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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 3 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2006 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Rajat: Have you been to the discount sale? Rajat: Most often cheap things are certainly
Shirts and trousers and other men's bad. Look, the sweater my sister
wear are being offered at more than bought for Rs. 250 is already going at
50% off. the elbows in less than two months.
(Discount sale èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x¢√? Shirts, (î√™«´’-ô’èπ◊ î¯éπ ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ Ø√Æœ-
trousers ´’í∫-¢√J Éûª®Ω •ôd©÷, 50 ¨»ûªç ®Ω-éπ¢Ë’. ´÷ sister 250 ®Ω÷§ƒßª’-©èπ◊ é̆o
sweater Å°æ¤púË– È®çúø’ ØÁ©™xØË, ¢Á÷îË-ûª’©
üµ¿®Ω-éπØ√o ûªT_ç* Å´·t-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.)
´’†ç ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ûª°æ¤pí¬ pant Åçô’çö«ç. ü¿í∫_®Ω §ƒúø-´¤-ûÓçC.)
Pants Åçõ‰ éÌçûª °∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰ü¿’.
Sarat: I don't deny that. I just mean that
Men's wear = °æ¤®Ω’-≠æfl© ü¿’Ææ’h©’. ´÷´‚-©’í¬
expensive things are not always good.
Gents' wear Åçô’çö«ç. ÉC modern a) Seats in a number of engineering col-
3. Go far = N©’´ (´·êuçí¬ úø•’s) Öçúøôç.
English ™ Ç¢Á÷-ü¿-ßÁ÷í∫uç é¬ü¿’. Å™«Íí (ÅC ؈’ é¬ü¿-†-ôç-™‰ü¿’. ؈-ØË-ü¿™«x êK-üÁj† leges are going abegging =
a) Rs. 100 doesn't go far nowadays.
Ladies/ ladies' wear èπÿú≈ present day ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ á°æ¤púø÷ Ø√ùu-¢Á’i-†-N-é¬-´E.) î√™« engineering colleges seats ë«Sí¬
English ™ ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’– Male, female ™«í¬. Rajat: I see your point. Ñ ®ÓV™x ´çü¿ ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©èπ◊ °ü¿l N©’-¢Ëç-™‰ü¿’. ÖØ√o®·, îËÍ®-¢√-∞Î}-´-®Ω÷-™‰éπ.
Modern usage ™ °æ¤®Ω’-≠æfl-©èπ◊ simple í¬ b) A mere degree doesn't go far these days
(†’´y-ØËC Ø√éπ-®Ωn-´’-®·çC.) b) With most people going for fuel efficient
men ÅE, Çúø-¢√-JéÀ ÅçûË simple í¬ women as far as good jobs are concerned.
☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ bikes, scooters are going abegging
ņôç ´÷vûª¢Ë’ correct. ÖüÓu-í¬© N≠æ-ߪ÷-E-éÌÊÆh, Ñ ®ÓV™x Öûªh =
Sarat: I did have a look at them yesterday, but go, take, have, get
Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ω-ù-¢Á’i† ûÓ ´îËa degree à´’çûª °æE-îË-ߪ’ü¿’.
î√™«-´’çC Éçüµ¿† §Òü¿’°æ¤ éπL-TçîË bikes
I observed nobody going for them. expressions daily life situations conver-
™E 4. go by - DEo éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ îª÷¨»ç éπü∆–
é̆-ôçûÓ scooters éÌØË¢√®Ω’ ™‰®Ω’/ scoot-
sation er T®√éà °æúÕ-§Ú-®·çC.
(E†o ؈’ îª÷¨»†’, é¬F á´y®Ω’ èπÿú≈ ™ áçûª ûª®Ωîª’í¬ ´≤ƒhßÁ÷ í∫´’-E-Ææ’hØ√oç. äéπ-ü∆-Eo-•öÀd §Ú´ôç ÅE. DE extended use
¢√öÀE É≠æd°æ-úøfô’x ™‰ü¿’.) 3. I don't really go in for such cheap stuff =
îª÷ü∆lç.
Rajat: I saw it too. Heaps of them and at rock a) Appearance means a lot. Most people
-éπ-¶«®Ω’ ´Ææ’h-´¤-©çõ‰ É≠æd-°æ-úø-†E Fèπ◊-ûÁ-©’-Ææ’-í∫ü∆.
bottom prices too. But they were all always go by appearances. ᙫ éπ†•- 4. Go against the grain = Ææy¶µ«-¢√-EéÀ N®Ω’ü¿l¥ç.
going abegging. A big crowd was there
but there appeared to be no takers. -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 247 úøû√ç ÅØËC ´·êuç. áèπ◊\-´-´’çC Çé¬-®√-Eo-
•öÀd §Úûª’ç-ö«®Ω’ (E®Ωg-ߪ÷-EéÀ ´Ææ’hç-ö«®Ω’).
a) He is lazy. Working hard goes against
the grain =
Åûªúø’ ≤Ú´’J. v¨¡N’ç-îªúøç ÅûªúÕ Ææy¶µ«-¢√-EéÀ

Indians go in for cricket a lot
N®Ω’ü¿l¥ç.
b) Helping others goes against his grain.
He is too selfish =
Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-°æ-úøôç ÅûªúÕ üµÓ®Ω-ùÀéÀ
N®Ω’ü¿l¥ç. Åûªúø’ ´’K ≤ƒy®Ωn-°æ-®Ω’úø’.
5. Rs. 800 doesn't go far nowadays =
´·êu- N≠æߪ’ç: conversational English èπÿ, b) Don't go by what
(؈÷ í∫´’-Eç-î√-†C. í∫’ôd©’ í∫’ôd-©’í¬ °æúÕ Ñ ®ÓV™x 800 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-™‰-§ƒöÀ?
bookish (®Ωîª-†™x/ °æ¤Ææh-鬙x ¢√úË) English èπÿ he says.
Ö†o •ôd©’ 鬮Ω’-î¯-éπí¬ Å´·t-ûª’-†o-°æp-öÀéà go far, Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ á°æ¤púø÷ not ûÓØË ¢√úøû√ç.
á´y®Ω÷ é̆-ôç-™‰ü¿’. ï†ç ¶«í¬ ÖØ√o®Ω’ Ö†o ûËú≈ í∫´’-Eç*, conversational English ™ Åûª-úø-ØË-ü∆-Eo-•öÀd 6. You and my brother go too much by cost =
à expressions, natural (Ææ£æ«-ïç)í¬ Öçö«ßÁ÷, §Úèπ◊. (ÅûªúÕ ´÷ô©’
brother
é¬F éÌØË-¢√-∞Îx-´®Ω÷ éπE-°œç-îª-™‰ü¿’.)
Rock bottom prices = 鬮Ω’-î¯éπ üµ¿®Ω©’. ¢√öÀE ´’† conversation ™ ¶µ«í∫ç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç †¢Á·tü¿’l) †’´¤y, ´÷ üµ¿®Ω†’ •öÀd Ø√ùuûª
E®Ωg-®·-≤ƒh®Ω’.
Heap = í∫’ôd. 5. Go Åçõ‰ ¢Á∞¡xôç ÅØË
î√™« Å´-Ææ®Ωç. éÌçûª ´’†Ææ’ Â°úÕûË Ææ’©¶µºç èπÿú≈.
É°æ¤púø’ go ûÓ ´îËa ´’J-éÌEo expressions îª÷ü∆lç. 7. The sweater my sister bought is going at
No takers = É≠æd-°æ-úË¢√∞¡Ÿx ™‰®Ω’/ éÌØË-¢√∞¡Ÿx ™‰®Ω’ ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç ´’†èπ◊ M. SURESAN
1. go for - DEo ´’†ç Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ lessons ™ the elbows =
Sarat: Didn't you buy anything? (†’¢Ëyç é̆-™‰ü∆?) ûÁ©’Ææ’. Å®·ûË Go ´÷ sister é̆o sweater ¢Á÷îË-ûª’© ü¿í∫_®Ω
Rajat: You know I don't really going for such
îª÷¨»ç éπü∆– DEéÀ ´·êu-¢Á’i† Å®Ωnç, áç°œéπ Åçõ‰ ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ îÁúÕ-§Ú-´úøç/ *J-T-§Ú-´ôç ÅØË
(choose) îËÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç ÅE. *®Ω’-í∫’-ûÓçC.
cheap stuff. Buying things just because
☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ÖçC.
they are a bargain goes against the grain. a) When you buy a bike, go for one that
a) His jeans has started going at the knees
gives good mileage = Lesson 244 ™ (-†-´ç--•®Ω’ 23-†) É*a† exercise
(Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-í∫ü∆, ؈-™«çöÀ î¯éπ-¶«®Ω’ ´Ææ’h- = ÅûªúÕ jeans ¢Á÷é¬∞¡x ü¿í∫_®Ω *®Ω-í∫ôç ¢Á·ü¿-©’-
´¤©’ éÌØËçü¿’èπ◊ É≠æd°æ-úø-†E. î¯éπí¬ ´*a-†çûª †’´¤y bike éÌØ√-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰, ´’ç* mileage èπ◊ model Ææ´÷-üµ∆-Ø√©’ îª÷úøçúÕ. O’®Ω’ frame
sentences †´‚Ø√. subject + verb +
°-öÀdçC.
´÷vû√† é̆ôç ÅØËC Ø√ Ææy¶µ«-¢√-EÍé ÉîËa bike †’ ᆒoéÓ. b) I bought the type only two months ago,
îËߪ÷-Lq†
N®Ω’ü¿l¥ç.) Go for Åçõ‰ äéπ üµ¿®Ωèπ◊ ©¶µºu-´’-´ôç ÅE èπÿú≈. object + infinitive éπü∆. éÌEo model sentences
but it is already going =
Stuff = à ´Ææ’h-¢ÁjØ√. bargain Åçõ‰ ´÷´‚©’ pattern
b) His three hundred sq. yd. site goes for
É°æ¤púø’ îª÷úøçúÕ Ñ ™.
Å®Ωnç ¶‰®Ωç ÅF, ¶‰®Ωç-îË-ߪ’ôç ÅF. Ééπ\úø bar- Ç type ؈’ È®çúø’-ØÁ-©© éÀçü¿ éÌØ√o†’, Sub vb obj infinitive
more than Rs. 80 lakh =
gain Åçõ‰ ´’†ç ņ’-èπ◊†o üµ¿®Ω-éπçõ‰ àü¿Ø√o 1. The teacher told him to sit down.
Å°æ¤púË ÅC *J-T-§Ú-ûÓçC.
ûªèπ◊\-´èπ◊ ´ÊÆh ÅC bargain. ÅûªúÕ 300 îª.í∫. Ææn©ç 80 ©éπ~© ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©èπ◊ c) The tube in the front room is gone =
2. He asked his mother to serve him food.
Sarat: My brother too, to some extent. The
Å´·t-úø-´¤-ûª’çC/ Åçûª N©’´ îËÆæ’hçC. front room tube light
3. The boss ordered the clerk to finish the work.
™E îÁúÕ-§Ú-®·çC.
other day he bought a pair of trousers c) It doesn't go for more than Rs. 2000. Now look at the following sentences from
4. His friend liked him to attend the function.
for Rs. 850 ! ü∆Eo È®çúø’-¢Ë© ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\-´-Èé-´®Ω’ the conversation at the beginning of the
5. I request her to help me.
(´÷ brother èπÿú≈ éÌçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ÅçûË. é̆®Ω’. lesson:
¢Á·ØÌo-éπ-®ÓV 800 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ °öÀd pants pattern verbs: desire, advise,
2. É°æ¤púø’ Ñ lesson ™ go in for îª÷úøçúÕ. Go 1. I observed nobody going for them =
Ñ ™ Éçé¬-´îËa
beg, invite, prompt, etc.
éÌØ√oúø’!) for, go in for- È®çúÕç-öÀéà common Å®Ωnç, áç°œéπ ¢√öÀE á´®Ω÷ É≠æd-°æ-úø-éπ-§Ú-´ôç (é̆-éπ-§Ú-´ôç)
A pair of trousers = äéπöÀ ´÷--vûª-¢Ë’. ´’†ç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç/ select/ choose ÅE. Å®·ûË go in í∫´’-Eç-î√†’. Ñ éÀçC pattern ™ sentences practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
´÷´‚-©’í¬ pant ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ correct English- for Åçõ‰ áç°œéπ îËÆæ’-éÓ-´-úø¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈ §ƒ™Ô_- Sub verb that clause
2. They were all going abegging =
trousers. ÉC äéπöÀ ÅE Ææçêu îÁÊ°p-ô-°æ¤púø’, a †úøç/ É≠æd-°æúÕ Å†’-¶µº-Nç-îªôç (enjoy) ÅØË Å®Ωnç 1. He said that he would go
pair of Åçö«ç. Å™«Íí a pair of scissors =
(à ´Ææ’h-´¤-éπ-®·Ø√) T®√éà ™‰éπ-§Ú-´ôç/ á´®Ω÷ É≠æd-
èπÿú≈ ÖçC. 2. He will think that you are clever.
äéπ éπûÁh®Ω, scissor ¢√úø®Ω’. a) Indians go in for cricket a lot.
°æ-úø-éπ-§Ú-´ôç/ ÊÆ-´éπ®·-Ø√ Å´’téπç ™‰éπ-§Ú-´ôç.
Rajat: Rs. 800 ! come on, Sarat, Rs. 800
doesn't go far nowadays. A good pair
of trousers in my opinion costs at least
¶µ«®Ω-B-ߪ·©’ cricket †’ î√™« ÅGµ-´÷-E-≤ƒh®Ω’/
Çúø-û√®Ω’. -v°æ-¨¡o: ' é¬E E†o ´÷ -ï-¢√-•’:
Go in for Åçõ‰ ´’† ´%AhE ᆒo-éÓ-´úøç èπÿú≈.
Å´’t ûª††’ doctor ü¿í∫_- 'But my mother wanted me to take her to doctor'- Ééπ\úø
more than a thousand rupees.
®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’-Èé-∞¡}-´’çC—— – ÉC take (1st Regular Doing Word - I RDW) 'to'
b) Most youngmen and women go in for
´·çü¿’ -Öç-C
(áE-N’C ´çü¿-™‰Ø√! îª÷úø’ ¨¡®Ωû˝, Ñ ®ÓV™x ¢Á·ûªhç past tense ™ to 1st Regular doing word to go, to
software jobs nowadays.
800 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-™‰-§ƒöÀ? Ø√ ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç éπü∆. ûª®√yûª ´ÊÆh –
ÖçC-éπü∆. é¬E O’®Ω’– come, to take verbs to take,
v°æ鬮Ωç ´’ç* trousers èπ◊ éπFÆæç ¢Á®·u software 'But my Mother want-
™ ™«í¬, ÅN 鬴¤. ÅN Åçõ‰
to go, to come, etc infinitives
î√™«-´’çC ߪ·´-B-ߪ·-´-èπ◊-L-°æ¤púø’ ™«çöÀN Å´¤-û√®·. ¢√öÀéÀ
®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’© éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\¢Ë Å´¤-ûª’çC.) jobs ed me to take her to tense to go,
ØË É≠æd-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
Sarat: You and my brother go too much by
Öçúøü¿’, É™«çöÀîÓôx, ¢Ëꨒ ü∆E ûª®√yûª ´îËa
c) I don't know why he is going in for teach- the doctor' ÅE Éî√a®Ω’. come, take to
the cost of things. Not all costly things
™«çöÀ¢√öÀE ¢ËÍ®-í¬- BÆæ’éÓç. äéπ-öÀ-í¬ØË Åçõ‰
ing when there are much better careers. take ÅØËC– present come, to go, to take infinitives.
are good, are they? ™«í¬ØË BÆæ’èπ◊çö«ç. ÅN
teaching éπçõ‰ ´’ç* jobs Öçúøí¬ Åûª†’ tense Past tense "took"
éπü∆. Ééπ\úø Spoken English lessons
(†’´¤y, ´÷ brother êK-üÁj†¢√öÀE É≠æd-°æ-úø’- teaching job áçü¿’èπ◊ select îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúÓ
OöÀ Å®Ωnç, ¢√úøéπç, ™ î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x
ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’. êK-üÁj† ´Ææ’h-´¤-©Fo ´’ç*-N-鬴¤
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L éπü∆! N´-Jç-î√ç. Å®Ωnç: To take = BÆæ’Èé-∞Ï}ç-ü¿’èπ◊/ BÆæ’Èé-∞«}-©-E/
éπü∆?) Å®Ωnç-é¬-´ôç ™‰ü¿’. – ->.íÓ-°œ, -Å-†ç-ûª°æ¤®Ωç. To
BÆæ’Èé-∞¡}-ôç ÅE. ûª®√yûªtook Past form
ÅE ÅÆæ-©’-®√ü¿’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-•’-üµ¿-¢√®Ωç 6 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2006 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Bhimesh: Mukhesh, who are you waiting for?
(ÅúÕT îËߪ’-†E ÅE°œç-èπ◊-ØË-ü∆-E-éπçõ‰, ÅûªúÕo
(á´-J-éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤?) Åúø-í∫-èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøô¢Ë’ ´’ç*-ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«.)
Mukhesh: For some one to help me in mak- Bhimesh: Why don't you have a break, eat
ing arrangements for this function. something and continue?
(Ñ function èπ◊ à®√pô’x îËߪ’-ôç™ (é¬Ææh Nv¨»çA BÆæ’-èπ◊E, àüÓ AE, ´’Sx
àüÁjØ√ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËÊÆ-¢√-∞¡x-éÓÆæç.) é̆-≤ƒ-Tç-îª-´îª’a éπü∆?)
Bhimesh: There isn't much to arrange. Can't Mukhesh: Why 'something'? Let's go the
you and the other volunteers go it whole hog and eat a full lunch. I
alone? am very hungry.
(àç °ü¿l à®√p-ôxF?/ áèπ◊\´ à®√põ‰xç
c) Not everything goes every where = c) He went the whole hog, if he goes on a
(àüÓ éÌçûª áçü¿’èπ◊? îËÊÆ-üËüÓ/ AØË-
™‰´¤. †’´¤y, Éûª®Ω volunteers O’ üËüÓ °æ‹Jhí¬ØË Açü∆ç. °æ‹Jh ¶µï†ç
Åçûªô O’®Ω’ îËÆæ’-éÓ-™‰®√?) v°æA-îÓö« v°æAD îÁ™«x-©E ™‰ü¿’. holiday; he enjoys a lot. =
îËü∆lç. Ø√èπ◊ î√™« Çéπ-™‰-≤ÚhçC.)
Mukhesh: Go it alone! Easier said than done. Bhimesh: That's ok with me- let's go. d) In a democracy what goes for those in áéπ\-úÕ-éπ-®·Ø√ Ææ®Ω-ü∆í¬ ÂÆ©´¤©’ í∫úø-°æ-ú≈-EéÀ
Take over and try to go it alone. power should go for the ordinary citizen ¢ÁRx-†-°æ¤úø’ °æ‹Jhí¬ Ç†ç-C-≤ƒhúø’.
(Ø√èπ◊ ÅçU-é¬-®Ω¢Ë’, ¢Á∞«lç °æü¿.)
(´÷ Åçûªô ¢Ë’ç îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√™«? too = 5. Go by = éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ DEéÀ ´’†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-
îÁߪ’uôç éπØ√o îÁ°æpôç Ææ’©-¶µº¢Ë’. †’Oy ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ èπ◊†o Å®Ωnç– ü∆Eo-•öÀd. going by his words =
´’†ç real life situations ™ go ûÓ ´îËa simple, v°æñ«-≤ƒy-´’uç™ ÅCµ-é¬-®Ωç™ Ö†o-¢√-J-ÍéC
°æE îË°æöÀd FÅç-ûªô †’´¤y îËߪ’-ö«-EéÀ îÁ©’x-¶«-ô-´¤-ûª’çüÓ ≤ƒ´÷†u v°æï-©èπÿ ÅüË ¢√úÕ ´÷ôLo •öÀd îª÷ÊÆh.
v°æߪ’-Aoç.) high frequency (î√™« ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ´îËa) expres- go by éÀ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç– †´’tôç.
sions °æJ-Q-L-Ææ’hØ√oç éπü∆, É°æ¤púø’ ´’J-éÌEo îª÷ü∆lç.
easier said than done = îËߪ ’ôçéπçõ‰
îÁ©’x-¶«ô’ 鬢√L.
Don't go by his words = ¢√úÕ ´÷ôLo •öÀd
îÁ°æpôç Ææ’©¶µºç. ÉC î√™« common expres- 3. Go to any length = áçûª-ÈéjØ√ ¢Á†-é¬-úø-éπ-§Ú-´ôç.
¢Á∞Ôxü¿’l/ †¢Á·tü¿’l ÅE.
sion. O’ conversation ™ practice îËߪ’çúÕ. a) I'd go to any length to do MBA in one of
Go by Åçõ‰ Ç ü∆J† ¢Á∞¡xôç ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈
Bhimesh: (Do) you want me to do it? Now, the IIMs =
ÖçC.
that's too much. IIMs (Indian Institutes of Management)
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
a) He goes by my home everyday =
(††’o îËߪ’-´’ç-ö«¢√? ÉC ´’K ÅA.) 248 ™ àüÓ äéπ-ü∆-E™ MBA îËߪ’-ö«-E- v°æA-®ÓW ´÷ ÉçöÀ O’ü¿’í¬ ¢Á∞¡-û√úø’.
Mukhesh: Why not? What goes for you goes Èéçûªéπ®·Ø√ ¢Á†-é¬-úø†’.
for me too, doesn't it?

Politicians go to any length to get ..
(àç? †’¢Áyçü¿’èπ◊ îËߪ’-èπÿ-úøü¿÷? Fèπ◊
´Jhç-îËC Ø√èπÿ ´Jh-Ææ’hçC éπü∆?)
Bhimesh: I'm sorry. It does, of course. I see
your point. I'll give you a hand cer-
tainly, and I'll even try to get a few
more volunteers to help us.
(Sorry. Eï¢Ë’ (Ø√ÍéC ´Jh-Ææ’hçüÓ, Fèπ◊ b) Politicians go to
1. Go it alone = b) I go by the post office when I go to col-
any length to get
Éûª-®Ω’© ≤ƒßª’ç ™‰èπ◊çú≈ á´-È®jØ√
ÅüË ´Jh-Ææ’hç-ü¿ØË N≠æߪ’ç). †’´y-ØËC lege = college post office
to positions of
ûª´’çûªô û√¢Ë’ îËÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç. éÀ O’ü¿’í¬ ¢Á∞¡û√.
a) Her daughters do not help her in cook-
Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’. ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ Fèπ◊
power = c) Ganesh went by without even talking to
ing. She won't let them. She goes it
Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îË≤ƒh†’. Éçé¬ ÉçéÌç-ûª-´’çC
volunteers †’ èπÿú≈ ´’†èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç ÅCµ-鬮Ωç «-®·ç-îª- me = Ø√ûÓ ´÷ö«x-úø-ØÁjØ√ ´÷ö«xúøèπ◊çú≈ í∫ù‰≠ˇ
alone = Ø√ ´·çü¿’ †’çîË/ °æéπ\-†’çîË ¢Á∞«xúø’.
îËߪ’-ö«-EéÀ BÆæ’-éÌ-≤ƒh†’.) í∫© °æü¿-´¤© éÓÆæç
Mukhesh: That's really good of you. Thanks.
Ç¢Á’ èπÿûª’-∞«x-¢Á’èπ◊ ´çô™ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’®Ω’. ®√ï-éÃߪ’ Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊©’ d) Time í∫úø-´ôç èπÿú≈ go by.
Ç¢Á’ ¢√∞¡x†’ ûª†èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-E-´yü¿’. û√ØË i) Years go by in no time = Ææç´-ûªq-®√©’
(ÅC F ´’ç*-ûª†ç. Thanks.) äçô-Jí¬ îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ô’çC.
áçûª-ÈéjØ√ ¢Á†-é¬-úø®Ω’/ M. SURESAN
Bhimesh: But why are you so tensed up?
áçûª v°æߪ’-ûªo-¢Á’iØ√ Éõ‰d í∫úÕ-*-§Ú-û√®·.
b) Fed up with the attitude of his sons and îË≤ƒh®Ω’. ii) Two years have gone by since we got
(é¬F †’¢Áyç-ü¿’-éπçûª Çü¿’®√l °æúø’-ûª’- daughters-in-law, the old widower is
c) She'll go to any length to secure the married =
going it alone and is happy =
Ø√o´¤?) ´÷ °∞¡x®· È®çúË-∞¡x-®·çC.
be tensed up = tension ûÓ Öçúøôç. house. *´-®Ωí¬ ÉC îª÷úøçúÕ.
ûª† éÌúø’-èπ◊©, éÓúø∞¡x ¢Ájê-JûÓ NÆœ-T-§Ú®·, Ç
With the exam just a few hours away, he °ü∆l-ߪ’† (¶µ«®Ωu-™‰E ´uéÀh) äçô-Jí¬ •ûª’-èπ◊- Ç É©’x §Òçü¿-ö«-EéÀ Ç¢Á’ à¢Á’iØ√ îËÆæ’hçC. Give (somebody) a hand = äéπ-JéÀ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç
is tensed up = ûª’-Ø√oúø’, ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬. üËE-éÓ-Ææ-¢Á’iØ√ à¢Á’iØ√ îËߪ’-ö«-EéÀ Æœü¿l¥-°æ-úøôç - îËߪ’ôç/ îËߪ‚ûª É´yôç. ÉüË Å®ΩnçûÓ Lend a
éÌEo í∫çô™x °æKéπ~ Öçúø-ôçûÓ Åûª†’ î√™« be fed up with = NÆœT§Ú´ôç. going to any length. hand ÅE èπÿú≈ Åçö«®Ω’.
tension/ Çü¿’®√l °æúø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. I am fed up with these TV serials = 4. Go the whole hog = à °æE-ØÁjØ√ Å®Ω-éÌ-®Ωí¬ I am unable to move this box. Please give a hand =
Mukhesh: Perhaps I am, naturally. I'd go to TV serials ûÓ NÆœ-T-§Úߪ÷. é¬èπ◊çú≈ °æ‹Jhí¬, èπ~◊ùoçí¬ îËߪ’ôç. Ñ Â°õ„d†’ ï®Ω-°æ-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o. é¬Ææh ≤ƒßª’ç-°æô’d.
any length to make the function c) After having worked in a number of com- a) He doesn't believe in doing things in Å®·ûË give a hand ûÁ©’í∫’ ņ’¢√ü¿ç– îÁ®·u-´yôç
memorable. I am straining every panies, I want to go it alone = halves, he goes the whole hog = Åçõ‰ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´ôç/ ´÷ô E©-¶„-ô’d-
nerve and muscle to see it a suc- éÓéπ§Ú´ôç ÅE éπü∆. DEéÀ °æ‹Jhí¬ ´uA-Í®éπç, give
cess.
î√™« companies ™ °æE-îËÆœ† ûª®√yûª Åûªúø’ à °æØÁjØ√ Å®Ω-éÌ-®Ωí¬ îËߪ’úø’. °æ‹Jhí¬
≤Òçûªçí¬ (äçô-Jí¬) àüÁjØ√ îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√-©E a hand, Å®Ωnç ÅE ûÁ©’-≤ÚhçC éπü∆.
èπ~◊ùoçí¬ îË≤ƒhúø’.
(•£æ›¨» – ÅçûË-ØË¢Á÷ (Çü¿’-®√lí¬ ÖØ√o- Please give me a hand with the preparation of
b) Why don't we go the whole hog? Let's
ÖçC.
ØË¢Á÷). Ææ£æ«-ï¢Ë’. Ñ function *®Ω-Ææt-®Ω- d) Do you need help or will you go it alone? this list =
ùÃ-ߪ’çí¬ ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’iç-ü¿çû√/ buy the best bike in the market.
áçûÁjØ√ îËߪ÷-©-†’çC Ø√èπ◊. ÉC Nï-ߪ’- FÍé´’Ø√o ≤ƒßª’ç 鬢√™«, ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ F Åçûªô îËÊÆ-üËüÓ °æ‹Jhí¬ îËü∆lç. Å™«çöÀ É™«çöÀ bike Ñ ñ«Gû√ ûªßª÷-K™ é¬Ææh ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’çúÕ.
†’¢Ëy îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«¢√? Lend us a hand in helping the differently abled =
´ç-ûª-´’-ßË’uô’x îª÷úø-ö«-EéÀ v¨¡´’-°æ-úø’-ûª’-
2. go - ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç– ¢Á∞¡xôç.
é̆ôç áçü¿’èπ◊? Market ™ Ö†o Åûª’u-ûªh´’
bike éÌçü∆ç.
Ø√o†’.) Néπ-™«ç-í∫’©èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úø-ôç™ ´÷èπ◊ ûÓúøp-úøçúÕ.
To strain every nerve and muscle = ä∞¡Ÿx Éçûªèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ lessons ™ ´’†ç îª÷ÆœçC– ÆæJ-
ü∆-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ v¨¡´’-°æ-úøôç. §Ú-ûª’çC ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. Exercise Answer
ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆ – nerve = †¢˛ (bird ™ '•— ™«) Anything goes in politics =
Practise the following aloud in English. Akhil: Shall I give you/ lend you a hand (with
= †®Ωç; muscle = ´’Ææ’™¸ = éπçúø®Ωç. ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ÷™x àç îËÆœØ√ îÁ©’x-ûª’çC/ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC.
Akhil: it)?
Any shirt goes with this pair of trousers =
é¬Ææh ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-´’ç-ö«¢√?
Strain every nerve and muscle - Ñ
Nikhil: Åéπ\-Í®xü¿’. ØËØÌç-ô-Jí¬ îËߪ’-í∫-©ØËx. Nikhil: Not necessary. I can go it alone.
expression èπÿú≈ O’ conversation ™ Ñ pants (äéπ-õ‰)ûÓ à shirt Å®·Ø√ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC.
practice îËߪ’çúÕ. Whatever he says goes = Akhil: Ç °æE äéπ\-JéÀ î√™« áèπ◊\´. Ø√ ≤ƒßª’ç Akhil: The work is too much for one man,
take a hand.
The father is straining every nerve and ÅûªúËç îÁ°œpØ√ îÁ©’x-ûª’çC. BÆæ’éÓ.
muscle to see his son a doctor = É°æ¤púø’ go ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç îª÷ü∆lç. ÅC– '´Jhç-îªúøç—. Nikhil: àN’-ôçûª ÇÆæéÀh îª÷°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤? Nikhil: Why so much interest in helping?
ûª† éÌúø’-èπ◊†’ doctor í¬ îª÷ú≈-©E Ç ûªçvúÕ a) What goes for men should go for women Akhil: Fèπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’ü∆? ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-©èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’- Akhil: Don't you know that I go to any length
N°æ-K-ûªçí¬ v¨¡´’-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. too = ú≈-EéÀ ØËØÁç-ûªèπÿ ¢Á†-é¬-úø-†E? in helping friends?
Bhimesh: Why didn't you ask Mahesh too to ´’í∫-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊ ´Jhç-îËC Çúø-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊ èπÿú≈ ´Jh- Nikhil: Å™«í¬? Thank You. Nikhil: Is that so? Thank you.
help you? Akhil: Let's finish off the work some how.
Ææ’hçC. (Åçõ‰– Æ‘Y, °æ¤®Ω’-≠æfl©’ Ææ´÷-†¢Ë’.) Akhil: Éü¿l®Ωç àüÓ Nüµ¿çí¬ °æ‹Jh-îËü∆lç Ç °æE.
(Mahesh b) What goes in AP need not go in
Nikhil: Å®Ω-éÌ-®Ωí¬ îËߪ ’ôç Ø√éÀ-≠dæç-™‰ü¿’. îËÊÆh Nikhil: I don't like to go things in halves. I'd go
†’ èπÿú≈ Fèπ◊ ≤ƒßª’-°æ-ú≈-©E
Tamilnadu = AP
the whole hog.
áçü¿’-éπ-úø-í∫-™‰ü¿’?) ™ îÁ™‰xC/ Ç¢Á÷-ü¿-´’-ßË’uC/ Ææñ«-´¤í¬ îËü∆lç.
Mukhesh: I'd rather do without his help than Tamilnadu
ņ’-´-Jhç-îËC ™ ´Jhç-îª-†-´-Ææ-®Ωç-
Akhil: Å™«Íí. Akhil: OK.
get a 'no' from him. ™‰ü¿’.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-¨¡-E-¢√®Ωç 9 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2006 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Damodar: Hi Sudhakar, what's new?
(Å™«ç-öÀ-üËç-™‰ü¿’. ¢√∞ÏxüÓ Â°ü¿l-íÌ°æp °æE-
(£æ…ß˝’ Ææ’üµ∆-éπ®˝, àçöÀ N¨Ï-≥ƒ©’?) îË-¨»-®Ω-†’-éÌE †’¢Ëyç ¢Á’a-éÓ-†-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’.
Sudhakar: Yes. I've something of interest for Ææ’üµ¿èπ◊ ´*aç-ü¿™«x ûª†’ §ÚíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊-†o-
you. The man who burgled ü∆ØÓx Ææí∫ç ´÷vûª¢Ë’.)
Sudha's place a week ago has Nothing of the sort = Å™«ç-öÀüËç ™‰ü¿’. sort =
given himself up to the police. ®Ωéπç. Men of all sorts = ÅEo ®Ω鬩 ´’†’-≠æfl©’.
(Å´¤†’. Fé¬-ÆæéÀh éπL-TçîË Ææ´÷-î√-®Ω¢Ë’. Damodar: But you must give the devil its
Sudha ÉçöÀéÀ éπ†oç-¢ËÆœ üÌçí∫-ûª†ç îËÆœ† due. It's only because they turned
´’E≠œ §ÚMÆæ’©èπ◊ ™ÔçT-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’.) the heat on, the thief gave himself
Burgle = ÉçöÀéÀ éπ†oç ¢Ë≤Ú, û√∞«©’ up. Sudha wouldn't have got back
even half those things which she c) I am unable to find a solution. I give up.
°æí∫-©-íÌöd ™°æ-LéÀ v°æ¢Ë-Pç* üÌçí∫-ûª†ç Ñ≤ƒJ ´’†ç ´÷´‚©’ conversation ™ give ûÓ
îËߪ’ôç. Burgler = Å™« îËÊÆ üÌçí∫. has got now. ´îËa high frequency expressions îª÷ü∆lç. DEéÀ Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç éπ†’-éÓ\-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’Ø√o†’. ØËØ√
Damodar: That's real news. Have they
1. give one self up = Ææyîªa ¥ç-ü¿çí¬ ™ÔçT-§Ú-´ôç
(üËE-éπüË îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-¢√L. àüÓ Ç §ÚMÆæ’©’ v°æߪ’ûªoç ´÷†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’.
recovered anything from him? ÂÆí∫°-ôdôç ´©xØË éπü∆ üÌçí∫ ™ÔçT-§Ú- 3. give a big hand = ¢Á’a-éÓ-´úøç (æpôx ü∆y®√)
ߪ÷úø’. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ Ææ’üµ¿èπ◊ Éçü¿’™ Ææí∫- (´·êuçí¬ §ÚMÆæ’©èπ◊)
a) On the run for the last two months, the
(¢√úÕ ü¿í∫_-®Ω’oç* ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ à´’Ø√o – ´·êuçí¬ á´-È®jØ√ ¢ËC-éπ-O’ü¿ îª÷°œç-*†
®√•-ö«d®√?) ¢Á’iØ√ ´îËaN 鬴¤.) thief gave himself up (to the police) =
v°æA¶µºèπ◊ vÊ°éπ~-èπ◊©’ éπ®Ωû√∞¡üµ¿y-†’-©ûÓ ÅGµ-†ç-Cç-
Sudhakar: I'm afraid only half the stuff. He Turn the heat on = ÂÆí∫ °æ¤öÀdç-îªôç/ ¢ËúÕ îªúøç.
í∫ûª È®çúø’ ØÁ©-©’í¬ ûª°œpç-èπ◊ A®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’†o a) They all gave him a big hand for his
has sold off the rest. °æ¤öÀdç-îªôç/ äAhúÕ ûË´ôç.
The heat is on. We've to finish the work
üÌçí∫ ™ÔçT-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’ (§ÚM-Ææ’©èπ◊). excellent singing =
b) Though innocent, she gave herself up =
(Ææí∫ç ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ņ’-èπ◊çö«. N’í∫-û√C
¢√úø-¢Ë’t-¨»úø’) by the evening = äAhúÕ áèπ◊\-´-´¤-ûÓçC. Åûªúø’ íÌ°æpí¬ §ƒúÕ-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√∞¡xç-ü¿®Ω÷ æpô’x
(Éûª-®Ω’© †’ç*/ ÅCµ-é¬-®Ω’© †’ç*) ≤ƒßª’çvûªç Ç¢Á’ E®Ω-°æ-®√--Cµ -Å®·Ø√ §ÚM-Ææ’-©èπ◊/ ¨¡vûª’-´¤- éÌö«d®Ω’.
™°æ© °æE °æ‹Jh-îË-ߪ÷L. ©èπ◊ ™ÔçT-§Ú-®·çC. b) Give her a big hand please. Her dance
The police have turned the heat on the c) The rebels will give themselves up if
was great =
Maoists. They are on the run = their arms supply is cut off =

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
æpôx ü∆y®√ Ç¢Á’†’ ÅGµ-†ç-Cç-îªçúÕ. Ç¢Á’
249
§ÚM-Ææ’©’ ´÷¢Ó®·-Ææ’d©Â°j äAhúÕ Â°çî√®Ω’. Çߪ·üµ∆© Ææ®Ω-°∂æ®√ EL-°œ-¢ËÊÆh, A®Ω’-í∫’-¶«-ô’-ü∆®Ω’x Ø√ôuç î√™« íÌ°æpí¬ ÖçC.
¢√∞¡Ÿx §ƒJ-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’ (≤ƒn´-®√©’ ´CL). ™ÔçT-§Ú-û√®Ω’. 4. Give a pat on the back =

Give her a big hand ..
v§Úû√q-£æ«-éπ-®Ωçí¬ •’ïb-Tç* ¢Á†’o-ûª-ôdúøç.
a) The teacher gave him a pat on the back
for his high score =
´÷®Ω’\©’ ¶«í¬ ´*a-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ teacher ÅûªúÕ
¢Á†’o-ûª-öÀdçC.
b) Let's give her a pat on the back. She
Damodar: That is unfortunate. Sudha gave Rebel = has tidied up the home so neatly =
Turn the heat on, the heat is on – Ñ
A®Ω’-í∫’-
up hopes of getting her stolen arti- ¶«-ô’-ü∆-®Ω’úø’/ A®Ω-í∫- É©xçû√ ¨¡Ÿv¶µºçí¬ ÆæJlçC. ¶µº’ïç ûªúøü∆ç
cles back. She must be happy
È®çúø÷ °j Å®√n-©ûÓ î√™« Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† (¢Á’a-èπ◊çü∆ç).
expressions. O’ conversation ™ ¶«í¬ •-úøôç.
now. 5. Give a good account of oneself =
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îªçúÕ. He was a rebel all
(ÅC ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%-≠d-éæ π®Ωç. üÌçT-Lç-*† ´Ææ’h- On the run = îªôdç †’ç*/ ¨¡vûª’-´¤© †’ç* his life = ûª† @N-ûª- äéπ °æE î√™« ¶«í¬ îËߪ’ôç.
´¤-™Ô-≤ƒh-ߪ’ØË Ç¨¡ -´-ü¿-©’èπ◊ç-C Ææ’üµ¿. §ƒJ-§Ú-´ôç. ´’çû√ A®Ω’-í∫’-¶«-ô’- a) Dhoni gave a good account of himself in
Sudhakar: The police really deserve appreci- today's game =
É°æ¤púø’ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úø’-ûª’ç-ú≈L.) ü∆-®Ω’-úÕ-í¬ØË í∫úÕ-§ƒúø’.
Sudhakar: Not quiet. The more valuable
ation for that. They are giving it They are sure to
M. SURESAN ÑØ√öÀ Çô™ üµÓF î√™« íÌ°æpí¬ Çú≈úø’.
things are gone.
their best shot. The other state rebel against the new law. b) Give a good account of yourself in the
(ÅçûËç ™‰ü¿’. áèπ◊\´ N©’-¢Áj† governments are seeking guid- (Ñ éÌûªh îªö«d-EéÀ ´uA-Í®-éπçí¬ ¢√∞¡Ÿx ûª°æpéπ exam. I'll present you a bike = †’´¤y °æK-
´Ææ’h-´¤©’ §Úߪ÷®·.) ance from A.P. Police in the matter. éπ~©’ ¶«í¬ ®√®·. Fèπ◊ äéπ bike 鬆’-éπí¬
Damodar: The police seem to have given a
A®Ω-í∫-•-úø-û√®Ω’)
( §ÚM-Ææ’©’ Eïçí¬ Ñ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ ´’†
good account of themselves in 2. give up = ´C-™‰-ߪ’ôç/ ´÷†’-éÓ-´ôç. É≤ƒh.
c) Indians haven't been giving a good
¢Á’°æ¤p-ü¿-©èπ◊ Å®Ω’|™‰. ´÷¢Ó-®·-Ææ’d© N≠æ-
acting so fast, and catching the a) He hasn't given up his job in spite of fail-
account of themselves in the matches =
ߪ’ç™ ¢√∞¡Ÿx Åûª’u-ûªh´’¢Á’i† v°æߪ’ûªoç
thief. îËÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. N’í∫û√ ®√≠æZ v°æ¶µº’-û√y©’ ing health =
(î√™« ûªy®Ωí¬ Ææpç-Cç-*, üÌçí∫†’ ´’† §ÚM-Ææ’© †’ç* Ææ©-£æ…© éÓÆæç Ç®Óí∫uç üÁ•s-Aç-ô’-†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, Åûªúø’ ÖüÓuí∫ç §ÚöÙx ¶µ«®Ω-B-ߪ·©’ ÆæJí¬ Çúø-ôç-™‰ü¿’.
°æô’d-éÓ-´-ôç™ §ÚM-Ææ’©’ íÌ°æp °æØË îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o®·.) ´÷†’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. ÉO give ûÓ ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ´îËa éÌEo expressions.
îËÆœ-†-ô’d-Ø√o®Ω’.) Damodar: O.K. Time for my office. I must be b) Don't give up your attempts, you will Ñ éÀçC pattern ™ sentences practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
Sudhakar: I don't give any credit to them for going. (Ç°∂‘-Æˇèπ◊ ¢Ë∞¡-®·uçC. ØË¢Á-∞«xL.) succeed = Sub verb obj that clause
that. The thief had an accident Sudhakar: O.K. F v°æߪ’-û√o©’ ´÷†’-éÓèπ◊, Nïߪ’ç §Òçü¿’-û√´¤. They will tell her that she is not correct.
and no longer was able to be on ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺

-v°æ-¨¡o: 1. He learnt to care for crea-
the run. So he surrendered to the
police. The police are just giving -ï-¢√-•’:
themselves airs. tures smaller than himself 1. Correct (ûª†-éπØ√o ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ)
( - himself
2. ÉC î√-™« ´’ç* question. Have, has, had èπ◊ possess, possesses, possessed ÅØË Å®√n©’
Ñ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ §ÚM-Ææ’© °∂æ’†ûËç Å-ØË ¢√éπuç™
™‰ü¿’. üÌçí∫-ÍéüÓ -ߪ÷éÀq-úÁç-ö¸ Å®·u, ¢√úøôç éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ È®çúø’ ®Ω鬙« ¢√úø-´îª’a: a) haven't...? b) don't...? 2 a) hasn't he/ she/ it?
§ƒJ-§Ú-™‰éπ §ÚMÆæ’©èπ◊ ™ÔçT-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. 2. Tag questions ™ have, has, had b) doesn't he/ she/ it? 3 a) hadn't ... ? b) didn't ... ?
¢√∞Ï}üÓ û√´· ≤ƒCµç-*-†ô’d í∫®Ωy-°æ-úÕ- ©†’ possess Å-ØË Å®Ωnç™ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷- °j† 1 a), 2 a), 3 a) - British; 1 b), 2 b), 3 b) American.
§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.) Tç-*-†-°æ¤púø’ Å¢Ë ®Ω÷§ƒ©’ tag ™ eg: 1 a) They have the books, haven't they? (British)
Damodar: I thought that the thief had given
b) They have the books, don't they (American)
èπÿú≈ ´≤ƒh®· éπü∆. OöÀE á°æ¤púø’
himself up because they had
ordinary verbs í¬ BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√L?
given him good chase. I have 2 a) She has a pen, hasn't she? (British)
thought of giving the police a pat
Öü∆: He had fish for breakfast, didn't he? b) She has a pen, doesn't she? (American)
on the back. É™« 'have' ®Ω÷§ƒ-©èπ◊ question tag ™ 'do' ®Ω÷§ƒ©’ 3 a) He had a good education, hadn't he? (British)
(§ÚMÆæ’©’ ¢Áçô-•úÕ ûª®Ω-´’-ôç-´©x á°æ¤p-úÁ-°æ¤púø’ ¢√ú≈L? b) He had a good education, didn't he? (American). ÉüË °æü¿l¥A not ûÓ èπÿú≈. Å®·ûË
3. He may come, He daren't do that ©èπ◊ tag ques-
™ÔçT-§Ú-ߪ÷-úø-†’-éÌE, ¢√∞¡x†’ ¢Á’a- American usage
®√†’ ®√-†’ áèπ◊\-´-´¤-ûÓçC.
éÓ-¢√-©-†’-éÌ-Ø√o†’.) tions ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
3. He may come, mayn't he?
chase - îÁß˝’Æˇ – Æˇ – size ™ z ™« = 4. a) To get an entry into the hall, either you have to
He daren't do that, dare he?
ûª®Ω-´’ôç. buy a ticket or you have to give a donation.
4. b) Correct. Split infinitive Ñ sentence ™ ™‰ü¿’. to buy or (to) give a donation - Ééπ\úø
Sudhakar: Nothing of the sort. You needn't b) To get an entry into the hall, you have either to
give them a big hand as they infinitives to Buy
™E èπ◊ éÀ ´’üµ¿u-é¬F, to èπ◊ give èπ◊ ´’üµ¿u-é¬F à ´÷ö« ™‰ü¿’éπü∆. Öçõ‰ØË split
buy a ticket or give a donation. (Split infinitive)
haven't done any splendid job. infinitive Å´¤-ûª’çC.
eg. for split infinitive: I request you to kindly help me. to help kindly
What Sudha got back is just a part
°j ¢√é¬u™x àC éπÈ®éÓd ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. Ééπ\úø èπ◊ èπ◊ ´’üµ¿u
of her stolen goods.
– É.N.Æœç-üµ¿÷®Ω, É.N.áÆˇ.D°æé˙, -û√-úÕ°æ-vA. ¢√úøôç ´©x ÅC split infinitive.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 24 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2006 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Pranesh: Hi Viswesh, have you met Srikar
1. Give rise to = û√N´yôç/ üËE-ÈéjØ√ 鬮Ω-ù-
yet?
´’-´ôç
(£æ…ß˝’ N¨Ïy¨¸, Xéπ-®˝†’ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√o¢√?) a) His absence from the marriage gave rise
Viswesh: No, I haven't been able to. I called
to a lot of suspicion
his brother Tej but there wasn't any
response.
Åûªúø’ °RxéÀ ®√éπ-§Ú-´ôç î√™« ņ’-´÷-Ø√-©èπ◊
(™‰ü¿’. éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’. ¢√úÕ û√N-*açC/ î√™« ņ’-´÷-Ø√-©†’ Í®Èé-Ahç-*ç-C.
ûª´·túø’ ûËñ ¸èπ◊ §∂ÚØ˛ î˨»†’. °æ©-éπ-™‰ü¿’.) b) ÅûªúÕ ¢√uêu©’ á°æ¤púø÷ N¢√-ü∆-©†’
Pranesh: You'd better do it as soon as possi-
éπLT≤ƒh®·.
ble. Your silence any longer is likely His comments always give rise to contro-
to give rise to avoidable suspicions. versy. d) Typewriting has given way to DTP =
controversy =
vGöÀ≠ˇ¢√∞¡Ÿx ¶«©-í∫ç-í¬-üµ¿®˝ A©-é˙†’ †®Ω-éπ-ߪ÷-ûª†
é¬ØÌZ-´Æœ – 'ØÌZ— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç Typewriters
(ÅC †’¢Áyçûª ûªy®Ωí¬ îËÊÆh Åçûª °ö«d®Ω’. (hell = †®Ωéπç) §Ú®· ¢√öÀ ≤ƒn†ç™
– N¢√ü¿ç. Computer Printing
4. Give vent to one's feelings =
´’ç*C. †’´¤y Éçé¬ ´÷ö«x-úø-éπ-§ÚûË ´îËa-ÆœçC.
®√†-´-Ææ-®Ωç-™‰E ÆæçüË-£æ…©’ ®√´îª’a.) c) An argument always gives rise to further (DTP = Desk Top Publishing = éπç°æ‹u-ô®˝
arguments but doesn't solve any prob-
is likely - is •ü¿’©’ ÉçÍé 'be' form Å®·Ø√ ¢√úø-
äéπJ ¶µ«¢√-©†’ ´uéπh-°æ-®Ω-îªôç – ´·êuçí¬ éÓ°æç-
™«çöÀ Bv´-¢Á’i† ¶µ«¢√-©†’ ¢Á∞¡x-í∫-éπ\ôç. ≤ƒßª’çûÓ Å°æp-öÀ-éπ-°æ¤púË v°æ-JçîË ≤˘éπ®Ωuç)
´îª’a. Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x N´-Jçî√ç. is lem.
a) He gave vent to his anger at the party Let's now look at the following sentences
likely éÀ Å®Ωnç – Å´ya.
from the conversation at the beginning of
¢√ü¿ç ÉçéÌEo ¢√ü∆Lo Í®Èé-Ah-Ææ’hç-üË-é¬F,
He is likely to come today = Åûª-E-¢√∞¡
Çߪ’† §ƒKd™ ûª† éÓ§ƒEo ¢Á∞¡x-í∫-é¬\úø’.
the lesson:
Ææ´’-Ææu-©†’ B®Ωaü¿’.
b) Mature people don't give vent to their
®√´îª’a/ ´îËa Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC. 2. Give a send off = OúÓ\©’ É´yôç.
feelings without proper occasion 1. Your silence any longer is likely to give rise
Avoidable = ûª°œpç-îª-í∫©/ ņ-´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’i†) a) Transfer Å®·† teacher èπ◊ Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’
to avoidable suspicions =
Viswesh: That I know only too well. These ÅGµ-´÷-†çûÓ OúÓ\-L-î√a®Ω’ = °æJ-°æ-éπyûª Ö†o-¢√∞¡Ÿx, ÆæÈ®j† Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ûª°æp
few days I've been
ûª´’ ¶µ«¢√-©†’ ¢Á∞¡x-í∫-éπ\®Ω’. F´¤ Éçé¬ ´÷ö«x-úø-éπ-§Ú-´ôç (your silence)
busy helping my
ņ-´-Ææ®Ω¢Á’i† ÆæçüË-£æ…©èπ◊

I gave them a bit of my mind
brother in law pack
ü∆J-B-Ææ’hçC.
up for his return to 2. I gave him a send

the states. I gave off last night
him the send off last E†o ®√vA Åûª-úÕéÀ ؈’
night. OúÓ\Lî√a†’.
The students gave
c) She gave vent to (I saw him off last night. Give a send off éπØ√o
a warm send off to
(ÅC Ø√èπ◊ ¶«í¬ ûÁ©’Ææ’. È®çúø’-´‚úø’ ®ÓV-©’í¬
see off (OúÓ\©’ îÁ°æpôç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ) ¢√úøéπç
the transferred her jealousy
´÷ ¶«´ Å¢Á’-J-é¬èπ◊ AJT ¢Á∞¡xú≈-EéÀ ≤ƒ´÷†’
Ææ®Ωl-úøç™ ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úø’ûª÷ BJ-éπ-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o†’.
E†o-®√vA Çߪ’-†èπ◊ OúÓ\-L-î√a†’.) teacher. -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 250 Ç¢Á’ ûª† ÅÆæ÷-ߪ’†’
áèπ◊\´.)
3. I gave them a hard time when they were
(warm =
Pranesh: That makes you free, I suppose.
¢√¢˛’ – ¢Á∞¡x-í∫-éÀ\çC. with me
You'd better make Srikar or Tej first.
´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç
5. Give way = äéπ ü¿¨¡ †’ç* ÉçéÓ
But what do you want to meet them
¢ÁîªaöÀ. é¬F warm welcome/ ¢√∞¡Ÿx Ø√ûÓ Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ ¢√∞¡x-èπ◊ -É-•sç-ü¿’©’
for? I don't exactly remember. warm send off = ÇÊ°éπ~ Çü¿-®√-Gµ- ü¿¨¡èπ◊ ´÷®Ωôç. éπL-Tç-î√†’/ É•sç-C-°-ö«d†’/ ¢ËCµç-î√†’
´÷-Ø√-©ûÓ èπÿúÕ† ≤ƒyí∫ûªç/ a) On hearing the news his joy 4. I want to make it up with them
(É°æ¤púø’ Fèπ◊ BJ-éπ†’èπ◊çö«†’. Xéπ-®˝-†’-
í¬F, ûËñ ¸-E-é¬F ¢ÁçôØË éπ©’-Ææ’éÓ. ÅÆæ©’ OúÓ\©’) gave way to anger ¢√∞¡xûÓ Øˆ’ ®√@-°æ-ú≈-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’
†’´¤y ¢√∞¡xûÓ áçü¿’èπ◊ ´÷ö«x-ú≈-©-†’- b) A moving send off = ü¿’”êçûÓ 5. I gave them a bit of my mind
Ç ¢√®Ωh N†-í¬ØË ÆæçûÓ≠æç §Ú®·,
èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? Ø√èπ◊ ÆæJí¬ í∫’®Ω’h-™‰ü¿’) OúÓ\©’. M. SURESAN Åûª-úÕ™ éÓ°æç îÓô’-îË-Ææ’-èπ◊çC. ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ Ø√ ´’†Ææ’q™ Ö†oC îÁÊ°p-¨»†’–
Viswesh: It was my fault. I gave them a hard (Moving - ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç –
b) With her mediation their ill feelings gave
´·êuçí¬ Ø√ ¶µ«¢√-©†’ èπ◊çúø-•-ü¿l©’ éÌõ‰d™« Ö†o-
time when they were with me. In a éπü¿’-©’-ûª’†o. Moving Åçõ‰ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç –
way to good understanding
ü¿’-†oô’x ûÁL-§ƒ†’ (´·êuçí¬ Ø√ éÓ°æç).
way I was justified. They gave vent £æ«%ü¿-ߪ÷Eo éπC-LçîË – ÅE èπÿú≈. Let me give you a bit of my mind. The
to their feelings against my brother The moving tale of Sita = £æ«%ü¿-ߪ÷Eo Ç¢Á’ ´’üµ¿u-´-Jh-ûªyçûÓ ¢√∞¡x üËy≠æç §Ú®· Ææü¿-´-
sooner you leave me the better
and I didn't like it. So I gave them a éπC-LçîË Æ‘ûª (®√´·úÕ ¶µ«®Ωu) éπü∑¿. í¬-£æ«† à®Ωp-úÕçC.
bit of my mind. But you know, I am c) She gave her husband a moving send off Mediation = ´’üµ¿u-´-Jhûªyç. Ø√ ´’†-Ææ’™ Ö†oC îÁ°æpF, †’¢Áyçûª ûªy®Ωí¬
always the forget and forgive type. at the station Mediator = ´’üµ¿u´Jh.
Ééπ\úÕ †’ç* ¢ÁRûË Åçûª ´’ç*C (Get out
So I want to make it up with them. Mediator = O’úÕ-ßÁ’-ß˝’ô (®˝).
ÅE).
Ç¢Á’ ûª† ¶µº®Ωhèπ◊ éπFo-∞¡xûÓ OúÓ\-L-*açC.
6. I am sure your strained relations will give
d) Give a send off = see off.
(ÅC Ø√ ûªÊ°p. ¢√∞¡Ÿx Ø√ûÓ Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ 'ßÁ’— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
way to unending friendship
c) All over India steam trains have given
¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ؈’ É•sçC éπL-Tçî√. äéπ OúÓ\-L-´yôç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ see (somebody)
way to electric and diesel trains
Nüµ¿çí¬ Øˆ-éπ\úø Æ敶‰. ´÷ ņo-O’ü¿
off ÅE èπÿú≈ Åçö«ç.
O’ üÁ•s-A†o Ææç•ç-üµ∆© ≤ƒn†ç™ E®Ωç-ûª-®Ω-¢Á’i†
¢√∞¡x-èπ◊†o ´uA-Í®-éπ-¶µ«´ç ´uéπh-°æ-J-î√®Ω’.
Ø√éπC É≠æd癉-éπ-§Ú-®·çC. Åçü¿’-éπE Ø√ e) We saw her off at the airport as she left ¶µ« ®Ω-û ª-ü Ë-¨¡-´ ’ç-û ªö«, ÇNJ trains §Ú®·, ¢√öÀ ÊÆo£æ«ç îÓô’-îË-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ô’ç-ü¿E †´·t-ûª’Ø√o.
for the states ≤ƒn† ç™ electric, diesel trains ´îËa-¨»®·.
´’†-Ææ’™ Ö†o-ü¿çû√ E®Ìt-£æ«-´÷-ôçí¬
îÁ§ƒp. Å®·ûË Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’í¬ í∫ûªç ´’Ja- Ç¢Á’ Å¢Á’-J-é¬èπ◊ ¢ÁRx-†-°æ¤púø’ ¢Ë’ç Ç¢Á’èπ◊
§Ú®· éπ~N’ç-îË-ûªûªyç Ø√ü¿E/ í∫ûªç ´’Ja- N´÷-Ø√-v¨¡-ߪ’ç™ OúÓ\-Lî√aç. EXERCISE ANSWER
§Ú®· éπ~N’çîË ®Ωéπç ؈E. Åçü¿’-éπE 3. Give a hard time = É•sç-ü¿’©’ éπL-Tç-îªôç/ Practise the following aloud in English: Sita: You don't appear to be so well. I am a
¢√∞¡xûÓ Ææ®Ω’l-èπ◊-§Ú-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o.) éπJ∏-†çí¬ îª÷úøôç. Sita: àçöÀ O’®Ωçûª èπ◊™«-≤ƒí¬ éπE-°œç-îª-ôç-™‰ü¿’? bit anxious.
Pranesh: That's very good. They aren't all a) Most mothers-in-law give their daugh- Ø√ÍéüÓ Çü¿’-®√lí¬ ÖçC. Rao: Nothing's the matter. I am OK.
that bad either. I am sure your ters-in-law a hard time Rao: àç ™‰ü¿’. ¶«í¬ØË ÖØ√o†’. Sita: You are hiding something. Your silence
strained relations will give way to is giving rise to many suspicions.
î√™« ´’çC Åûªh©’ éÓúø-∞¡x-°æôx éπJ∏-†çí¬ Sita: àüÓ ü∆Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. O’®Ω’ ´÷ö«x-úø-éπ-§Ú-´ôç
unending friendship between you.
Öçö«®Ω’/ É•sç-ü¿’©’ éπL-T-≤ƒh®Ω’/ ¢ËCµ-≤ƒh®Ω’. °æ©’ ÆæçüË-£æ…-©èπ◊ û√N-≤ÚhçC. Rao: Where is Indira?
b) The teacher gave a real hard time to the Rao: ÉçC®Ω áéπ\úø? Sita: She has gone to station to give a send
(¢√∞¡Ÿx-èπÿú≈ Åçûª îÁúøf-¢√-∞¡Ÿx-鬮Ω’. -É°æp-öÀ -
students by asking them to work beyond off to our son-in-law. our son-in-
´®Ωèπ◊ O’´’üµ¿u ÆæJ-í¬-™‰E Ææç•ç-üµ∆©’ Sita: Å©’x-úÕéÀ OúÓ\-L-´y-ö«-EéÀ ÊÆd≠æ-Ø˛èπ◊ ¢ÁRxçC. (Ééπ\úø
time law her husband, better.)
-Ééπ°j E®Ωç-ûª-®Ω- ÊÆo£æ…-EéÀ û√N--¢√y-©-E
Rao: ´’† Å©’xúø’ î√™« ´’ç*-¢√úø’. ÉçC-®Ω†’ éπçõ‰
ÇP-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’.) Rao: He is quite nice. He never gives a hard
strained relations = îÁúÕ† Ææç•ç-üµ∆©’
鬙«-B-ûª-¢Á’iØ√ îªü¿-¢√-©çô÷ °œ©x©†’ É•sçC á°æ¤púø÷ ¶«üµ¿-°-ôdúø’. (give a hard time
°ö«dúø’ teacher. ¢√úøçúÕ) time to Indira.
A strained marriage = ¶µ«®√u-¶µº-®Ωh© ´’üµ¿u
c) The British gave Indian freedom fighters Sita: Ç Nüµ¿çí¬ ´’†ç Åü¿%-≠d-´ æ ç-ûª’-©¢Ë’. E†o àüÓ Sita: That way we are lucky. He was a little
angry yesterday, but soon the anger
Ææç•ç-üµ∆©’ ÆæJí¬ ™‰éπ-§Ú-´ôç.
a hard time éÌClí¬ éÓ°æç ´*açC, é¬F éÓ°æç ≤ƒn†ç-™ØË
Viswesh: That's what I wish too. gave way to a smile.
¶µ«®Ωûª ≤ƒyûªçvûªu ßÁ÷üµ¿’-©†’ vGöÀ-≠ˇ-¢√∞¡Ÿx î√™« *®Ω’-†´¤y ´îËa-Æœç-ü∆-ߪ’-†èπ◊.
(ÅüË Ø√ éÓJéπ/ Ǩ¡ èπÿú≈†’.)
É•sçC °ö«d®Ω’/ ¢ËCµç-î√®Ω’. Rao: Eïçí¬ ´’ç*-¢√úË Çߪ’†. Rao: He is really a good man.
´’†ç Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ real life situations ™ ûª®Ω- Sita: O’®Ω’ îÁ°æpçúÕ. ´’†ç ú≈éπd®˝ ü¿í∫_®Ωèπ◊ ¢Á∞«l´÷? Sita: Come now tell me. Shall we see a doc-
îª’í¬ ´îËa simple words Å®·† get/ have/ ´’K †®Ω-éπ-ߪ÷-ûª† °ôdúøç Å®·ûË give hell
Rao: Ø√ ´’†-Ææ’q™ Ö†oC îÁ•’-ûª’Ø√o. Ø√Íéç tor?
do/ go ™«çöÀûÓ ´îËa expressions °æJ-Q-L- Åçö«®Ω’.
Rao: Let me give you a bit of my mind. The
Ææ’hØ√oç éπü∆. É°æ¤púø’ î√™« ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ω-ù-¢Á’i† give d) The British gave real hell to Bal 鬙‰ü¿’. †’´¤y ú≈éπd®˝ í∫’Jç* áçûª ûªèπ◊\-´í¬
less you talk about a doctor, the better.
ûÓ ´îËa expressions îª÷ü∆lç. Gangadhar Tilak ´÷ö«x-úÕûË Åçûª ´’ç*C.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 26 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2006 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Vignata: Hi Santasa, well met. In fact I was
though the competition is high.
about to start for your place. Glad
Our job is all about booking as many
you've come. When are we going to
orders as possible and executing
meet Vilasa?
them.
(Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. ÅÆæ©’ O’
ÉçöÀÍé •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-¶-ûª’Ø√o. †’´¤y ´*a-†ç- (§Úöà áèπ◊\´ Ö†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, ¢√öÀéÀ ´’ç*
ü¿’èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ≠æç. N™«-Æ憒 á°æ¤púø’ éπ©’-Ææ’- T®√éà ÖçC. Ç®Ωf®Ω’x •’é˙îËÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç,
éÓ-¶-ûª’Ø√oç?) ¢√öÀE Ææ®Ω-°∂æ®√ îËߪ’-ô¢Ë’ ´’† °æ†çû√.)
Booking orders = äéπ ´Ææ’h´¤/ ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ Éçûª/
Santasa: What about? I don't exactly remem-
ber.
ÉFo, Ñ rate èπ◊ 鬢√-©E éÌØË-¢√∞¡Ÿx Ţ˒t-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊
®√Æœ É´yôç/ Ţ˒t-¢√∞¡xûÓ ®√®·ç--éÓ-´ôç.
execute orders éÌØË¢√∞¡xèπ◊, ¢√∞¡Ÿx ÅúÕ-T† Ææ®Ω’èπ◊,
(üËEo í∫’Jç*? Ø√èπ◊ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ í∫’®Ω’h-èπ◊- Ç hall ™ furniture *çü¿-®Ω-´ç-ü¿-®Ωí¬ °æúø’-Ø√o®·. ô’d°æéπ\©)
®√-´-ôç-™‰ü¿’.) Ææ®Ω-°∂æ®√ îËߪ’ôç. DEo delivering (îË®Ω-¢Ë-ߪ’ôç) e) Students are all about the place/ all around b) Is any one about, please?
Vignata: Santasa, It's about time that you ÅE èπÿú≈ Åçö«ç. the place.
took things seriously. We three
(Ééπ\-úÁ-´-®Ω-Ø√o ÖØ√o-®√çúŒ?)
Despatch orders = éÌØË¢√∞¡Ÿx 鬢√-©†o Ææ®Ω-èπ◊†’ c) She was about/ around here a few minutes,
talked about starting a business
(Åéπ\úøçû√ Ææ÷dúÁçö¸q Åô÷ Éô÷ A®Ω’-í∫’ûª÷
when we met last.
¢√∞¡xèπ◊ °æç°æôç. ÖØ√o®Ω’.) but is not to be seen now.
Santasa: Vinamra will be home now. Your f) The police are about/ around the place. (éÌCl éπ~ù«© éÀçü¿ Ééπ\úË ÖçC, É°æ¤púø’ éπE-°œç-
brother too will be about in a few
(†’´¤y ´·êu-¢Á’i† N≠æ-ߪ÷-©†’ ÆæJí¬
Don't forget to wear the helmet. îªúøç ™‰ü¿’.) ÉC ¶«í¬ practice îËߪ’çúÕ. con-
minutes. Let's all go to Vinamra's
°æöÀdç--éÓ-¢√-Lq† Ææ-´’-ߪ’-N’-C. ´’†ç
(Ç îª’ô÷d §ÚMÆæ’©’Ø√o®Ω’. £«™„tö¸ °ô’déÓ´ôç versation ™ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC.
and discuss the matter.
éÀçü¿öÀ≤ƒJ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†o°æ¤púø’ àüÁjØ√
¢√u§ƒ®Ωç v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-î√-©-†’-èπ◊Ø√oç.) ´’Ja-§Úèπ◊.) 6. be slow/ quiet about something.
Santasa: Sorry. It's gone clean out of my
(É°æ¤púø’ N†v´’ ÉçöxØË Öçô’çC. O’ 3) about Åçõ‰ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ÅE èπÿú≈ Å®Ωnç. Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ (äéπ N≠æߪ’ç °æôx ´’çü¿-éÌ-úÕí¬/ ®Ω’í¬_
mind.
v•ü¿®˝ èπÿú≈ éÌCl EN’-≥ƒ™x ´≤ƒhúø’. ´’†- about •ü¿’©’ around èπÿú≈ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. Öçúøôç.
(≤ƒK. Ç a) He is very slow
about taking decisions

Do something about it
N≠æߪ’ç
°æ‹Jhí¬ ´’Ja- E®Ωg-ߪ÷©’ BÆæ’-éÓ-´-ôç™
§Úߪ÷.) Åûªúø’ î√™« ñ«°æuç
Vignata: You had îË≤ƒhúø’.)
better not. Ééπ\úø about èπ◊ •ü¿’©’,
It's a matter at áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√úøû√ç.
of investment of lakhs. Our money is b) She is very quick about/ at seizing opportu-
´’çû√ N†v´’ a) The car cost me
lying idle in the bank. We thought of nities.
(Å´-é¬-¨»-©†’ NE-ßÁ÷-Tç--éÓ-´ôç™ Ç¢Á’
ÉçöÀÈéRx Ñ about 4 lakh
putting it to better use.
(Å™«ç-öÀN ´’Ja-§Úèπ◊. ©éπ~-© ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©
N≠æߪ’ç
îªJaü∆lç.) -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 251 rupees. (Ç é¬®Ω’èπ◊ î√™« ®Ω’èπ◊.)
a) Go about = ÉC èπÿú≈ spoken English ™
ü∆ü∆°æ¤ 4 ©éπ~-©- Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æúË expression.
°ô’d-•úÕ N≠æߪ’ç ÅC. ¶«uçé˙™ ´’† Vignata: That's OK. ®·uçC.)
úø•’s Å™«-°æúÕ ÖçC. ü∆Eo Ææ-Cy-E-ßÁ÷í∫ç    The car cost me around 4 lakh
Å®Ωnç: (äéπ °æE) v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îªôç, îËÊÆ Nüµ¿ç etc.
îËßÁ·îª’a.) a) Pratibha: Let's stage a drama for our col-
O’èπ◊ í∫’®Ω’h -ÖçCéπü∆ ´’†ç -Éç-ûªèπ◊ - rupees.
Santasa: True. Let's be quick about it. ´·ç-ü¿’ prepositions ™x ´·êu-¢Á’i† lege day.
b) He came to me about 10/ around
(Å´¤†’. ûªy®Ωí¬ îËÊÆü∆lç.) (
10 at night and spent an hour
¢√öÀE í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. É°æ¤púø’ é¬-™‰-ñ ¸-úËèπ◊ -à-üÁj-Ø√ Ø√ôéπç ¢Ëü∆lç.)
Vignata: Let's be clear about what we are Prasanna: OK. How do we go about it?
é¬Ææh N´-®Ωçí¬ ¢√öÀE îªJaü∆lç. talking. (®√vA ü∆ü∆°æ¤ °æCç-öÀéÀ Ø√
going to do while we are about it. English Conversation ™ do, get, (Å™«Íí. àç îËߪ÷L ü∆EéÀ?)
ü¿í∫_®Ω éÌ*a í∫çô-ÊÆ°æ¤ ´÷ö«x-ú≈úø’.)
(Ç N≠æߪ’ç/ °æE-îË-ÊÆ-ô-°æ¤púø’, ´’†ç have, go, give ûÓ ´îËa high fre- M. SURESAN c) About 10 lakh people gather at b) How do we go about to get a passport?
î√™« Ææp≠ædçí¬ Ç™-*ü∆lç.) quency ´÷ô-©†’ í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-Ææ’- Allahabad for the Kumbhamela. (§ƒÆˇ-§Ú®˝d ûÁa-éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ àç îËߪ÷L?)
Santasa: We should also get loans from state èπ◊Ø√oç.¢√öÀûÓ§ƒô’ Ñ prepositions use (èπ◊綵 º-¢ Ë’ ∞«èπ ◊ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ °æ-C©éπ~©´’çC §Úí∫-´¤- Ñ expression áèπ◊\´ questions ™ ´Ææ’hç-ü¿ØËC
finance corporation and the banks. èπÿú≈ correct í¬ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çõ‰ conversation û√®Ω ’ .) í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.
(ÊÆdö¸ °∂jØ√Ø˛q 鬮Ìp-Í®-≠æØ˛, ¶«uçèπ◊© î√™« effective í¬ Öçô’çC. Ñ lesson ™ 6. all about = ã ÆæçÆæn ´·êu 鬮Ωu-éπ-™«-§ƒ-©†’
†’ç* èπÿú≈ ®Ω’ù«©’ BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√L ´’†ç.) ´·êuçí¬ about †’ í∫’Jç* ûÁ-©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. 4. Do something about it. í∫’Jç* îÁÊ°p-ô-°æ¤púø’ É™« Åçö«ç.
Vignata: (There's) No use talking. Let's do (pronunciation Ŷ˜ö¸ – '¶˜— ØÌéÀ\°æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.) (ü∆E N≠æߪ’ç àüÓ îÁ®·u.)
ÉC èπÿú≈ spoken English ™ î√™« com- a) The armed forces' job is all about defend-
some thing about it and quickly too. 1. ´’†™ î√™« ´’çCéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’ – about Åçõ‰
mon. ´·êuçí¬ éπ•’®ΩxûÓ é¬©-Íé ~°æç îËߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ ing the country. ü˨¡ ®Ωéπ~ù‰ ≤ƒßª·üµ¿ ü¿∞«©
(army, navy and air force)
(´÷ô-©ûÓ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç ™‰ü¿’. ü∆E í∫÷Ja, í∫’Jç* ÅE. °æE.
a) We talked about our college days.
°æ EéÀ Cí∫-´’ØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.
N≠æߪ’ç àüÓ ûªy®Ωí¬ îËߪ÷L ´’J.) b) A teacher's job is all about preparing the
Santasa: How do we go about it? (´÷ 鬙‰@ ®ÓV© í∫’Jç* ¢Ë’ç ´÷ö«x-úø’- a) matter. No use drawing plans and discussing the
Do something about it. students for exams. (Nü∆u-®Ω’n-©†’ °æK-éπ~-©èπ◊
(ᙫ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµü∆l¥ç?/ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îªôç èπ◊Ø√oç.) Æœü¿l¥çîËߪ’-ô¢Ë’ öÃ˝ °æE.)
b) I know everything about computers.
(v°æ ù«-R -é π©’ ®Ω*ç-îªúøç, îªJaç-îªôç ´©x v°æßÁ÷-
ᙫ?) ï†ç ™‰ ü ¿’. àüÓ äéπöÀ îÁ®·u / îËÆœ îª÷°œç.) c) A computer professional's job is all about
Vignata: Our business is going to be com- (éπç°æ‹u®Ωx í∫’Jç* Ø√éπçû√ ûÁ©’Ææ’.) getting the information needed and pro-
b) He always talks about cleaning the place
puter hardware. We'll deal in com- c) Naturally the mother wants to know all cessing data.
but does nothing about it.
puter hardware with an investment about the girl her son is going to marry. éπç°æ‹u-ô®˝ ¢√∞¡x °æ†çû√ Ææ´÷-î√-®√Eo Ææ´’-èπÿ-
of about 15 lakh rupees. (ûª† éÌúø’èπ◊ °R} îËÆæ’-èπ◊ØË Å´÷t-®·E í∫’Jç* (áçûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ Ç v°æüË-¨»Eo ¨¡Ÿv¶µº-°æ-®Ω-îªôç í∫’Jç*
´÷ö«x-úø-ô-¢Ë’-é¬F, Ç°æ-ØËO’ îËߪ’úø’.) ®Ωaôç, N≠æߪ÷©†’ N¨Ïx-≠œç-îª-ô¢Ë’.
(´’†ç éπç°æ‹u-ô®˝ ≤ƒ´÷†x ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç °æ‹Jhí¬ ûÁ©-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©E Ç ûªLx Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬ØË éÓ®Ω’- 5. be about: äéπ v°æü˨¡ç ô’d °æéπ\© Öçúøôç. About †’ í∫’Jç* Ñ v°æßÁ÷í∫ç É°æ¤p-úÕ-°æ¤púø’ ¶«í¬
îËߪ’-¶-ûª’Ø√oç, ü∆ü∆°æ¤ 15 ©éπ~© ®Ω÷§ƒ- èπ◊ç-öçC.)
a) Is your brother about
¢√úø’-éπ™éÀ ´≤ÚhçC.
ߪ’© °ô’d-•-úÕûÓ.) 2. About Åçõ‰ äéπ v°æü˨¡ç ô÷d/ *çü¿-®Ω-´ç-ü¿-®Ωí¬
Santasa: Is your brother about? He can help ÅE èπÿú≈ Å®Ωnç. Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ spoken English (O’ -Å-†o-ߪ’u à´’Ø√o Ééπ\úø ÖØ√oú≈?– Ñ
us in planning. ™ about î√™« ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’.
EXERCISE Bhaskar: OK.
(O’--Å-†o-ߪ’u Ééπ\-úÁ-éπ\-úÁj-Ø√ ÖØ√oú≈? a) They spent the whole evening walking
Çߪ’† ´’†èπ◊ §ƒxEçí˚™ Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-°æ-úø-í∫- about the town. Practise the following aloud in English Answer
©úø’.) (Ü®Ωçû√ (ÜJ-ô÷d) A®Ω’-í∫’ûª÷ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç Bhaskar: ¢√∞¡x†’ í∫’Jç* FÍéç ûÁ©’Ææ’? Bhaskar: What do you know about them?
Vignata: We can expect him round about Åçû√ í∫úÕ-Ê°-¨»®Ω’ ¢√∞¡Ÿx.) Prabhakar: ¢√∞¡x†’ í∫’Jç* FÍéç N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ Prabhakar: What do you want to know about
10.30. b) There are rumours about the place that he 鬢√L?¢√∞¡x†’ í∫’Jç* ûÁL-ߪ÷-Lq† them? I know about almost
(-ü∆-ü∆°æ¤10.30 èπ◊ ûªØÌ≤ƒh-úøE ´’†ç ÇPç- has murdered her. N≠æ-ߪ÷©Fo ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ûÁ©’Ææ’. everything that we should know
îª-´îª’a.) Bhaskar: ¢√∞¡x™  äéπúø’ Ñ îª’ô’d-°æéπ\™‰ ÖØ√oúø’ about them.
(Ç¢Á’-†ûªúø’ -Ç -v°æ-üË-¨¡ç-™ îªç§ƒ-úøE Ü®Ωçû√
Santasa: Isn't computer hardware all about ®Ω÷-´’-®Ω’x-Ø√o®·.) E†oçû√. Bhaskar: One of them was about/ around
the parts of the central processing Prabhakar: F°æE ¢√∞¡x éπü¿-Léπ©’ í∫´’-Eç-îª-ô¢Ë’ here the whole of yesterday.
c) Books were lying all about the room.
unit of the computer? éπü∆. Prabhakar: Your job is all about observing
(Ç í∫ü¿çû√ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ *çü¿-®Ω-´ç-ü¿-®Ωí¬ °æúÕ
(computer hardware computer
Åçõ‰ Bhaskar: Å´¤†’. ØËØ√ N≠æߪ’ç í∫’Jç* °æE their movements.
ÖØ√o®·.)
central processing unit Bhaskar: I'll go about it seriously.
¶µ«í¬-©†’ Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ about •ü¿’©’ around èπÿú≈ ¢√úø- ¢Á·ü¿-©’-°-úøû√, Æ‘J-ߪ’Æˇí¬.
í∫’JçîË éπü∆?) û√®Ω’. Prabhakar: †’¢√y-°æE îËߪ÷-Lq† Æ洒ߪ’ç Prabhakar: It's about time you started it.
Vignata: Yea. We've a good market for it, d) Furniture lay all about/ all around the hall .
ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ÉüË. Bhaskar: OK.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 28 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2006 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Jagan: Are you going ahead with buying that Jagan: Hope no one has been hurt.
flat? (á´®Ω÷ í¬ßª’-°æ-úø-™‰-ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«)
(Ç §∂ƒxö¸ éÌçô’-Ø√o¢√?) Ratna: Fortunately none. In fact the house
Ratna: I was very much for buying it, but now has been vacant for quite some time
I am giving a second thought to it. now, as it is very old and dilapidated
(؈’ éÌØ√-©ØË ¶«í¬ ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’/ Ø√èπ◊ (Åü¿%-≠d-´æ -¨»ûª’h ™‰ü¿’. ÅÆæ©’ Ç É©’x î√™«
éÌØ√-©ØË í∫öÀdí¬ ÖçúËC, é¬E É°æ¤úø’ ´’Sx §ƒûªC, PC∑-™«-´-Ææn™ Öçúøôç ´©x éÌçûª-
Ç™-*ç--èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’) é¬-©çí¬ ë«S-í¬ØË ÖçC.)
Jagan: Why? What's happened? Vacant= ¢Áß˝’-éπçö¸= ë«S. '¢Áß˝’— ØÌéÀ\
(áçü¿’èπ◊? àç ïJ-TçC?) °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. c) The students were given to understand
Ratna: Aasa said she would buy one along Dilapidated= úÕ™«-°œ-úÁ-ß˝’-ôú˛= PC∑-™«-´-Ææn™ 
E®Ωg-ߪ÷©’ BÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç, ¢√öÀE ´÷®Ω’a-éÓ-´ôç that they would have some concession in
with me, next to mine, but she has Ö†o/ èπÿL-§Ú-ßË’-ô’x†o (building ™«çöÀN) @N-ûªç™ ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ωùç. É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x – give/ the fees= fees concession
™ ÖçúÌ-îªaØË
given up now. have a second thought/ on second thoughts
Jagan: OK. But don't let this slip. It's certainly ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç/ †´’téπç Nü∆u-®Ω’n™x éπL-Tç-î√®Ω’.
conversation
a bargain- a three bed roomed flat for 3. Give the devil its due. à´÷-ô-é¬-´÷õ‰ îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-
(Ø√ûÓ-§ƒõ‰, Ǩ¡ Ø√ °æéπ\ØË §∂ƒxö¸ ÅØËN ´’†èπ◊ ™ ¶«í¬ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æúË
expression.
Rs.30 lakh in such an area.
éÌçö«-†çC. é¬E Ç Ç™- É°æ¤púø’ ¢√L ÅE D†®Ωnç. îÁúøf-¢√-∞¡x™ ´’ç* í∫’ù-¢Ë’-üÁjØ√
´÷†’-èπ◊çC.) (ÆæÍ®. DEo ñ«®Ω-N-úø’-´èπ◊– Å™«çöÀ é¬Ææh DçûÓ Ææç•çüµ¿ç Ö†o ´÷ô, after thought. Öçõ‰ ¢Á’a-éÓ-´ôç, to give the devil its due.
Jagan: But her husband gave me to under- a) ®√´-ù’úø’ ü¿’®√t-®Ω’_úË. é¬E à N≠æ-ߪ÷-E-é¬-
stand that they had almost paid the
v°æüË-¨¡ç™ 30 ©éπ~-©èπ◊ 3 bed roomed flat ´’†ç BÆæ’-èπ◊†o E®Ωg-ߪ÷-EéÀ Åü¿-†çí¬ Å°æp-öÀ-éπ-°æ¤púø’
advance.
éπ*aûªçí¬ î¯Íé). ´îËa Ç™-– after thought. Åçõ‰ ´·çüË Å†’-éÓ- N-≠æߪ’ç îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-¢√L éπü∆. Åûª†’ íÌ°æp P´-
Ratna: OK. èπ◊çú≈ îªô’-èπ◊\† Å°æp-öÀ-éπ-°æ¤púø’ ´îËa Ç™ after ¶µº-èπ◊húø’ = Ravana was certainly bad, but
(é¬F ¢√∞¡Ÿx Åú≈yØ˛q ü∆ü∆°æ¤ éπõ‰d-Æœ-†õ‰x Ç¢Á’ to give the devil its due, he was a great
☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ thought.
¶µº®Ωh Ø√ûÓ îÁ§ƒpúø’ (ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç devotee of Lord Siva.
éπLpç-î√úø’) b) Summer is unbear-

Give the devil its due
Ratna: But some- able in A.P., but to
thing hap- give the devil its
pened in the due, we get man-
last minute goes and jasmine =
and they gave ¢ËÆæN Ççvüµ¿-v°æ-ü˨ ¸™
up the idea. ü¿’®Ωs¥-®Ω¢Ë’. é¬E à´÷-ô-é¬-
´’†ç real life situ- He invited mom and
´÷ô îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-¢√L, ¢ËÆæ-N-™ØË éπü∆ ´’†èπ◊ ´÷N’-úÕ-
dad first and added
(é¬E *´-J-éπ~-ùç™ àüÓ ïJ-TçC. ¢√∞¡Ÿx
ations ™ daily °æçúø’x, ´’™„x-°æ‹©’ ´îËaC.
me as an after
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
éÌØË Ç™- ´÷†’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’.)
conversation c) He is a rogue, but give the devil its due.
Jagan: But why should that make you change
™
your plans of buying the flat?
common words 252 thought=
He helped me. = ¢√úø’ ü¿’®√t-®Ω’_úË. é¬E
Å®·† get/ have/ ¢Á·ü¿ô Å´’t†’, Ø√†o†’ ´’ç* N≠æ-ߪ’-¢Ë’-N’-ôçõ‰ Ø√èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç î˨»úø’.
do/ take/ give
(é¬F Åçü¿’-´©x Ç §∂ƒxö¸ éÌØ√-©ØË Ç™- °œL*, Ç ûª®√yûª ´*a† 4. Give in = ™ÔçT-§Ú-´ôç.
†’¢Áyç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´÷®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√L?) ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀûÓ ´îËa simple Ç™-îª-†ûÓ ††’o °œL-î √úø’. (Åçõ‰
a) He first refused to do it, but gave in
Ratna: (I) can't imagine being away from her, expressions í∫’Jç* îªJa-Ææ’hØ√oç ¢Á·ü¿ô ††’o °œLîË Ç™-îª-†-™‰ü¿’ ÅE.)
as we have been neighbours for such in the end = ¢Á·ü¿ô ÅC îËÊÆçü¿’èπ◊ ä°æ¤p-éÓ-
éπü∆. î√™« ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ω-ù-¢Á’i† ´÷ô a) ÅÆæ©’ Çߪ’† ´*açC í∫’úÕéÀ. Ç
a long time. give ûÓ ´îËa ´’J-éÌEo expres- ûª®√yûª ´*a† Ç™-îª-†ûÓ ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ ™‰ü¿’. é¬E *´-®Ωèπ◊ ™ÔçT-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’.
b) They gave in only after a stiff fight = ¶«í¬
(î√™«é¬-©çí¬ ¢Ë’ç É®Ω’-í∫’-§Ò-®Ω’í∫’† sions É°æ¤púø’ îª÷ü∆lç. ®√¢√-©-†’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
He came to temple, but as an
áü¿’-®ÌúÕf §Ú®√-úÕ† ûª®√yûË ™ÔçT-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’
Öçúøôç ´©x, ûª†èπ◊ ü¿÷®Ωçí¬ Öçúøôç 1. Give a second thought = M. SURESAN (¨¡vûª’-´¤-©èπ◊)
Ü£œ«ç--éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o†’.) after thought called at my place.
°æ¤†-®√-™-*ç-îªôç. äéπ N≠æ-ߪ’ç-°æôx 5. Give way = éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ give way Åçõ‰
Jagan: I understand that. I don't like her ü∆ü∆°æ¤ E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’èπ◊†o ûª®√yûª ü∆E í∫’Jç* (Åçõ‰ •ßª’-©’-üË-J-†-°æ¤púø’ ††’o îª÷ú≈-©ØË Ç™-
much, but to give the devil its due, she Çߪ’-†èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’.) äéπ®Ω’/ äéπöÀ ÉçéÌ-éπ-JéÀ/ ÉçéÓ-ü∆-EéÀ ≤ƒn†ç
is quite helpful when help is needed.
´’®Ó-≤ƒJ Ç™-*ç-îªôç. É´yôç ÅE ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√oç-í∫ü∆. Give way, Ñ
a) ûÌçü¿-®Ω-°æ-úøèπ◊, ´’®Ó≤ƒJ áçü¿’èπ◊ Ç™*ç-îª- b) His buying the camera is only an after
lesson Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ – (Buildings, °jéπ-°æ¤p©’
(؈®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫-©†’. ÇN-úøçõ‰ Ø√éπçûª èπÿ-úøü¿’?= Don't be hasty. Why don't you thought. His idea was only to buy a TV =
™«çöÀN) èπ◊çT-§Ú-´ôç/ èπÿJ-§Ú-´ôç ÅE èπÿú≈
É≠ædç-™‰ü¿’ é¬E à´÷-ô-é¬-´÷õ‰ îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-¢√L – give a second thought to it/ why don't Çߪ’† ÅÆæ©’ éÌØ√-©-†’-èπ◊-†oC TV. Camera Å®Ωnç.
àüÁjØ√ Å´-Ææ®Ωç Å®·-†-°æ¤púø’, î√™« you give it a second thought? é̆ôç ûª®√yûª ´*a† Ç™-îªØË. a) The old building gave way as too many
Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC.) b) I am determined. No question of giving 2. Give (somebody) to understand (some- people climbed on its roof= build-
Ç §ƒûª
Ratna: That way she is the opposite of our a second thought to buying the car = thing) - ÉC èπÿú≈ conversation ™ ûª®Ω ing éπ°æ¤p-O’CéÀ áèπ◊\´ ´’çC îË®Ω-ôçûÓ ÅC
other neighbour, Smitha. She gives ؈’ E®Ωg®·ç--èπ◊Ø√o. Ç é¬®Ω’ éÌØË N≠æ- NE-°œçîË expression. Å®Ωnç – äéπ-J™ ã ÅGµ- èπÿLçC.
the slip exactly when we need her. ߪ’ç™ È®çúÓ Ç™- v°æÆæÍéh ™‰ü¿’. v§ƒ-ߪ÷Eo éπL-Tç-îªôç. b) The branch gave way under his weight =
(Ç N≠æ-ߪ’ç™, ´’† ÉçéÓ °æé¬\Núø Æœtûªèπ◊ Determine= úÕô-N’Ø˛ – ô, bird ™ '•— ™«, 'ô— a) She gave me to understand that she is ÅûªúÕ •®Ω’-´¤èπ◊ Ç éÌ´’t NJ-TçC.
Ñ¢Á’ °æ‹Jhí¬ ´uA-Í®éπç. Ç¢Á’ éπÈ®é˙dí¬ ûª† ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç– E®Ωg-®·ç--éÓ-´ôç/ í∫öÀd not interested in jewellery =
DEE ´’†’-≠æfl© ¢Ájê-JéÀ èπÿú≈ ¢√úø-´îª’a.
c) Though we forced him he did not give
Å´-Ææ®Ωç ´’†-é¬\-´-©-Æœ-†-°æ¤púø’ ´÷ߪ’-´’-´¤- E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç/ éπ%ûª-E-¨¡a-ߪ’çûÓ Öçúøôç. †í∫-©-O’ü¿ ûª†èπ◊ ÇÆæ-éÀh-™‰-ü¿ØË ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç/
ûª’çC.) c) He Wanted to make a career in the †´’téπç Ç¢Á’ Ø√™ éπL-Tç-*çC. way on any point =áçûª •©-´çûªç îËÆœØ√,
Jagan: Try to convince Aasa about the movies, but gave a second thought to it, b) The boss gave us to understand that à Å稡ç-™†÷ Åûª†’ ™Ôçí∫-™‰ü¿’.
advantages of having this flat. If you finally he dropped it. tomorrow would be a holiday =
ÉO give ûÓ ´÷´‚©’ conversation ™ ´îËa
bring some pressure on her, she will ÆœE-´÷™x îË®√-©-†’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’, é¬E ü∆E N≠æߪ’ç Í®°æ¤ ÂÆ©´ØË ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷Eo/ †´’t-é¬Eo ´÷™ expressions éÌEo. OöÀE conversation ™
certainly give in. °æ¤†-®√-™-*ç*, ´÷†’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’. ¶«Æˇ éπL-Tç-î√úø’. ¢√úøçúÕ.
(Ñ §∂ƒxö¸ é̆ôç ´©x ïJÍí ¢Ë’©’ í∫’Jç* Give a second thought èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ have ÉC áèπ◊\´ passive ™ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’.
Ç-¨¡èπ◊ †îªa-ñ„°æ¤p. †’´¤y éÌçûª äAhúÕ ûÁÊÆh second thoughts (British)/ have second
thought (American)/ on second thoughts EXERCISE ANSWER
ûª†’ éπ*aûªçí¬ ÅçU-éπ-JÆæ’hçC.) Sailesh: Are you determined/ Have you
Sailesh: Eïçí¬ †’¢√y 鬮Ω’ éÌØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ E¨¡a-®·ç-
Ratna: Not immediately. She is busy carrying ÅE èπÿú≈ Åçö«®Ω’.
decided to buy the car?
out repairs to her old house. Because d) -Å-ûª-úø’ -Ç Å´÷t-®·E °Rx îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’- -èπ◊-Ø√o¢√?
Vignesh: Yes. I am. I like the car. Why?
of the incessant rains the roof which èπ◊-Ø√oúø’. é¬F ´’†Ææ’ ´÷®Ω’a-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’= He Vignesh: Å´¤†’. Ø√éπC †*açC. àç?
Sailesh: Give it a second thought. Don't you
had been leaking, suddenly gave way. wanted to marry her, but had second Sailesh: é¬Ææh ÉçéÓ-≤ƒJ Ç™-*ç. éÌçîÁç üµ¿®Ω
feel that the price is rather high/ on
She is attending to that. thought (s) about it. áèπ◊\-´-E-E-°œç-îªôç ™‰ü∆? the high side?
(¢ÁçôØË é¬ü¿’™‰. ûª† §ƒûª ÉçöÀ ´’®Ω-´’t- e) I was all for buying a flat, but on second Vignesh: 鬮Ω’ ¶«í∫’çC. áçûª îÁ°œpØ√ 鬮Ω’ ㆮ˝ Vignesh: The car is OK. Whatever I say, the
ûª’ûÓ G@í¬ ÖçC. áúø-ûÁ-J-°œ-™‰E ´®√{-©- 鬮Ω- thoughts gave up the idea = üµ¿®Ω ûªT_çîË N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ ™Ôçí∫ôç ™‰ü¿’. owner refuses to give in, in the
ùçí¬ èπ◊®Ω’Ææ’h†o ÉçöÀéπ°æ¤p £æ«®∏√-ûª’hí¬ °æúÕ- §∂ƒxö¸ éÌØ√©E í∫öÀdí¬ Å†’-èπ◊Ø√o é¬F, °æ¤†-®√-™- Sailesh: Å®·ûË à´÷ô 鬴÷õ‰ ņ’-éÓ-¢√L. matter of the price.
§Ú-®·çC. Ç °æ-E îª÷≤Úhç-ü∆¢Á’.) *ç--èπ◊E ´÷†’-èπ◊Ø√o. 鬮Ω’ ´÷vûªç ´’ç* condition ™ Sailesh: To give the devil its due, he has
f) She wanted to go, but on second kept the car in good condition.
carrying out = îËߪ’ôç, îË®·ç-îªôç/ Çïc©’ Öçî√úø’.
thoughts decided to stay on = Vignesh: Then why do you say the price is
Vignesh: Å®·ûË üµ¿®Ω áèπ◊\-´E áçü¿’-éπ-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-
high?
Å´’-©’-°æ-®Ω-îªôç
incessant = ÉØÁq-Ææçö¸– Åçûª-®√ߪ’ç ™‰èπ◊çú≈/ ¢Á∞«x-©ØË Å†’-èπ◊çC, é¬E ´’†Ææ’ ´÷®Ω’a-èπ◊E Ø√o´¤? Sailesh: A reduction is always a reduction,
áúø-ûÁ-J-°œ-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ Öçú≈-©E E®Ωg-®·ç--èπ◊çC. Sailesh: áçûª ûªT_Ø√ ´’†èπ◊ ûªT_-†õ‰d éπü∆? you know?

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-≤Ú-´’-¢√®Ωç 1 -ï-†-´-J 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Hrithik: Where exactly is this conference
hall?
´’†ç Éçûª-èπ◊´·çü¿’ lesson ™
'about' Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç îª÷¨»ç éπü∆.
ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ÅüË Å®Ωnç Ö†o around
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
(Ñ Ææ´÷¢Ë¨¡ç ïJÍí £æ…™¸ éπÈ®-é˙dí¬
253 áéπ\-úø’çC?) Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç îª÷ü∆lç.
Rithwik: You get on my nerves, Hrithik. You around Åçõ‰ ÅÆæ-©®Ωnç ô÷d ÅE
Hrithik: When is the meeting, exactly? are the joint secretary and you are éπü∆. ÉC ´’†ç-ü¿-Jéà ûÁL-Æœ† Å®Ωnç.
irresponsible enough not to know There is a wall around the gar-
b) (It is) difficult to get around the power short-
(ÅÆæ©’ O’öÀçí˚ á°æ¤púø’?)
Rithwik: At 5 on friday. That is the day after even that. You get on my nerves. den =
age problem =
Ç ûÓô ô÷d íÓúø ÖçC.
(tomorrow). We've to see that nothing (†’´¤y Ææç-ߪ·éπh 鬮Ωu-ü¿-JzN, Ñ N≠æߪ’ç The fence around the field prevents cattle from
Nü¿’uû˝ éÌ®Ωûª Ææ´’Ææu-†’ °æJ-≠æ \-Jç-îªôç Åçûª
goes wrong. èπÿú≈ ûÁL-ߪ’-†çûª ¶«üµ¿u-û√-®Ω-£œ«-ûªçí¬ entering it =
ÖØ√o´¤. Ø√èπ◊ éÓ°æç ûÁ°œp-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤.) Ææ’©¶µºç é¬ü¿’.
Go around Åçõ‰ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç ô÷d AJT ¢Á∞¡xôç.
(¨¡Ÿvéπ-¢√®Ωç Å®·-Cç-öÀéÀ. Åçõ‰ á©’xçúÕ. à Ç §Ò©ç ô÷d Ö†o éπçîÁ °æ¨¡Ÿ-´¤-©†’ ™°æ-LéÀ
§Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ ï®Ω-í∫-èπ◊çú≈ îª÷ú≈L ´’†ç) Hrithik: I'm sorry. I'll be careful. Where's the
a) If the door is locked, you'll have to go around
®√èπ◊çú≈ E®Ó-Cµ-Ææ’hçC.
Hrithik: So? (Å®·ûË?) hall? Å®·ûË around †’ about èπ◊ •ü¿’-©’í¬ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ Å-ØË the side of the house =
Rithwik: We have to be there around one in (≤ƒK. Ééπ ´·çü¿’ ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ Öçö«. Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. ûª©’°æ¤ û√∞¡ç ¢ËÆœ Öçõ‰ °æéπ\†’ç* ¢Á∞«xLq
the afternoon. £æ…™„-éπ\úø?) a) He came here around 2 o'clock = ´Ææ’hçC.
Rithwik: This hall is above the department
b) If you go around the house, you are likely to
(´’†ç Ç®ÓV ü∆ü∆°æ¤ äçöÀ-í∫çô Åûªúø’ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ È®çúÕç-öÀ-éÌ-î√a-úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ.
store around the collectorate. b) Around three hundred people gathered in be suspected =
v§ƒçûªç™ Åéπ\úø Öçú≈L).
Hrithik: Why so early? (Ñ £æ…©’ éπ™„-éπd®˝ Ç°∂‘Æˇ ü¿í∫_-®Ω’†o úÕ§ƒ-®˝d- the place = ÉçöÀ ô÷d AJT ¢Á∞¡Ÿûª’çõ‰ E†’o ņ’-´÷-Eç-îª-
(Åçûª ´·çü¿’í¬ áçü¿’èπ◊?) ¢Á’çö¸ ≤Úd®˝ °j† ÖçC.) ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ´‚úÌç-ü¿-©-´’çC Åéπ\úø í∫’N’-í∫÷-ú≈®Ω’. ´îª’a.
ÉN ´÷´‚-©’í¬ conversation ™ NE-°œçîË

We have to be there around ..
around èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ´÷ô©’. ÉN practice îËÊÆh
O’ conversation simple í¬, Ææ£æ«ïçí¬ Öçô’çC.
Now look at the following sentences from the
conversation at the beginning of the lesson:
1. We've (we have) to be there around one in
the afternoon =
Rithwik: Around 200 people are expected to Hrithik: Isn't that the one just below the mini
Around Åçõ‰ Ç îª’ô’d-°æ-éπ\©/ Åô’-¢Áj°æ¤/ Ç ü¿J-
attend the meeting. We've to receive conference room? ü∆ü∆°æ¤ äçöÀ-í∫ç-ôèπ◊/ äçöÀ-í∫çô v§ƒçûªç™ ´’†ç
ü∆°æ¤© ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ÖçC.
them. To supervise the arrangements (ÅC *†o 鬆p¥-È®Ø˛q £æ…©’ éÀçü¿C éπü∆?) Åéπ\úø Öçú≈L.
a) He lives somewhere around the bus station= 2. Around 200 people are expected to attend
we've to be there early enough. Rithwik: Just that. It's quite spacious. But the
bus station the meeting =
problem is there isn't enough parking
(200 ´’çC O’öÀçí˚èπ◊ £æ…ï-®Ω-´¤-û√-®ΩE Åûª†’ ü¿í∫_®Ω Öçö«úø’/ ü¿J-ü∆-°æ¤™x
place for all the cars and two wheel-
ÅçîªØ√. à®√p-ôx†’ °æ®Ωu-¢Ë-éÀ~ç-îª-ö«-EéÀ ´’†ç Öçö«úø’. ü∆ü∆°æ¤ 200 ´’çC Ææ´÷-¢Ë-¨»-EéÀ ®√´îª’a.
ûªT-†ç-ûª -´·ç-ü¿’-í¬ØË Åéπ\úø Öçú≈L.) ers that may come. b) Her office is somewhere around the post 3. He is expected to be here around 4.30
office = itself =
Hrithik: When is the chief guest due to (ÅüË. ¶«í¬ °ü¿lC. é¬E Ææ´’-ÊÆu-N’-ôçõ‰
arrive? Ææ´÷-¢Ë-¨»-E-éÌîËa¢√∞¡x 鬮Ω’x, Cyîªvéπ Ç¢Á’ office post office ü¿í∫_-È®-éπ\úÓ ÖçC. Çߪ’† Ééπ\-úÕéÀ 4.30, Ç v§ƒçûªç™ ®√´îª’a.
(´·êu-Å-AC∑ ®√¢√-Lqç-üÁ-°æ¤púø’?) ¢√£æ«-Ø√©’ E©-°æ-ú≈-EéÀ ûªT† ´ÆæA ™‰ü¿’.) Kumud: Who are you looking for? 4. He lives around the Lawson's Bay =
Hrithik: How are we getting around the problem? Lawson's Bay
(due to = Åçü¿’-´©x) (á´-J-éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤?/ ¢Áü¿’-èπ◊-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?) Çߪ’† ü¿í∫_®Ω Öçö«úø’.
(Ñ Ææ´’Ææu†’ ᙫ ÅCµ-í∫-N’≤ƒhç?) Sudhir: For Sakuntala. 5. Shall we have a look around the place
His failure was due to his laziness = Rithwik: I think we can take the school
(¨¡èπ◊ç-ûª© éÓÆæç)
now?=
ÅûªúÕ •ü¿léπç ´©x Åûªúø’ N°∂æ-©-´’-ߪ÷uúø’. grounds nearby for the duration of the Kumud: She was around here half an hour
ago. Don't know where she is now.
Ç v°æüË-¨»Eo (Æ涵« v§ƒçí∫-ù«Eo) ã≤ƒJ îª÷ü∆l´÷?
Due to Åçõ‰ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç– àüÁjØ√ ï®Ω-í¬-Lq† conference.
( (Å®Ω-í∫çô éÀçü¿ Ééπ\úË/ Ñ ü¿J-ü∆°æ¤™ ü∆ü∆°æ¤, ü¿í∫_®Ω, ô’d-°æ-éπ\© ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ around
Æ洒ߪ’ç. ü¿í∫_-®Ω’†o Ææ÷\™¸ víıçú˛q†’ Ç é¬†p¥-È®Ø˛q ¢√úÕ-†-îÓ-ô™«x about ¢√úø-´îª’a.
The meeting is due to start in five minutes Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ BÆæ’-éÓ-´îª’a.) ÖçC. É°æ¤-úÁ-éπ\-úø’çüÓ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’.) Exercise:
= Hrithik: Where is the chief guest from? îª÷¨»®Ω’ éπü∆, around Åçõ‰ äéπ v°æüË-¨¡ç™/ v°æü˨¡ç Write as many sentences as you can,
Ééπ Å®·ü¿’ EN’-≥ƒ-©èπ◊ O’öÀçí˚ v§ƒ®Ω綵ºç
(Ñ ´·êu ÅAC∑ áéπ\-úÕ-¢√úø’?)
on the following pattern:
鬆’çC. ü¿í∫_®Ω ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ èπÿú≈ ¢√úø-´îª’a.
Rithwik: From Vizag. He lives there around
The train due at 14.30 = Ç È®j©’ ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç Get around: DEE conversation ™ î√™« ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ω- Subject + verb + 'wh' word + clause
the Lawson's Bay.
2.30 èπ◊ ®√¢√L. ùçí¬ ¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’. äéπ Ææ´’-Ææuèπ◊ °æJ-≥ƒ\®Ωç éπ†’- He knows why I am here
Lawson's Bay
(Çߪ’†C ¢Ájñ«í˚. Åéπ\úø
She is due at/ she is due to come at 10.30 ü¿J-ü∆-°æ¤™x Öçö«úø’.) éÓ\-´ôç é¬F/ äéπ Ææ´’-Ææu†’ ûª°œpçîªôç ÅE é¬F Ñ pattern ™ ´’®Ó example îª÷úøçúÕ:
= Ç¢Á’ °æC-†o-®Ωèπ◊ ®√¢√Lq ÖçC. Hrithik: Shall we go and have a look around Å®Ωnç. Sub + verb + 'wh' word + clause
Rithwik: He is expected to be here around the place now? I mean the confer- a) We can get around most of the problems in She explained how she found the way.
4.30 itself. He is usually punctual. ence hall. the country by population control = Sentence 1) Å®Ωnç: ØËE-éπ\-úÁç-ü¿’-èπ◊-Ø√oØÓ Åûª-úÕéÀ
(Çߪ’† 4.30 Íé ´≤ƒh-úøE ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’. (´’†ç ¢ÁRx ã≤ƒJ Ç Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ v§ƒçí∫-ù«Eo ïØ√¶µ« Eߪ’ç-vûª-ù-´©x ü˨¡ Ææ´’-Ææu-©†’ î√™« ûÁ©’Ææ’.
Çߪ’† ´÷´‚-©’í¬ éπÈ®é˙d õ„j¢˛’Íé îª÷ü∆l´÷?) -´’-ô’èπ◊ ÅCµ-í∫-N’ç-îª-´îª’a / (ü˨¡ Ææ´’-Ææu-©èπ◊) 2) ü∆J ᙫ éπ†’-èπ◊\çüÓ Ç¢Á’ N´-Jç-*çC.
´≤ƒhúø’.) Rithwik: Lets go. (¢Á∞¡ü∆ç °æü¿.) °æJ-≥ƒ\®Ωç éπ†’-éÓ\-´îª’a. – -áç-. Ææ’Í®-¨¡-Ø˛

v°æ-¨¡o: I. Present
perfect continuous tense ™ v°æ-¨¡o: 1. ' ÂÆjéÀ™¸ ûÌéπ\úøç Ø√ ´©x é¬ü¿’— She is a very beautiful girl =

questions îËÊÆ véπ´’ç™ Ñ v°æ¨¡o©†’ ᙫ (ÂÆjéÀxçí˚ ´îª’a, é¬E ûª°œpç--éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ) Ç¢Á’ î√™« Åçü¿-¢Á’i† Å´÷t®·.
¢√ú≈™ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. Too Åçõ‰ ÅA. àüÁjØ√ too Åçõ‰, ÅC ÅAí¬, Å´-
2. ' F´¤ ÂÆjéÀ™¸ ûÌÍé\ôôx®·ûË Øˆ’ ´≤ƒh†’——.
What have you done all nights? - Ñ ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx≠ˇ-™ ᙫ ÅØ√™ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’i-†-ü∆-E-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ÅE, Åçü¿’-´©x ¢Ë’©’
What have you been done all nights?
éπçõ‰ éÃúË ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’ç-ü¿E.
-ï-¢√-•’: 1. I won't pedal/ I can't pedal.
a) It is very bad = ÅC î√™« îÁúø’ – ¶µºJç-îª-´îª’a
– XE-¢√Æˇ îÁ´©, í∫’çô÷®Ω’
What have been you done in nights? What have you been done all nights? - Éçü¿’- It is too bad = ÅC ÅA îÁúø’ – ¶µºJç-‰ç.
°j ¢√öÀ™ àC ÆæÈ®jçC? ™E verb, have you been done, present per- 2. If you pedal/ If you are willing to pedal,
fect tense, voice passive. b) The doctor's fee is high/ very high =
II. I watched Rama load the gun to load. é¬E, Åçü¿’-´©x Å®Ωnç I'll come/ go with you/ accompany you.
sentence Doctor fee
BÆæ’-èπ◊ØË áèπ◊\´/ î√™« áèπ◊\´.
I saw her open the letter to open. †’¢Ëyç îËߪ’-•-ú≈f´¤? ÅE Å®Ωnç ™‰E Å´¤- cycle ûÌéπ\ôç = pedal/ cycle
verb, be form + past par-
v°æ-¨¡o: So, very, too °æü∆-©†’ á°æ¤púø’, ᙫ ¢√ú≈™
ûÓçC. í∫ ’ ®Ω ’ h ç - î ª ’ - é ÓçúÕ – Å®·Ø√ ´’†ç Çߪ’† ü¿í∫_®Ω ¢Ájü¿uç îË®·ç--
OöÀ Å®√n-™‰-N’öÀ? ≤ÚpéπØ˛ ÉçTx≠ˇ-™ OöÀ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-
ticiple
Å®·ûË voice passive. have been
Ééπ\úø éÓ-´îª’a.
í¬Eo N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
- 'be' form; done (past participle) - verb,
鬕öÀd, ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. You are very late. You are so The doctor's fee is too high =
late . You are too late . -´‚-úø÷ äéπ-õ‰Ø√?
-ï-¢√-•’: I. What have you done all nights?
– ÅçûªöÀ °çîª-©ßª’u, ®√ïç-Ê°ô. passive -
ÆæÈ®j† Å®Ωnç®√ü¿’. Çߪ’† fee ´’K áèπ◊\´ (´’†ç °ô’d-éÓ-™‰-†çûª).
-ï-¢√-•’: So Åçõ‰ áçûÓ ÅE. you are so good =
II. I watched Rama load the gun - ÉC correct
– ¨»N’L, éÌûª÷h®Ω’, Xé¬- π◊∞¡ç. Çߪ’† ü¿í∫_®Ω ´’†ç ¢Ájü¿uç îË®·ç--éÓ-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a.
Ñ question ™ØË verb have you done, present sentence - Rama gun load îËߪ’ôç îª÷¨»†’ very, so, too ©’ Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ lesson ™
perfect tense ™ ÖçC. Å®·ûË all nights ÅE. ´’Sx to load Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç-™‰ü¿’. Å°æ¤p-úøC †’´¤y/ O’®Ω’ áçûÓ ´’ç*-¢√-úÕN/ ü∆EN/ ¢√∞¡Ÿx ÅE î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x N´-Jçî√ç. îª÷úøçúÕ.
ņo-°æ¤púø’ Å®Ωnç ÆæJ-í¬-®√ü¿’. sentence Å´ü¿’. Å®Ωnç. American English ™ î√™« ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ you are so late - †’¢ÁyçûÓ Ç©Ææuç. é¬Ææh
What have you done all the night? (®√vûªçû√ I saw her open the letter to open - I saw her
¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’. °∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰ü¿’.
àç î˨»´¤?) ÅØÁjØ√, what have you done all the open the letter (Ç¢Á’ letter open îËߪ’ôç eg: Thank you so much. (O’ÈéçûÓ thanks)
you are too late - †’´¤y ´’K Ç©-Ææuçí¬ ´î√a´¤
nights? (ÅEo ®√vûª’©÷ É°æpöÀ´®Ωèπ◊ àç î˨»´¤?) îª÷¨»†’ ÅE) Åçõ‰ î√©’-í∫ü∆? ´’Sx to open Very Åçõ‰ ¶«í¬ ÅE éπü∆. – ï®Ω-í¬-Lq† °æE Éçéπ ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’. Fèπ◊ †≠ædç.
ÅØÁjØ√ Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. repeat îËߪ’ôç áçü¿’èπ◊? Å®Ωnç-®√ü¿’. He is a good man = Åûªúø’ ´’ç*-¢√úø’

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