωç °æK-éπ~™  áçûª/ -áEo
School. Ææ綵«-≠æù éπü∆ ÉC? éÌEo expressions (éπ≠d-°æ æúÕ îªü¿-´ôç) ´÷®Ω’\©’ -ûÁa-èπ◊-Ø√o´¤?/ ´î√a®·
(7´ class ´®Ωèπ◊ Teachwell School ™, 8th °æJ-Q-Lü∆lç. ii) ¶«í¬ îªü¿-´ôç = be good at studies, clever/ Fèπ◊?)
†’ç* 10th ´®Ωèπ◊ Learnwell School ™) bright at studies (¶«í¬, ûÁL-Ní¬ îªü¿’-´¤-û√®Ω’.) Bharadwaj: Dad, I can't say I got/ scored very
students ņ-í¬ØË marks, pass, fail, score
Tarun: How do you like being a hosteller? b) She is good at maths, but rather poor at high marks.
É™«çöÀ ´÷ô©’, fees, study, ™«çöÀ ´÷ô©’ Physics = -Ç -Å-´÷t®·éÀ ™„éπ\©’ ¶«í¬ØË -´-a, é¬F
(Hostel ™ Öçúøôç ᙫ -ÖçC Fèπ◊?) í∫’®Ìh-≤ƒh-®·-éπü∆? î√-™« simple í¬, Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬ ÖçúË (--´÷®Ω’\-©’ ¶«í¬ ûÁa-èπ◊-†o-ô’d/- ´-*a-
Physics poor.
™ é¬Ææh
Hosteller = resident = Hostel ™ ÖçúÕ ´÷ô© B®Ω’ É™« Öçô’çC. †ô’d îÁ°æp-™‰†’)
5 Class college
èπ◊ £æ…ï-®Ω-´ôç/ éÀ £æ…ï-®Ω-´ôç
îªü¿’´¤èπ◊ØË¢√úø’. Being= Öçúøôç, Being a 1 a) †’¢Áy-éπ\úø îªü¿’´¤ûª’Ø√o´¤? Rama Rao: Why isn't your score high? Why
attend class (es)/ attend college.
hosteller = Hosteller í¬ Öçúøôç. Where are you studying?/ Which School/ aren't your marks high?
6 Poor at studies = dull at studies.
Varun: O, I do like it. That's a kind of experi- College are you studying in?/ Which School/ (áèπ◊\´ marks áçü¿’èπ◊ ûÁa-éÓ-™‰-ü¿’/-
°æKéπ~ = 7 exam (examination ´·êuçí¬ ®√ûª-™ØË
ence. Valuable in its own way. The only College are you a student of? ®√-™‰ü¿’?)
¢√úø-û√®Ω’. ´÷ö«x-úË-ô°æ¤púø’ exam
¢√úøôç Ææ••’);
problem is food. Where did you do OR
b) F¢Ë class? = what class are you in?/ Which exam
èπÿ, test
èπÿ ûËú≈:
Intermediate? Why Couldn't you score high?
class are you studying? what class are you a) exam:
äéπ Nü∆u-®Ω|ûª (qualification) - X class
(Ø√éÀ≠d¢æ Ë’. ÅüÓ Å†’-¶µº-´ç–- ü∆E N©’´ ü∆E- doing? Inter, B.Tech, Msc
™«çöÀ certificates
é¬F, Why couldn't you get high marks?
èπ◊çC. (valuable= N©’-¢Áj†) ǣ慮Ωç äéπõ‰ OöÀéÀ Ææ´÷-üµ∆-Ø√©’. Iam studying in... School/ degrees
é¬F §Òçü¿-ö«-EéÀ Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’i† ´·êu-¢Á’i† (áçü¿’èπ◊ áèπ◊\-´í¬ ûÁa-éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷¢˛?)
Ææ´’Ææu. †’-´¤y -Éç-ô®˝ áéπ\úø îªC-¢√´¤?) College. I am in the I year Inter/ II year °æKéπ~. OR
Tarun: Here itself. Why didn't you go for b) Test: ã exam èπ◊ •ü¿’©’í¬í¬F, Åü¿-†çí¬í¬F Why did you score low? Why did
degree, etc. Studying •ü¿’©’, doing áèπ◊\´
Engineering after Inter? Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’ à subject áçûª´®Ωèπ◊ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-èπ◊- you get such low marks.
(Ééπ\úË. †’¢Áyç-ü¿’èπ◊ Engineering îË®Ω-™‰ü¿’?) ¢√u´-£æ…-Jéπç.
a) ؈’ I year Engineering îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o†’
Ø√o®Ω ’, áçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ¢√∞¡xé¬ subject ´îª’a ÅE E®Ωg- (Åçûª- ûª-èπ◊\-¢Áç-ü¿’èπ◊ ûÁa-èπ◊-Ø√o-´¤/ -
Ééπ\úË Å†-ö«-EéÀ Here only ÅE Åçô’çö«ç – ®·ç- î ª-ö«-EéÀ E®Ωy-£œ«çîË °æKéπ~ test. Test Æ洒ߪ’ç, Åçûª ûªèπ◊\´ Marks ᙫ ´î√aß˝’?)
I am doing my I year Engineering.
Éü¿çûª ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’– Here itself ÆæÈ®j† expression. exam Æ洒ߪ’ç éπçõ‰ ûªèπ◊\¢Ë Öçúø-´îª’a. Ææçü¿- Éçûª-éπçõ‰ ¢Á’®Ω’-Èíj† Marks ûÁa-éÓ-™‰-éπ-
b) Which year of medicine are you in? are
Varun: I am not interested. Moreover I want to ®√s¥Eo •öÀd test ™ marks èπ◊ Nü∆u-®Ω|-ûª™ Åçûª-
you studying/ which year? §Ú-ߪ÷¢Ëç?
be an MBA. Why didn't you? ´·-êuçí¬ í∫’Jhç-°æ¤ -Öç-úø-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a.
(ÉC Éçûªèπ◊´·çüË medicine ÅE ûÁLÊÆh)/ Why could n't you score better?/
(Ø√èπ◊ interest
™‰ü¿’. ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈ Ø√èπ◊ 8 °æKéπ~ ®√ߪ’ôç: Take an exam/ sit an exam.
Which year are you doing? Why couldn't you get better marks
MBA Å¢√-©E -Öç-C. ´’J †’¢Áyç-ü¿’èπ◊ a) ؈’ Í®°æ¤ °æKéπ~ ®√ߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o†’
Medicine à Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o´¤? than this?.
Engineering îË®Ω-™‰ü¿’?) I am taking an exam tomorrow.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
iII Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ í∫’®Ω’¢√®Ωç 19 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Neeraj: Hi Suraj, ages since we met; what's
b) exams ®√Ææ÷hç-úøôç ´©x BJé𠙉éπ-§Úôç –
wrong?
busy taking/ attending exams (Busy writ-
(´’†ç éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊E î√-™« ®ÓV-©-®·çC. àçöÀ ing exams
´÷vûªç-é¬ü¿’, english writing ™
鬮Ωùç?) an exam/ exams ÅØË ´÷ô ™‰ ü ¿’ – éÀç-ü¿-öÀ
Suraj: I was very busy till yesterday with my
™ lesson
ûÁ © ’- Æ æ ’ - è π ◊ Ø√oç í∫ ü ∆?)
exams. Thank God, its all over. What a
c) exams
´îËaÆæ’hØ√o®· = exams are fast
relief! No more exam nerves
approaching = exams ÆæO’-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®· =
(E†oöÀ´®Ωèπ◊ exams ´©x î√-™« busy í¬ (Approach -
Åv§Úî˝ – v§Ú ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç =
ÖØ√o. Å´’tߪ’u Å®·-§Ú-ߪ÷®·. áçûª Ææ O ’- ° œ ç - î ª ô ç = ü¿ í ∫ _ - ® Ω è π ◊ ®√´úø ç/ ¢Á∞¡xúøç)
 exam nerves = °æK-éπ~-©çõ‰ éÌçûª-´’çCéÀ -Öç-úË
£æ…®·í¬ ÖçüÓ! °æK-éπ~© -¶-„ü¿’®Ω’ Ééπ-™‰ü¿’.)
Relief = (°ü¿l •®Ω’´¤ ØÁAh O’ü¿ †’ç* Cç*-†ô’d)
¶„ü¿’®Ω’, éπçí¬®Ω’, °æK-éπ~-© -¶µºßª’ç. Vinod: You know, Vikas topped the school Meghana: I'm surprised. She usually does very
Núø’-ü¿©. exam nerves °æK-éπ~-©çõ‰ -¶„ü¿’®Ω’) °æK-éπ~© ¶µºßª’ç †’ç* •ßª’-ô-•-úøôç– get over
Neeraj: Happy to hear that. How did you do in with his one hundred percent each in well. She never scored below 85%
exam nerves, get over = ÅCµ-í∫-N’ç-îªôç.
the exams? Maths and Science. in the previous exams.
 How did you do in the exam?
(ÆæçûÓ≠æç! ᙫ ®√¨»´¤ exams?) exam ᙫ ®√¨»-´¤? – ÉC ´·êuçí¬ í∫´’-Eç-î √L
(Ææ÷\™x Åçü¿-J-éπØ√o áèπ◊\´ ´÷®Ω’\©’ (Eïçí¬ Ç¨¡a-®Ωuçí¬ ÖçüË, §ƒ°æç. ´·†’-
Suraj: Well, I hope (¶«í¬ØË ÅE ÇP-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’) Maths Science ™ 100]) °æöÀ (previous - v°œN-ߪ’Æˇ) °æK-éπ~™x
´’†ç – english ™ ᙫ ®√¨»´¤ exam ņ-ú≈-EéÀ Pramod: That's brilliant/ really brilliant.
Neeraj: What were your marks in the earlier á°æ¤púø÷ 85]èπ◊ ûªí∫_-™‰ü¿’.)
'write' ü∆E Éûª®Ω forms ®√ØË-®√´¤. î√-™« ûª®Ω-í¬
exams?
¢√úË ´÷ô, 'do' ü∆E Éûª®Ω forms (î√™« íÌ°æp-í¬/- E-ïçí¬ íÌ°æpí¬ ÖçC, É™«çöÀîÓôx less than 85% -Åç-ô÷ ≤ƒ-üµ∆®Ω-ùçí¬
(Åçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ exams ™ marks ᙫ- a) ؈’ E†o °æK-éπ~©’ ¶«í¬ ®√¨»†’
Åûª-úø’ °æKéπ~ ®√Æœ† B®Ω’) ¢√úË-C– -Åç-ûª-Ææ-J-é¬ü¿’)
´-î√a®·?) Vinod: Every teacher likes him for his per- Exam fail Å´ôç, pass Å´ôç = He/ she
I did well in the exam yesterday.
formance in the exams. failed the exam/ passed the exam.
b) ؈ç-ûª-Ææ-Jí¬ ®√ߪ’-™‰ü¿’
teachers
(°æK-éπ~-™x -Å-ûª-úÕ B®Ω’-´©x -Åç-ü¿-Jéà ÉO exams èπÿ, marks èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ´÷ô©’:
I didn't do so well/ I haven't done so well
(Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd) Åûª-†çõ‰ É≠ædç.) Now practise the following in English:
äéπ N≠æߪ’ç: do, fare, perform - -Ñ -´‚-úÕç-öÀ-E-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 99
c) ؈-†’-èπ◊-†o ü∆E-éπØ√o ¶«í¬ ®√¨»†’ Subodh: Hi Pranav, exams èπ◊ ᙫ prepare
I did much better than I had expected.
Íé-´-©ç °æKéπ~© N≠æ-ߪ’ç-™ØË é¬èπ◊çú≈ äéπJ ≤ƒ´’®Ωn uç Å´¤-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?
•ßª’-ô-°æúË N≠æ-ߪ÷-©-Eoç-öÀ-™†÷ ¢√úøû√ç. Pranav: °æK-éπ~-©çõ‰ Ø√Èé-°æ¤púø÷ ¶„ü¿’Í®, Å®·-§Ú-ßË’çûª
´®Ωèπ◊.

How did you do in the exam?
Subodh: é¬-F FÈé-°æ¤púø÷ ´’ç* marks ´≤ƒh-®·-
éπü∆?
Pranav: Ø√èπ◊ ´’ç* marks ´≤ƒh®·, é¬F Éçé¬
áèπ◊\´ marks ûÁa-éÓ-¢√-©E -Ø√ éÓJéπ.
Subodh: á´-J-èπ◊ç-úøü¿’ Ç éÓJéπ?
Pranav: O’ class ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ °æK-éπ~-™„-°æ¤púø’?
Suraj: In most of them just above sixty per- a) How is YSR doing/
d) ÅûªØËç ¶«í¬ ®√ߪ’-™‰-ü¿’ Subodh: E†oØË Å®·-§Ú-ߪ÷®·.
cent. In one or two others I scored quite faring/ performing
He didn't do well at all. Pranav: ᙫ ®√¨»´¤ †’´¤y?
high - above 90% as the CM?
e) Åûª†’ paper îÁúÕ-Ê°-¨»úø’ Subodh: ¶«í¬ØË ®√¨»†’, é¬F äéπ Chemistry
(î√-™«¢√öÀ™x 60] éπçõ‰ éÌClí¬ áèπ◊\´. CM í¬ YSR -á-™«
(¶«í¬ ®√ߪ’-ØË-™‰ü¿’ -Å-ØË Å®ΩnçûÓ) paper ´÷vûª¢Ë’ îÁúø-íÌ-ö«d† ’. N’í∫û√
äéπöÀ È®çúø’ papers ™ ´÷vûªç 90% éπçõ‰ He did poorly/ very poorly in the exam.
ÖØ√o®Ω’? (Ææ´’-®Ωn-ç-í¬Ø√ papers ™ 80 éÀ °jØË-®√-´îª’a. Chemistry
áèπ◊\´ -´÷®Ω’\-©’ ´-î√a®·.) é¬ü∆?)
He did badly in the exam. b) The Sri Lankans did/
™ ´÷vûªç 60 ü∆é¬- ®√-´îª’a.
Neeraj: Why just above 60% in most of the
do Pranav: O’ cousin Sucharita ᙫ- ®√-Æ œçC?
papers? Weren't you saying you had É™« ´÷´‚-©’í¬ Å®·ûË ¢√úøû√ç, °æKéπ~ fared/ performed very M. SURESAN Subodh: ¶«í¬ØË ®√Æœç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«. -Éçûªèπ◊-´·çü¿’
done well in all the exams? ®√ߪ’ôç ÅØË ¶µ«¢√-EéÀ. ÉüË O’®Ω’ °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ badly/ poorly in the
exams ™ Ç¢Á’ -î √-™« -¶«í¬ ®√Æœç-C.
(î√-™«-¢√öÀ™x 60] éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ í∫´’-Eç-îª-´-©-Æœ† Å稡ç. '®√ߪ’ôç— ´*a† îÓô™«x last cricket series.
'do' ü∆E Éûª®Ω ®Ω÷§ƒ©’ í∫´’-EçîË Öçö«®Ω’. ÉC Sri Lankans î√-™«poor í¬ Çú≈®Ω’. ÅEoöx 100 èπ◊ äéπöÀ, È®çúø’ ´÷®Ω’\©’
áçü¿’-éÌ-*açC? î√™« ¶«í¬ ®√¨»-†E Åçô’ç- ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ûªèπ◊\´.
úË-¢√-úÕN éπü∆?) ¶«í¬ practice îÁߪ’uçúÕ. c) Her performance in the movie was disap-
Pranav: é¬F íÌ°æp performance. Girls, ´’†-éπçõ‰
Suraj: I thought so, but when I saw the marks Å®·ûË Å°æ¤p-úø-°æ¤púø’, °æKéπ~ ®√ߪ’ôç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ pointing
¶«í¬ îªü¿’-´¤-û√-®Ω-†’-èπ◊çö«.
I understood I had fared badly in them. fare èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç. Ç *vûªç-™ Ç¢Á’ †ô† E®√¨¡°æJ-*çC. Subodh: îÁ°æp-™‰ç™‰.
One can never be sure in these mat- ...I had fared badly... I had done badly d) He did/ fared/ performed well in the movie
Answer:
ters, you know? ¶«í¬ ®√ߪ’-™‰ü¿’. îÁûªhí¬ ®√¨»†’. Åûª†’ Ç *vûªç™ ¶«í¬ †öÀç-î√úø’.
marks
(ØË-†÷ Å™«ØË Å†’-èπ◊Ø√o, îª÷Æœ-†-°æ¤púË a) ᙫ-®√-¨»´¤ E†oöÀ exam? e) He is doing very well as a teacher Subodh: Hi Pranav, how are you preparing for
ÆæJí¬ ®√ߪ’-™‰-ü¿E Å®Ωn-´’-®·çC. Å®·Ø√ Éô’- How did you fare in the exam yesterday? Teacher í¬ Åûª†’ î√-™« ¶«í¬ îËÆæ’h-Ø√oúø’. the exams?
Do/ fare/ perform Pranav: I always have/ suffer from exam
b) I fared well
´çöÀ N≠æ-ߪ÷™x á´®Ω÷ à-D í∫öÀdí¬ îÁ°æp-™‰®Ω’, ¶«í¬ØË ®√¨»†’ = – OöÀ™x Åûªuçûª Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬,
áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√úË-´÷ô, 'do' nerves, until they are over.
éπü∆) Prakash: How did you fare in the exams?
Neeraj: What about your performance this f) I hope to do well in the exam Subodh: But you always get good marks/
(ᙫ ®√¨»´¤?) exam score high.
time? ؈’ ¶«í¬ ®√≤ƒh-†ØË ÇP-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’.
Akash: Well, I think. I got 97%
(Ñ≤ƒJ ᙫ ®√¨»´¤?/´’J Ñ≤ƒJ Ææçí∫A?) expressions.
-É°æ¤p-úø’ -É-çéÌ-Eo Pranav: I do, but I wish to score even better
Prakash: Oh, you didn't fare badly after all.
Suraj: I think I fared very well. I am satisfied a) O’ Marks àçöÀ?/-áEo? marks. (Even = Éçé¬)
Congrats.
with my performance. What are your marks?/ What marks did you Subodh: Who doesn't wish it?/ Who doesn't
(¶«í¬ ®√¨»-†ØË Å†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. Ø√èπ◊ ûª%°œh- (v•£æ…tçúøç, î√-™« ¶«í¬ØË ®√¨»-´-†o-´÷ô. get? What is your score?/ How many marks have the wish?
í¬ØË ÖçC) í∫’®Ω’h ûÁa-éÓçúÕ = not bad = very did you get/ score? Pranav: When are the exams for your class?/
Neeraj: Well, wish you all the best. How about good) b) marks
F àç ûª%°œh-éπ-®Ωçí¬ ™‰´¤ When are you people taking the
a movie this evening then? c) Hold the exam any time you like, he is sure Your score is/ your marks are, not satisfactory. exams?
(≤ƒßª’çvûªç ÆœE-´÷-Èé-∞«l´÷?) to fare well c) With such a low score/ such low marks, you Subodh: They were over yesterday./ Yesterday
Suraj: That's be a real pleasure. O’ É≠ædç ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ °ô’d-éÓçúÕ °æKéπ~, ¢√úø’ can't get a seat in that college. was the last of them.
(ã, ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬) éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ¶«í¬ ®√≤ƒhúø’. Åçûª ûªèπ◊\´ ´÷®Ω’\-©ûÓ Fé¬ college seat ™ Pranav: How did you do?
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ¢√úÕ† expressions í∫´’-Eç- °æKéπ~ °ôdúøç = Hold an exam/ exams ®√ü¿’. Subodh: (I) did very well, but I did poorly/ fared
îªçúÕ. É´Fo èπÿú≈ exams èπÿ, studies èπÿ -É-C îª÷úøçúÕ: Meghana: Congrats Sumana, on your high badly in chemistry. In the other
Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†¢Ë – OöÀ™ ´’†ç ¢√ú≈-Lq† Ææçü¿- i) what about your performance this time Score in Physics. papers I may get/ score above 80%.
®√s¥©’ î√™« áèπ◊\-´í¬ Öçö«®·. 鬕öÀd, Å´-鬨¡ç ii) I am satisfied with my performance. (Physics ™ marks
Fèπ◊ ´’ç* In chemistry I may get about 60.
´*a-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x ¢√úÕ, practice îËߪ’çúÕ. Å°æ¤p-úø-°æ¤púø’, °æKéπ~ ®√ߪ’ôç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ per- congrats.)
´*a†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Pranav: How did your cousin Sucharita do?
 Busy with exams  exam nerves  How formance èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç. Å®·ûË ÉC é¬Ææh Sumana: You didn't fare badly either. You got Subodh: (I) think she did well. In the earlier
did you do in the exam?  I did well  What §ƒçúÕûªuç. just one mark below mine. So my exams, however, her performance
were your marks?  above 60% above 90% congrats to you. Poor Jamuna! she was very good. In all the papers, she
a) ᙫ ®√¨»®Ω’ E†oöÀ exam?
 you had done well  I had fared badly  got below 50%. got just one or two marks below 100.
How was your exam yesterday?
..your performance this time? (Fèπÿ àç ûªèπ◊\´ ®√™‰ü¿’ éπü∆. äéπ\ Pranav: That's good performance. I suppose
b) His performance in exams is usually brilliant
a)Busy with exams, busy preparing for Mark ´÷vûª¢Ë’ éπü∆ Ø√éπçõ‰ ûªèπ◊\´. Ñ girls study better than we, boys.
exams ™ ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ω-ùçí¬ Åûª†’ î√™« ¶«í¬
exams, busy studying for exams - Oô-Eo-öÀéà Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ -Fèπ◊ -Ø√ -Å-Gµ-†ç-ü¿-†-©’. §ƒ°æç Subodh: We can't say./ Difficult to say.
exams
Å®Ωnç, ûÓ ûª©-´·-†-éπ-©’í¬ (BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈) brilliant =
®√≤ƒhúø’. v°æé¬-¨¡-´ç-ûª-¢Á’i†, é¬çA--´’ç-ûª- ï´·† – 50-¨»-ûªç éπçõ‰ ûªèπ◊\´ ´-î√a®·)
Öçúøôç- – ´·êuçí¬exams èπ◊ îªü¿’-´¤ûª÷. ¢Á’i† (vG©uçö¸ – 'vG— ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç) (Above - áèπ◊\-´/-£«-aí¬; below=ûªèπ◊\´)

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
iII Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡-E¢√®Ωç 21 -ï-†-´-J 2006

100
W

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù W
(Eïçí¬ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰ Ø√éÌ-*a† English a) He is happy to meet me
ÉçûËé¬èπ◊çú≈ OöÀE question form ™ èπÿú≈,
Ø√Íé ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ™‰ü¿’. Éçûª-éπçõ‰ ¶«í¬ (To meet me – áçü¿’-éπ-ûª†’ happy ÅØËC -ûÁ-©’°æ¤-
not ûÓ†÷, not ™‰èπ◊ç-ú≈†÷ èπÿú≈ ņ-´îª’a éπü∆?
´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-LT, ®√ߪ’-í∫-LTûË Ø√èπ◊ î√™«
eg: Am I a doctor? Am I not a teacher? etc. ûª’ç-C éπü∆)
ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ Öçô’çC. b) They were not satisfied with their salaries.
Anand: We can be good speakers of English
É™«Íí N’í∫û√ 'be' forms ûÓ áEo sentences,
statements ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈, questions èπÿú≈, (with their salaries – ¢√∞¡x @û√-©ûÓ ÅØËC ¢√∞¡Ÿx
if we have regular practice.
not ™‰èπ◊çú≈, not ûÓ Å†-í∫-©®Ó îª÷úøçúÕ. áçü¿’-´©x not satisfied ÅØËC ûÁ©’°æ¤-ûª’çC)
(Regular practice Öçõ‰ ¶«í¬English
Gí∫_-®Ωí¬ O’ friend ûÓØÓ, O’ûÓ cooperate îËÊÆ c) Will they be pleased if I give them the books?
´÷ö«x-úË¢√∞¡xç Å´¤û√ç)
(If I give them the books - ؈’ ¢√∞¡xé¬ °æ¤Ææh-é¬-
Santosh: Yes, we frequently read so in these ¢√∞¡x-ûÓØÓ Å†çúÕ.
Spoken English lessons. Questions ™ èπÿú≈, È®çúø’ ®Ω鬩 questions. LÊÆh – ÅØËC ¢√∞¡Ÿx ᙫ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-ú≈h-®Ω-ØËC ûÁ©’°æ¤-
(Ñ English lessons ™ ÅüË ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ 1) 'Wh' words (what, when, who, etc.,)ûÓ ûª’çC éπü∆)
îª÷Ææ÷hçö«ç/ îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’çö«ç) ´îËaN. É™« O’®Ω’ 'be' forms ûÓ -´-îËa sentences †’
ÉC 100 ´ lesson éπü∆. Ñ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥çí¬ for a eg. Why are you happy? What is your §ÒúÕ-Tç--èπ◊çô÷ ¢Á∞¡x-´îª’a. Å®·ûË Å®Ωnç ´÷vûªç
change (*†o-´÷-®Ω’p-í¬/ -é¬Ææh ûËú≈í¬) ã *†o brother? When was he a teacher? ™«çöÀ-N. correct í¬ ´îËaô’x îª÷Ææ’éÓ-´ôç î√-™« ´·êuç.
Language game Çúøü∆ç. °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù-™ E sen- 2) 'Wh' words ™‰E questions. III Ééπ Ñ game ™ ´‚úÓ-¶µ«í∫ç:
tences îª÷úøçúÕ: eg. Are you happy? Is she your sister? Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ O’®Ω’ practice îËÆœ† sentences
I a) I am happy; I am not satisfied; I too am anx- Can he be a leader? ™«çöÀ-N. ÅEoç-öÀ™ verb, 'be' form éπü∆. Ñ 'be' form
ious to learn more; I am not at all pleased; ´’S} OöÀE not ûÓ, eg: Are you not happy?
•ü¿’©’ 'action words' áéπ\-úÁ-éπ\úø meanings
I am able to speak; I shall be happy. Were they not students? ™«çöÀN. ´÷®Ω-èπ◊çú≈ ¢√úø-í∫-©®Ó îª÷úøçúÕ, Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù©’:

I am happy today
Anand: I am happy today.
(ØËF-®Ó-V ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ÖØ√o)
Santosh: Why?/ Why are you happy?
(áçü¿’èπ◊?)
Anand: Because this is the hundredth lesson
in spoken English. You are happy
too, aren't you?
(ÉC spoken English 100 lesson
™ ´
鬕öÀd. Fèπÿ ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ÖçC, éπü∆?) b) Why are you happy? You are happy too; É™«ç-öÀN áEo sen- a) They were all happy. Ééπ\úø 'be' form 'were'
So is my cousin Harsha; They are fluent. tences •ü¿’©’ feel ¢√úø-´îª’a éπü∆. Å®·ûË, 'be' form
Santosh: Ofcourse I am, but I am not satisfied.
O’®Ω’ ņ-í∫-©®Ó
There's a lot more english to learn. c) Deepti and Divya were my school mates; ™„éÀ\ç--éÓçúÕ. áéπ\úø í∫û√Eo ûÁ-LÊ° -´÷ô 鬕öÀd, feel èπ◊ èπÿú≈ í∫û√Eo -
(Ø√èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ¢Ë’, Å®·ûË ûª%°œhí¬ ™‰ü¿’. They were eager to learn English. O’®Ω’ questions ¢ËÆæ’- -ûÁ-LÊ° ´÷õ‰ ¢√ú≈L éπü∆. 鬕öÀd, felt ´Ææ’hçC.
ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√-Lqç-C -Éçé¬ î√™« ÖçC) d) They would be ever ready to... èπ◊çõ‰ Åéπ\úø ¢√öÀéÀ Å°æ¤púø’,
e) We can be Answers èπÿú≈ îÁ°æ¤p-
Anand: I too am anxious to learn more. They all felt happy (They were all happy)
Ñ sentences ™ ´’†ç í∫´’-EçîË N≠æߪ’ç – éÓçúÕ. Éü¿l®Ω’ ´·í∫’_®Ω’ b) She can be here in 10 minutes.
éπLÆœ Ñ game M. SURESAN
(Ø√èπÿ Éçé¬ ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√-©ØË -Ç-ûª%ûªí¬ ÖçC)
Santosh: My sister appears very serious about OöÀ™x verbs ÅFo èπÿú≈ 'be' forms ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Ééπ\úø 'can be' ÅØË 'be' form -ûÓ ´îËa Å®Ωnç –
learning more English, and so is my éπü∆? îª÷úøçúÕ, Íé-´-©ç 'be' forms ûÓ áçûª Çúø’-éÓçúÕ. O’®Ω’ áEo sentences îËߪ’-í∫-L-í¬®Ó
Ç¢Á’ Ééπ\úø 10 EN’-≥ƒ-©èπ◊ Öçúø-í∫©ü¿’ ÅE éπü∆.
cousin Harsha. Ææ綵«-≠æù ≤ƒTçüÓ? îª÷Ææ’-éÓçúÕ. O’Íé Ǩ¡a®Ωuç ¢ËÆæ’hçC. '´’†ç ÉEo
sentences ņ-í∫-L-í¬¢Ë’— ÅE.
Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç Ç¢Á’ Ééπ\-úÕéÀ 10 EN’-≥ƒ-©èπ◊ îË®Ω-í∫-©ü¿’
( sister english É°æ¤púø’ ´’† game.
O’ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç éÓÆæç: 'be' forms °æéπ\† ¢√úøí∫LÍí
´÷ ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√-©E î√™« ÅE – Å°æ¤púø’ ´’†ç îÁ°æp-í∫© sentence ÉüË
serious cousin Ééπ\úÕ sentences ™ 'be' forms (am, is, are,
´÷ô©’ Ñ éÀçC ®Ωé¬-©’í¬ Öçö«®·.
í¬ ÖçC, ´÷ £æ«®Ω{- Å®ΩnçûÓ–
èπÿú≈) were, shall be, can be, would be, etc,) °æéπ\† She can reach here in ten minutes.
Anand: Deepti and Divya were my school 1) í∫’ù«©’, (proud, good, bad, wicked) ûÁ-LÊ°
Ö†o 'happy' ™«çöÀ ´÷ô© •ü¿’©’ O’®Ω’ ¢√úøí∫L- c) They shall be here for an hour.
mates. They were eager to learn T† ´÷ô-©-Eoç-öÀE ¢√úÕ sentences practice ´÷ô©’.
English. They would be ever ready to 2) ¶µ«¢√©’ (feelings) ûÁ-LÊ° ´÷ô©’ (happy, sad, ¢√Rx-éπ\úø ã í∫çô-ÊÆ°æ¤ Öçú≈L. ÉüË Å®ΩnçûÓ 'shall
îËߪ’çúÕ. äéπ statements ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈ ques- jealous, etc). be' ÅØË 'be form •ü¿’©’, ´’†ç 'shall stay' ÅE-
read English newspapers and books, tions, exclamations èπÿú≈ practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
speak english, listen to others speak 3) ©éπ~-ù«©’ (tall, short, fat, etc,) ûÁ-LÊ° ´÷ô©’. é¬F, shall remain ÅE -é¬-F Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç ´÷®Ωü¿’.
Not, never (á°æ¤púø÷ é¬ü¿’/- ™‰ü¿’) ûÓ èπÿú≈ prac-
english, and so on. They are fluent in 4) Past participle forms (satisfied, pleased, Å°æ¤púø’ sentence– They shall stay/ remain
tice îËߪ’çúÕ.
English now. Whenever they had an trained) here for an hour.
Öü∆-£æ«-®Ωù îª÷úøçúÕ. 5)
opportunity, they used to speak äéπ ´%ûÓh, °æØÓ îËÊÆ¢√∞¡Ÿ} ÅØË Å®Ωnç-ûÓ ´îËa d) He could be helpful for us: Ééπ\úø be form
I am happy- Ééπ\úø Ö†o 'be' form 'am' °æéπ\†
English. ´÷ô©’ (Actor, doctor, teacher, cook, lawyer, could be Å®Ωnç– Åûªúø’ ´’†èπ◊ Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-é¬Jí¬ Öçúø-
schoolmates.
Ö†o happy •ü¿’©’, ÆæÈ®j† Å®Ωnç ´îËa-ô’xí¬ O’èπ◊ speaker, etc). Ñ ®Ωéπç ´÷ô©’ ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’, sin-
(D°œh, C´u Ø√ ¢√∞¡Ÿx ûÁL-Æœ† ´÷ô©’ ¢√úøçúÕ. í∫-©-úË¢Á÷. Could be ÅØË 'be' form •ü¿’©’ action
English ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√-©E áçûÓ Ç--ûª%-ûª-ûÓ gular ´·çü¿®Ω a/ an ®√¢√-©E ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. word ¢√ú≈-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰ help ¢√úÌa éπü∆. ü∆çûÓ
English newspa-
Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ùèπ◊, happy •ü¿’©’, a) sad, sorry, áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ countable singular ´·çü¿’ á°æ¤púø÷
ÖçúË-¢√∞¡Ÿx. á°æ¤púø÷ sentence É™« ´÷®Ωa-´îª’aí∫ü∆?–
proud, tall, short ™«çöÀ ¶µ«¢√-©†÷ ©éπ~-ù«-©†’
per, books English 'a/ an' ®√¢√L éπü∆.
îªü¿-´ôç, ´÷ö«x- He could help us.
úøôç, Éûª-®Ω’©’ English ´÷ö«x-úË-°æ¤púø’ í∫’ù«-©†’ ûÁLÊ° ´÷ô©’ (Å®Ωn-´ç-ûªçí¬) áØÁj oØ√ 6) '-ing' forms (going, singing, walking)
¢√úø-´îª’a. É™« O’®Ω’ áEo sentences îËߪ’-í∫-©®Ó îª÷úøçúÕ
N†ô癫çöÀN îËߪ’-ö«-E-Èé-°æ¤púø÷ Æœ-ü¿l¥ç. °j ®Ω鬩 ´÷ô-©Fo ¢√úøçúÕ. ¢√öÀéÀ Å®Ωnç O’®Ω-†’-èπ◊-
Åçü¿’Íé ¢√∞¡Ÿx É°æ¤púø’ English üµ∆®√-∞¡çí¬ Éçé¬ b) àüÁjØ√ ´%ûª’h©’, °æ†’©’ ™«çöÀN îËÊÆ¢√∞¡xØË
†oô’x ÆæJí¬ ´≤ÚhçüÓ, ™‰üÓ îª÷Ææ’-éÓçúÕ. Å°æ¤púø’ Å´-鬨¡ç ´*a-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x. Å´-鬨¡ç ®√éπ-§ÚûË
´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©®Ω’. Å´-鬨¡ç üÌJ-éÀ-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x Å®Ωnç ´îËa-ô’xí¬ ÖçúË ´÷ô©÷ ¢√úø-´îª’a éπü∆?– O’Íé ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC O’È®çûª English ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©®Ó. éπLpç--éÌE É™«çöÀ sentences frame îËߪ’çúÕ–
English ´÷ö«x-úË-¢√∞¡Ÿx) I am a teacher/ an actor/ a cricketer/ an ´’†ç English ´÷ö«x-úø™‰-´’ØË Å§Ú£æ« Öçúøü¿’. ´’J-*-§Ú-éπçúÕ – statements ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈,
employee/ a landlord/ a doctor, etc. questions (È®çúø’ ®Ω鬩’ – 'wh' questions,
Santosh: To tell you frankly, I am not at all II An extension of the game, Ñ game é¬Ææh
pleased with my English. I shall be ´’Sx OöÀ™x not/ never èπÿú≈ éπL°œ ¢√úø-´îª’a °çîª-´îª’a– Ñ sentences ´’J-éÌEo ´÷ô©’ éπL°œ: non 'wh' questions èπÿú≈), Negatives (not,
happy if I am able to speak and write éπü∆? eg: He is happy. Ñ sentence †’ É™« never) Ææ£æ… practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
I am not happy; I am not a teacher, etc ™«í¬.
better. §ÒúÕ-Tça éπü∆? §
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
iII Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -≤Ú-´’¢√®Ωç 23 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Damodar: Hi, Krupakar, I couldn't see you the 4) How well Rupa sings that song!
whole of yesterday. What were you 5) The teacher never made a joke
doing? É™« áEo Sentences îËߪ’-í∫-©®Ó îª÷úøçúÕ.
( éπ%-§ƒéπ-®˝, E†oçû√ †’´¤y éπ-E°œç-îª-™‰-ü¿’, ûª®√yûª ÆæÈ®j† ´÷ô©’ îËJa Sentences extend
àç îËÆæ’h-Ø√o´¤?) îËߪ’çúÕ.
Krupakar: Busy playing the game - making as eg: 1) Vineet bought a book at the college
many sentences as we could - with stores.
my sister and prabhakar. 2) When did Naresh meet you to give you
( ´÷ Sister, prabhakar ûÓ éπLÆœ the book.
Game -Ç-úø’-ûª÷ áEo Sentences 3) She does not like me because I do not
O©-®·ûË ÅEo Form îËÆæ÷h Busy í¬ like her.
ÖçúÕ-§Úߪ÷) 4) How well Rupa sings that song from the
OöÀ 'be' forms. Have to be, has to be, (éπFÆæç Í®°æ-öÀ-ÈéjØ√ -Å-ûª-úø’ -Åéπ\-úø’ç-ú≈L. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰
Damodar: What game was that? (àç Game?) movie, nuvvu naaku nachau.
Krupakar: You find the game in the hundredth must be, should be. Å´-鬨¡ç éÓ™p-û√úø’. – necessity.)
5) The teacher never made a joke while
lesson of spoken english. It's a sim- teaching. (Have to be/ has to be - I, we, you and ÉC èπÿú≈ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.
ple game - forming sentences, as É™«çöÀ sentences O’®Ω’ O’ friends etc., ûÓ they subjects ûÓ have to be
´Ææ’hçC. He, Pramod: I am happy to have got the job, Sir.
many as we can by adding suitable practice
îËߪ’çúÕ. I, We, You, he, she, it and she and it subjects ûÓ has to be ´Ææ’hçC.) When have I to be here to report for
words after 'be' forms and action theyûÓ èπÿú≈ sentences îËߪ’çúÕ. -O-ô-Eoç-öÀéÀ Å®Ωnç – Öçú≈L – ÅE. ÅC äéπJ Çïc duty, Sir?
words - sentences to be not only (command) é¬´îª ’a, NCµ (duty) é¬´îª ’a,
u u u (Job
statements but also questions, both ´*a-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ≠æçí¬ ÖçC.
Renuka: Urmila, why don't you lend me the necessity (Å´-Ææ®Ωç) 鬴a.
types, 'wh' and 'non wh' questions, Report îËߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ/ Duty™ Join
with not and never too... book. I have to prepare for the exam Have to be, has to be, should be, must be Å´-ö«-EéÀ á°æ¤-púø’ ®√-¢√-©çúŒ Ééπ\-úÕéÀ?)
the day after tomorrow. = Öçú≈L, present ™í¬F, future ™í¬E. (Have to be Ééπ\úø duty E ûÁ©’°æ¤ûª’çC.)
exam
(Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç é¬Ææh É≤ƒh-¢√? á©’xçúÕ èπ◊ Vinod: Let me go. I have to be at home in ten Prasanth: You have to be here by 9.30 every-
prepare Å¢√Lq ÖçC.) minutes. Dad will be angry if I am late.
Urmila: Sorry Renuka, Bhoomika has taken it day.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
(9.30 éπ-™«x Ééπ\-úø’ç-ú≈-L- †’´¤y.
(††’o ¢Á∞¡xF. ؈’ 10 EN’-≥ƒ™x Éçöx You have to be here till 5.30 in the
101 away. She has to prepare for the exam
Öçú≈L. ™‰èπ◊ç-õ‰ ´÷ Ø√†oèπ◊ éÓ°æç ´Ææ’hçC)
as well. You are a little late. evening. ( 5.30 ´®Ωèπÿ Öçú≈L– Ñ
È®çúø÷ commands.) Your colleague

I have to prepare too, has to be here at the same time.
(F Ææ£æ«Ù-üÓuT èπÿú≈ ÅçûË.
Ééπ\úø command.)
Pramod: I will start work now itself sir,
has to be

because I have to be thorough with
Suman: Hari too has to
(î√-™« Simple game ÅC. sub + verb- (Sorry, ¶µº÷N’éπ Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç BÆæ’Èé-R}ç-C. ûª†’- my job.
be at home in
(؈’ É°æ¤púË v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµ-≤ƒh†’.
verb 'be' form Ŵa, action word exam
èπÿú≈ prepare
èπ◊ Å¢√y-©E.) ten minutes. He áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ Ø√ °æE ؈’ èπ~◊ùoçí¬ ûÁ©’Ææ’-
Renuka: I thought of buying the book yester-
Ŵa, ü∆E ûª®√yûª ´÷ô©’ îË®Ω’a-èπ◊çô÷
day, but I had to take mom to hospital,
doesn't like to éÓ-¢√L éπü∆ (Ééπ\úø have to be - neces-
§Ú-´ôç– Sentences statements miss the serial. sity). I understand I have to be at
´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈, Questions, so I didn't find the time. I must get the
Isn't it so, Hari? office for atleast 6 hours. (éπFÆæç 6
Exclamations èπÿú≈. Questions È®çúø’ book somehow. Otherwise I'll be
doing very badly in the exam.
(£æ«J èπÿú≈ 10 í∫çô©ÊÆ°æ-®·Ø√ office ™ Öçú≈-©E Ø√èπ◊
®Ω鬩 Questions – 'wh' words ûÓ 'non EN’-≥ƒ-©èπ◊ Éçöx M. SURESAN
wh' words ûÓ èπÿú≈. ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈, not book
(E†oØË éÌØ√-©E ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’, é¬E ûÁ©’Ææ’. Ééπ\úø have to be NCµE
hospital
Öçú≈L. Åûª-úÕéÀ
ûÓ never ûÓ èπÿú≈) ´÷ Å´’t†’ èπ◊ BÆæ’Èé∞«}Lq serial miss Å´ôç É≠ædç-™‰ü¿’. ÅçûË éπü∆ ûÁ©’°æ¤ûÓçC éπü∆.)
Damodar: Was that so? O I missed the game. ´*açC. é̆-™‰-éπ-§Úߪ÷. ᙫíÓ äéπ-™«í¬ Ç £æ«J?) Now practice the following in English:
How many sentences were you able °æ¤Ææhéπç ûÁa-éÓ-¢√L ؈’. ™‰éπ-§ÚûË á©’xçúÕ
exam -¶«í¬ ®√-ߪ’-™‰éπ-§Ú-û√--†’-.) Hari: That's right. I have to hurry now. Bye.
to frame? Kranthi: †’´¤y éπFÆæç ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç È®çúø’ í∫çô©
Urmila: I must pay the fees today. Today is the ( Eï¢Ë’. ؈’ -ûªy®ΩΩ-°æ-ú≈L)
(Å™«í¬? Å®·ûË Øˆ’ game miss ´®Ω-ÈéjØ√ Ééπ\-úø’ç-ú≈L, Å®Ωn-´’-®·çü∆?
Sentences last date. I should go to the bank and Suman: Don't forget tomorrow's exam time.
Åߪ÷u†’. O’È®Eo îËߪ’-í∫-L- Shanthi: Yes, Madam. Ñ®Ó-ñ‰é¬-ü¿’, Í®°æ¤ -èπÿú≈ ÉüË
í¬®Ω’?) get the money. You have to be at the centre by 9.45
Krupakar: We didn't count, but we were able to fees
(É¢√∞¡ éπ-ö«dL ؈’. -É-¢√-∞Ï -*-´-J (Í®°æ¤ exam time ´’®Ω-*-§Ú-éπçúÕ. O’®Ω-éπ\úø ¢Ë∞¡™x Ééπ\-úø’ç-ú≈-©E ûÁ©’Ææ’ madam.
Bank Kranthi: Watchman ûÓ îÁ°æ¤p, Åûª-Eç-é¬Ææh ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬
make a good number. We have ®ÓV. èπ◊ ¢Á∞«xL, úø•’s ûÁa-éÓ-¢√L.) 9.45 éπ-™«x Öçú≈L)
understood that we can improve our Renuka: That's true. We must submit exam Öçú≈L ÅE; pass Ö†o¢√∞¡’x ´÷vûª¢Ë’
applications by tomorrow. That's the
Ééπ\úø îª÷¨»ç éπü∆. Present ™í¬F, future ™í¬F
english by this kind of practice more 'Öçú≈L— ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ have to be/ has to be ™°æ© Öçú≈-©-F.
than by reading books on spoken rule. Shanthi: Ok, Madam. Åûª-E-éπ\úø 8 í∫çô©´®Ωèπÿ
english. Exam applications
(Eï¢Ë’. Í®°æöÀ ™°æ© ¢√ú≈ç. äéπ Order / Command ´©x, NCµ ´©x
(™„éπ\°ôd-™‰ü¿’ é¬F î√™«ØË î˨»ç. submit rule.)
îÁߪ÷uL. ÅüË (Åçõ‰ Duty), ™‰éπ§ÚûË Å´-Ææ®Ωç (Necessity) ´©x Öçú≈-©E èπÿú≈ îÁ§ƒh†’.
Urmila: The applications should have the sig- Öçú≈Lq´ÊÆh, Å°æ¤púø’ Have to be/ has to be Kranthi: OK. ñ«ví∫ûªh. Ø√èπ◊ meeting ÖçC. Åéπ\úø
Spoken english O’ü¿ books îªü¿-´ôç
éπçõ‰ É™«çöÀ practice ü∆y®√ØË English nature of the parent or the guardian, ¢√úøû√ç. ؈’ 1.30 éπçû√ Öçú≈L. ØËØÌîËa ÆæJéÀ files
¶«í¬ ´÷ö«x-úøôç ´Ææ’hç-ü¿E Å®Ωn-¢Á’içC) shouldn't it? a) O’®Ω’ 10éπ-™«x office ™ Öçú≈L. ÅFo ready Å®·-Öç-ú≈L. ûÁL-Æœçü∆?
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-†oô’d, practice ´©x (Application ™ parent/ guardian Shanthi: Readyí¬ Öçö«®·, madam.
You have to be at office by 10 (Command)
confidence °®Ω-í∫-ô¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈, English Ææçûªéπç Öçú≈L, éπü∆?)
b) v°æA ÖüÓuT 10 †’ç* 5´®Ωèπ◊ Office ™ Öçú≈L Answer:
Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬ ´÷ö«x-úøôç Å©-¢√-ô-´¤-ûª’çC. v°æA-®ÓW Renuka: Yes, that's the rule. Further we must
mention the amount paid, and Every employee has to be in the office Kranthi: You have to be here till atleast 2 in the
Friends ûÓ Ñ game practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
enclose the fee receipt. from 10 to 5 (Command) afternoon, understand?
Ñ Lesson ™ éÌClí¬ ûËú≈ûÓ É™«çöÀ game clear
ÉçéÓöÀ îª÷ü∆lç. (ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈, áçûª úø•’s éπöÀdçD í¬ c) I have to be at office by 10. Shanthi: Yes, Madam. I Understand too, that
fee receipt
ûÁ-©-§ƒ-L, ü∆-E-ûÓ ïûª-°æ®Ω-î√L.)
O’èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’– verbs ™ È®çúø’®Ω鬩’. ¢Á·ü¿-öÀC ؈’ 10éπ-™«x office ™ Öçú≈L. (Duty = NCµ) not only today, but also tomorrow I
Urmila: OK then. Bye. I must hurry.
'love' ™«çöÀN. OöÀéÀ á´-JE, üËEE v°æ¨¡o ¢ËÆæ’- d) She has to be at office for a minimum of have to be here during the same time.
(´≤ƒh Å®·ûË. ؈’ -ûªy®ΩΩ-°æ-ú≈L.)
èπ◊çõ‰ ¢√∞¡x†’ ÅØÓ, ü∆EE ÅØÓ Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æù™E sentences †’ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. Six hours. Kranthi: Tell the watchman that he has to be a
´Ææ’hçC. È®çúÓ ®Ωé¬--E-N - walk (†-úø-´ôç) (-Ç-¢Á’ éπFÆæç 6 í∫çô-©-ÊÆ-°jØ√ Office ™ Öçú≈L little more careful, that only those who
™«çöÀN. á´-JE †úø-´ôç, üËE-E †úø-´ôç Åçõ‰ 1) I have to prepare 2) She has to prepare 3)
I had to take 4) I must get 5) I must pay 6) We = Duty/ NCµ) have passes have to be here.
Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç ®√ü¿’ éπü∆. Ñ≤ƒJ game ™ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ
®Ωéπç verbs ûÓ sentences îËߪ’çúÕ. state- must submit 7) The application should have e) I have to be at the station at 2 or I shall Shanthi: Ok, Madam. I will tell him too that he
ments ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈, questions, exclama- the signature 8) We must mention. miss the train. has to be here till 8 o'clock.
tions ûÓ Ææ£æ…, Not/ never ûÓ èπÿú≈ O’èπ◊ sentences
°j verbs: have to + 1st
™E Kranthi: Ok. Be careful. I have a meeting. I
؈’ station
-™ È®çúÕçöÀéÀ Öçú≈L. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰
ûÁL-Æœ-†Eo verbs ûÓ á†o-®·ûË ÅEo. RDW; has to + 1st RDW; had to + 1st
train miss Å´¤-û√†’. (ÉC necessity, Åçõ‰ have to be there by 1.30. By the time I
eg: RDW; must + 1st RDW; should + 1st RDW .
Å´-Ææ®Ωç éπü∆) return all the files must be ready.
1) Vineet bought a book Have to/ has to, had to, must, should
f) He has to be here atleast by tomorrow. Shanthi: They shall be, madam.
2) When did Naresh meet you? É´Fo èπÿú≈ NCµí¬, rule v°æ鬮Ωç, ûª°æp-E-Ææ-Jí¬
3) She doesnot like me (at all) îËߪ÷-Lq† °æ†’-©†’ ûÁ©’°æ¤û√®·. Otherwise he will miss the chance.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
iII Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -•’-üµ¿¢√®Ωç 25 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Hitesh: Hi Mallesh, I coludn't see you the d) Action word: have to + 1st Regular
whole of yesterday. What happened? Doing Word, has to + 1st Regular Doing
(E†oçû√ éπ-E°œç-‰ü¿’. àç ïJTçC?) Word. (Have to go, have to do, has to
Mallesh: (I was) Busy at home. I had to be at go, has to do etc,
¢Á∞«}L, îËߪ÷L ÅØË
home attending to some repairs for Å®ΩnçûÓ)
the house. Dad was out of town. Éçé¬ ´’†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†oC–
busy repairs a) ´’†ç àüÁjØ√ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’© ´©x Öçúø-´-©-Æœ-†-°æ¤púø’,
îËߪ’-´-©-Æœ-†-°æ¤púø’– have to be/ has to be;
(Éçöx í¬ ÖØ√o. ÉçöÀ
îª÷Ææ’éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ ÉçöxØË Öçú≈Lq ´*açC.
Ø√†o- Ü∞x ™‰®Ω’.) have to + 1st RDW/ has to + 1st RDW.
a) Attend = College/ School/ Class ™«çöÀ eg:
1) I have to be at home by 8.
¢√öÀéÀ, functions/ meetings/ marriages b) í∫ûªç™ Éûª-®Ω’© •©-´çûªç´©x-í¬F, E•ç-üµ¿-†© c) Before you build a house, you should sub-
´©xí¬F ´’†ç àüÁjØ√ îËߪ÷-Lq-†-°æ¤púø’/
™«çöÀ ¢√öÀéÀ £æ…ï-®Ω-´ôç. ؈’ 8 éπ-™«x Éçöx Öçú≈L. (™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ´÷ Ø√-†o- mit the plan for approval.
b) attend to = äéπ °æE îË°æ-ôd-ôç / ¶«üµ¿u-ûªí¬ Öçú≈-Lq†°æ¤púø’ πÿú≈ had to ¢√úøû√ç.
éÓ°æ p-úøû√®Ω’) (É©’x éπõ‰d ´·çü¿’, ÉçöÀ plan sub-
Ç¢Á÷-ü∆-EéÀ
îËߪ’ôç; 'I am attending to the repairs'. 2) He has to be here by 10. Otherwise we
1) Lord Rama had to go to forests to honour mit
can't start.
îËߪ÷L)
c) Attend on = ÅA--ü∑¿’-©èπ◊, ®Óí∫’-©èπ◊ Ææ°æ-®Ωu©’ his father's word. ´ Should èπ◊ èπÿú≈ past form 'had to' have
ØË,
(Åûª-E-éπ\úø 10éπ-™«x Öçú≈L. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω™‰ç)
îËߪ’ôç, 3) They have to see the doctor today. The ¢√∞¡x-Ø√†o ´÷ô E©-¶„-ôd-ö«-EéÀ X®√-´·úø’ to/ has to ©èπ◊ ™«í¬. Ñ éÀçC sentences †’
When I was ill, my sister, attended on me.
appointment is for today. Åúø-´¤©èπ◊ -¢Á∞«x-Lq- ´-*açC. §Ú©açúÕ.
Hitesh: You remember we have to go to 2) He had to live in the forest for 12 years
doctor
(É¢√∞¡ ¢√-∞¡Ÿx ü¿í∫_-®Ω-Èé-∞«xL. Çߪ’† Ñ a) The Players should be at the field by 9 AM
Naresh's for his birthday party. It's
®ÓVèπ◊ appointment 'have
Éî√aúø’)– Ééπ\úø °æØÁoç-úË∞¡x ´†-¢√Ææç îËߪ÷Lq ´*açC. field
ûÌN’t-Cç-öÀ-éπ-™«x véÃú≈-é¬-®Ω’©’ ™ Öçú≈L.
already 5. Shall we start?
to' has to
(Åçõ‰ èπÿú≈) ´’†ç ´·çü¿’ E®Ωg-®·ç- 3) He had to pay a fine of Rs. 250/- for driv- ÉC present/ future Ŵa.
(Naresh birthday party Èé∞«x-©E í∫’®Ω’hç-C- -èπ◊†o °æEéÀ ¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç. Å™«Íí– ing the wrong way. b) The players had to be at the field by 9 AM.
éπü∆? É°æp-öÀÍé 5 Å®·-§Ú-®·çC. •ßª’-©’- (Åûª†’ wrong direction ™ drive îËÆœ-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Players 9 éÀfield ™ Öçú≈Lq ´*açC–
üË®Ω-ü∆-´÷?) 250 ®Ω÷-§ƒ-ߪ’© -ï-J-´÷-Ø√ éπö«dLq ´*açC.) ÉC Past.
Mallesh: But we should buy some gift for him.
gift
4) Pramila had to submit the application the ´·êu í∫´’-Eéπ: E•ç-üµ¿-†©’, Å´-Ææ-®√-© π◊
have to/
¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’, éπçõ‰
(àüÓ éÌØ√-L-éπü∆?) day before yesterday. She submitted it
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
Hitesh: We must hurry then. We shouldn't be has to, should should
late.
102 yesterday, so she had to pay a late fee of have to/ has to á π◊\´ powerful.
Rs. 10/-.
late
(ûªy®Ω-°æ-ú≈L ´’J. Å´-èπÿ-úøü¿’.)
Mallesh: What, do you think, is Naresh's age
now?
(Éçûªéà †Í®≠ˇ ´ßª’Ææ’q áçûª’ç-úÌ--îªaç-ö«´¤?
ÉC ÅûªE áØÓo birthday?– DEéÀ
English ™‰ü¿’.)
Hitesh: He must be 18 now. I think it is his
You have to do it
18th birth anniversary. 4) He has to return my book today. He said (v°æO’© ¢Á·†oØË application submit You have to do it =
birthday
(18 à∞¡Ÿxç-ú≈L. ÉC ÅûªE 18´ he would. îËߪ÷-LqçC – é¬F E-†o îËÆœçC, Åçü¿’-éπE 10 O’JC îËߪ÷L = You
Anniversary-
ņ’-èπ◊çö«. (Åûª†’ Ø√èπ◊ -Ñ®Ó--V °æ¤Ææhéπç ÉîËa-ߪ÷L.
¢√J{-éÓûªq-´ç) ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ late fee îÁLxç-î√Lq ´*açC.) should do it. Ééπ\úø you
Mallesh: We are all the same age then, give or É≤ƒh-†-Ø√oúø’.) ´’Sx lesson ¢Á·ü¿öx Ö†o Ææ綵«-≠æù ã≤ƒJ
b) Éûª-®Ω’© •©-´çûªç´©x-í¬F, àüÁjØ√ E•ç-üµ¿-†©
have to do it èπ◊, you
take a few months.
(Å®·ûË ´’†-´’çû√ ØÁ©© ûËú≈ûÓ äÍé ´©-xí¬F (Rules) ´’†ç îËߪ÷-Lq-†-°æ¤púø’/ Öçú≈- îª÷úøçúÕ: should do it éπØ√o force

´ßª’Ææ’q™ ÖØ√o´’-†o-´÷ô.) Lq-†-°æ¤púø’ have to/ has to ¢√úøû√ç. Mallesh: We should buy some gift for him. áèπ◊\´, Åçõ‰ ÉçéÌç-îÁç
M. SURESAN
Hitesh: Ok. Let's start. 1) You have to show the ticket on demand. Hitesh: .... We shouldn't (should not) be late. í∫öÀdí¬ îÁ°æpôç.
Mallesh: We must get back home early. Don't Keep it safe until the journey is over. Ééπ\úø 'should'Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç îª÷ü∆lç. ÉC èπÿú≈ Now practise the following in English:
forget our exams from the day after [
ÅúÕT†°æ¤púø’ Ticket (öÀÈéö¸– öÀ ØÌéÀ\ have to/ has to èπ◊ î√-™« ü¿í∫_®Ωí¬ Öçô’çC. DEéÀ Prema:´’†ç á°æ¤púø’ -•-ߪ’-©’-üË®√-L?
tomorrow. Because of the change in °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç) îª÷§ƒL. v°æߪ÷ùç °æ‹®Ωh-ßË’-u´-®Ωèπ◊ 'be' form should be = Öçú≈L ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ; Preethi: ÉçéÓ í∫çô™/ 9 í∫çô-©éπ-™«x ´’†ç airport
the exam hours, we must be at col- ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ Öç-. On demand = ÅúÕT†°æ¤púø’-] Action word, should + 1st RDW (should go,
lege 10 minutes before nine. 2) Kumar has to pay the fees tomorrow. ™ Öçú≈L. Passport, visa, Éûª®Ω docu-
should know, should do, etc.) = ¢Á∞ «xL,
(´’†ç ûªy®Ωí¬ ÉçöÀéÀ AJT ´îËa-ߪ÷L. (kumar Í®°æ¤ fees éπö«dL.) ments Åçû√ ready í¬ Öç-éÓ-¢√L. ¢√-∞¡Ÿx
á©’xçúÕ †’ç* ´’†èπ◊ exams ÅE ´’®Ω-*- ûÁL-ߪ÷L/ ûÁ©’Ææ’-éÓ-¢√L, îËߪ÷L, etc. Å®√n-©ûÓ)
3) The boss has asked us to be at office half -Å-úøí∫ç-í¬ØË îª÷°œç-îª-í∫-©í¬L.
§Úèπ◊. ´÷J† ¢Ë∞¡© v°æ鬮Ωç College ™ should á°æ¤púø÷ ´’†ç Öçú≈-Lq† ÆæÈ®j† B®Ω’†’ Prema: ´‚úø’ Ø√©’í∫’ ´çü¿-© *©x-®Ω èπÿ-ú≈ Öç-
an hour earlier than usual. We have to be
10 EN’-≥ƒ©’ ûªèπ◊\´ 9 éπ-™«x -Öçú≈-L-.) at office at 9. í∫’-Jç-*, ÆæJí¬ îËߪ÷Lq† °æEE í∫’-Jç-* éÓ-¢√L éπü∆. àüÁjØ√ Å´-Ææ®Ωç ®√´îª’a.
éÀç-ü¿-öÀ lesson ™ have to be/ has to be (Boss ´’†Lo ã Å®Ω-í∫çô ´·çü¿’ office èπ◊ ûÁ©’°æ¤ûª’çC. Preethi: Airport entrance ticket é̆’-éÓ\-¢√-©-E O’
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç îª÷¨»ç éπü∆? äéπ-≤ƒJ í∫’®Ω’hèπ◊ ®Ω´’t-Ø√o®Ω’ éπü∆. ´’†ç 9 éπ-™«x office ™ a) You should be here at 10 everyday.
friends ûÓ îÁ§ƒpL †’´¤y. ¢√∞¡Ÿx lounge
ûÁa-èπ◊çü∆ç. Öçú≈L.) †’´¤y ®ÓW °æ-Cç-öÀéÀ -Ééπ\-úø -Öç-ú≈-L.
a) I, We, You, They subjects Å®·ûË have to. ™ØË èπÿ®Óa-¢√L.
Have to/ has to á°æ¤púø÷ present/ future situ- b) He should understand that we are his well
b) He, She, It Å®·ûË has to. Prema: OK.
ations èπ◊ ´Jh-≤ƒh®·. ÅüË past ™ ´’†ç îÁ§ƒp- wishers.
c) be form: have to be/ has to be (Öçú≈L ©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰ had to ¢√úøû√ç. lesson v§ƒ®Ω綵º Answer:
´’†ç ÅûªE v¨ÏßÁ÷-Gµ-™«-≠æfl©-´’ØË N≠æߪ’ç Åûª†’
ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ). Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ Mallesh -à-´’-Ø√oúø’?I had to be at Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ¢√L. Prema: When have we to start? / When should
home (Yesterday - past) ÅE. Åçõ‰ ØËEçöx
-v°æ-¨¡o: Öçú≈Lq ´*açC. 鬕öÀd í∫ûªç™– a) --à-üÁj-Ø√ °æJ- c) You should refer to the dictionary when we start?

1) ¢√£æ«-Ø√© ¢Á†éπ ®√ÊÆ 'please Æœn-ûª’©´©x-í¬E, E•ç-üµ¿-†©´©x-í¬E, Éûª-®Ω’© you are in doubt. Preethi: In an hour from now. We have to be at

sound horn' •©-´ç-ûªç-´©xí¬E áéπ\-úÁjØ√ Öçú≈Lq ´ÊÆh, had FÍé-üÁjØ√ ÆæçüË£æ«ç Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ Dictionary the airport by 9. We have to have our
to be, àüÁjØ√ îËߪ÷-Lq-´ÊÆh had to + 1st
Å®Ωnç N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
2) ¢Á·£æ«-´÷-ö«EéÀ Ææ´÷† Å®Ωnç
îª÷ú≈L. (îª÷úøôç ÆæÈ®j† °æE) passport, visa and other documents
Regular Doing Word (RDW) ¢√úøû√ç. E•ç-üµ¿-†© v°æ鬮Ωç ÆæÈ®j†D, é¬E-D ûÁ-LÊ°ç-ü¿’ π◊ ready. We should be able to show
πÿú≈ should ¢√úø-´îª’a.
´îËa ÉçTx≠ˇ °æü¿ç à¢Á’iØ√
Öçü∆? 1. He had to be at station by 8, as his friend them when they ask for it.
– >™«E, é¬éÀ-Ø√úø was coming. a) You should not drive at more than 20 kmph Prema: We have to have / should have three
-ï-¢√-•’:
(Station ™ Åûª†’ 8 éÀ Öçú≈Lq ´*açC, ¢√∞¡x along this road. hundred to four hundred rupees in
friend á´®Ó ´Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’ 鬕öÀd)
1) Please sound horn Åçõ‰ horn ¢Á÷Tç-îªçúÕ ÅE 2. Santhi had to go to Vijayawada last
(Ñ road ™ O’®Ω’ 20 éÀ-™O’-ô®Ωx ¢Ëí¬-Eo -N’ç-* change in case of need.
Å®Ωnç. äéπ ¢√£æ«†ç ¢Á†-éπ-´¤†o ¢√£æ«†ç, ´·çü¿J Sunday to attend a marriage.
-†-úø°æ®√-ü¿’.) Preethi: You should tell your friends that they
¢√£æ«-Ø√Eo ü∆öÀ ´·çü¿’èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰, horn (Kmph = KPH = Kilometres per hour) have to buy the airport entrance ticket.
(éÀç-ü¿-öÀ ÇC-¢√®Ωç ¨»çA Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø, °RxéÀ
b) Passengers should be at the airport half
¢Á÷TÊÆh, ´·çü¿J ¢√£æ«†ç, ¢Á†éπ ¢√£æ«-Ø√-EéÀ ¢Á∞«}Lq ´*açC.) They have to sit all the time in the
an hour before the flight departure.
ü∆JÆæ’hçü¿E îÁ°æp-ö«-EéÀ Å™« ®√≤ƒh®Ω’. 3. Vishal had to pay the fees yesterday; he lounge.
2) '¢Á·£æ«-´÷ôç— Å†o-´÷-ôèπ◊ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬ had no money, so I had to lend him the (N´÷†ç •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-ö«-EéÀ Å®Ω-í∫çô ´·çü¿’ Prema: OK.
ņ-í∫-L-TçC 'unassertive'. 'assertive' Åçõ‰ amount. v°æߪ÷-ùÀèπ◊©’ airport ™ Öçú≈L.)
E®Ìt-£æ«-´÷-ôçí¬ Öçúøôç, 鬕öÀd, 'unassertive' (N¨»™¸ E†o fees îÁLxç-î√Lq ´*açC. ÅûªE ü¿í∫_®Ω flight = N´÷-†-ߪ÷†ç/ °æéÀ~ áí∫-®Ωôç,
Åçõ‰ ¢Á·£æ«-´÷ôç í∫© ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úø-´îª’a. úø•’s-™‰ü¿’. Åçü¿’-éπE ØË-†’ -Å®Ω’-´¤ -É¢√yLq ´*açC.) Departure = •ßª’-™‰l-®Ωôç

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
iII Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡Ÿ-véπ¢√®Ωç 27 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Vipula: Hi Klupta, what's new?
must
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ¢√úÕ† Ææçü¿-®√s¥©’ îª÷úøçúÕ
(àçöÀ N¨Ï-≥ƒ©’?– ÉC É°æ¤púø’ ¶«í¬ ¢√úø’-éπ- 1) The application must be in the candidate's
™éÀ ´Ææ’h†o °æ©-éπ-Jç°æ¤ ´÷ô) own handwriting = Ææyü¿-Ææ÷h-J™ Öçú≈L
Klupta: O nothing. Just getting on.
2) No column must be blank =
(àç ™‰´¤. àüÓ Å™« ïJ-T-§Ú-ûÓçC) ë«Sí¬ Öçúø-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
Vipula: Is your application for the job ready?
3) We must write = ´’†ç ®√ߪ÷L.
(job èπ◊ °æ秃-Lq† Application Æœü¿l¥ç 4) You must enclose = ïûª-°æ-®√aL.
î˨»¢√?/ ready í¬ Öçü∆?) 5) must reach = îË®√L.
Klupta: What's the hurry, Vipula? We have
´’†™ î√-™« ´’çCéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’ – must Åçõ‰
plenty of time, haven't we?
ûª°æpEÆæJÅE. Police Officer: Even if the Governor comes,
(àçöÀ ûÌçü¿®Ω? é¬-¢√-Lq-†çûª time ÖçC, Karthik: ´’†ç lab ™ 9 éπ™«x Öçú≈L. àN’öÀ
Must be - be form = Öçú≈L; you must close shop by 10.30.
éπü∆?Plenty of =î√™«) Ç©Ææuç? úø•’s ready í¬ØË ÖçC-éπü∆?
Must + 1st RDW - Action word (Must go, must Don't forget.
Vipula: What are you talking? Only four days Sravan: Éçöx á´-®Ω÷-™‰®Ω’. ´÷ Å´’t ´îËa-ü∆é¬
write, etc,) = etc.)
¢Á∞«xL, ®√ߪ÷L, É°æ¤púø’ Ñ *†o game practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
are left, you know. You must hurry.
éÀçü¿öÀ Lesson have to/ has to, should
™ èπ◊ Çí¬L ؈’. ûª†’ ´îËaü∆é¬ Öçúø-´’E ´’K Infinitive les-
Åçõ‰ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆– Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’
(àçöÀ ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤? Ééπ Ø√©’í∫’ must èπÿ î√-™« ü¿í∫_®Ω Ææç•çüµ¿ç ÖçC – Å®Ωnç™, í∫öÀdí¬ îÁ°œpçC. sons ™ N´-Jçî√ç– to + Ist Regular Doing
®ÓV™‰í¬ ÖçC?ûªy®Ω-°æ-ú≈L) must
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫ç™. °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ N°æ¤© †’ Karthik: ´’-†ç 9 éπ™«x lab ™ Öçú≈L, éπ*a-ûªçí¬. Word. eg: to go, to come, to know, etc, OöÀE
left = N’T-LçC
(must
E•ç-üµ¿-†©’, Åçõ‰ ûª°æp-E-Ææ-Jí¬ Öçú≈-Lq-†O ؈’ ¢Á∞¡xØ√? ´‚úø’ Nüµ∆-©’í¬ ¢√úøû√ç.
Klupta: Dad's going to fill it in tonight and it will Sravan: Åçûª -éπç-í¬-È®ç-ü¿’èπ◊? °æéπ\ØË ÖØ√oúø’í¬ 1) ¢Á∞¡xôç, ®√´ôç, ûÁ-L-ߪ’ôç/ ûÁ©’Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç, ÅØË
be) / (must + 1st RDW)
îËߪ÷-Lq-†O ¢√úøôç
be ready by tomorrow afternoon. ÅPyE. ¢√úÕ bike O’ü¿ ¢Á∞«lç. Å®ΩnçûÓ.
í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’ éπü∆. éÀçCN èπÿú≈ îª÷úøçúÕ.
(´÷ Ø√†o É¢√∞¡ ®√vA application °æ‹Jh b) To go now will be the right thing
a) Voters must show their ID cards to the polling
ready
îË≤ƒh®Ω’. Í®°æ¤ ´’üµ∆u-£æ…o-E-éπ™«x í¬ police officer: time ? É°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞¡xôç ÆæÈ®jç-Cí¬ Öçô’çC.
Officers = É°æ¤púø’ áçûª
Öçô’çC.) Shopkeeper: 10.30 2) ¢Á∞«x-©E, ®√¢√-©E, ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©E ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ
Voters polling officers cards
èπ◊ ûª´’ í∫’Jhç°æ¤ ü∆öÀçC.
Police officer: 10.30 shop I want to go = ¢Á∞«x-©E ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’.
(ID cards = Identity cards) îª÷§ƒL. (E•ç-üµ¿†) éπ™«x ´‚ÂÆ-ߪ÷u-©E
3) ¢Á∞¡x-ö«-EéÀ, ®√´-ö«-EéÀ, ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ö«-EéÀ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ
b) Students must get their own geometry box to -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü∆? ´‚ÂÆ-ߪ÷u-L- O’-J-°æ¤púø’.
a) He is getting ready to go
the exam = Shopkeeper: •ßª’ô showcase ÖçC. ü∆Eo
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
°æK-éπ~èπ◊ Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’ ¢√∞¡x ≤Òçûª ¢Á∞¡x-ö«-EéÀ ûªßª÷-®Ω-´¤-ûª’-Ø√oúø’
103 Geometry box ûÁa-éÓ-¢√L. (E•ç-üµ¿†) -™°æ©Â°ö«dL. she is going out to buy a book
°æ¤Ææhéπç é̆-ö«-EéÀ ¢Á∞hçC.
game. É™«çöÀ infinitives Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç*
É°æ¤púø’

You must finish the work
sentences form îËߪ’ôç – áEo îËߪ’-í∫-L-TûË ÅEo,
áEo varieties Å®·ûË ÅEo – statements &
questions, negative sentences (no/ not/
never dialogue form
ûÓ, O©-®·ûË ™.
eg:
Varun: When will you 1) She wants to sing §ƒú≈-©E ņ’-èπ◊ç-öçC
Vipula: Klupta, don't talk like a child. Don't you Police officer:
؈’ ´’Sx O’ shop 10.30 ûª®√yûª 2) To smoke is not good for health.
be back,
know that the application must be in the ( smoke îËߪ’ôç Ç®Ó-í¬u-EéÀ ´’ç*Cé¬ü¿’)
Kuber? ûÁ®Ω* Öçúøôç îª÷úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’,
candidate's own hand writing? It must ûÁL-Æœçü∆? 3) She has came to borrow a book from me
(èπ◊¶‰®˝, á°æ¤púø’
be complete in with all particulars. No Shopkeeper: ÉçéÓ police officer à¢Ó- éÌ-†-ú≈-EéÀ
(Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω °æ¤Ææhéπç BÆæ’éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ ´*açC)
AJ-íÌ-≤ƒh¢˛?) 4) Where do you want to go now?
column must be blank. If a column does
Kuber: Only after 5. Till ´î√a®Ω’. ÅC é̆ôç °æ‹®Ωh-ßË’u-ü∆é¬
not apply to us, we must write in it, shop ûÁJ-* -Öç-îª-´’E Çïc Éî√a®Ω’,
É°æ¤púø’ áéπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞«x-©E ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤?
then I must be 5) Vasanth: Which college do you want to
Does not apply / Not applicable' No
at office. I must M. SURESAN sir.
join?
dashes either. Police officer: Governor
close the accounts before I leave office. ´*aØ√ ®√vA 10.30èπ◊ Hemanth: I have come to consult you.
(*†o-°œ-©x™« ´÷ö«x-úøèπ◊. O’ Ø√†o fill shop
office
(5 í∫çô© ûª®√yûË. Åçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ™ØË éπõ„d-ߪ÷uL. ´’Ja-§Úèπ◊. Vasanth: To join our college will be the
îËߪ’ôç (Eç°æôç) àN’öÀ? Application
Öçú≈L. Office accounts
´C-™‰-´·çü¿’, Answers: best.
ŶµºuJn Ææyü¿-Ææ÷h-JûÓ Öçú≈L. ÅEo N´-®√-©ûÓ close Hemanth: But to join your college will be
°æ‹Jhí¬ Öçú≈L. à column èπÿú≈ ë«Sí¬
èπÿú≈ îËߪ÷L) a) Karthik: Are you ready? Shall we start?
kuber, must duties expensive, won't it?
Öçúø-èπÿ-úøü¿’. ´’†èπ◊ ´Jhç-îªE column
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ †’ ûª† Sravan: Wait I must pay the fees today. Let me
(office É™«ç-öÀN Ñ game practice ™ îËߪ’çúÕ.
àüÁj-Ø√ Öçõ‰ Does not apply/ Not appli-
îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’ éπü∆? ™ Öçú≈- get the money.
Karthik: Why can't you pay tomorrow?
-v°æ-¨¡o:
Lq† Æ洒ߪ’ç, îËߪ÷-Lq† °æ†’©’ – É™«çöÀ Nüµ¿’©’/
cable ÅE ®√ߪ÷L. Dash ©’ ™«çöÀN
duties) ÉN must èπ◊ -Ö†o È®çúÓ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç – Sravan: From tomorrow, we must pay a fine of
èπÿú≈ Öçúø-èπÿ-úøü¿’.) Must expresses duties.
Candidate (é¬uEf-úÁ-ß˝’ö¸ – é¬u, bank ™ b ™«í¬ Rs.10/- per day. †’-´¤y -´’®Ω-*-§Ú-û√-¢Ë-¢Á÷-†-E í∫’®Ω’h -îË-¨»-†’.
Udaya: May I go now Madam? 'Lest you should forget that I have
é¬u ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç) = ŶµºuJn particulars (°æöÀ-
(¢Á-∞Ôx-î√açúŒ?) Karthik: We must be at the lab by 9. What's the
Sandhya: No. You must stay here for another reminded you' Ñ ¢√éπuç ÆæÈ®j-†-
èπ◊u-©ñ¸ öÀ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç, r silent, *´J ñ¸, delay? You have the money.
hour; understand? You must finish Lest
üËØ√? ´ÊÆ h should ®√¢√-L -éπü∆?
size ™ z ™«í∫) = N´-®√©’. blank = -ë«-S. Sravan: No one is at home. I must/ have to wait
the work I have given you and then i) ¢√úÕûÓ Øˆ’ îÁ§ƒpE îÁ°æ¤p Fèπ◊ Ç °æE-îËÆ œ °úø-û√úø’.-
Does not apply/ Not applicable = ´Jhç-îªü¿’. till mother comes back. She has told
only leave. ii) †’´¤y Å™« ņ’-èπ◊ç-ö«-´E Ø√èπ◊ ´·çüË ûÁ©’Ææ’.
No... either = 'no' -ûÓ é¬F, not ûÓ é¬F also me that I must wait till she is back.
-O-öÀ-E ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
¢√úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’. Å™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’, No/ not either
(™‰ü¿’. ÉçéÓ í∫çô Öçú≈L †’Ny-éπ\úø. Karthik: We must be at the lab at 9. Shall I go?
iii) old boy Åçõ‰ close friend ÅØË Å®Ωnç éπÈ®-ÍédØ√?
Åçö«ç. Column = 鬩ç = Application ™
ØËE-*a† °æE °æ‹JhîËÆœ† ûª®√yûË ¢Á∞«xL Sravan: Why are you so worried? Aswini is – ®√ñ¸- π◊-´÷®˝, ü¿Jz
ÅúÕÍí Å稻©’ – Åçü¿’èπ◊ ´’†ç ®√ߪ’-ö«-EéÀ
†’´¤y. -ûÁ-LÆœçü∆?)
Ééπ\úø Sandhya ´÷ô©Fo commands/ orders
here. We can go on his bike. -ï-¢√-•’: 1. †’´¤y ´’Ja-§Ú-û√-¢Ë¢Á÷†E í∫’®Ω’h î˨»†’ –
ÖüËl-Pç-*† ë«S Ææn©ç) b) Police officer: What is the time now? DEéÀ correct English - I have reminded you
= Çïc©’. Åçõ‰ ÇïcL-´y-ö«-EéÀ èπÿú≈ must Shopkeeper: Past 10.30 lest you (should) forget.
Klupta: I don't know how to fill in properly.
¢√úøû√ç. Police officer: Don't you know that you must 'That I have reminded you; ûª°æ¤p
(´’J- Ø√èπ◊ ÆæJí¬ Eç°æôç ®√ü¿’. É°æpöÀ´®Ωèπ◊ ´’†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊†o must uses: 2. Start early lest you should be late
Properly = v§ƒ°æ-L = ÆæJí¬_) close shop by 10.30? you must
1) Rules (E•ç-üµ¿-†-©èπ◊) 2) duties (Nüµ¿’-©èπ◊) close it now. Ç©Ææuç é¬èπ◊ç-ú≈ ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ûªy®Ωí¬ •ßª’-™‰l®Ω’.
Vipula: Take your dad's help. Remember too
3) commands/ orders (Çïc-©èπ◊) Shopkeeper: The showcase is outside. I 3. He carried an umbrella lest he (should) get
that you must enclose all the certifi- drenched
Now practice the following in English: must keep it in.
cates. The application must reach the ûªúÕ-Æœ-§Ú-èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ íÌúø’í∫’ BÂÆ\-∞«xúø’.
office on or before the 31st January. a) Police officer: I must not see the shop open
No 1, No 3 sentences ™ should omit îËߪ’-´îª’a.
fill certifi- Karthik: †’´¤y ready Ø√? •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω’-ü∆´÷? after 10.30 again; understand?
(O’ Ø√†o ≤ƒßª’çûÓ îÁß˝’. ÅEo No. 2 ™ èπÿú≈ should lest you be late
BÊÆÆœ,
cates Application, office
ïûª-°æ-®√aL. Ç èπ◊, Sravan: é¬Ææh Çí∫’. ؈’ Ñ®Ó-V °∂‘V-éπ-ö«dL. Shopkeeper: Some other Police Officer came ņ-´îª’a. Lest = so that not.
31 st Jan ™‰ü∆ Åç-ûªèπ◊´·çü¿’í¬-F îË®√L. Åçü¿’-éπE úø•’s ûÁa-èπ◊ç-ö«†’. here to buy something. He i) Tell him it is from me. He will do it.
Certificate - ÆæöÀ-°∂œ-Èé-ß˝’ö¸ – Èé ØÌéÀ\ Karthik: Í®°æ¤ éπôd-èπÿ-úøü¿÷? ordered me to keep the shop (It is from me = ؈’ îÁ§ƒp-†E îÁ°æ¤p)
°æ©’-èπ◊û√ç) Sravan: Í®°æöÀ†’ç* ®ÓVèπ◊ Rs 10/- ïJ-´÷† éπö«dLq open until his purchases are ii) I knew that you would think so.
complete, sir. iii) Close friend old boy
†’, correct,
ņôç
Klupta: I must hurry up. (Å®·ûË Øˆ’ ûªy®Ω°æ-ú≈L) Öçô’çC.
(Purchases = é̆’-íÓ©’) Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ωùç.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
iII Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 29 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Subodh: Pramod, we must travel by some b) We must carry enough cash.
morning train to avoid hot sun. So î√L-†çûªcash BÆæ’-èπ◊-¢Á-∞«xL ´’†ç, (™‰èπ◊çõ‰
let's have our tickets booked by an É•sçC °æúøû√ç)
early morning train. c) If I want to avoid the queue, I must be
(´’†ç Öü¿-ߪ’ç-°æ‹ô train ™ ¢Á∞«xL, áçúø there atleast by 8.
(Q ™ E©-´-èπ◊çú≈ Öçú≈©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰, ؈-éπ\úø 8
ûªí∫-©-èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊. Åçü¿’-éπE ´’†ç éπ™«x Öçú≈L)
§Òü¿’l-†-°æ‹ô train èπ◊ tickets book îË®·ç- d) I must check up with him and see that
every thing is ready.
-èπ◊çü∆ç.)
Pramod: And as it's going to be a long journey, (ÅFo Æœü¿l¥çí¬ ÖØ√oßÁ÷ ™‰üÓ ¢√úÕûÓ ´÷ö«xúÕ
we must carry enough cash with us ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√L)
as well. We must be careful about °j ¢√é¬u-©-Eoçöx èπÿú≈ must, necessity (Å´-Ææ- 鬕öÀd have to/ has to expresses command, á°æ¤púø÷ î√™« †í∫-©ûÓ éπE-°œ-Ææ’hç-ü∆¢Á’. ¶«í¬
spending too, not at every place can ®√Eo – Åçõ‰ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’© v§Úü¿s©ç´©x ´’†èπ◊ 鬴-©- duty, necessity, etc., more powerfully than Ö†o ¢√∞Îkx Öçú≈L.
we find an ATM of our bank. Æœ† N≠æ-ߪ÷©-†’, ´’†ç îËߪ’-´-©-Æœ-†N) ûÁ©’-°æ¤- should. 2) I see prasanth's name on the book.
It should be his.
(î√™« ü¿÷®Ω v°æߪ÷ùç 鬕öÀd ûªT-†çûª ûª’çC. Must Ñ ´‚úÕçöx ÅEo-öÀ-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ í∫öÀdí¬
úø•’s èπÿú≈ BÆæ’-èπ◊-¢Á-∞«xL. ÅC èπÿú≈ ñ«ví∫- ´·êuçí¬ í∫´’-Eç-î√-LqçC: îÁ°æ¤hçC, commands é¬F, duty é¬F, necessity -Ç •’é˙ O’ü¿ v°æ¨»çû˝ Ê°®Ω’çC. ÅC Åûª-EüÁj
ûªhí¬ ê®Ω’a °ö«dL. ÅEo-îÓö«x ´’† bank Have to/ has to, should, must- Öçú≈L.
Ñ ´‚úø’ èπÿú≈ Å®Ωnç, Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬™x î√™« ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬ é¬F, rules é¬F. practice the following in English
ATM Öçúø-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a)
'Must' is stronger than have to/ has to or
(ATM = Automatic Teller Machine - Bank
ÖØ√o®· éπü∆. Kesav:
èπ◊´÷-®˝E ¢ÁçôØË Øˆ’ éπ©-¢√L. ÅûªúÕûÓ
Ñ ´‚úÕç-öÀF èπÿú≈ ´’†ç, Rules, duty, com- should.
card ûÓ úø•’s §Òçü¿-í∫© à®√pô’) ´÷ö«x-ú≈-Lq† ´·êu-¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç äéπ-ô’çC.
mands, necessity ©†’ express îËߪ’-ö«-EéÀ I should go-
Subodh: We must carry food too. The food on Gangadhar: Éçöx Öçú≈L°æ¤púø-ûª†’ ´’J. Å®Ω-í∫çô
¢√úøû√ç. ؈’ ¢Á∞«xL; éÀçü¿õ‰ ؈’ phone îËÊÆh îÁ§ƒpúø’
the train is very expensive and not at
all good. DØËo ÉçéÌçîÁç í∫öÀdí¬ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰– I have to go- ûªØÁ-éπ\-úÕéà ¢Á∞¡xôç ™‰ü¿E
Éçé¬ í∫öÀdí¬ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰– I must go. Kesav: Å®·ûË Øˆ’ ¢ÁçôØË ¢Á∞«xL. †’´‹y ´≤ƒh¢√?
(´’†ç A†-ú≈-EéÀ èπÿú≈ à¢Á’iØ√ BÆæ’Èé-∞«xL. Gangadhar: ´÷ ÇNúø ûª††’ áéπ\-úÕéÓ BÆæ’-Èé-∞¡x-
ÉO should, have to/ has to, must èπ◊ ÖçúË
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
Train ™ ǣ慮Ωç êKüË é¬èπ◊çú≈ ¶«í∫’ç-
úøü¿’ èπÿú≈) 104 ûËú≈©’. ´’çC. ØË¢Á-∞«xL ¢ÁçôØË. ÇNúø Ø√éÓÆæç
wait îËÆæ÷h Öçô’çC ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈.
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ must ûÓ ´*a† expressions

We must be careful
îª÷ü∆lç.
Must travel, must carry, must be careful.
-É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ ´’†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊†o must Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’.
1) Must expresses rules. (E•ç-üµ¿-†©’ ûÁ©’-°æ¤-
ûª’çC)
Candidates must report for the interview at
9 AM on 2nd Feb 2006. Å®·ûË should
Oô-Eoç-öÀ™ mild (ûªèπ◊\´ force). For commands, duties, necessity and Kesav:
Å®·ûË ¢ÁçôØË
(2nd Feb 2006 ®ÓV Ŷµºu-®Ω’n-©’ interview èπ◊ should ´·êuçí¬ àC îËÊÆh ÆæJ, àC é¬ü¿’ ņ-ö«- rules. ¢Á∞¡Ÿx. ¶µ«®Ωu© N≠æ-
must
£æ…ï®Ω’ 鬢√L) EéÀ áèπ◊\´ ¢√úøû√ç. have to/ has to ߪ÷™x ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬
2) Must expresses commands (Çïc-L-´y-ö«-EéÀ a) You should be punctual should stronger strongest Öçú≈L ´’†ç.
must ¢√úøû√ç) (†’´¤ypunctual í¬ Öçú≈L– Öçúøôç ´’ç*C). least than form Gangadhar: †’´¤y ņ’-¶µº-
You must not do it again. b) He should not talk like that strong should ´çûÓ
Commands, rules
(´·êu-¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç: ™«çöÀN îÁ•’ûª’-ç-ú≈-L
áçûª ûªèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√úÕûË Åçûª Kesav: Ok. Ok. ؈’ M. SURESAN
(O’JC ´’Sx îËߪ’-èπÿ-úøü¿’) (Åûª-†™« ´÷ö«x-úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’– Å™« ´÷ö«x-úø-èπ◊çú≈
3) Must expresses duty. Öçõ‰ ´’ç*C) must
îÁ°æp-ö«-EéÀ
I must be at office until 5. should éπØ√o, have to/ has to, force áèπ◊\´. ´’ç*C. Must ´’K í∫öÀdí¬ Çñ«c-°œç-îªôç, ´’çü¿-Lç- ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√o.
(âCçöÀ´®Ωèπ◊ ؈’ office ™ Öçú≈L) éÌçîÁç í∫öÀdí¬ command É´y-ö«-EéÀ, Nüµ∆-ߪ’éπç îªôç Å´¤-ûª’çC. ÅC ´’†ç àüÓ ´’† ÇCµ-éπu-ûª†’, Answer:
´’Sx °j Ææ綵«-≠æù îªCN must Ö†o expressions ÅE îÁ°æp-ö«-EéÃ, E•ç-üµ¿-†©’ éÌçîÁç force ûÓ ûÁ©-°æ- ÅCµ-é¬-®√Eo îª÷°œç--èπ◊-†oô’d Å´¤-ûª’çC. ≤ƒ´÷- Kesav: I must / have to meet kumar urgently.
í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. ö«-EéÀ have to/ has to ¢√úøû√ç. †uçí¬ Çñ«c-°œç-îªôç, E•ç-üµ¿-†©’ ûÁL-ߪ’-°æ-®Ω-îªôç There is an important matter I have to
a) We must carry enough cash. a) I have to take my sister to the hospital Å®·ûË shall, should ©ûÓ ÇT-§Ú-´ôç good talk to him about./ I have to talk to him
(more powerful manners. Must, manners ûÁL-Æ œ-†-¢√∞¡Ÿx Çïc-©èπ◊
î√L-†çûª cash BÆæ’Èé-∞«xL ´’†ç BÆæ’-èπ◊-¢Á-∞«xL. î√™« Å´-Ææ®Ωç about something important.
b) We must travel by some morning train. than, 'I should take')... î√--™« Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. Duty, necessity ûÁ©-°æ- Gangadhar: He must be at home now. A short-
´’†ç §Òü¿’l† train ™ ¢Á∞«xL. b) He has to do whatever I want him to do ö«-EéÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd àüÁjØ√ ¢√úø-´îª’a). while ago I called him and he told
Should, must-
c) We must be careful. ØËØËC ¢√úÕo îÁߪ’u-´’ç--ö«ØÓ ¢√úøC îÁߪ÷u-LqçüË. me he wouldn't be going any-
´’†ç ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ Öçú≈L. c) They have to finish the work by the -Ñ È®ç-úÕ-ç-öÀ-F ´’†ç éπ*aûªç ņ’-èπ◊ØË N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo where.
°j ´‚úø’ ¢√é¬u™x must, necessity (Å´-Ææ-®√Eo) evening ûÁ©-°æ-ú≈-EéÀ èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç. Åçõ‰ ÉN perhaps Kesav: Then I must rush. Are you coming with
ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC éπü∆? Åçõ‰ ´’†ç É•sçC °æúø-èπ◊çú≈, (≤ƒßª’ç-vû√-E-éπ™«x ¢√-∞«} °æE °æ‹Jh-îË-ߪ÷-LqçüË). (•£æ›-¨¡) èπ◊ opposite. me?
b), c) ™ should ¢√úø-´îª’a have to/ has to èπ◊ Pramod: Any idea where Praful is?
´’†èπ◊ îÁúø’ ï®Ω-í∫-èπ◊çú≈ ´’† Å´-Ææ-®√Eo ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Gangadhar: My wife wanted me to take her
must ¢√úøû√ç. •ü¿’©’. Å®·ûË have to/ has to Åçûª force (v°æ°∂椙¸ áéπ\-úø’-Ø√oúÓ à¢Á’iØ√ ûÁ©’≤ƒ?) somewhere. I must go home at
Manoj: He must be at home. He is expecting
a) We must hurry or we'll miss the beginning ®√ü¿’. once, she must be waiting for me.
d) He has made mistakes and has to face the some guests.
of the movie. Kesav: Then go. We must be careful about
consequences. (ÉçöxØË Öçú≈L ´’J. á´®Ó guests
´’†ç ûªy®Ωí¬ ¢Á∞«xL, ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ movie begin- things connected with them.
éÓÆæç áü¿’-®Ω’-îª÷-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’) Gangadhar: You must be speaking from expe-
ning miss Å´¤û√ç.
(ûª°æ¤p©’ î˨»úø’ 鬕öÀd °∂æLûªç ņ’-¶µº-Nç-î√-LqçüË).
Pramod: Who are the guests? (á´®Ω’ guests?)
rience.

-v°æ-¨¡o: Learn èπ◊ past ®Ω÷§ƒ©’ È®çúø’ learned, learnt ÅE ÖØ√o®·. Å™«Íí past
Manoj: His cousins from the states on a short
Kesav: Ok. Ok. I'm going.
visit to India.
participles èπÿú≈. Å®·ûË she learnt english ÅØ√™«? She learned eng- Ñ≤ƒJ Ñ game practice îËߪ’çúÕ. éÀçü¿öÀ≤ƒJ
cousins - India
(Å¢Á’-J-鬙 Ö†o -ÅûªE èπ◊
lish ÅØ√™«?
É*a† game ™ infinitive practice î˨»-®Ω’-í∫ü∆.
-´î√a®Ω’. éÌCl ®ÓV--©’ç-ö«®Ω’) Ñ≤ƒJ sentence ™ verb èπ◊, infinitive èπÿ ´’üµ¿u
Å™«Íí passive voice ™ English was learned ņ-´î√a? English was Pramod: That should keep him busy for anoth-
me, us, you, him, her, it, them °öÀd practice
learnt ÅØË ÅØ√™«? Å™«Íí burnt, burned, dreamt, dreamed © í∫’-Jç-< er two days then.
N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. îËߪ’çúÕ.
(Åçü¿’-´©x Åûªúø’ È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ ®ÓV©’ eg: a) I want you to go;
– á. éπ%≠æg-U-û√-®Ω’b†, Eúø-ü¿-¢Ó©’ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ busy í¬ Öçö«úø’) b) She wants him to sing
-ï-¢√-•’: Learned, learnt- past tense éπ®·Ø√, past participle éπ®·Ø√ OöÀ È®çúÕöx Ééπ\úø
busy-
must be at home, should keep him
É´Fo èπÿú≈ ´’†ç éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’ç-C/
c) What do you want me to do?
àüÁjØ√ ¢√úø-´îª’a – ÅFo äéπõ‰, passive ™ èπÿú≈. ÅüË Nüµ¿çí¬, burned, d) Dad doesn't want me to waste time.
burnt, dreamt, dreamed N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ àüÁjØ√, à voice ™ØÁjØ√ ¢√úø-´îª’a.
-Öç-ô’çC ņ’-èπ◊ØË N≠æ-ߪ÷-©èπ◊. ûª°æp-E-ÆæJ ņ’-èπ◊ØË É™«ç-öÀN practice îËÆœ áEo sentences
Å®·ûË learned E ¶«í¬ ûÁL-Æœ† (àüÁjØ√ subject) ÅØË Å®Ωnç™ ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤úø’, N≠æ-ߪ÷-©èπ◊ must, should ¢√úøû√ç. îËߪ’-í∫-©®Ó îª÷úøçúÕ.
1) See her always with a lot of jewellry on.
learned (pronunciation - ™„Eú˛ – ™„ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç) ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√úøû√ç.
She must be quite rich.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
iII Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 31 -ï-†-´-J 2006
Sravan: Hi Pavan, how was the movie yester- One of all time greats: All time great -
day? Ñ ´÷ô á°æ¤púø÷ íÌ°æp-¢√-∞¡Ÿx-í¬ / -íÌ-°æp-Ní¬ °æJ-í∫-ùÀç-îË-
( movie
E†o ᙫ ÖçC?) ¢√∞¡Ÿx/ °æJ-í∫-ùÀç-îËN ÅE Å®Ωnç.
Pavan: Not very good, but not so bad either. a) Sankarabharanam is an all time great.
(Åçûª ¶«í¬-™‰ü¿’, Åçûª îÁúø’í¬ ™‰ü¿’) b) Tendulkar is an all time great.
Sravan: (Do) you suggest that I see it? ÅD all time great meaning and use.
suggest =
(îª÷úø-´’ç-ö«¢√? Ææ÷*ç-îªôç) Was showing: hall
*vûªç -äéπ ™ -Çúø’-ûª÷çC
Pavan: I leave it to you. (í∫ûªç™)
leave it to you =
(ÅC F É≠ædç FéÌ-C-™‰- Kranthi: The movie is excellent. You must
Ææ’hØ√o. F É≠ædç) see
Sravan: The other day, I happened to watch it. I feel like seeing it a second time.
best sequence in the movie . Answers:
an old English movie. 'The ten com- Prasanth: Where is it showing?
(Ç *vûªç™ ÅC Öûªh´’ ÆæEo-¢Ë¨¡ç) Sruthi: Hi Laya, weren't you (were you not) at
mandments' on the TV. A real good (ÅC áéπ\úø Çúø’-ûÓçC?) b) Most of the shots in the movie were shot in home yesterday?
movie - one of the all time greats. Kranthi: It is showing in Chitramahal.
Kashmir Laya: No, I went to a movie. I had not going
TV
(¢Á·ØÁo-°æ¤púÓ äéπ ®ÓV† ™ §ƒûª (ÅC *vûª-´’-£æ«-™¸™ Çúø’-ûÓçC) (
Ç *vûªç™ î√-™« ÆæEo-¢Ë-¨»©’ é¬Qt-®˝™ B¨»®Ω’ better to do. (I went to a movie, having
English movie, 'The ten command- *vûªç -äéπ theatre showing
™ Çúøôç = ✓ Role= -§ƒ--vûª= part. - nothing better to do.)
ments movie.
îª÷¨»†’. Eïçí¬ íÌ°æp - Last week it was showing in Chitradarsini. I
a) SV Rangarao could act any role with ease Sruthi: Which movie, and where is it showing?
á°æp-öÀéà íÌ°æp¢Ë ņ’-èπ◊ØË ¢√öÀ™x -Å-üÌéπöÀ. don't know where it is showing now. Some
(SV ®Ωçí¬-®√´¤ à §ƒvûª-ØÁjØ√ Ææ’Ø√-ߪ÷-Ææçí¬ Laya: Premaku Kallu Levu. At Chitrajyothi.
(All time great - á°æ¤púø÷ íÌ°æp) other movie is showing in Chitradarsini.
(with ease) †öÀçîª-LÍí-¢√úø’) Sruthi: Was it good?
Pavan: Why didn't you tell me? (í∫ûª ¢√®Ωç ÅC *vûª-ü¿-Jz-E™ Ç-úÕç-C.É°æ¤úø’ áéπ\úø b) His is the most important role in the movie Laya: My God! What a bore (it was)!
(Ø√Èéç-ü¿’èπ◊ îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’?) Çúø’-ûª’çüÓ ûÁMü¿’. *vûª-ü¿-Jz-E™ ÉçÍéüÓ movie (
Ç *vûªç™ Åûª-EC ÅA ´·êu-¢Á’i† §ƒvûª)
Sravan: I didn't know myself that it was show- Çúø’-ûÓç-C-°æ¤púø’) Sruthi: Who were the actors? \ What was the
act a role = do a role = take on a role
ing. I just turned on HBO channel and cast?
(
äé𠧃vûª™ †öÀç-îªôç)
there it was. Laya: The movie featured a big cast./ The
a) Nageswara Rao acted the role of Narada in
HBO
(Ø√èπ◊ ûÁMü¿’ ÅC -´-≤Úhç-ü¿-E Ü-JÍé actors were all great./ The cast includ-
Bhukailas \ Nageswara Rao did the role of
channel movie
A§ƒp†’. Ñ éπE-°œç-*çC) ed all great actors.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
Narada .
Pavan: Was it very good? Sruthi: How did they act?/ How did they do?/
105 (Ø√Íí-¨¡y-®Ω-®√´¤ Ø√®Ωü¿’úÕ §ƒvûª ¢Ë¨»®Ω’)
(î√™« ¶«í∫’çü∆?) How did they perform?/ How was their
Sravan: You can say that again and again.

Tendulkar is an all time great
(´’Sx-´’Sx -îÁ§Òpa. Ç ´÷ô.)
It ran to packed houses for weeks
together those days
Houseful
(Ç ®ÓV™x ¢√®√© ûª®Ω-•úÕ í¬
†úÕ-*çC)
Pavan: Who were the cast?
(û√®Ω-™„-´®Ω’?) b) He acted the role well performance?
Sravan: The movie features Charlton Heston Ran to packed houses: Houseful í¬ ÇúÕçC. (
Ç §ƒvûª™ Çߪ’† ¶«í¬ †öÀç-î√úø’) Laya: They couldn't
as Moses and Yul Brynner as the Packed house = houseful
✓ Live a role =
§ƒvûª ™  @Nç- î ª ô ç act well./They
Pharaoh. Run to packed houses = houseful í¬ †úø-´úøç. ✓ Do justice to a role = didn't do well.
✓ movie
(Moses Charlton Heston, Pharaoh
í¬ run
Çúø-ö«Eo ÅE èπÿú≈ Åçö«ç. §ƒvûª è π ◊ Ø√uߪ ’ ç îË è π ÿ - ® Ω a ôç
✓ Comic role = Sruthi: So I need not

Yul Brynner
í¬ Moses-
†öÀç-î√®Ω’. - Çmovie É°æpöÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ 4 ¢√®√©’ ÇúÕçC. £æ … Ææ u §ƒvûª ,
✓ Tragic role =
ü¿’”ê-§ƒvûª see it.
Pharaoh - Egyptian- The movie has run for the past four weeks.
Ñ≤ƒJ Ñ game ÇúøçúÕ. M. SURESAN
¢Á÷ñ‰Æˇ; §∂ƒ®Ó îªvéπ- ✓ Perform =
✓ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ 100 ®ÓV©’ Çúø’-ûª’çC =
´Jh) E®Ωy£œ«ç-îª-úøç
✓ He performed well =
Çߪ’† ¶«í¬ †öÀç-î√úø’. I know what to do.
Pavan: Any special feature of it? It will certainly run for a hundred days.
His performance as Sri Rama deserves all
movie
(Ç ™ àçöÀ -v°æ-ûËuéπ-ûª?) ✓ movie Åçü¿Ko Çéπ-J{ç-îË-ü¿-®·ûË– (ØËØËç îËߪ÷™ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’) Ééπ\úø O’®Ω’ îËߪ÷-Lqç-
praise.
Sravan: The cleavage of the sea. It's a grand It's a big draw. ü¿ ™«x ÉüË †´‚-Ø√™ O’®Ω’ îÁ°æp-í∫-L_-†Eo sentences
shot. I have yet to see such a shot in a) This movie will be a big draw
(X®√-´·-úÕí¬ Çߪ’† †ô† ¢Á’a-éÓ-ûª-í∫_C.) æp-í∫-©_úøç. Variety èπÿú≈ Öçú≈L. Åçõ‰, no ûÓ†÷,
✓ (Deserve = Å®Ω|ûª éπLT Öçúøôç.
îÁ °
any movie. It looked as though the sea (Ñ movie Åçü¿®Ω÷ É≠æd-°æ-ú≈h®Ω’/ ÅC Åçü¿Ko questions, dialogue form èπÿú≈ ®√¢√L. Å®Ωnç cor-
He deserves an award
really parted by a path. That's the high- Çéπ-J{-Ææ’hçC.) rect í¬ Öçú≈L.
(Çߪ’† •£æ›-´’-AéÀ Å®Ω’|úø’)
light of the movie. (It will run to packed houses) eg: a) Hema forgot how to open the box
✓ Comedy = Ææ’ë«ç-ûª-¢Á’i-†/-£æ…-Ææu-v°æ-üµ∆-†-¢Á’i-† éπü∑¿
(Ææ´·vü¿ç <©ôç – Å™«çöÀShot †’ ؈’ b) *vûªç™ àüÁjØ√ ã ÆæEo-¢Ë¨¡ç î√-™« -íÌ-°æp-ü¿-®·ûË, ÅC (box ᙫ ûÁ®Ω-¢√™ Ê£«´’ ´’Ja-§Ú-®·çC)
èπÿú≈ big draw ØË. /movie / Ø√ôéπç
Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ à ÆœE-´÷-™†÷ îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’. ✓ Tragedy = ü¿’”ë«ç-ûª-¢Á’i† Ø√ô-éπç/-*-vûªç/-éπü∑¿ b) She did not know where to sit
Eïç-í¬ØË Ææ´·vü¿ç È®çúø’-§ƒ--ߪ’© ´’üµ¿u The chariot race in Benhur is a big draw
a) Missamma is a comedy (áéπ\úø èπÿ®Óa-¢√™ Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ûÁM-™‰ü¿’)
ü∆Í®-®ΩpúÕ†ô’d îª÷°œç-î√®Ω’. Ç movie-™ - (Benhur ™ ®Ωü∑∆© °æçüÁç ÆæEo-¢Ë¨¡ç ´·êu Çéπ-®Ω{ù.)
b) Devadasu is a tragedy c) Do you know when to start?
v°æ-üµ∆-† Çéπ-®Ω{ù ÅüË.) ✓ Movie™ ÆæEo-¢Ë¨¡ç = sequence (Æ‘ÈéyØ˛q) Big
Comic role = £æ…Ææu §ƒvûª; (á°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-™‰l-®√™ ûÁ©’≤ƒ?)
Pavan: can we get a CD of it?
CD
(ü∆E üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-ûª’çü∆?)
draw, high light ü∆ü∆°æ¤ äÍé Å®Ωnç éπ©-N = ´·êu-
Ç-éπ-®Ω{ù. Tragic role = ü¿’”ê-°æ‹-J- §ƒvûª Ñ sentence pattern í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ:
a) Brahmanandam is known for his comic roles Sub. ûª®√yûª verb, Ç ûª®√yûª 'Wh' Word, Ç ûª®√yûª
Sravan: Definitely (ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈) ✓ caste = û√®√-í∫ùç, movie /drama™.
(£æ…Ææu-§ƒ-vûª-©èπ◊ -v•£æ…t-†ç-ü¿ç v°æÆ œ-Cl¥-§Òç-ü∆úø’) infinitive éπü∆. Ñ dialogue èπÿú≈ îª÷úøçúÕ.
Ñ Ææ綵«≠æù©çû√ ÆœE´÷ í∫’JçîË éπü∆. Ñ a) 'Danaveera Sura karna' casts Rama Rao in
b) Some artists are suitable for tragic roles Prem: Do you remember when to start?
lesson™ movie èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† vocabulary the roles of Duryodhana, Krishna and Karna.
(éÌçü¿®Ω’ †ô’©’ ü¿’”ê-§ƒ-vûª©’ ¶«í¬ îË≤ƒh®Ω’.) (á°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-™‰l-®√™ ñ«c°æéπç Öçü∆?)
(°æü¿-ñ«©ç) ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ü∆´÷ ? -´·ç-ü¿’ -Ñ ´÷ô©’ (ü∆†-O-®Ω-¨¡⁄-®Ω-éπ-®Ωg™ ®√´÷-®√´¤ -ü¿’®Óu-üµ¿-†, éπ%-≠æ-g, éπ®Ω’g- comedian
îª÷úøçúÕ; movie, TVéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†N. úÕí¬ ´‚úø’ §ƒvûª-™x †öÀç-î√úø’) £æ…Ææu-†-ô’úø’ = Syam: I do, but you did not tell me where to go.
1. Movie 2. Watch a movie on the TV b) He is cast as a villain in the movie
(éπO’-úÕ-ߪ’-Ø˛–'-O’—-ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç (ûÁ©’Ææ’. é¬F áéπ\-úÕ-Èé-∞«x™ †’´¤y îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’.)
Relangi was a great comedian É™« Ñ game practice îËÆœ áEo sentences ®√ߪ’-
3. One of all time greats 4. Was showing ( movie
Ç villain
™ ÅûªEC (N©Ø˛) §ƒvûª) comedienne
£æ…Ææu-†öÀ = (éπN’-úŒ-ߪ’Ø˛),
5. turned on 6. ran to packed houses c) The cast of the movie has chitrakumar as í∫-©®Ó îª÷úøçúÕ.
7. cast 8. featured 9. shot 10. highlight hero and chitrasri as the heroine
úŒ, O’ éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©-é¬L.
´÷´‚-©’í¬ îª©-†-*vûªç -Åç-õ‰ English movie.
™ (Ç *vûªç-™ -*-vûªèπ◊-´÷®˝ £‘«®Óí¬, -*-vûª-vQ -£‘«®Ó®·-Ø˛í¬ Practice the following in English. -v°æ-¨¡o-: éπÈ®-Fq -ØÓ-ôx-O’-ü¿ -
'I PROMiSE
Cinema Åçõ‰ English ™ cinema hall, hall
Ç ™ -†-öÀç-î√®Ω’) Sruthi: Hi Laya, †’´¤y E†o ≤ƒßª’çvûªç Éçöx TO PAY THE BEARER THE
ÇúË *vûªç é¬ü¿’. The cinema Åçõ‰ -†-*vûª°æJ- d) Feature ÅØ√o èπÿú≈ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ÅüË. ™‰¢√? SUM OF TWENTY RUPEES' -
English film a) The movie, Ninnu Nenu Pelladanu features Laya =
™‰†’. àçîË-ߪ÷™ ûÓîªéπ Movie Èé∞«x†’ Å-E -Öç-ô’ç-C.-D-E -Å®Ωnç -à-N’-öÀ?
-áÆˇ.-á-¢˛’.-úÕ. -É®√p¥-Ø˛, -†ç-ü∆u©- -
v¨¡´’. -†-*-vû√Eo ™ ÅE èπÿú≈ ņ-
That cinema is good hall Natesh and Abhinetri in the lead roles à Sruthi: movie,
áéπ\-ú≈-úø’-ûÓçC?
-ï-¢√-•’.- Currency notes O’ü¿ Ç
´îª’a. Åçõ‰ Ç ÆœE´÷
¶«í∫’ç-ü¿ØË é¬F, Åçü¿’™ Çúø’-ûª’†o *vûªç ¶«í∫’ç-ü¿E ('E†’o ؈’ °∞«x-ú≈†’— *vûªç™ †õ‰≠ˇ, ÅGµ-ØËvA vÊ°´’èπ ◊ Laya:
éπ ∞ ¡ Ÿx ™‰´¤. *vûª-ñ u-A™.
é¬ü¿’. v°æüµ∆† §ƒvûªüµ∆®Ω’©’.Lead role = v°æüµ∆†§ƒvûª, ¶«í∫ ’çü∆? Sruthi: sentence ™‰éπ-§ÚûË ÅC à N©’-´-™‰E ´÷´‚©’ é¬T-
See / watch a movie = movie îª÷úøôç. movie Laya: My God,
áçûª bore éÌöÀdçüÓ?
™ é¬F Ø√ô-éπç™ é¬E.) ûª¢Ë’ Å´¤-ûª’çC. Currency notes ñ«K-îË-ÊÆC
(Å®·ûË am seeing / is seeing / are seeing a b) The movie features all great actors Sruthi:
†ô’-™„-´®Ω’? Reserve Bank of India. ü∆E ÅCµ-é¬J Governor
movie ņç. Am+ing / is+ing / are + ing ¢√ú≈Lq ( Laya:
íÌ°æp-†-ô’™‰ ÖØ√o®Ω’. é¬F movie àç ¶«í¬-
Ç *vûªç™ û√®Ω-©ç-ü¿®Ω÷ íÌ°æp-¢√∞Ïx.) of Reserve Bank of India. Ç ÅCµ-é¬J ´’†-éÀîËa
´ÊÆh am watching / is watching / are watching c) The movie features him in a minor role ™‰ü¿’. £æ…O’ßË’ Ç sentence - Ñ é¬Tûªç- Ö-†o á´-J-ÈéjØ√
a movie ņôç correct) (Åûª†’ Ç movie ™ ã *†o-§ƒ-vûª™ éπEp-≤ƒhúø’.) Sruthi: ¢√∞Îx™« î˨»®Ω’? (bearer) ؈’ ®Ω÷. 20/– (™‰éπ-§ÚûË ÉçÈéç-ûª-®·Ø√)
TV™ = on the TV. We are watching an inter- ✓ Shot = *vûªç™ ÆæEo-¢Ë¨¡ç =sequence. Laya: ¢√∞¡⁄x à´’çûª íÌ°æpí¬ †öÀç-îª-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷®Ω’.
Sruthi: Å®·ûË Øˆ’ îª÷úø-éπ\-®Ω-™‰-ü¿-†o-´÷ô.
îÁLx-≤ƒh-†E.
esting programme on the TV. (in the TV é¬ü¿’) a) That's the best shot in the movie=That's the

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm