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í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 1 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Nisanth: Yea. That's true. So budget or no b) I know Vijayawada like the
budget, prices can go up if the gov- back of my hand.
ernment so wants it.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
(Ø√èπ◊ Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø î√™« ¶«í¬/
280 (Å´¤†’. Eï¢Ë’. v°æ¶µº’ûªyç üµ¿®Ω©’ °çî√-©- °æ‹Jhí¬ ûÁ©’Ææ’.)
†’-èπ◊çõ‰, •úÁöb ¸ûÓ Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰ü¿’) c) He knows Physics like the
Drupad: But some how I am sure that the gov- back of his hand.
Nisanth: How is the cultivation going on?
ernment may not raise taxes. A number (Åûª-úÕéÀ °∂œ>é˙q èπ~◊ùoçí¬
-v°æ-¨¡o:
(´u´-≤ƒßª’ç ᙫ ÖçC?)
Drupad: Just getting along. Not so bad anyway. of states are going to the polls soon. ûÁ©’Ææ’.)
3) Back door increase in taxes =
Below - beneath - under.
(àüÓ -Å™« ïJ-T-§Ú-ûÓçC. °∂æ®√y-™‰ü¿’.) (é¬E Ñ≤ƒJ v°æ¶µº’ûªyç °æ†’o©’ °çîª-ü¿E
Nisanth: How far has the ploughing gone? ؈’ í∫öÀdí¬ †´·t-ûª’-Ø√o†’. î√™« ®√≥ƒZ™x üÌúÕf-ü∆-J†/ °æ®Ó-éπ~çí¬ °æ†’o© °ç°æ¤.
a) The government has started back door on - over - above ¶µ‰ü∆-©†’ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
(ü¿’†oôç áçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ Å®·çC?) áEoéπ©’ ï®Ω-í∫-¶-ûª’-Ø√o®·.)
increase in taxes.
plough = °æx-¢˛ = ü¿’†oôç/ Ø√í∫L Going to polls = áEo-éπ©’ ï®Ω-í∫ôç/ áEo-éπ™ x – G. í∫ù‰≠ˇ, N¨»-ê-°æôoç.
Drupad: A few more acres remain. We must §ƒ™Ô_-†ôç (v°æ¶µº’ûªyç üÌúÕf-ü∆-J† °æ†’o-°ç-îªôç v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-
*çC.(•úÁöb ¸ ü∆y®√ é¬èπ◊çú≈.) ) ï¢√•’:
put our back into it and finish it in a Nisanth: Which party do you think will win?
back door = üÌúÕf-ü∆-J†/ °æ®Ó-éπ~çí¬/ üÌçí∫-ûª- Below = beneath = underneath
day or two. (à §ƒKd Èí©’-Ææ’hç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤) †çí¬/ ¢Á÷ÆæçûÓ. There are, however some differences in
(´’J-éÌEo áéπ-®√©’ ÖØ√o®·. ᙫíÓ éπ≠dæ Drupad: Any doubt that the ruling party will
a) His father works at the office. So he got the the use of these words.
°æ-úÁjØ√ äéπöÀ È®çúø’ ®ÓV™x °æ‹Jh îËߪ÷L.) win? I am sure it's going to. job through the back door. Below = at a lower level place than some-
body or some thing; lower in rank, status or

You are backing the wrong horse
position.
a) We can see the fish swimming below
the surface of water.
b) A constable is below a sub inspector
c) The window is below the ceiling
Beneath means immediately under (cov-
Nisanth: My tractor has broken down and the
ered up)
(ÅCµ-é¬-®Ωç™ Ö†o §ƒKd Èí©’-Ææ’hç-ü¿ØË ÅûªúÕ ûªçvúÕ ÅüË Ç°∂‘Æˇ™ °æE-îË-≤ƒhúø’. Åçü¿’-´©x
puddle wheels are too rusty. They N≠æߪ’ç™ FÍé-´’Ø√o ÆæçüË-£æ«´÷? ÅC
have to be replaced. Èí©’-Ææ’hç-ü¿E ؈’ í∫öÀdí¬ †´·t-ûª’-Ø√o†’.)
Åûª-†-éπ\úø ÖüÓuí∫ç §Òçü∆úø’ (Åçõ‰ v°æA¶µº ´©x a) His body lay beneath a heap of stones
é¬èπ◊çú≈ ¢√∞¡x ûªçvúÕ °æ©’-èπ◊-•-úÕ-´©x) b) Beneath the book lay a Rs. 1000/- note.
(Ø√ vö«éπd®˝ îÁúÕ-§Ú-®·çC. ü∆E ü¿´·t Nisanth: You are backing the wrong horse, b) He is trying back door methods to get the
îªv鬩’ ¶«í¬ ûª’°æ¤p-°æöÀd §Úߪ÷®·. ¢√öÀE friend. The main opposition will be Difference between below and beneath:
contract.
´÷®√aL.) back in power in most of the states. below: at lower level any-
puddle = ®Óúø’x, Éûª®ΩîÓôx F∞¡Ÿx, ´·êuçí¬ ´®Ω{ç
(Ç é¬çvö«é˙d†’ ¢Á÷Ææçí¬/ üÌúÕf-ü∆-J-ØÁjØ√ §Òçü¿-ö«-
(†’´¤y ãúÕ-§ÚßË’ §ƒKdE Ææ§Ú®˝d îËÆæ’h- where.
EéÀ v°æߪ’-Ao-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’.)
F∞¡Ÿx ELîË í∫’çô©’. Ø√o´¤. v°æüµ∆† v°æA-°æéπ~ç î√™«®√≥ƒZ™x c) I don't advise back door methods. Let's go beneath: Immediately/
puddle wheels = vö«éπd®˝ ¢Á†éπ §Ò©ç ü¿’†o-ö«-EéÀ just under.
according to rules.
AJT ÅCµ-é¬-®Ωç-™éÀ ´Ææ’hçC.)
ûªT-LçîË ü¿´·t îªv鬩’ Drupad: OK, Let's see. (îª÷ü∆lç) a) Hanging on the wall
Drupad: Is it a major or minor trouble? I mean
(üÌçí∫ °æü¿l¥-ûª’©’/ üÌúÕf-ü∆J °æü¿l¥-ûª’©’ Ø√ Ææ©-£æ…-
   é¬ü¿’ (¢√öÀéÀ ؈’ N®Ω’ü¿l¥ç). E•ç-üµ¿-†© v°æ鬮Ωç was a picture below a
your tractor.
Real life situations spoken English
™ ™ back ûÓ ¢Á∞«lç.) map = The picture
(
F vö«éπd®˝èπ◊ ´*a† Ææ´’Ææu, °ü¿lü∆, expressions îª÷ü∆lç. É™«çöÀ expres-
´îËa, ´’J-éÌEo 4) Backing the wrong horse = could be any where
*†oü∆?) sions ¢√úøôç ´©x, áèπ◊\´ °ü¿l-´÷-ô©’ ¢√úË-îÓô, Ñ ãúÕ-§Ú-ûª’-†o-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊/ Èí©’°æ¤ Å´-é¬-¨¡ç-™‰E N≠æ-ߪ÷- below the map.
major = °ü¿l/ -á-èπ◊\-¢Áj†, (back ™«çöÀ) ´÷ô©’ ¢√úÕûË, ´’† con- b) The map lay beneath a newspaper =
≤ƒüµ∆-®Ω-ù-¢Á’i† EéÀ ´’ü¿l-A-´yúøç.
minor = Ææy©p-¢Á’i-†/- *-†o-üÁj† versation
a) Those who supported the NDA in the last
Ææ®Ω-∞¡çí¬, Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬ Öçô’çC. The newspaper was just above/ cover-
Nisanth: I'm afraid it's major. My mechanic is Look at the following expressions from the general elections were backing the wrong ing the map.
just useless. Can you suggest a good dialogue above. horse. underneath = almost the same as beneath
one? 1) We must put our back into it and finish it in a
(ÅC major trouble ÅØË Ø√ ¶µºßª’ç/ ņ’-
(í∫ûª áEo-éπ™x áFfßË’èπ◊ ´’ü¿l-A-*a† ¢√∞¡Ÿx, ãúÕ-§ÚßË’ = Immediately under/ below something
day or two. §ƒKdéÀ ´’ü¿l-A-î√a®Ω’. when it car or hides it.
´÷†ç. Ø√ ¢Á’é¬Eé˙ ™«¶µºç ™‰ü¿’. ´’ç* 2) He knows tractors of any make like the back b) America backed the wrong horse in Korea.
¢Á’é¬-E-é˙†’ -á-´JØÁjØ√ îÁ°æp-í∫-©¢√?) of his hand. a) The ball rolled underneath the stand-
ing car = The car covered the ball
Drupad: Call my mechanic. He knows tractors
(Å¢Á’-Jé¬ éÌJ-ߪ÷™ Èí©’°æ¤ Å´-é¬-¨¡ç-™‰E ´®√_Eo
3) Of late the government has started back
under it.
of any make like the back of his hand.
Ææ´’-Jnç-*çC.)
door increase in taxes.
c) Expecting Indian movies to be without
(Ø√ ¢Á’é¬-Eé˙†’ °œ©’-´¤. ÅûªúÕéÀ à ®Ω-éπ-¢Á’i† 4) You are backing the wrong horse. b) He was wearing a shirt underneath the
obscenity is backing the wrong horse.
vö«éπd-È®jØ√ î√™« ¶«í¬ ûÁ©’Ææ’.) The expressions in the sentences above are: sweater.
of any make = à éπç°F ûªßª÷K Å®·Ø√/ à
(ÅQx-©-ûª-™‰-E ¶µ«®Ω-Bߪ’ ÆœE-´÷-©’ -Öç-ö«-ߪ’-†’éÓ-´-úøç
1) put our back into it. Ææ-Jé¬-ü¿’/ ï®Ω-í∫E °æE. (Å™«çöÀ ÆœE-´÷©’ ®√´¤.)) under = below something.
model Å®·Ø√) a) They sat under a tree. (Physical posi-
2) knows tractors like the back of his hand. (Backing the wrong horse ÅØËC í∫’v®Ω-°æpç-ü∆©
Nisanth: I've used my tractor too long. I think tion)
3) back door increase in taxes. †’ç* ´*açC. ãúÕ-§ÚßË’ í∫’v®Ωç-O’ü¿ °æùç °ôdúøç
I'd better sell it off and buy a new one.
4) backing the wrong horse. ÅE Å®Ωnç.) b) The country is under UPA rule now and
1) put our back into it. the state, under congress rule = under
(Ø√ vö«éπd®˝†’ ´’K- á-èπ◊\´é¬©ç ¢√ú≈†’.
v°æ¨¡o:
ü∆Eo Ţ˒tÆœ éÌûªhC é̆’éÓ\´úøç ´’ç*- (äéπ °æE-îË-ߪ’-ö«-EéÀ (´’†ç) áçûª-®·Ø√ v¨¡´’-°æ-úøôç.) the control of.
üË¢Á÷?)
a) We must put our back into it and finish it in a under = below, when we say, 'It may cost
Drupad: Do it before the budget is out this
day or two. i. ¢√®Ωh©’ Åçõ‰ †÷uÆˇ éπü∆. News èπ◊ singular under Rs. 10000/- or below Rs. 10,000/-
month end. The fear is motor vehicles
and motor spares may be taxed high- (¢Ë’ç áçûÁjØ√ v¨¡´’-°æúÕ äéπöÀ È®çúø’ ®ÓV™x ü∆Eo àN’öÀ? ii) On = just above something.
er than now. °æ‹Jh îËߪ÷L.) ii. ´®Ωt ÂÆpLxç-í˚†’ varma ÅE é¬èπ◊çú≈ Verma a) The book is on the table. (The table sup-
(Ñ ØÁ™«-ê-®Ω’™ •úÁöb ¸ ´îËa ´·çüË b) If the government really puts its back into it, ÅE ®√≤ƒh-È®ç-ü¿’èπ◊? ports the book.)
total literacy is not impossible.
éÌØÁß˝’. ¢Á÷ö«®Ω’ ¢√£æ«-Ø√©÷, NúÕ-¶µ«-í¬© – ÅL-¨ÎöÀd ≤ƒyN’-ü∆Æˇ, b) over = anywhere above, some height
above.
O’ü¿ É°æp-öÀ-éπØ√o áèπ◊\´ °æ†’o NCµç-îª-´- (v°æ¶µº’ûªyç Eïçí¬ v¨¡N’ÊÆh/ éπ≠d-°æ æ-úÕûË °æ‹Jh A§ƒp-ߪ’-°æLx, éπKç-†-í∫®˝- >-™«x.
îªaØË ¶µºßª’ç ÖçC.) Åéπ~-®√-Ææuûª Å≤ƒüµ¿uç é¬ü¿’.)
c) If only you put your back into it, you can real-
ï¢√•’: a) He jumped over the wall.
Spares/ spare parts = NúÕ-¶µ«-í¬©’
i. News, *´®Ω 's' Öçúøôç ´©x 'over' also means, above
Nisanth: Of late the government has started ly achieve it.
plural in amount, height, age,
back door increase in taxes, by tax- (†’¢Ëyí∫†éπ Eïçí¬ v¨¡´’-°æ-úÕûË, ≤ƒCµç-îª-í∫-©´¤.) ņ’-èπ◊çö«ç– é¬E
English ™ news á°æ¤púø÷ etc.
ing the raw material. d) Put your back into and nothing is impossible.
singular, ü∆EéÀ plural ™‰ü¿’. b) He is over 6' tall
(´·úÕ Ææ®Ω’-èπ◊© O’ü¿ °æ†’o ¢Ëߪ’ôç ü∆y®√ (áçûÁjØ√ v¨¡´’-°æ-úÕûË àD Å≤ƒ-üµ¿uç-é¬ü¿’.)
Ñ ´’üµ¿u v°æ¶µº’ûªyç üÌúÕf ü∆J† °æ†’o©’ 2) Know (some thing/ somebody) like the
Å®·Ø√ ü∆E´·çü¿’ a/ an c) The bridge is five feet
°çîªôç ¢Á·ü¿-©’-°-öÀdçC.) back of one's hand = äéπ N≠æߪ’ç ¶«í¬/ ®√ü¿’. above the water level.
raw material = ´·úø Ææ®Ωèπ◊. °æ‹Jhí¬ ûÁL-Ææ’ç-úøôç (éπ®Ω-ûª-™«-´’-©éπç). a) I have news for you / important news for d) He is over 60 years in age.
Drupad: And some times by a mid year rise in a) He knows tractors of any make like the back you.
tax. of his hand. b) This is good news / This news is good.
(´’J-éÌ-Eo-≤ƒ®Ω’x Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç ´’üµ¿u °æ†’o (ᙫçöÀ vö«éπd®Ωx®·Ø√ Åûª-úÕéÀ ¶«í¬/ °æ‹Jhí¬/ ii. ´®Ωt ÅØËC Indian name éπü∆. 鬕öÀd Öî√a-®Ω-
-°ç-îªôç ü∆y®√) èπ~◊ùoçí¬ ûÁ©’Ææ’.) ù†’ •öÀd à spelling Å®·Ø√ ¢√úø-´îª’a. - M. SURESAN
-¨¡-E-¢√®Ωç 3 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Bhavan: We are fortunate. Democracy is still
corruption = ÅN-FA,
safe. OK. I've to go now. I've back
charges = Ç®Ó-°æ-ù©’
breaking work. I have to attend to it.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 281 (´’†ç Eïçí¬ Åü¿%-≠d-´æ ç-ûª’-©¢Ë’. v°æñ«- b) Confronted by the pho-
tographs, the murderer
≤ƒy´’uç °æC©ç. ÆæÍ®. ØË ¢Á∞«xL. Ø√èπ◊
had his back to the wall
Bharat: (Have you) heard of the hot news? †úÕf-N-J-Ííçûª °æE ÖçC. ÅC îª÷ú≈L.)
and confessed to the
Bharat: OK, then. Bye.
v°æ¨¡o:
(û√ñ«, ÇÆæ-éÀh-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† ¢√®Ωh NØ√o¢√?) murder = photographs ûÓ
Bhavan: (Do) you mean the government's ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ E©-D-Æ œ-†-°æ¤úø’, £æ«çûª-èπ◊úø’ ÉçÍéç v°æû√u-
attempt to gag the media? Thank Conversation ™ back ûÓ ´îËa expressions ´’J- ´÷oߪ’ç ™‰éπ £æ«ûªu îËÆœ-†ô’d îÁÊ°p-¨»úø’. Big - large, high - huge. -O-öÀ -´’-üµ¿u -ûË-ú≈-©
God, before matters became too éÌEo îª÷ü∆lç. É´Fo èπÿú≈ ÆæJ-ßÁi’† Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x confess= îËÆ œ†ûª°æ¤p ä°æ¤p-éÓ-´ôç. í∫’-J-ç-* -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.
hot, the government cancelled the
confront = áü¿’-®Ó\-´ôç/ E©-D-ߪ’ôç.
¢√úÕûË, Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd Å´-ûªL ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ î√™« Ææ’©- – °œ. ¢Áç-éπ-ô-®√´¤,
order. ¶µº¢Á’i, communication Ææ’©-¶µº-´’-´¤-ûª’çC. Æ‘ûª-´’t-üµ∆®Ω, N¨»-ê-°æôoç.
ï¢√•’:
4) Turn one's back on = ¢Á†’-A-®Ω-í∫ôç/ A®Ω-Ææ \-
(†’´y-†úøç, O’úÕߪ÷ ØÓ®Ω’-ØÌ-Íé\-ߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ Look at the following expressions from
Jç-îªôç/ ´uA-Í®-éÀç-îªôç/ N´·-êûª îª÷°æôç.
v°æ¶µº’ûªyç îËÆ œ† v°æߪ’-ûªo¢Ë’ éπü∆? the conversation above. i) big, large, hugeûÓ high èπ◊ Åçûª Ææç•çüµ¿ç
a) Her friends turned their back on her
N≠æߪ’ç ´’K Bv´-´’-ßË’u-´·çüË v°æ¶µº’ûªyç 1) He is only a back bencher in the party, as
because of her conceit = Ç¢Á’ í∫®Ωyç ´©x ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆, î√™« ûªèπ◊\´ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ûª°æp.
ûª† Öûªh®Ω’y ®Ωü¿’l-îË-ÆœçC) he was at school and college. Big, large, huge éà high éà ûËú≈ î√™«-´’-ô’èπ◊
ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-©ç-ü¿®Ω÷ Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ´uA-Í®-éπ-´’-ߪ÷u®Ω’.
gag= Å®Ω-´-ö«-EéÀ O™‰x-èπ◊çú≈ ØÓöx í∫’úøf-©’-èπ◊-éπ\ôç 2) The government has backed off. clear.
big - °æJ-´÷-ùç™ (size) °ü¿l-üÁj†. Large,

The government has backed off
huge éÀ èπÿú≈ ÉüË Å®Ωnç ÖçC. Å®·ûË
Spoken English ™ °ü¿l ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ áèπ◊\-
´í¬ big ¢√úø-û√®Ω’ – large, huge ¢√úø®Ω’.
È®çúÓC, ´’†’-≠æfl-©†’ í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úË-ô°æ¤púø’
á°æ¤púø÷ large, huge ¢√úøç. Big ÅØË Åçö«ç
– °ü¿l size/ ´ßª’Ææ’†o ¢√∞¡x†’. ´÷´‚-©’-í¬
Bharat: That's very bad. That the govern- 3) It had found it had its back to the wall. b) The people turned their back on the °-ü¿lí¬ Ö†o ņ-ö«-EéÀ big ¢√úøôç correct,
ment could even think of it is really 4) The people would have turned their back TDP Government because of its indiffer- large ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. Large ¢√úøéπç formal written
shocking. on the ruling party. ence to farmers = È®jûª’-©-°æôx E®Ωxéπ~uç ´©x English ™ØË áèπ◊\´. Huge Åçõ‰ î√™«,
(ÅC ü∆®Ω’ùç. ÅÆæ©’ v°æ¶µº’ûªyç Ç 5) Its plan to muzzle the press, it realized, TDP
v°æï©’ éÀ ´uA-Í®-éπ-´’-ߪ÷u®Ω’. î√™« °ü¿l ÅE. Big, large ņo-°æ¤púø’ °ü¿l
Nüµ¿çí¬ Ç™-*ç-îª-úø¢Ë’ î√™« Cví¬s¥çA would back fire. 5) back fire = (°æü∑¿éπç ™«çöÀN) ûª©-éÀç-ü¿’-©-´ôç/
ņ’-èπ◊çõ‰, huge Åçõ‰ ¶«í¬ áèπ◊\´ °ü¿l-üÁj†
The expressions with 'back' are:
éπL-Tç-îË-Cí¬ ÖçC) ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. @´¤©’
A°œp-éÌ-ôdúøç. °æü∑¿éπç ¢ËÆœ† ¢√∞¡xÍé £æ…E éπ©-í∫úøç
Bhavan: Our former classmate Aravind is a 1) back bencher
(´’†’-≠æfl©’/ ïçûª’-´¤©’)
a) Pak support of terrorism has back fired °ü¿l-¢Áj-†´Fo big. Å-¢Ë for-
member of the ruling party. Shall we 2) back off with the terrorists attacking Pak targets mal English ™ ïçûª’-´¤-™„jûË
ask his opinion of it? Shall I call
3) found it had its back to the wall = large. (large man/ large
him?
Öví∫-¢√-ü¿’©’ §ƒéÀ-≤ƒh-Ø˛™ ©é~¬u-©†’ üµ¿yçÆæç
4) Turn their back on. îËߪ’ôçûÓ, Öví∫-¢√-ü¿’-©èπ◊ §ƒé˙ ´’ü¿lûª’ A°œp-éÌ- woman ņç). OöÀéÀ N’ç*
(´’† classmate Å®Ω-Nçü˛ ÅCµ-鬮Ω 5) back fire Éçé¬ Â°ü¿l-®·ûË huge.
party Æ涵º’uúË éπü∆? ¢√úÕ ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç
öÀdçC.
1) Back bencher = (school/ college large
Å®·ûË Å°æ¤p-úø-°æ¤púø’
Åúø’-í∫’-ü∆´÷? phone îËߪ’Ø√?) ™«çöÀ
family, large numbers
v°æ¨¡o:
Bharat: Save yourself the trouble. What can
Nü∆u ÆæçÆæn™x) îªü¿’-´¤™ Åçûª ÇÆæ-éÀh-™‰-E-¢√úø’.
(¢Á†’éπ benches ™ èπÿ-ØË-¢√®Ω’). ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ÷™x Åçö«ç. Big man, big boy,
he say? He is only a back bencher big smile, big/ large ani-
in the party, just as he was at school
Åçûª v§ƒ´·-êuç-™‰E ≤ƒü∆-Æ‘ü∆ Æ涵º’u©’. Please let me know the difference between
a) Though a back bencher at school he mal Åçö«ç.
and college. Who cares what he reminisce, recollect and recount.
excelled in studies at college = school Huge crowd, huge amount of money,
thinks? - B Apparao, Vizag huge debts, huge success, etc.
ï¢√•’:
™ îªü¿’´¤ °æôx Åçûª ÇÆæéÀh ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ,
college ™ ´÷vûªç îªü¿’-´¤™  ¶«í¬ ®√ùÀç- Large eyes
(Åçûª v¨¡´’-°æ-úø-éπ\-Í®xü¿’ †’´¤y. ¢√úËç
v°æ¨¡o:
¢√úøû√ç.
îÁ°æp-í∫-©úø’? ¢√úø’ party ™ v§ƒüµ∆-†uç- î√úø’.
™‰-E-¢√úø’. School, college ™ èπÿú≈ i) Reminisce = To think, talk or write about the
excel = (àüÁjØ√ ®Ωçí∫ç™/ 鬮√u-éπ-™«-§ƒ™x)
°ü¿l ®Ω’-Èéj† Nü∆uJn é¬ü¿’-éπü∆?) happy or pleasant things of the past. I used to I, WE, SHE, THEY, WE, ANY
®√ùÀç-îªôç. NAME AND ANY RELATIONSHIP in all
Bhavan: The government backed off. That's a) As we entered our college years after we
she excels at music and art = ÆæçU-ûªç™
a big relief. Otherwise the govern- has left it we reminisced about our student tenses instead of my friend. But how could
I get in simple present tense (present
éπ∞¡™x Ç¢Á’ ®√ùÀ-≤ÚhçC.
ment would have been guilty of a days there.
excel ûª®√yûª in í¬F, at í¬F ´Ææ’hçC. indefinite). Please give me one example in
black law. b) He reminisced about a pleasant week that
Excel èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*çüË excellent. simple present tense.
(v°æ¶µº’ûªyç ¢Á†èπ◊\ ûªT_çC. ÅC °ü¿l b) He is a back bencher in the party. he had at the small village.
- Keerthana Kusuma e-mail.
ii) Recollect : Remember something, especially
-ï-¢√-•’:
Ü®Ωô. ™‰éπ-§ÚûË £æ…E-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† îªö«dEo Nobody consults him on any matter =
îËÆœ† üÓ≠œí¬ v°æ¶µº’ûªyç E©-•-úËüË.) Åûª†’ §ƒKd™ Åçûª v°æ´·-ê’-úø’-é¬úø’. á´®Ω÷ by trying to remember it/ by making an effort
black law = v°æï-©èπ◊ î√™« £æ…E-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† îªôdç/ It's only in the present indefinite (simple
ÅûªEo à N≠æ-ߪ’ç-™†÷ Ææçv°æ-Cç-Ω’. to remember it.
ü¿’®√t-®Ω_°æ¤ îªôdç 2) back off = ´uA-Í®-éπ-ûªèπ◊, áü¿’-öÀ-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊ ¶µºßª’-°æúÕ present) tense that the form
a) Try as he might he was
Bharat: The government had no choice. It of the verb used for the sub-
had found that it had its back to the
¢Á†èπ◊\ ûªí∫_ôç/ áü¿’-®Ω’-°æúÕ §Ú®√-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¶µºßª’- unable to recollect what
jects I, We, You and they is
happened on the day of
°æ-úøôç.
wall. different from the form of the
a) The government has backed off from the
the accident. verb for he, (my friend,
(v°æ¶µº’-û√y-EéÀ ÉçÍéç ´÷®Ω_ç ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·çC. confrontation: ´·ë«-´·" §Ú®√ôç †’ç*/
v°æû√u-´÷oߪ’ç àç éπE-°œç-îª-™‰ü¿’.) b) I recollect everything of Gopal, My brother) She, (my
´uA-Í®-éπ-ûª†’ áü¿’-®Ó\-™‰éπ, v°æ¶µº’ûªyç ¢Á†-èπ◊\-
Bhavan: Its plan to muzzle the media, it real- what he said on the day sister, my classmate, my
ûª-T_çC.
ized, would back fire. It thought bet- of the incident. mother) and it (the book, the pen) etc.
Confrontation = é¬Ø˛-v°∂æç-õ„-ß˝’-≠æØ˛–
ter of it and cancelled the order. Recollect is rather old fashioned and formal I

}
He (my friend)

}
'鬗, 'ö¸ß˝’— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
and not much in use in modern English. It is We
She (my sister) Writes
(O’úÕߪ÷ ØÓ®Ω’-ØÌÍé\ÊÆ ûª† °æü∑¿éπç ´©x Å®Ωnç = Ææ´’-Ææu-©†’/ ¨¡vûª’-´¤-©†’ áü¿’-®Ó\-´ôç,
ûª†Íé üÁ•sE v°æ¶µº’-û√y-EéÀ ûÁL-≤Ò-*açC. not used either in am + ing/ is + ing/ are + ing You and Write
´·ë«-´·" §Ú®√-úøôç. It (the pen)
form. They
é¬Ææh Ç™-*ç* Öûªh-®Ω’y†’ ®Ωü¿’l-îË-Ææ’-èπ◊çC) b) I never expected him to back off from
muzzle = ØÓ®Ω’-ØÌ-Íé\-ߪ’ôç (´÷ö«x-úø-èπ◊çú≈) the fight = §Ú®Ω’ †’ç* ¢Á†èπ◊\ ûªí∫’_-û√-úøE iii) Recount = narrate/ describe an incident/ You add '-s' or '-es' to the verb form for he,
muzzle èπ◊ Éûª®Ω Å®√n©’. 1) èπ◊éπ\©’, í∫’v®√-©’- she and its.
؈-†’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. an experience.
3) Have (some one's) back to the wall = With not and in questions in the present
a) She recounted to the police what she had
™«çöÀ ïçûª’-´¤© ØÓ®Ω÷, ´·èπ◊\ ®Ωçvüµ∆©÷ éπL°œ;
2) èπ◊éπ\©’ ™«çöÀN éπ®Ω-´-èπ◊çú≈, ¢√öÀ-´‚-AéÀ simple tense, we use do for I, we, you &
î√™« éÀx≠d-¢æ Á’i† °æJ-Æœn-A™ ´’†èπ◊ †îªaE E®Ωgߪ’ç seen at the accident spot (= She told the
GTçîË cover. they, and does for he, she, it, when 'does'
police)
ûª°æp-E-Ææ-Jí¬ BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√-Lq† °æJ-ÆœnA/ v°æû√u-´÷oߪ’ç
Bharat: If it had gone ahead with the order, ™‰éπ-§Ú-´ôç. is used we don't add 's'/ '-es' to the verb.
b) he recounted in detail his experience of eg: 1) She sings well
the people would have turned their a) When the corruption charges were
back on the ruling party. the space travel. She does not sing well.
proved against him, he had his back to
(v°æ¶µº’-ûªy¢Ë’ í∫†’éπ Ç Öûªh-®Ω’y†’ Å´’-©’- the wall and resigned his job = Åûª-E°j 2) He teaches well
°æ-®Ω-îª-ôç™ ´·çü¿’Èé∞¡Ÿ}çõ‰ v°æï©’ ÅN-FA Ç®Ó-°æ-ù©’ ®Ω’V¢Áj-†-°æ¤úø’, àç He does not teach well
ÅCµ-鬮Ω §ƒKdéÀ N´·-ê’-©ßË’u ¢√∞Ïx) v°æû√u-´÷oߪ’ç ™‰éπ ®√@-Ø√´÷ Éî√aúø’.
- M. SURESAN
-≤Ú-´’¢√®Ωç 5 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 1

°œ©’°æ¤ Éî√a®Ω’ éπü∆?) called ûª®√yûª 'as' ¢√úøç.
Boycott = E®Ω-Ææí¬ ã ´uéÀhE í¬F/ ã °æEE é¬F b) Now that she is married to

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
•£œ«-≠æ \-Jç-îªôç) Mr.Sinha, she will be called
282 Prahlad: That's true, but they called it off Mrs.Sinha from now on.
when he told them that he didn't (ÆœØ√|ûÓ Â°∞¡x-®·çC éπü∆ Ç¢Á’èπ◊
Prahlad: You were talking about some book mean to insult them. É°æpöÀ †’ç* Ç¢Á’ Mrs. Sinha
yesterday. What is it called? ÅE °œ©-´-•-úø’-ûª’çC. Mrs. response.
(Eï¢Ë’ é¬F, Nü∆u-®Ω’n-©†’ Å´´÷-EçîË
(EØËoüÓ °æ¤Ææhéπç í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-ú≈´¤. ü∆E ÖüËl¨¡ç ûª†èπ◊ ™‰ü¿E Çߪ’† îÁ°æp-ôçûÓ, Sinha ÅE °œ©’-≤ƒh®Ω’.) (´÷¢Ó-®·-Ææ’d© •çü˛ °œ©’-°æ¤-†èπ◊ Ææpçü¿-†-™‰ü¿’.)
Ê°Í®çöÀ?) ¢√∞¡Ÿx-ü∆Eo Ö°æ-Ææç-£æ«-Jç--èπ◊-Ø√o-®Ω’. 3) Ééπ call èπ◊ ´÷´‚-©’í¬ Ö†o ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç, §∂ÚØ˛ 6) ... because he called students names
Bhagat: (Do) you mean the fat book with yel- ®Ωü¿’lîËÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’.) îËߪ’ôç. - Call (someone) names Åçõ‰ äéπ-JE ü¿÷≠œç-
low covers? It's Mathematics Made Bhagat: Teaching really calls for a lot of a) I called your home but there was no îªôç, ü¿’®√s¥-≠æ-™«úøfç ÅE. (Idiot, fool,
Easy by prof Ganith. A very useful patience. Impatience and teaching response. scoundrel, rogue ™«çöÀ ´÷ô-©ûÓ Aôdôç)
book really. do not go together. it calls for a lot of (O’ ÉçöÀéÀ §∂ÚØ˛ î˨»†’. Ææpçü¿-†-™‰ü¿’.) a) He is good at calling names.
(°æÆæ’°æ¤ Åö«d Ö†o ™«´¤ °æ¤Ææhéπç í∫’Jç- preparation too. b) I'll call you back. (Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ Aôd-ôç™ ¢√úø’ íÌ°æp)
îËØ√ †’´¤y ´÷ö«x-úËC? ÅC Prof (Teaching èπ◊ ã®Ω’p -î√™« Å´-Ææ®Ωç. (Fèπ◊ ´’Sx/-A-JT §∂ÚØ˛ îË≤ƒh†’.) b) Unable to bear her husband's ill treatment
(Professor) Ganith
she called him names.
®√Æœ†
Mathematics Made Easy. î√™« Ö°æ-
ã®Ω’p-™‰O’, -¶-üµ¿-† Ñ È®çúø÷ äéπ ü∆EûÓ OöÀéÀ ûÓúø’ callèπ◊ Ö†o ´’J-éÌEo Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’
äéπöÀ §ÒÆæ-í∫-´¤. Éçé¬ öÃ*çí˚èπ◊ prepa- (¶µº®Ωh ¢ËCµç-°æ¤©’ û√∞¡-™‰éπ Ç¢Á’ ÅûªúÕE ü¿÷≠œç-*çC.)
7) But they called off...
Call off =

WE CALL OUR COUNTRY
Ö°æ-Ææç-£æ«-Jç--éÓ-ôç/-®Ωü¿’l îËߪ’ôç.
a) The Umpires decided to call off the match
because of poor light.
(ÆæÈ®j† ¢Á©’-ûª’®Ω’ ™‰†ç-ü¿’-´©x Umpires, match †’
®Ωü¿’l îËߪ’-ö«-EéÀ E®Ωg-®·ç-î√®Ω’.)
b) The Workers' Union Called off the strike.
îª÷ü∆lç.
ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† °æ¤Ææhéπç) tion - (é¬Jtéπ Ææç°∂æ’ç Ææ¢Á’t†’ N®Ω-N’ç-*çC, Ö°æ-Ææç-£æ«-Jç-
Look at the following Sentences from the
´·çü¿’í¬ ûªßª÷-®Ω-´ôç Å´-Ææ®Ωç)
Made Easy = àüÁjØ√ Æ涄èb π◊d†’ Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬ N´-JçîË Prahlad: It does, of course. Any idea of -èπ◊çC.)
dialogue at the beginning of the lesson:
°æ¤Ææh-é¬-EéÀ É™«çöÀ Ê°®Ω’ °úø-û√®Ω’. becoming a teacher? 8) Teaching Calls for a lot of patience = Call
1) What is it (the book) called?
Maths Made Easy, Physics Made Easy. (ÅC Eï¢Ë’. FÍé-´’Ø√o öÃ˝ ÅßË’u for = Å´-Ææ-®Ω-´’-´ôç.
Made Easy = a) Medicine Calls for Patience.
Ææ’-©’-´¤í¬ -îËÆœ† (Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç Ê°Í®çöÀ?)
ÖüËl¨¡uç Öçü∆?) Call me tomorrow evening.
Prahlad: How about lending it to me for a few
2)
Bhagat: I don't think I can make a good (¢Ájü¿u ´%AhéÀ ã®Ω’p Å´-Ææ®Ωç)
days? teacher. I don't want to hear cat calls
(Í®°æ¤ Ø√èπ◊ §∂ÚØ˛ îÁß˝’.) b) Designing a bridge like that Calls off care-
3) Call me back in a week. ful Planning and ingenuity.
(éÌEo-®Ó-V©’ Ø√èπ◊ Ç °æ¤Ææh-é¬Eo Å®Ω’-N- and whistles in my class.
´y¢√?) (؈’ öÃ˝í¬ °æEéÀ ®√†-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. (¢√®Ωç ûª®√yûª ´’Sx Ø√èπ◊ §∂ÚØ˛ îÁß˝’.) (Å™«çöÀ ´çûÁ† ®Ω÷°æ-éπ-©p-†èπ◊ ÆæÈ®j† °æü∑¿éπç, éÌûªh
lend= Å®Ω’´¤/ Å°æ¤p É´yôç. classay °œLx-èπÿ-ûª©÷, Ñ©©÷ NØ√-©E 4) He calls himself a great teacher. °æü¿l¥-ûª’©’, éÌûªh Nüµ∆-Ø√©’ Ç™-*ç-îª-í∫© ¨¡éÀh Å´-
Bhagat: Call me tomorrow evening about this ņ’-éÓ-´-ôç-™‰ü¿’.) (Çߪ’† ûªØÁçûÓ íÌ°æp öÃ˝ÅE îÁ°æ¤p-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’.) Ææ®Ωç.)
time. I'll let you know If I am done Prahlad: Bye then, see you (´≤ƒh) 5) Wasn't there a call for the boycott of his Ingenuity - ÉØ˛-ñ„Ø˛—ߪ‚-ÅöÀ: 'ߪ‚— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-
with it and if I can give it to you.    classes. èπ◊û√ç. 'É— éÌçîÁç ûªèπ◊\´ ØÌéÀ\ °æ-©’èπ◊û√ç.
(Í®°æ¤ ÑÆæ-´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ Ø√èπ◊ §∂ÚØ˛îÁ®·u. Call ÅØËC English ™ Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ωù¢Á’i† ´÷ô. (Çߪ’† class © •≠œ-≠æ \-®Ω-ùèπ◊ °œ©’-°œ-î√a®Ω’ Å®Ωnç = ¢Ë’üµ¿-Ææ’qûÓ éÌûªhí¬ Ç™-*ç-îª-í∫-©-í∫úøç, Ææ´’-Ææu-
؈’ Féπ-°æ¤púø’ îÁ•’-û√†’, Ø√èπ◊ ü∆çûÓ°æ†- Å®·ûË ¢√úË Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd, ü∆çûÓ éπLÊ° Éûª®Ω éπü∆/ °œ©’°æ¤ ´*açC éπü∆?) ©èπ◊, éÌûªh °æJ-≥ƒ\-®√©’ éπ†’-éÓ\-´ôç.)
®·-§Ú-®·çü∆ ™‰ü∆ ÅE, ü∆Eo FéÀ-´y-í∫-©Ø√ ´÷ô-©†’ •öÀd, Call Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç English ™ î√™« 6) ... because he called students, names. Ingenuousness- ÉC ¢ËÍ®. àç Å®Ω-´’-J-éπ©’
™‰ü∆ ÅE) áèπ◊\´. ÉC Simple Spoken English ™ î√-™« (Nü∆u-®Ω’n-©†’ ü¿’®√s¥-≠æ-™«úÕ†çü¿’èπ◊ í¬†’.) ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ´’†-Ææ’q™ Ö†o-ü¿’-†oô’x frank í¬ îÁÊ°p
If I am done with it - be done with something v°æ´·-ê-¢Á’i† ´÷ô. Daily real life situations ™ 7) But they called it off when he told them ... ûªûªyç).
= äéπ N≠æߪ’ç °æ‹®Ωh-´ôç/ üËEûÓ Å®·Ø√ °æE-°æ‹-®Ωh- DE ¢√úøéπç î√™« áèπ◊\´. É°æ¤púø’ call †’ í∫’Jç* (é¬F ¢√∞¡Ÿx ü∆Eo Ö°æ-Ææç-£æ«-Jç--èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’/ ®Ωü¿’l Exercise: Match the following:
´yôç Éçéπ-ü∆E Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰éπ-§Ú-´ôç. éÌEo N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ ûÁ©’Ææ’èπ◊çü∆ç. îËÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’.) A B
Prahlad: How long can I keep it? 1) Call Åçõ‰ ´’†ç-ü¿-Jéà ¶«í¬ ûÁL-Æ œ† Å®Ωnç – °œ©- 8) Teaching really calls for a lot of patience 1. barefoot A) Broken
(ØËØÁç-ûª-鬩ç Öç-éÓ-´îª’a ü∆Eo) ´ôç. and preparation. 2. abundant B) very much
Bhagat: Call me back in a week. You can a) Please call the bearer. (öÃ*çí˚èπ◊ î√™« ã®Ω’p, v°œ°æ-Í®-≠æØ˛ Å´-Ææ®Ωç.) 3. cracked C) provoke
keep it as long as that. é¬Ææh bearer †’ °œ©-´çúÕ. (´÷´‚-©’í¬ È®≤ƒd- What is it called, Call me tomorrow, Call me 4. extremely D) stress
(äéπ-¢√®Ωç ûª®√yûª AJT §∂ÚØ˛ îÁß˝’.) È®çö¸q™ server ÅE ûª°æ¤pí¬ °œLîË Ç£æ…®Ω §ƒF- back in a week = -OöÀ Å®√n©’ ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. 5. irritate E) Shoeless
Prahlad: Is the book really good? ߪ÷-©ç-CçîË ¢√®Ω’ – bearer. ¶„ß˝’®Ω) É°æ¤púø’ OöÀE îª÷úøçúÕ. F) Plenty
(Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç Eïçí¬ íÌ°æpü∆/ ¶«´¤çü∆?) b) The teacher called me to tell me to study 4) He calls himself a great teacher. Key: 1) F 2) E 3) A 4)B 5) C
Bhagat: It's really good. Some of the difficult well. (ûªØËüÓ íÌ°æp öÃîª-®˝-†E îÁ°æ¤p-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’. Ééπ\úø
problems have been worked out (¶«í¬ îªü¿-´-´’E îÁ°æp-ö«-EéÀ ††’o °œL-î√úø’.) Call Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç, îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-´ôç.)
very clearly. Our lecturer's teaching 2) Call Åçõ‰ Ê°®Ω’ °öÀd °œ©-´ôç èπÿú≈ éπü∆? a) They call him a great Cricketer, but he is
isn't as good as that. a) We call our Country India. not in form now.
(Eïçí¬ ¶«í∫’çC. éÌEo éπ≠d-¢æ Á’i† ™„éπ\©’ (´’†ç ´’† ü˨»Eo ¶µ«®Ωû˝ ÅE °œ©’≤ƒhç/ (ÅûªúÕE ¢√∞¡Ÿx íÌ°æp véÀÈé-ô®˝ Åçö«-®Ω’/-ÅE
v°æ¨¡o:
î√™« N-´®Ωçí¬ N´-Jç* ÖØ√o®·. ´’† Åçö«ç) ņ’èπ◊çö«®Ω’, é¬F Åûª-úÕ-°æ¤púø’ ¶«í¬ ÇúË °æJ-Æœn-
™„éπa-®Ω®˝ öÃ*çí˚ D†çûª ¶«í∫’ç-úøü¿’.) b) They call their new born child Anand. A™ ™‰úø’.)
Prahlad: He calls himself a great teacher, but b) They call you a gentleman, but is this how
(¢√∞¡xèπ◊ °æ¤öÀd† Gúøf†’ džçü˛ ÅE °œ©’-≤ƒh®Ω’/ No, Not Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
his explanations are as clear as you behave?
Åûª-úÕéÀ džçü˛ ÅE Ê°®Ω’ °ö«d®Ω’.) There is not a cat on the table. There is no
mud. c) We call Gandhi a Mahatma. (Åçü¿®Ω’ †’¢ËyüÓ Â°ü¿l-´’-E-≠œ-´ç-ö«®Ω’, É™«Ø√ cat on the table. -Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u™x àC
(Çߪ’† ûªØË-üÓ íÌ°æp öÃ˝ †çö«úø’. é¬E (í¬çDµE ´’£æ…-ûª’t-úøE °œ©’≤ƒhç/ Åçö«ç.) †’´¤y v°æ´-Jhç-îËC?) éπÈ®é˙d?
Çߪ’† N´-®Ωù Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç î√™« Important: Call ûª®√yûª as ®√ü¿’. 5) Wasn't there a call for a boycott...

ï¢√•’:
– Æœ.£«î˝. ¢Áçéπ-õ‰¨¡ç, -ï-úøa®Ωx.
éπ≠dçæ .) d) She called him a fool. (She called him as a –Ééπ\úø call èπ◊ Å®Ωnç, àüÁjØ√ Ωuèπ◊ °œ©’°æ¤ ÅE.
As clear as mud = Å®Ωnç-îË-Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç éπ≠dç a) The Mahatma gave a call for non coopera-
fool
æ.
There is not a cat on the table, There is no
é¬ü¿’)
His jokes are as clear as mud. tion.
English ™ Passive form of call 'be called cat on the table - correct.
È®çúø÷ Å®·ûË
(ÅûªúÕ ñé˙q Å®Ωnç-鬴¤ – Åçõ‰ †´¤y °æ¤öÀdç-¤ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç î√™« áèπ◊\´. (be •ü¿’©’, -à be form (Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-E-®√-éπ-®Ω-ùèπ◊ ´’£æ…-û√t-í¬çDµ °œ©’-°œ- Spoken English not
™ °æ‹Jhí¬ Å†-èπ◊çú≈,
ÅE.) Å®·Ø√ ¢√úø-´îª’a – am, is, are, shall be, has î√a®Ω’.) There isn't a cat on the table ÅE-í¬F, Åçûª-
Bhagat: Wasn't there a call for a boycott of been, etc) b) The Workers' Union gave a call for tool éπçõ‰ ¢Á’®Ω’í¬_There isn't any cat on the
his classes, because he called stu- a) Gandhi is called Mahatma - Ééπ\úø is called down strike. table ÅEí¬F Åçö«ç. There is no cat on
dents names? passive form ™ Öçúøôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ – í¬çDµ (°æE-´·ô’x -´-C-L Ææ-¢Á’tèπ◊ -Cí¬-©-E é¬Jt-éπ-Ææç°∂æ’ç the table é¬Ææhformal.
(Nü∆u-®Ω’n©†’ AöÀd†-ç-ü¿’èπ◊ -E®ΩÆæ-†í¬ ´’£æ…-ûª’t-úøE °œ©’-´-•-úø-û√úø’ – ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’ °œ©’-°œ-*açC.)
Çߪ’† é¬xÆˇ-© •£œ«-≠æ \-®Ω-ùèπ◊ -N-ü∆u®Ω’-n©’ –í¬çDµ-E ´’£æ…-ûª’t-úøç-ö«®Ω’. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ is C) The Maoists' call for a bandh got no
- M. SURESAN
-•’-üµ¿-¢√®Ωç 7 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Ooha: Let's give a call and find out. a) Hema returns others calls
(Phone îËÆœ éπ†’-èπ◊\çü∆ç.) promptly = á´-®ΩØ√o ûª†èπ◊
Satya: I don't think she'll come. Her father isn't phone Hema
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
îËÊÆh, ¢ÁçôØË
well. Just yesterday they called in the phone
283 ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ AJT îËÆæ’hçC.
doctor. Hope it isn't serious. b) I called him and he was
Ooha: Hi Satya, you promised to call me back (ûª†’ ´Ææ’hç-ü¿E ؈-†’-éÓ-´ôç ™‰ü¿’. ¢√∞¡x away. I am sure he will
yesterday. I waited and waited but had Ø√†o èπ◊™«-≤ƒí¬ ™‰úø’. E†oØË doctor †’ °œL- return my call, as soon as
Give a call= Make a call= call= call up=
no call from you.
°œç-î√®Ω’. Åçûª serious é¬ü¿E ÇP-Ææ’hØ√o.) he is back. phone
Åûª†’ ™‰†-°æ¤púø’ î˨»†’. phone îËߪ’ôç.
Ooha: We don't lose anything by calling her. phone
(†’´¤y Ø√èπ◊ ´’Sx phone îË≤ƒh-†E ´÷öÀ- We can find out her dad's condition too.
Åûªúø’ AJT ®√í¬ØË Ø√èπ◊ îË≤ƒh-úøE í∫öÀdí¬ a) I called out to her= Ç¢Á’†’ Gí∫_-®Ωí¬ °œL-î√†’.
call out=
î√a´¤ E†o. áçûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ é¬îª’-èπÿ\--Ø√oØÓ, †´·t-ûª’-Ø√o†’.
(Phone
Gí∫_-®Ωí¬ °œ©-´ôç/ Å®Ω-´ôç.
Ø√èπ◊ F †’ç* phone ´÷vûªç ™‰ü¿’.) îËÊÆh §ÚßË’üËç ™‰ü¿’-éπü∆. ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o 2) I had no call from you =
(í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. call out èπÿ, phone îËߪ’ôç ÅØË
phone
°æJ-ÆœnA èπÿú≈ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´îª’a.)
Satya: I thought I'd call at your place instead of
Satya: OK.
F †’ç* Ø√èπ◊ ®√™‰ü¿’. Å®ΩnçûÓ call ûÓ ¢√úË expressions èπÿ
making a call. I couldn't, as my brother Have a call = Phone ®√´ôç/ °œ©’°æ¤ ®√´ôç
☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰ü¿’.)
who was with me was in a hurry. So I a) I had a call from office yesterday asking a) I saw my friend sitting in the front row in
Modern spoken English phone
me to proceed to the head office = the cinema. I called out to him but he did
™ èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç*
decided to call back when I reached
call Phone some one/ ring
not hear me =
®Ωéπ-®Ω-é¬-©’í¬ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’.
home, but after I was home I clean for- Head office office ÆœE´÷ £æ…™x ´·çü¿’-´-®Ω-Ææ™
up some one/ give some one a ring ÅØË ´÷ô-L- èπ◊ ¢Á∞«}-Lqç-Cí¬ Ø√èπ◊ E†o
got about it. °æ¤-úøçûª ¢√úø’-éπ™ ™‰´¤. †’ç* phone ´*açC. Ö†o Ø√ ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-úÕE Gí∫_-®Ωí¬ °œL-î√†’, é¬E
¢√úÕéÀ NE-°œç-îª-™‰ü¿’.
b) She called out to her father for help=

I had no call from you
Ç¢Á’ ≤ƒßª’ç-éÓÆæç ûª† ûªçvúÕE í∫öÀdí¬ °œL-*çC.
c) The teacher called out the names of stu-
dents selected for the competition=
§ÚöÃéÀ áç°œ-éπ-îË-Æœ† Nü∆u-®Ω’n© Ê°®Ωx†’ teacher
îªC-¢√úø’.
11) call in = á´JØÁjØ√ °œ©-´úøç– phone ™í¬F,
(Phone îËÊÆ •ü¿’©’ O’ ÉçöÀÍé ´ü∆l-´’-†’- American influence (v°æ¶µ«´ç) ´©x call, ü∆E Éûª®Ω Å®·ûË have a call Åçõ‰ ´÷´‚-©’í¬ °œ©’°æ¤ áü¿’-®Ω’-í¬-í¬F, ´·êuçí¬ doctor, police, fire
èπ◊Ø√o. é¬F ´÷ brother î√™« ûÌçü¿-®Ω™ ®Ω÷§ƒ©’ î√™« ¢√úø’-éπ-™éÀ ´îËa-¨»®·. ¢√öÀ í∫’Jç* ®√´ôç – phone ü∆y®√ØË ÅE é¬ü¿’, letter ü∆y®√/ service ¢√∞¡x†’ °œ©-´ôç.
ÖØ√oúø’. ÉçöÀéÌ*a-†-ûª-®√yûª phone îËߪ’-ö«- ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç, ¢√öÀE Ææçü¿-®√s¥-†’-≤ƒ-®Ωçí¬ ¢√úøôç, messenger (courier) ü∆y®√ èπÿú≈ 鬢Ìa.
I had a call from the company yesterday ask-
¢√úø-í∫-©-í∫úøç, real life situation ™ î√™« Å´-Ææ®Ωç,
v°æ¨¡o: Is
EéÀ E¨¡a-®·ç--èπ◊Ø√o. é¬E ÉçöÀ-éÌ-îËa-Ææ-JéÀ
ü∆E N≠æ-ߪ’¢Ë’ °æ‹Jhí¬ ´’®Ω-*-§Úߪ÷.) phone ÅØËC (land/ cell) Çüµ¿’-Eéπ @N-ûªç™ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ing me to attend an interview = Interview èπ◊ there any difference between
Ooha: I don't know why and this isn't the first Eû√u-´-Ææ-®Ω-´’-®·çC 鬕öÀd. £æ…ï®Ω’ 鬢√-Lqç-Cí¬ Ø√èπ◊company †’ç* °œ©’°æ¤ 'Depends on' and Depends upon'.
time. You rarely return my calls. Look at the following expressions from the ´*açC/ ††’o interview èπ◊ °œL-î√®Ω’.
-ï-¢√-•’: No difference. However, upon is pre-
– >.´’-üµ¿’-Ææ÷-ü¿Ø˛, Ææ÷®√u-Ê°ô
(áçü¿’èπ◊ AJT phone îËߪ’¢Ó ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’, dialogue between Ooha and Satya. 5) At office my job involves taking calls =
Åçü¿’™ ÉC ¢Á·ü¿-öÀ-≤ƒ-J-é¬ü¿’. Ø√ Phones èπ◊ 1) You promised to call me back Office™ phones ´ÊÆh ¢√öÀE receive îËÆæ’-éÓ- ferred when the sentence ends with it.
•ü¿’-©’í¬ †’´¤y î√™« Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ Phone îË≤ƒh´¤.) 2) I had no call from you ´ôç Ø√ NCµ™ ¶µ«í∫ç eg. a) A child depends on/ upon its mother
Satya: Don't be cross, dear. Take it from me, it 3) I decided to call back when I reached home. Take calls = receive a phone call = Phone for every thing.
will not happen again. phone b) In his old age, he has no one to depend
4) You rarely return my calls.
áAh á´®Ω’ î˨»®Ó á´-J-éÓ-Ææ¢Á÷, àç îÁ§ƒh®Ó
ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç. upon.
(éÓ°æp-úøèπ◊. ؈’ îÁ°æ¤h-Ø√o†’ éπü∆, ´’Sx Å™« 5) At office my job involves taking calls.
a) Sampanna: I called your office at 6.30 Even in b) 'on' can be used, but upon is pre-
6) I don't feel like making calls
ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’.)
Take it from me = ؈’ îÁ°æ¤ h-Ø√o†’ éπü∆ = †îªa- last evening. There was none to take the ferred because the sentence ends with it.
îÁ-°æp-ö«-EéÀ ¢√úË-´÷ô
7) Why make people wait for you to return their
calls
call= v°æ¨¡o: ''No documents will be accepted
be cross = éÓ°æçí¬ Öçúøôç. O’ office èπ◊ E†o ≤ƒßª’çvûªç 6.30 èπ◊ phone later or in piece meal''. -Ñ ¢√éπuç
8) Let's now call Maya up î˨»†’. á´®Ω÷ phone áûªh-™‰ü¿’.
Ooha: You've said that before. Show it in 9) I called out to her.
Å®√nEo N´-Jç* ''in piece meal'' ¢√úø’éπ
Sowbhagya: Who will be there to take
action. Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç èπÿú≈ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
10) Let's give a call and find out. calls at 6.30? The office closes at 6.

-ï-¢√-•’: Piece meal Åçõ‰ äéπ °æE-E ´·çü¿’í¬
(†’Nyç-ûª-èπ◊-´·çüË îÁ§ƒp´¤. Ñ≤ƒJ îËûª™ 11) Just yesterday they called in the doctor.
– éπçC-éπôx džç-ü¿- π◊-´÷®˝, í¬ü¿-®√úø
(6.30 éÀ phone áûªh-ö«EéÀ á´-®Ω’ç-ö«®Ω’?
1) You promised to call me back =
îª÷°œç) Ø√èπ◊ †’´¤y Office ÇJç-öÀ-éπ™«x ´‚ÊÆ-≤ƒh®Ω’.)
Satya: At office my job involves taking calls. phone
ņ’-èπ◊†o v°æ鬮Ωç äéπ °æü¿l¥Aí¬ é¬-èπ◊çú≈,
´’Sx/ AJT îË≤ƒh-†E ´÷öÀ-î√a´¤. b) Manager: The caller ID shows that we
Too many calls and when I return home
Call back/ Call (some one) back = äéπ-JéÀ AJT
Å°æ¤p-úø-°æ¤púø’ éÌçûª äéπ Nüµ¿çí¬, ´’J-éÌçûª
had a call from our lawyer. Who took the
late at night, I don't feel like making
phone îËߪ’ôç. ´’†ç ûÁ©-§ƒ-Lq† N≠æߪ’ç ´’†
-ÉçéÓ Nüµ¿çí¬ îËߪ’ôç. äéπ °æü¿l¥A
call?
calls. Please understand me.
ü¿í∫_®Ω ready í¬ ™‰†-°æ¤púø÷, ´’†ç äéπ N≠æߪ’ç (´’†èπ◊ lawyer ü¿í∫_®Ω †’ç* phone ´*aç-ü¿E
™‰èπ◊çú≈ é¬Ææh Åñ«-ví∫-ûªhí¬ îËߪ’ôç.
eg. The house was built in a piece meal
(Office ™ phone calls receive îËÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç Å´¤Ø√, é¬ü∆ ÅE ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ time 鬢√Lq ´*a-†- caller ID îª÷°œ-≤ÚhçC. Phone á´-È®-û√h®Ω’? manner, so it lacks a neat appearance.
Ø√ ÖüÓu-í∫ç™ ¶µ«í∫ç. ´’K ´’K Phones °æ¤púø’, ´’†ç I'll call (you) back and let you Caller ID Åçõ‰ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆? Phone îËÆ œ-†-¢√∞¡x
know Åçö«ç.
´Ææ’hç-ö«®·. ®√vA ÉçöÀ-éÌ-îËa-Ææ-JéÀ ÉçÈé-´-Jéà (Ç É©’x Å°æ¤púø’ éÌçûª Å°æ¤púø’
number ´’†èπ◊ îª÷°œçîË Ææü¿’-§ƒßª’ç.
Phone îËߪ÷©E-°œç-îªü¿’. ††o®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ.) a) Tulasi: Hello Mallika, are you coming for
éÌç-ûª éπö«d®Ω’. Åçü¿’-éπE ü∆EéÀ
Manjula: I took the call sir. She wanted
involves = ¶µ«í∫çí¬ Öçúøôç the function tomorrow?
ÆæÈ®j† ®Ω÷°æç-™‰ü¿’.)
some papers. O’®Ω’ ®√Æœ† sentence ™
Ooha: Then why make promises and keep peo- (Hello, function
†’´¤y Í®°æ¤ èπ◊ ´Ææ’hØ√o¢√?) (؈’ phone áû√h†’. ÇNúø éÌEo papers piece meal Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç ÆæÈ®j-†-
ple waiting for you to return their calls. Mallika: I haven't decided yet. I am very 鬢√-©çC.) Cí¬ Å-E°œç-îª-úø癉ü¿’. •£æ›¨»
(Å™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’ ´÷öÀ-´yôç üËEéÃ, Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ busy shopping now. I'll call you back in an Ç sentence ™ ÖüËl¨¡ç, °ævû√-
6) I don't feel like making calls =
†’´¤y AJTîËÊÆ Phone © éÓÆæç é¬îª’-èπ◊-ØËô’x hour.
Ø√èπ◊ phone îËߪ÷-©-E-°œç-îªü¿’. ©†’ Ç©-Ææuçí¬, NúÕ NúÕí¬
îËߪ’ôç üËEéÀ?) (Éçé¬ àç ņ’éÓ™‰ü¿’/ E®Ωg-®·ç--éÓ-™‰ü¿’. Make a call. DE Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ phone îËߪ’ôç ÅØË. Æ‘yéπ-Jç-îªôç ï®Ω-í∫-ü¿E. Å™«ç-
Satya: OK. In future I won't keep you waiting É°æ¤púø’ shopping ™ busy í¬ ÖØ√o. ´’Sx ã ô-°æ¤púø’ ®√ߪ÷-Lq† sentence: No document
for my calls. Be sure of it. a) Please make a call to the tailor and tell
í∫çö«T phone îË≤ƒh Fèπ◊.) will be accepted latter or in parts.
v°æ¨¡o: ؈’ Å¢Á’-J-éπØ˛ ÉçTx≠æfl accent ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-
him we need the clothes urgently=
(ÆæÍ®. Ééπ-´·çü¿’ Ø√ phone éÓÆæç E†’o b) I can make free calls from my company
Tailor èπ◊ phone îËÆœ, ´’†èπ◊ •ôd©’ ¢ÁçôØË
é¬îª’-éÓ-E-´y†’. ÉC éπ*aûªç.) phone. So just give me a missed call and èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. Oxford dictionary ™ î√™«
Ooha: OK. Let's now call Maya up and ask her be sure I'll call you back.
鬢√-©E îÁ°æpçúÕ.
b) She made the last call to me at 10 last
°æü∆-©èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç* Å¢Á’-J-éπØ˛
if she is coming with us to the movie. (´÷ company †’ç* ؈’ free phone calls Pronunciation É´yèπ◊çú≈ British pronun-
night. Since then she hasn't made any
(ÆæÍ®. É°æ¤púø’ ´÷ߪ’èπ◊ phone îËÆœ ûª†’ îËßÁ·îª’a. 鬕öÀd †’´¤y missed call É´¤y. ؈’ ciation ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ÉÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. DEü∆y®√
call=
´’†ûÓ ÆœE-´÷-éÌ-Ææ’hçüÓ ™‰üÓ Åúø’-í∫’ü∆ç) Fèπ◊ AJT phone îË≤ƒh.) éÌEo°æü∆© AME Öî√a-®Ωù ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-™‰éπ
Satya: Yea. I remember, coming out of office, I c) He is too busy. Don't expect him to call
Ç¢Á’ *´-J-≤ƒ-Jí¬ E†o ®√vA 10 éÀ Ø√èπ◊ phone §Úûª’-Ø√o†’. éÌEo °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ Ææ÷*ç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
saw her getting into bus. I called out to back, though he says so = Åûªúø’ ´’K îËÆœçC. Å°æp-öÀ-†’ç* Ø√éÀç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ phone
-ï-¢√-•’: Hyderabad city ™ leading book
– öÀ. Í®´A, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛
her. She turned round and waved her busy. phone phone
ûª†’ ´’†èπ◊ îË≤ƒh-†Ø√o, îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’.
hand. I didn't understand what she 8) Let's now call Maya up=
îË≤ƒh-úø-†’-éÓèπ◊. stores ™ American Accent O’ü¿,
meant. ÉüË Å®ΩnçûÓ return a call Åçö«ç. No. 4 îª÷úøçúÕ: phone
usage O’ü¿
´÷ߪ’èπ◊ îËü∆lç. v°æûËu-éÀç* ´’ç* ´’ç*
(Ç. Ø√èπ◊ í∫’®Ìh-≤ÚhçC, office †’ç* •ßª’-öÀéÀ You rarely return my calls. (Ø√ phones èπ◊ call up Maya = call Maya Up = call Maya = °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-û√®·. ¢√öÀ-™xE CD ©
´Ææ÷h ؈’, ´÷ߪ’ bus áéπ\úøç îª÷¨». Gí∫_- •ü¿’©’í¬) †’´¤y î√™« Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ îË≤ƒh´¤. (áçûª-ÊÆ°æ‹ ´÷ߪ’èπ◊ phone îË®·. Ææ£æ…-ߪ’çûÓ practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
®Ωí¬ °œL-î√†’. ¢Á†éÀ\ AJT îË®· Ü°œçC. ؈’ Fèπ◊ phone îËߪ’-ô-¢Ë’-í¬F, †’¢Áy-°æ¤púø÷ îËߪ’´¤/ 10) Let's give a call and find out =
ü∆†®Ωnç àN’ö Ø√èπ◊ Å®Ωnç-é¬-™‰ü¿’) †’¢Ëy Ø√èπ◊ ´’Sx phone îË≤ƒh-†ç-ö«´¤ é¬F îËߪ’´¤.) Phone îËÆœ éπ†’-èπ◊\çü∆ç.
- M. SURESAN
-¨¡Ÿ-véπ¢√®Ωç 9 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Amrit: I'll have it some other time. Don't worry. a) The salesman has to
I don't mind staying here for a while, make ten calls a day = Ç
though. salesman company
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù

284 (ÉçÈé-°æ¤p-úøØ√o ¶µçîË-≤ƒh™‰. °∂æ®√y-™‰ü¿’. é¬F ûªßª÷-K-©†’ v°æî√®Ωç îËÆæ÷h,
Éçé¬-ÊÆ-°æ¤ç-úø-ö«-EéÀ Ø√Íé-O’ Ŷµºuçûª®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.) shop ©™ orders BÆæ’-èπ◊E,
Amrit: Hi Prabhat, what a nice place you live     
É∞¡x™x Ţ˒t-¢√∞¡Ÿx) ®ÓVèπ◊ 10
in! A lot of trees around with a number
v°æ¨¡o: áçúø-´÷-´¤©’, Æ‘´’çûªç, °æü¿t-´‹u£æ«ç
îÓô’x îª÷ú≈L.
Spoken English daily life situations
™ high
™
of birds on them, and a wide open b) The doctor has made two calls today. He
frequency expressions expres-
(ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ´îËa
space. I hear a number of birds calling. has to make three more calls = (labyrinth). OöÀéÀ ÉçTx≠ˇ °æü∆©’ îÁ°æpçúÕ.
sions) îª÷Ææ’hØ√oç éπü∆? ´’J-éÌEo É°æ¤úø’ îª÷ü∆lç.
Doctor É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ Éü¿l®Ω’ patients †’
Look at the following sentences from the
-ï-¢√-•’:
(v°æ¶µ«û˝, áçûª ´’ç* Éçöx Öçô’-Ø√o´¤ – °œ.¶µº®Ω-û˝-¶µº÷-≠æù˝, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛
dialogue above:
†’´¤y! ô÷d îÁô÷x, ¢√öÀ O’ü¿ °æèπ~◊©’, îª÷¨»úø’; Éçé¬ ´·í∫’_-JE îª÷ú≈Lq ÖçC.
N¨»-©-¢Á’i† ë«S v°æü˨¡ç. °æèπ~◊© èπÿûª©÷/ (Call - make a call - phone îËߪ’ôç ÅØË Å®Ωnç áçúø-´÷N– Mirage - pronunciation N’®√-ñ ¸
1) Thanks for calling.
Å®Ω’-°æ¤©÷ NE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®·.)
2) I called on him and then I thought I'd call
èπÿú≈ Öçü¿E Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç éπü∆?) (-ñ ¸– measure ™ '-ï— ™«í∫)– 'N’— -ØÌéÀ\ -°æ-©é¬-L.
Prabhat: Well, thanks for calling. Nice of you to 3) The general manager called a meeting = Æ‘´’çûªç– English ™‰ü¿’, ¢√∞¡xéà Çî√®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.
have thought of seeing me. What round and see you on my way home.
3) The general manager called a meeting.
General Manager Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ç à®√pô’ î˨»úø’/ °æü¿t-´‹u-£æ…-EéÀ labyrinth éÀ Ææç•çüµ¿ç™‰ü¿’, éÌç-îÁç
brings you here? §ÚL-éπ- ûª°æp. °æü¿t-´‹u£æ«ç ÅØË-C ã battle field
4) It was ten at night when we called it a day.
îËÆœçC/ Ææ´÷-¢Ë-¨¡-°æ-®Ω-î√®Ω’.
(´*aç-ü∆-EéÀ thanks. ††’o îª÷úø-ö«-EéÀ call a meeting/ discussion etc = ™ formation of soldiers in the form of a
®√´ôç F ´’ç*-ûª†ç/ ´’ç*-¢√-úÕN, 5) His orders were that we attend the meeting padmam (Lotus). Labyrinth Åçõ‰ Oüµ¿’©’,
meeting/
cancelling all our calls.
Ωaèπ◊ °œ©-´ôç/ à®√pô’ îËߪ’ôç.
îª÷úø-ö«-EéÀ ´î√a´¤. àçöÀ™« ´î√a¢˛?) ´÷®√_©’, -Å-Lx-G-Lxí¬, äéπ-ü∆--ØÌo-éπöÀ cross îËÆæ÷h,
áéπ\úø ¢Á·ü¿-™„j áéπ\úø, áô’-¢Áj°æ¤ Åçûª-´’-´¤ûª’çüÓ

Shall I call it a day?
ûË©-E-Ní¬ ÖçúËN.
The old city of Hyderabad has a labyrinth
of streets.
v°æ¨¡o: éÀçC ´‚úø’ ¢√é¬u™x àC ÆæÈ®j-†üÓ îÁ°æpçúÕ.
1. I (am to) request you to kindly arrange to
add the credits to the accounts of the
a) The Principal called a meeting of the lec- respective policy holders.
Amrit: My colleague Kamalakar called in sick 6) The situation did call for an urgent review of
turers = 2. I request you kindly arrange to
yesterday. I called on him and then I our sales strategies.
add the credits...
thought I'd call round and see you on 7) The general manager first called upon the Principal lecturers †’ Ææ´÷-¢Ë-¨¡-°æ-®Ω-î√®Ω’.
my way home. But you were no where 3. I request you to kindly arrange
area managers to speak. b) The students called a boycott of classes =
to be seen yesterday. for addition of the credits...
8) Local trains call at the nearby station every Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’ ûª®Ω-í∫-ûª’© •£œ«-≠æ \-®Ω-ùèπ◊ °œ©’-°œ-î√a®Ω’.
-ï-¢√-•’:
6) The situation called for an urgent review
–- ´†-°æJh XE-¢√Ææ’, †©x-íÌçúø
(´÷ Ææ£æ«Ù-üÓuT éπ´’-™«-éπ®˝ Ç®Óí∫uç ÆæJ-í¬- fifteen minutes.
™‰-ü¿E E†o office èπ◊ phone î˨»úø’. ÅûªEo Spoken English ™ call ûÓ ´îËa expressions Å°æpöÀ °æJ-Æœn-AéÀ ÆæO’éπ~ Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’içC.
1) I am to request you = N’´’tLo ؈’
îª÷úø-ö«-EéÀ Åûª-Eç-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞«}†’. ÉçöÀéÀ AJ-T- Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ωùç. OöÀE ¶«í¬ practice îËߪ’çúÕ. O’ a) Call for = Å´-Ææ®Ω °æJ-ÆœnA à®Ωp-úøôç. £j«ü¿-®√- duty)
éÓ®Ω’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’ (NCµ–
¢Á∞Ïx ü∆J™ E†’o îª÷ü∆l-´’-E-°œç* ´î√a†’. spoken English î√™« v°æA-¶µ«-´ç-ûªçí¬, Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬ ¶«ü˛™ °®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’†o ØË®√© Ææçêu ´©x police 2) I request you = N’´’tLo ؈’- éÓ-®Ω’-èπ◊ç-ô’-
E†o †’´¤y Ø√Èé-éπ\ú≈ éπE-°œç-îª-™‰ü¿’) Ωu Å´-Ææ®Ωç Å´¤-ûÓçC =
Prabhat: The general manager called a meet-
Öçô’çC.
É°æ¤púø’ äéÓ\ expression îª÷ü∆lç: Ø√o†’. (É-≠d-°æ æúÕ éÓ®Ω’-éÓ-´-úøç.) Å®·ûË I
The growing crime rate in Hyderabad calls
ing and it went on till 10 at night when request you kindly arrange ņôç ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’.
1) Thanks for calling = ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ/ ††’o for effective police action.
we called it a day. His orders were we
îª÷ÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´*a-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ thanks. O’ letter ™ sentence (3)™™« I request you
b) Your condition calls for immediate medical to kindly arrange ÅE ÅØ√L. Å®·ûË Éçü¿’™
attend the meeting, cancelling all our
Call- î√™« ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ äéπ v°æüË-¨»-EéÀ/ äéπ-JE attention = èπÿú≈ to kindly arrange ÆæJ-é¬-ü¿F, ÅC to
calls.
(´÷ general manager meeting îª÷úø-ö«-EéÀ/ äéπ-JE °æ©-éπ-Jç-îª-ö«-EéÀ ¢Á∞¡xôç. F °æJ-Æœn-AéÀ ¢Ájü¿uç áçûÁjØ√ Å´-Ææ®Ωç. (F Ç®Óí∫u arrange kindly Öçú≈-©E grammar èπ◊
i) äéπ v°æüË-¨»-EéÀ ¢Á∞¡xôç = call at °æJ-Æœn-AéÀ ¢Ájü¿u °æJ-Q-©† áçûÁj-Ø√ Å´-Ææ®Ωç.) v§ƒüµ∆†uç ÉîËa ¢√®Ωç-ö«®Ω’. é¬E ®√†’ ®√†’ to
°ö«dúø’. ÅC °æ‹®Ωh-ßË’-Ææ-JéÀ ®√vA 10
Å®·çC. ¢Ë’ç ¢Á∞«x-Lq-†-îÓ-ôxèπ◊ èπÿú≈ ¢Á∞¡x- ii) äéπ-JE îª÷úøôç/ °æ©-éπ-Jç-îªôç = call on Look at sentence No.2 kindly arrange èπÿú≈ standard usage ™ ¶µ«í∫-
èπ◊çú≈ meeting èπ◊ ®Ω´’tE Çߪ’† Çïc) (call at a place; call on a person) 2) I called on him = ¢Á’i-§Ú-´îª’a. (-OöÀ Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ N’´’tLo ؈’ éÓ®Ω’-
a)
v°æ¨¡o: 'Having' ÅØËC àßË’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-
Amrit: Why did it go on so late into the night? E†o ´÷Éç-öÀ-éÌ-î√a-úø-ûª†’ = ÅûªEo ؈’ (¢√Rxçöx) éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’. èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’ ÅE – ´’† É-≠dçæ -´©x – NCµ-í¬-é¬ü¿’.)
Was it urgent? He called at my home last night
call on = äéπ ´uéÀhE (E¢√-Ææç™) éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç.
b) Whenever they go this way, they call at
a) v°æüµ∆E ®√≠æZ°æAE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’, UP N≠æ-ߪ’ç™.
(Åçûª §Òü¿’l-¶-ßË’-ü∆é¬ O’öÀçí˚ áçü¿’èπ◊ ïJ- T-≤ƒh®Ω’. Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
TçC? Åçûª urgent ÅØ√?) the restaurant for a snack and coffee =
= The PM called on the President to
-ï-¢√-•’:
– -áç-úÕ. -•®Ω\-ûª’-™«x, -•£æ…-ü¿’®˝°æ¤®Ω
Prabhat: The situation did call for an urgent coffee
á°æ¤-úÕ-ô’-¢Á-RxØ√ àüÁjØ√ AE û√Ííç-ü¿’èπ◊ discuss U.P. affairs.
review of our sales strategies follow- ¢√∞«x restaurant (pronunciation -
èπ◊ È®≤ƒZØ˛d) Å®√nEo •öÀd having ÅØËC á°æ¤p-úø-®·Ø√
b) I call on him, but he rarely calls on me =
ing the budget. Hence the meeting. ¢Á∞¡-û√®Ω’. ¢√úø-´îª’a. Having = éπL-T-Öç-úøôç.
(Budget ´*a† -¢Áç-ô-ØË ´÷ Å´’téπç call at Åçõ‰ ÉüË Å®√n-EéÀ ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬ Ö†o ÉçéÓ Øˆ-ûª-Eç-öÀéÀ ¢ÁRx ÅûªEo éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-ô¢Ë’ é¬F, a) Having a big house is a problem
´‹u£æ…© ÆæO’-éπ~èπ◊ Å´-Ææ®Ωç éπL-TçC™‰. Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úÕ† sentence 8 îª÷úøçúÕ: Åûª†’ ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ ´*a ††’o éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓúø’.
(°ü¿l É©’x Öçúøôç Ææ´’ÊÆu)
Åçü¿’-´©x Ç meeting.) Local trains call at the nearby station every 7) The general manager called upon the
b) Having a servant is really comfortable =
(strategy = ´‹u£æ«ç/ °æü∑¿éπç. Review = ÆæO’éπ~. fifteen minutes = ≤ƒnEéπ È®j∞¡Ÿx Ééπ\-úÕéÀ ü¿í∫_-®Ω’†o area managers to speak =
GM, area managers
äéπ N≠æߪ’ç ´’ç*-îÁ-úøf©’, ü∆E °∂æL-û√©÷, °æJ-Q-Lç- station èπ◊ v°æA 15 EN’-≥ƒ-©èπ◊ ´≤ƒh®·, Çí∫’-û√®·. †’ ´÷ö«x-úø-´’-Ø√o®Ω’. ã ؈éπ-®Ω’ç-úøôç Ææ’ê¢Ë’.
îªôç. Book review = °æ¤Ææhéπ ÆæO’éπ~; éÌûªh °æ¤Ææhéπç call at trains, buses call upon - ÉC éÌçîÁç formal - àüÁjØ√ meeting
ÅÆæ©’ point à-N’ôçõ‰, am having, is having,
are having ÅØËN éπL-T-Öç-úøôç ÅØË Å®√n-EéÀ
Åçõ‰ Åçõ‰, ™«çöÀ v°æߪ÷ù
Núø’-ü¿-©-®·†°æ¤púø’ °æJ-Q-Lç-îªôç. film review = station
≤ƒüµ¿-Ø√-©’ äéπ ™ Çí∫ôç (v°æߪ÷-ùÀ-èπ◊-©†’ ™ Åüµ¿u-éπ~ûª ´£œ«ç-îË-¢√®Ω’, á´-J-ØÁjØ√ ´÷ö«x-úø-ö«-EéÀ ¢√úø®Ω’. A†ôç/ û√í∫ôç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓØË ¢√úø-û√®Ω’.
-†-*vûª ÆæO’éπ~) áéÀ\ç--èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊/ CçîËç-ü¿’èπ◊) ™«ç-†çí¬ (formal í¬) °œ©-´ôç. A) I am having
Amrit: Did you speak too? (-†’-´‹y -´÷-ö«x-ú≈-¢√?)
Prabhat: The general manager first called
upon the area managers to speak.
a) ÅEo trains Nï-ߪ’-¢√-úø™  Çí∫’-û√®· =
All trains call at Vijayawada.
a) ÑØ√öÀ íı®Ω´ ÅA-C∑E ´÷ö«x-úø-´-©-Æ œç-Cí¬ éÓ®Ω’-
ûª’-Ø√o†’. He/ She is having
We, you, they are having
} a car

b) ÉC î√™« Eü∆-†çí¬ †úÕîË train. stations
ÅEo I call upon the guest of honour to speak.
One of them spoke too long. He took É-™« -Å-†-úøç ûª°æ¤p, car ´÷èπ◊çC ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.
™ Çí∫’-ûª’çC = This is a very slow train. It b)
more than 45 minutes. So I thought ÑØ√öÀ ´·êu ÅAC∑E ¢ËCéπ O’ü¿ èπÿ®Óa-¢√-Lqç-
calls at all stations/ every station. Cí¬ °œ©’-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’ = I call upon the chief 鬮Ω’ ´÷èπ◊çC ÅE îÁ°æp-ö«-EéÀ
I'd better not speak.
c) It calls only at Nellore on its way from B) I have
(General Manager
managers
´·çü¿’í¬ area
†’ ´÷ö«x-ú≈-©-Ø√o®Ω’. ¢√∞¡x™x
äé¬-ߪ’† ´·§ƒp´¤ í∫çô ´÷ö«x-ú≈úø’. ؈’
Vijayawada to Chennai =
Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø †’ç* îÁØÁj o ¢Á∞Ï} ü∆J™ ØÁ©÷x®Ω’™
guest to take his seat on the dais.
4) It was ten at night when we called it a day
= ¢Ë’ç ´·Tç-îË-Ææ-JéÀ ®√vA 10 Å®·çC.
He/ She has
We, you, they have
} a car Åçö«ç.
c) I am
}
´÷ö«x-úøéπ§Úôç ´’ç*-ü¿E ´÷†’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’.) ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Çí∫’-ûª’çC. call it a day = ´·Tç-îªôç
(Doesn't call at this station = Doesn't stop He/ She is having some fruits
Amrit: It's already 9.00. When does the last a) -´‚-úø’ í∫çô©§ƒô’ Ωa ûª®√yûª Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ç
train call here? at this station.) we/ you/ they are
(Whistle call=
´·Tç-î√®Ω’ = They called it a day after c)
train
(É°æp-öÀÍé 9.00 Å®·çC. *´J Ééπ\-úÕéÀ (-´·-êuçí¬ È®j-∞¡Ÿx) èπÿ-ûª-¢ËÊÆç-ûªÊÆ°æ¤/ discussing for three hours.
éÀ Å®Ωnç °æçúø’x Açô’-Ø√o†’/ Açô’çC/ Açô’-
-î√-™« -ûªèπ◊\-´ÊÆ°æ¤ -äéπ ÊÆd-≠æ-Ø˛-™ -Çí∫-ôç.) Ø√oúø’/ Açô’Ø√oç/ Açô’-Ø√o®Ω’ ÅE.
áEoç-öÀ-éÌ-Ææ’hçC?) b) 30 overs After
Look at expression 5 above. d) I am having coffee because tea is not
ÇúÕç-ûª-®√yûª Çô ´·Tç-î√®Ω’ =
Prabhat: Local trains call at the nearby station
they played 30 overs, they called it a day.
every 15 minutes till 10.30. How 5) ... we attend the meeting cancelling all available = Tea ™‰ü¿’ 鬕öÀd 鬰∂‘ û√í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o†’
about having dinner here? our calls = ¢Ë’ç ¢Á∞«x-Lq-†-îÓôxèπ◊ èπÿú≈ ¢Á∞¡x-èπ◊çú≈ c) I've (I have) studied for 3 hours now, mom; ÅE.
meeting èπ◊ £æ…ï®Ω’ 鬢√Lq ´*açC. shall I call it a day? = Å´÷t, ´‚úø’ í∫çô©’
(- ≤ƒnEéπ È®jRx-éπ\úø v°æA 15 EN’-≥ƒ-©èπÿ Çí∫’-û√®·,
®√vA 10.30 ´®Ωèπ◊. Ééπ\úø ¶µçîËÆœ ¢Á∞¡Ÿx.) Ééπ\úøcall = visit(Ææçü¿-Jzç-îªôç) îªC-¢√†’ éπü∆, Ç°-ߪ’uØ√?. - M. SURESAN
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 11 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Ujvala: OK. Would you care to eat some b) How fortunate one should
thing or have some thing to drink? be to lead life without a care
in the world.

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
(ÆæÍ®. àü¿Ø√o BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«¢√ – A†ôç é¬F,
285 û√í∫ôç é¬E.) (EPaç-ûªí¬/ à ¶«üµ∆/ à ¶«ü¿-®Ω-
Vennela: No. I am full. Let's talk of our old •çD ™‰èπ◊çú≈ @Nûªç í∫úø-°æ-ú≈-
times. EéÀ ´’E≠œ áçûª Åü¿%-≠d-´æ ç-ûª’úÁj
Ujvala: Hi Vennela welcome, welcome. What a
surprise! Can't say how glad I am to see (éπúø’°æ¤ Eçúø’í¬ ÖçC. É°æ¤púËç ´ü¿’l™‰. Öçú≈L!)
2) take care of = care to
you! Such a long time since we met. ´’† §ƒûª ®ÓV© í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’- – ÅA-ü∑¿’-©èπ◊ ǣ慮Ω §ƒF-ߪ÷©’/ Éûª®Ω
(®√ ¢ÁØÁo™«, ≤ƒyí∫ûªç. àN’öà Ǩ¡a®Ωuç. èπ◊çü∆ç.) ¶«üµ¿uûª ´£œ«ç-îªúøç/ ñ«ví∫ûªh ´£œ«ç-îªúøç. Ææü¿’-§ƒ-ߪ÷©’ offer îËÊÆ-ô-°æ¤púø’ ¢√úË ´÷ô.
E†’o îª÷úøôç áçûª ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ÖçüÓ Ujvala: Our classmate Neeraja has left for a) Sri Rama walked to the forest, leaving (Would you) care to have some coffee?
؈’ îÁ°æp-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o. áçûª-é¬-©-¢Á’içüÓ the states to join her husband. Bharata to take care of the kingdom. é¬Ææh coffee BÆæ’-éÓçúÕ.
´’†ç éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊E.) (´’† é¬xÆˇ-¢Ë’ö¸ F®Ωï Å¢Á’-J-鬙 ¢√∞«x-ߪ’† (®√ïu ¶«üµ¿u-ûª†’ ¶µº®Ω-ûª’-úÕéÀ Å°æp-Tç* ®√´·úø’ (Would you) care for some coffee. Å®·ûË
Vennela: The pleasure is equally mine, Ujji. ü¿í∫_-®Ω-Èé-RxçC.) Åúø-NéÀ ¢Á∞«xúø’.) ÉC éÌçîÁçformal.
(Ø√èπÿ ÅçûË ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ÖçC.) Vennela: What about her children? b) There is none to take care of the children if 8) In the care of = (äéπJ) Ææç®Ω-éπ~-ù™
she goes away. a) They grew up in the care of their grand parents.
Ujvala: So why are you here? (¢√∞¡x °œ©x©’ ´’J?)
Vennela: You know my job keeps me too busy Ujvala: She left them in the care of her (Ç¢Á’ ¢ÁRx-§ÚûË °œ©xLo îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’-Èé-´®Ω÷ ™‰®Ω’.) (¢√∞¡x û√ûª, Å´’t´’t/ ¶«´’t Ææç®Ω-éπ~-ù™ °Jí¬®Ω’.)
even to breathe. I worked for close to mother. c) You take care of the planning side, I'll take b) You can't leave children in the care of a drunkard.
a year without a break. I thought I (¢√∞¡x´’t Ææç®Ω-éπ~-ù™ Öç*/ ´CL care of the construction.
(§ƒxEçí˚ N≠æߪ’ç †’´¤y (û√í∫’-¶ûª’ Ææç®Ω-éπ~-ù™ °œ©xLo ´ü¿™‰xç.)
needed a break. ¢ÁRxçC.) îª÷Ææ’éÓ. E®√tùç N≠æߪ’ç ؈’ îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊çö«.) 9) Very caring/ caring = ÇÊ°éπ~/ ǧƒuߪ’ûª, vÊ°´’
éπ†-°æ-®Ω-îªôç
a) Nurses in some hospitals are very caring.

It does, but who cares? (éÌEo ÇÆæ’-°æ-vûª’™x †®Ω’q©’ î√™« ÇÊ°-éπ~-éπ-©-¢√∞¡Ÿx.)
b) She is not so caring as some people think.
(éÌçûª-´’çC ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-†oô’x Ç¢Á’ Åçûª ÇÊ°-éπ~-
í∫-©üËç é¬ü¿’.)
10) care for = vÊ°N’ç-îªôç.

(Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπü∆ Ø√C Ü°œJ °‘©’aéÓ´ú≈- Vennela: But isn't she old and sick? 3) That's been take care of: ÉC take care ÉC ´’†ç î√™« ûª°æ¤pí¬ ¢√úø’-ûª÷çö«ç, ©éπ~u-°ôdç
EéÀ èπÿú≈ BJé𙉆çûª ÖüÓu-í∫-´’E. ü∆ü∆°æ¤ (ÇNúø °ü¿lD, ï•’s ´’E≠‘ éπü∆.) of passive form:
èπ◊ Ç N≠æߪ’ç à®√p-ô-®·çC. ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. care for Åçõ‰ vÊ°´’ûÓ îª÷Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç.
àú≈C§ƒô’ N®√´’ç ™‰èπ◊çú≈ °æE-îË-¨»†’. Ujvala: For all that she is very caning, espe- Suraj: What about my flight tickets? (Å°æ¤p-úø-°æ¤púø’ Nçô÷çö«ç, I don't care for the
é¬Ææh N®√´’ç 鬢√-©-E-°œç-*çC.) cially about children. She cares for (Ø√ N´÷† öÀÈé\ôx N≠æߪ’ç àN’öÀ?) police- police Å®·ûË Ø√èπ◊ ™„Íé\çöÀ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.
Ujvala: So you are here. them a lot. Dhiraj: That has been taken care of. You've ÉC ÆæJé¬ü¿’.care for Åçõ‰ – ÅGµ-´÷†ç Öçúøôç.)
(Å®·-†-°æpöÀéà °œ©x©çõ‰ Ç¢Á’èπ◊ î√™« (you have) been booked for the Air India a) I care for my children.
(Åçü¿’-éπE Ñ Ü®Ì-î√a´¤.)
Vennela: I felt like being free for at least 15 to ÇÊ°éπ~. ¢√∞¡xçõ‰ ÇN-úøèπ◊ î√™« É≠ædç.) flight tomorrow evening. (Ø√ °œ©xLo ؈’ vÊ°N’-≤ƒh†’.)
20 days. So I came down to this Vennela: How I envy Neeraja! There isn't any (ÅC à®√p-õ„jçC. O’èπ◊ Í®°æ¤ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç á®·®˝ b) She cares for her brother.
place to spend the time without a one to care for my children in my ÉçúÕߪ÷ N´÷-Ø√-EéÀ öÀÈé\ô’x Jï®Ω’y î˨»ç.) (Ç¢Á’ ûª´·túøçõ‰ Ç¢Á’-éÀ≠dçæ .)
absence. I've to depend on creche. 4) All that I now care about is my well being.
v°æ¨¡o:
care in the world.
(ã 15, 20 ®ÓV©’ Nv¨»ç-Aí¬ ÊÆyîªa ¥í¬ (F®Ωï Åçõ‰ Ø√Èéçûª Ñ®Ω{uí¬ ÖçüÓ! ؈’ (Ø√èπ◊ ´·êu-´’-®·ç-ü¿™«x ؈’ ¶«í∫’ç-úøôç.) i) Where were you yesterday?
Öçú≈-©-E-°œç-*çC. Åçü¿’-éπE Ééπ\úÕ ™‰éπ-§ÚûË Ø√ °œ©x-©†’ îª÷Ææ’-éÓ-´-ú≈-E-Èé-´®Ω÷ care about: ´·êuç ņ’-éÓ-´ôç/ v§ƒ´·êuç Where did you yesterday? à-C éπÈ®é˙d?
éÌî√a†’, à ¶«ü¿®Ω •çD, Ææ´’-Ææu©÷ ™‰®Ω’. vÈé≠ˇ O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-ú≈-LqçüË.) É´yôç, Å™« ņ’-èπ◊†o N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ ÇÆæéÀh ii) Let us sum up – Å®Ωnç ûÁ©-°æçúÕ.
™‰èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊.) envy = Ñ®Ω{u. ´’†èπ◊ ™‰E ´Ææ’h´¤/ ≤˘éπ®Ωuç îª÷°æôç/ ü∆E í∫’Jç* worry Å´ôç. iii) 'case', 'mood' í∫’-Jç-* -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.-
Ujvala: But yours is a responsible job. You ÉçéÌ-éπJèπ◊†o-°æ¤púø’ éπLÍí ¶«üµ¿. a) He cares only about money and nothing
ï-¢√-•’:
– í∫’v®Ωç ¨¡çéπ®˝, ¨¡çéπ-®Ω-°æôoç, éπ-Kç-†í∫®˝ ->-™«x.-
are too important in your company. creche (vÈé≠ˇ) Åçõ‰ ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπü∆. Employed else. úø•’s ûª°æp Éçéπ üËEéà Åûªúø’ v§ƒ´·êuç
Who'll (who will) take care of it in your parents °œ©x-©†’ îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊ØË îÓô’. Indian English care
É´yúø’. É™«çöÀ Å®ΩnçûÓ ™ i) Where were you yesterday? (E†o
absence? Ujvala: OK. Have this cola. You do look tired. for care for =
Åçô’ç-ö«®Ω’. ÉC ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. äéπ O’È®éπ\úø’Ø√o®Ω’). ÉC correct sentence.
(FC î√™« ¶«üµ¿u-û√-ߪ·-ûª-¢Á’i† °æE éπü∆. (ÆæÍ®. Ñ éÓ™« BÆæ’éÓ. †’´¤y î√™« Å©-Æœ- ´uéÀh-°æôx ÇÊ°éπ~/ ÅGµ-´÷†ç îª÷°æôç. Where did you yesterday? ÉC
O’ éπç°-F™ †’´¤y î√™« ´·êu-¢Á’i† §Ú-®·†ô’d éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤.) A mother cares for her children. correct sentence é¬ü¿’.
ü∆EN éπü∆? †’´¤y ™‰†-°æ¤púø’ F °æE á´®Ω’ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ûªLx °œ©x© °æôx ÇÊ°éπ~ îª÷°œ-Ææ’hçC. (vÊ°N’-Ææ’hçC) Meaning °æ‹Jhí¬ ™‰ü¿’éπü∆? ÅüË
îª÷≤ƒh®Ω’?) Spoken English ™ ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢√úË expressions b) She doesn't care about elders. Where did you eat/ sleep/
Vennela: That's been taken care of. Any way (high frequency expressions) ™ care, care ûÓ (Ç¢Á’ °ü¿l-¢√-∞¡x-éπçûª v§ƒ´·êuç É´yü¿’.) work, etc. yesterday? Åçõ‰
all that I care about now is my well ¢√úË ´÷ô©÷ Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ωùç. ÉüË Å®ΩnçûÓ what/ when ™«çöÀ wh, words meaning °æ‹®Ωh®·, †’´¤y EØÁo-éπ\úø
being. I couldn't just go on working Care Åçõ‰ ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç ñ«ví∫ûªh– ÉC ´’†ç-ü¿-®Ωèπÿ ´·çü¿’ care ¢√úøû√ç. AØ√o-´¤/ -E-vü¿-§Ú-ߪ÷´¤/ °æE-îË-¨»´¤,
like a machine, could I? etc ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. Where
ûÁ©’Ææ’. Å™«Íí careful, with (great) care - î√™« a) I don't care what he says.
did you yesterday Åçõ‰, did Ééπ\úø verb ™
(Ç à®√p-ôxFo î˨»-®Ω’™‰. àüË-¢Á’iØ√ É°æ¤púø’ ñ«ví∫-ûªhûÓ; take good care – ñ«ví∫ûªh ´£œ«ç-îªúøç. (¢√úË-´’Ø√o ؈’ ™„éπ\-°-ôd†’/ v§ƒ´·êuç É´y†’.) ã ¶µ«í∫ç (helping verb) ´÷vûª¢Ë’. verb °æ‹®Ωh-´-
Ø√èπ◊ ´·êu-¢Á’içC ؈’ ¶«í∫’ç-úøôç. Take care how you talk to him = ¢√úÕûÓ ´÷ö«xúË b) I don't care how you treat me.
ߪ’çvûªç-™«í¬ °æE-îËÆæ÷h Öçúø-™‰†’ éπü∆.) Nüµ¿ç ñ«ví∫ûªh – É´Fo ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. ö«-EéÀ àüÓ °æEE -ûÁ-LÊ° Main verb - eat/
(†’´¤y †ØÁo™« îª÷≤ƒh¢Ó ؈’ °æöÀdç--éÓ†’.) sleep/ work etc ™«çöÀC Öçú≈L éπü∆?
Ujvala: None else in your company can do Å®·ûË care éÌEo éÌEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ûª°æ¤pí¬ ¢√úø’- c) He doesn't care how his son studies. ii) Sum up Åçõ‰ äéπ Ö°æ-Ø√uÆæç (speech)/
your work. Didn't you tell me so when- ûª’çö«ç. Å™«ç-öÀN ®√èπ◊çú≈ let's be careful.
ever you called me?
(éÌúø’-È陫 îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-†oD Åûª-úÕéÀ °æôdü¿’.) report/ discussion (Ωa) ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀ *´®Ω Ç
Look at the following expressions from the
5) Who cares?= speech, report, discussion ≤ƒ®√ç-¨»Eo
conversation above:
(Ø√Èé-°æ¤púø’ §∂ÚØ˛ îËÆœØ√ O’ éπç°-F™ ÉçÈé- á´-JÍéç °æöÀdçC?/ Ø√ÍéçöÀ?
a) Who cares if he wastes his money.
1) I came down to this place to spend the time
´®Ω÷ F °æE îËߪ’-™‰-®ΩE îÁÊ°p-ü∆-E-N-éπü∆?) èπ◊x°æhçí¬ îÁ°æpôç.
Vennela: So? (Å®·ûË?) without a care in the world. (¢√úø’ ¢√úÕ úø•’s ´%ü∑∆-îË-Ææ’hçõ‰ á´-J-ÍéçöÀ?) Teacher §ƒ®∏√Eo ¶Cµç-*† ûª®√yûª ü∆E ≤ƒ®√ç-
Ujvala: Won't the work suffer in your 2) Who'll take care of it in your absence? b) Pranav: He says he won't talk to you. ¨»Eo èπ◊x°æhçí¬ îÁ°æpôç, to sum up. Let us sum
absence? 3) That's been taken care of. (FûÓ ´÷ö«x-úø-†ç-ô’-Ø√o-úø-ûª†’.) up - ã≤ƒJ ´’†ç îªC-N-†-ü∆-E ≤ƒ®√ç-¨»Eo
(F´¤ ™‰éπ-§ÚûË °æE èπ◊çô’-°æ-úøü∆?) 4) All that I now care about is my well being. Vinai: a) Who cares? (Ø√ÍéçöÀ?) èπ◊x°æhçí¬ îª÷ü∆lç ÅE.
Vennela: It does, but who cares? It's for the 5) It does, but who cares? b) As if anybody cares. iii) Case, mood: Case Åçõ‰ ´’†èπ◊, ûÁ©’-í∫’™
company to take care of it. 6) It does, for all that I care. (á´®Ó ¶«üµ¿-°æ-úø’-ûª’-†oô’d.) N¶µºéÀh v°æûªu-ߪ÷© ™«í¬ î√-™«-´’-ô’èπ◊– I- me,
6) For all that I care èπÿú≈ Who cares? we - us, he - him, É™«í∫.
(°æúø’-ûª’çC. Å®·ûË Ø√ÍéçöÀ? Ç 7) Would you care to eat something?
Mood Åçõ‰: äéπ N≠æߪ’ç -ûÁ-LÊ° sentences ™
N≠æߪ’ç™ ñ«ví∫ûªh °æú≈-LqçC éπç°E.) 8) She left them in the care of her mother. ™«í¬ØË– Å®·ûË é¬F, á´-JÍéç– Å†ôç.
Ujvala: That might affect your prospects in a) For all that I care, he might have lost a lot of (statements) ™ ÖçúË verb B®Ω÷, (Indicative
9) She is very caring.
your company money. mood), Ç-ïc©÷, Ŷµºu-®Ωn-†©÷ ûÁLÊ° sentences
. 10) She cares for them a lot.
(ü∆E-´©x éπç°-F™ F ¶µºN-≠æuûª’h üÁ•s- 1) Without a care in the world. (¢√úø’ ¶«í¬ úø•’s §ÚíÌ-ô’d-éÌ-†’ç-ö«úø’. §ÚF ™ verb B®Ω÷ (Imperative mood), éÓ-Jéπ-©÷,
A-ØÌa éπü∆.) Ø√Íéç?) Ææç-üË£æ…-©÷ -ûÁ-LÊ° sentences -™ 
(Subjunctive mood) ™ verb B®Ω÷†’.
(à Çü¿’®√l, ¶«ü¿-®Ω-•çD ™‰èπ◊çú≈ EPaç-ûªí¬.)
prospects = ¶µºN-≠æu-ü¿-´-é¬-¨»©’ b) For all that he cares, I am suffering.
a) He spends his weekend without a care away
affect = v°æ¶µ«-Nûªç îËߪ’ôç from the city. ؈’ ¶«üµ¿°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o†’, Å®·Ø√ ¢√úÕÍéç? Å®·Ø√ English ÆæJí¬ ´÷ö«x-ú≈-©çõ‰ OöÀ
Vennela: It does, for all that I care. (Åûªúø’ ¢√®√çûªç †í∫-®√-EéÀ ü¿÷®Ωçí¬ EPaç-ûªí¬ 7) Would you care to eat some thing? í∫’-Jç* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.
(üÁ•s-Aç-ö«®·. Å®·ûË Å´F/ Ø√ÍéçöÀ?) í∫úø’-°æ¤-û√úø’.) (O’Í®-´’Ø√o é¬Ææh BÆæ’èπ◊çö«®√?) - M. SURESAN
bg-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 13 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

necessary or not. his sons well settled, he is
4) As if you cared. care free.
5) In fact, I tried much oftener than I care to
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
(Çúø-°œ-©x-©ç-ü¿-Jéà °Rx-îËÆœ, éÌúø’-
286 remember. èπ◊©çû√ ÂÆöÀ-™¸-Å-´-ôçûÓ <èπÿ-
6) Follow that and you are care free. *çû√ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√oúø’.)
7) You'll have all the cares in the world. b) With food and lodge taken
Srikar: How careless you are You just don't
!
1. Careless = Without proper care = care of, who won't be care
care how you waste money!
free.
( -F-C -áçûª Åñ«-ví∫ûªh! †’¢Áyçûª úø•’s ´%ü∑∆ (ÆæÈ®j† ñ«ví∫ûªh BÆæ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈/ Åñ«-ví∫ûªhí¬.)
(
a) She is careless how she walks in such a
îËÆæ’h-Ø√o¢Ó Fèπ◊ °æôd-ôç-™‰ü¿’.) AçúÕ, É©’x N≠æߪ’ç á´-®ΩØ√o îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊çõ‰ á´-JÍéç -v°æ¨¡o:
heavy traffic.
*çûª Öçô’çC?) i) Will I cheat you?
Sritej: Try as I might, I am unable to spend
7) You'll have all the cares in the world.
money with care. I think its my impa- (Åçûª ®ΩDl-™†÷ Ç¢Á’ Åñ«ví∫ûªhí¬ †úø’-Ææ’hçC.) ( ؈’ N’´’tLo ¢Á÷Ææç îË≤ƒhØ√?)
All the cares in the world =
tience. b) Careless Åçõ‰ E®Ωxéπ~uçí¬ ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ DEE Can I cheat you ņ-´î√a?
v°æ°æç-îªç-™E ¶«üµ¿-©Fo ´’†-¢Áj-†ô’x.
(áçûª v°æߪ’-Aoç-*Ø√ úø•’s ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ ê®Ω’a ´Ææ’hçC. ii) Having Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ?
He was careless in his replies. He looked as though he was weighed down by
°ôd-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’Ø√o. -Å-C -Ø√ -ÅÆæ£æ«-†ç - iii) Formal í¬, informal í¬ Åçô’-Ø√o®Ω’. OöÀ
all the cares in the world.
Å-†’èπ◊ç-ö«!) (ÅûªúÕ Ææ´÷-üµ∆-Ø√©’ î√™« E®Ωxéπ~uçí¬ ÖØ√o®·.) Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ?
(v°æ°æç-îªç-™ E ¶«üµ¿-©Fo ÅûªúÕE èπ◊çí∫-D-Ææ’h†oô’x éπE-°œ-
Srikar: When you buy a thing you don't care c) It was careless of the mother to leave the iv) ûÁ©’í∫’ Å®Ωnç v°æ鬮Ωç ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  à´·çüÓ ûÁ©’-
child alone.
whether it is necessary or not.
Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’.)
Ææ’-éÓ-¢√©çõ‰ Telugu to English úÕéπ{-vF-™ Å®Ωnç
üÌ®Ω-éπôç ™‰ü¿’. à- úÕéπ{-vF-™  Öçö«--ßÁ÷
N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.

Take care of your paise -ï-¢√-•’:
i) Will I cheat you?
– ¨Ï≠æ†o, ÇüÓE

Åçõ‰ N’´’tLo ¢Á÷Ææç îË≤ƒhØ√? ÅE Åçõ‰ Ø√é¬-
Ö-üËl-¨¡ç ™‰ü¿E.
Can I cheat you?
(†’´¤y ´Ææ’h´¤ éÌØË-ô-°æ¤púø’ ÅC Å´-Ææ-®Ω´÷ (Ç Gúøf†’ äçôJí¬ ´C-L-°-ôdúøç Ç¢Á’ Åñ«-ví∫ûªh.) v°æ¨¡o:
é¬ü∆ ÅE Ç™-*ç-¤.) í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: He did it with a lot of care X He did 1. Vocabulary -™-E °æ-ü∆-©’ NNüµ¿ ®Ωçí¬-©èπ◊ îÁçC-
Åçõ‰ N’´’tLo ؈’ ¢Á÷Ææç îËߪ’-í∫-©Ø√? ÅE
Sritej: That may be true. But how can I con- it very carelessly. É°æ¤p-úÕC îª÷úøçúÕ. †N É*a, ü∆E°j ¢√u≤ƒ©’ É´yçúÕ. DE- ´©x
Åçõ‰ Ø√é¬-≤ƒ-´’®Ωn uç ™‰ü¿E.
2) With care = Carefully = ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬/ ñ«ví∫ûªhûÓ ii) having Å®Ωnç 'éπ-L-T Öçô÷— ÅE äéπ Å®Ωnç.
trol my spending? Çߪ÷- ®Ωçí¬™x ´÷ö«xúË Nüµ∆†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC.
a) Yo should handle glass with care. i) Having a big house, he can recevie any
(ÅC Eïç 鬴a. é¬F -ê®Ω’a-†’ -E-ߪ’ç-- 2. v°æA ¢√uÆæç éÀçü¿ NNüµ¿ éπ´¤© ´’ç* éÌõ‰-≠憒x
É*a ü∆EéÀ ÆæJ-§Ú-ßË’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ņ’-¢√ü¿ç number of guests = Åûª-EéÀ °ü¿l É©’xç-úøôç -
vAç-îª-úøç -ᙫ?) (í¬V (´Ææ’h-´¤-©)†’ î√™« ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬/ ñ«ví∫ûªhûÓ
´©x (Åûª†’ °ü¿l É©’x éπ-L-T Öç-úøôç-
Srikar: As if you cared. ¢√ú≈L.) É´yçúÕ.
b) He treated the patient with care. 3. ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ´÷ö«xúøç, ®√ߪ’úøç, Å®Ωnç-îË-Ææ’-éÓ- ´©x) áçûª-´’çC ÅA-ü∑¿’-™„j oØ√ Çü¿-Jç-îª-í∫-
(àüÓ †’´¤y Eïçí¬ Å™« ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-†oô’d.) ´úøç éÓÆæç àç îÁߪ÷uL? ©úø’.
Sritej: I do certainly. In fact, I tried much (Ç ®ÓTE Åûªúø’ î√™« ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ îª÷¨»úø’/ 2) Having †’ past participle ûÓ
oftener than I care to remember. vÊ°´’ûÓ îª÷¨»úø’.) 4. °‘@ ≤ƒn®· Ççí∫x-°æ¤-Ææh鬙xE ¢√u≤ƒ-©†’
3) Don't care : ÉC éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ îª÷¨»ç.
®√ߪ’-úøç™ áEo-®Ω-鬩 sentences ™ éπ-L°œ ¢√-úÕûË Åçü¿’-´©x ÅE Å®Ωnç
(Eïçí¬ØË -Å-†’èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o. ÅÆæ©’ Å™«çöÀ ®√≤ƒh®Ω’. N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. ´Ææ’hçC.
v°æߪ’ûªoç áEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x î˨»ØÓ Ø√Íé í∫’®Ω’h- ´’Sx ´’®Ó-≤ƒJ îª÷ü∆lç. áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ DEE î√™« Having seen the movie he felt
ûª°æ¤pí¬ ¢√úøôç áèπ◊\´. –G.Èé. Ø√ߪ’é˙, éÓ´’-ö¸-°æLx
™‰ü¿’.) happy (ÆœE´÷îª÷Æœ /-îª÷-úø-ôçûÓ
Srikar: Before you buy anything the next time a) Prakash: He talked all rot about you. -ï-¢√-•’:
count 10. That may stop your buying
1) §ƒûª Lessons ™ daily life situations ™ Å´- Åûª†’ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-ú≈fúø’)
3) I am / He, she, is/We, you, they are hav-
(F í∫’Jç* Åûªúø’ îÁûªhçû√ ¢√í¬úø’.)
rot = nonsense
what is unnecessary.
Ææ®Ωç Ö†o-- ´÷-ô© í∫’Jç* î√-™« ûÁL§ƒç. ´’Sx
Éûª®Ω ®Ω鬩 ´÷ô©’ èπÿú≈ -ûªy®Ω-™-ØË -É≤ƒhç. ing tea =
Prasad: I don't care. / I don't care what he Tea û√í∫’-ûª ’-Ø√o†’/ û√í∫’-ûª ’-Ø√o-úø’/-û√-í∫’-ûª ’çC/
(Ñ≤ƒÍ®üÁjØ√ éÌØË-´·çü¿’ °æC ™„éπ\ °ô’d.
talks about me.
2) v°æA ¢√uÆæç éÀçü¿ NNüµ¿ ®Ωîª-®·-ûª© Quotations
Åçü¿’-´©x ņ-´-Ææ®Ω¢Á’i† ´Ææ’h¢ËO’ é̆´¤.) É´yôç ûªy®Ω-™ØË v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµ≤ƒhç. û√í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
Sritej: I'll follow your advice. (¢√í∫F. ØËç °æöÀdç--éÓ†’. Ø√ÍéçöÀ?) 3) îªü¿-´ôç ´÷ö«x-úø-ô¢Ë’ Éçü¿’èπ◊ Öûªh´’-¢Á’i† AØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ èπÿú≈ - am having / is having / are
Srikar: You remember this saying: Take care b) He doesn't care what people say at his back. ´÷®Ω_ç. O™„j-†çûª English îªü¿-´ôç, Tele having ÅØÌa.
of your paise, the rupees will take (Éûª-®Ω’-©-ûªE ¢Á†’Íé´’-†’-èπ◊Ø√o ÅûªúËç ™„éπ\-°-ôdúø’/ news casts N†ôç, Å´-鬨¡ç ´*a-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x iii) Formal Åçõ‰ -äéπ °æü¿l¥A v°æ鬮Ωç àüÁjØ√
care of themselves. Follow that and °æöÀdç--éÓúø’.) English ´÷ö«x-úøôç– ûª°æ¤p-îË-≤ƒh-¢Ë’-¢Á÷ -Å-†o- îËߪ’ôç. Informal Åçõ‰ °æü¿l¥ûËç §ƒöÀç-îª-éπ-§Ú-´ôç.
you are carefree. Forget it and you 'll 4) As if you cared. ¶µºßª’ç ™‰èπ◊çú≈. Formal, Informal Ñ È®çúø÷ Éûª-®Ω’© °æôx ´’†
have all the cares on your shoulders. (†’¢ËyüÓ Â°ü¿l v¨¡ü¿l¥ BÆæ’-èπ◊-†oô’d.) 4) ÉC Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd ¢√úøû√ç– à effect ®√¢√- v°æ´-®Ωh† N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ ¢√-úøû√ç.
(Ñ ≤ƒ¢Á’ûª í∫’®Ω’hç-éÓ. °jÆæ-©-†’ ñ«ví∫- As if = as though = Å®·-†ô’x é¬-F -é¬ü¿’. ©ØË ü∆Eo •öÀd Öçô’çC. ÉC practice ´©x äéπ £æ«Ùü∆™ Ö†o ´uéÀhûÓ ´u´-£æ«-Jç-îË-ô°æ¤púø’
You behave as if you were clever/ as though
ûªhí¬ îª÷Ææ’èπ◊ç-õ‰ ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©’ -¢√-öÀ Ææçí∫- ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC. ´’†ç ã °æü¿l¥A v°æ鬮Ωç v°æ´-Jh≤ƒhç– ¢√∞¡xûÓ Åçûª
A -Å-¢Ë -îª÷Ææ’èπ◊ç-ö«®·. -D-Eo -Å-†’Ææ-JÊÆh - you were clever. Ææyûªç-vAç* ´÷ö«x-úøç/-´u-´-£æ«-Jçîªç.¢√∞¡xûÓ ´’†-
Fèπ◊ -<èπÿ-*ç-û√ -Öç-úø-ü¿’. -´’-Ja-§Ú-ûË -v°æ°æç- àüÓ ûÁL-¢Áj†¢√úÕ™« v°æ´-Jh-≤ƒh´¤ (ûÁL-¢Áj-†-¢√-úÕN é¬ü¿’.) v°æ¨¡o: ¶µ«≠æ formal í¬ Öçô’çC. 'ÅçúŒ, O’®Ω’, ûª´’®Ω’ –
îªç-™-E -¶«-üµ¿-©-Fo -F-O’-üË -Öç-ö«®·.) a) Kiran:
1) Abort ÅØË °æü¿ç™ BrE. ™ 'R' ÅØË Öî√a-®Ωù É™«çöÀ ´Fo formal. English ™ Å®·ûË, Sir,
Ñ ≤ƒ¢Á’ûª English proverb 'take care of your He said he wouldn't help you in future.
™‰ü¿’. AmE. ™ Öî√a-®Ωù ÖçC. ÅÆæ©’ Å¢Á’-J- ņôç, May I come in? ™«çöÀ ¶µ«≠æ-†’ ¢√-úø-ôç
pence, the pounds will take care of them-
éπØ˛q R °æ©’-èπ◊-û√®√ ™‰ü∆? formal.
(
selves Pence- plural of penny-
Ééπ Fèπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-†E îÁ§ƒpúø’). 2) R ûÓ èπÿúø’-èπ◊†o î√™« AmE phonetics--™x ´’†-èπ◊-¶«í¬ ’-´¤-†o-¢√-∞¡xûÓ informal (Ææyûªç-vûªç)
Kishore: As if I cared.
èπ◊ ņ’-¢√ü¿ç.
R Öçô’çC. R †’ °æ©-鬙« ™‰ü∆ BrE Öî√a-®Ω-ù-
100 pence = 1 pound) í¬ Öçö«ç. äÍ®, ®√®√, §Ú®√, -†’-´¤y – Éü¿çû√
(Å®·ûË àçôô? ¢√úÕ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç Ø√Íéç ™«í¬ °æ©-èπÿ\-úøü∆?
Sritej: I will try to do that. I'll be careful informal.
even about a paisa.
Åéπ\-Í®x-ü¿ØË ¶µ«´çûÓ.) 3) Å¢Á’-J-éπØ˛q R †’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-TçîË Nüµ∆-Ø√Eo
Collectors, Ministers, Teachers,Principals
b) She said she wouldn't meet me again, as if I Öü∆-£æ«-®Ωù-ûÓ -N-´-Jç-îªç-úÕ. -ûÓ-
(°j≤ƒ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ èπÿú≈ ñ«ví∫ûªhí¬ ÖçúËç- cared.
´’†ç formalí¬ Öçö«ç– éÌûªh-¢√-
ü¿’èπ◊ v°æߪ’-Ao≤ƒh.) (††’o ûª†’ ´’Sx éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-†E îÁ°œpçC, ØËØËüÓ
– -üË-´-Ø√-© -Å-E-ûª, -´®Ωçí∫-™¸ ∞¡xûÓ/°æJ-îªßª’ç ™‰E-¢√-∞¡xûÓ formalí¬
-ï-¢√-•’:
       
Öçö«ç (Ææyûªçvûªç BÆæ’éÓç)
A. British English ™™« é¬èπ◊çú≈, American
¶«üµ¿-°æ-úËô’d.)
5) I tried much oftener than I care to remember-
´’† parents, brothers and sisters
care
ûÓ ´îËa expressions éÀçü¿öÀ È®çúø’ Pronunciation ™ 'r' °æ©’-èπ◊-û√®Ω’. Å®·ûË ÅC
friends ûÓ informal í¬ Öçö«ç.
´’†ç
lessons †’ç* îª÷Ææ’hØ√oç éπü∆. Ñ lesson ™ ´’J- than I care to remember= ûÁ©’-í∫’™ '®Ω— ™« é¬-èπ◊çú≈ (±) ™« °æ©’-èπ◊-û√®Ω’. iv) Telugu to English Dictionary
éÌEo very common expressions îª÷ü∆lç. ؈’ í∫’®Ω’hç--éÌ-ØËç-ü¿’-éπØ√o áèπ◊\-´í¬. Abort - American - Ŷ«±˝ö¸ (Ŷ«ö¸) –
I've been in Mumbai more times than I care Form - British English - §∂ƒ¢˛’;
©’ É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ ¢Á©’-´úøf ¢√öÀ™x
Look at the following expressions from the É™«çöÀ expressions èπ◊ Å®Ωnç
dialogue above. to remember. American English - §ƒ±˝¢˛’
üÌ®Ω-éπü¿’. Standard English
1) How careless you are! Term - British English - ô¢˛’ (ô, bird ™ '•—
Dictionaries ™ØË üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊çC.
(؈’ í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓ-™‰-†Eo ≤ƒ®Ω’x ´·ç¶«®·éÀ ¢Á∞«x†’.)
2) I am unable to spend money with care.
6) Care free = <èπÿ-*çû√ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ™«í¬)
a) Having married off all his daughters and with American English - ô±˝¢˛’.
3) You don't care whether what you buy is - M. SURESAN
-≤Ú-´’--¢√®Ωç 19 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

ing charm to the eyes. c) A train can carry a large
(à¢Á÷, Éü¿çû√ ü¿÷®Ω°æ¤ éÌçúø-©’- †’†’°æØË number of passengers.

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
Ææçí∫-ûª-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o-†’ -؈’.) (-võ„i-Ø˛ -î√-™«´’çC v°æߪ÷-ùÀèπ◊-©†’
287 Distance lends charm to the eyes = -BÆæ’èπ◊-¢Á-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’ç-C.)
ü¿÷®Ω°æ¤ éÌçúø©’ †’†’°æ¤ (ü¿÷®Ωç ´©x àüÁjØ√ Çéπ-®Ω{-ùÃ- d) City buses carry a large
Pradeep: What are you carrying in your brief ߪ’çí¬ éπ-E°œ≤ƒh-ߪ’-E ¶µ«´ç) number of commuters to
case? Sandeep: Yea. Now I understand. I'm sure you their places of works.
got carried away by the minister's Run The Eenadu ran the
( Brief case (
Æœ-öà -•Ææ’q-©’ -î√-™«-´’ç-C commuters †’ ¢√∞¡Ÿx
-F ™ -àç -Öç-C?) ÅE èπÿú≈ Åçö«®Ω’–
speech the other day telling young story of the land grab on its front page =
(Brief case = ´·êu-¢Á’i† Ææ´÷-î √®Ωç °æE-îËÊÆ îÓôxèπ◊ îË®Ω-¢Ë-≤ƒh®·.)
Ö†o é¬T-û√©’ BÆæ’Èé-∞Ïx Ææ†oE suit Indians to serve their mother land commuter- éπ´‚uô. '´‚u— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç =
Ç ¶µº÷éπ¶«b N≠æߪ’ç ÑØ√úø’ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ Ê°@™ v°æ-
case) and not to be carried away by all Jç-*çC).
-ü¿÷®√-†’†o °æE-îËÊÆ îÓôxèπ◊ (office/ factories, etc) 3) I want to carry on my research there.
Sandeep: Just a report about my health- a cer- that hype about better opportunities
®ÓW v°æߪ÷ùç îËÊÆ-¢√∞¡Ÿx.
tificate from the medical officer that in the states. (
commute = °æE v°æü˨»©èπ◊ î√-™« ü¿÷®Ωç ®ÓW
Ø√ -JÂÆ®˝a Åéπ\úø é̆-≤ƒ-Tç-î√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’.)
I do not carry any infectious dis- carry on = é̆-≤ƒ-Tç-îªôç, continue îËߪ’ôç.
ease.
(Ç É°æ¤púø’ Ø√éπ-®Ωn-¢Á’içC. ¢Á·†o Ç ´’çvA- v°æߪ÷-ùç-îË-ߪ’ôç– local trains, city buses ™«çöÀ
Ö°æ-Ø√u-ÆæçûÓ v°æ¶µ«-N-ûª-¢Á’i-§Ú-ߪ÷´¤. a) Gandhi carried on his movement in spite of
(Ø√ health report – ¢Ájü∆u-Cµ-é¬J ü¿í∫_®Ω ¢√öÀ™x)
Çߪ’†Ø√oúø’í¬ ¶µ«®Ω-B-ߪ’ -ߪ·-´-Bߪ·´- a lot of opposition.
e) carry Åçõ‰ ´’†-ûÓ BÆæ’èπ◊-¢Á-∞¡x-ôç.
†’ç* Ø√Íé-™«ç-öÀ Åçô’¢√uüµ¿’©÷ ™‰´E - èπ◊©’ ÆæyüË-¨»-EéÀ ÊÆ¢√ îËߪ÷-©E, Å¢Á’-J- (´uA-Í®-éπûª Ö†o-°æp-öÀéÀ í¬çDµ ûª† Öü¿u-´÷Eo é̆-≤ƒ-
É-*a-† certificate) i) He always carries a pocket book.
鬙 áèπ◊\´ Å´-é¬-¨»-©’Ø√oߪ’ØË v°æî√-®√-
ii) I don't carry much money.
Tç-î√úø’. (continued))
Pradeep: Why a certificate now? EéÀ ™†-´-ü¿lE.) b) Please carry on. Let me not stop your watch-
Pradeep: By the way, where did you buy that
ing the TV.
(O’®Ω’ TV

Now I understand
îª÷ôdç é̆-≤ƒ-Tç-îªçúÕ.-ØË-†’ -Ç°æ-úøç
™‰ü¿’.)

v°æ¨¡o:
1. They have gone to Hyderabad Åçõ‰
suit case? É°æ¤púø’ carry èπ◊†o ´’J-éÌEo Å®√n©÷, Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©÷
certificate ¢√∞¡Ÿx £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü¿’ ¢Á∞«x®Ω’. (éπü∆) ¢√∞¡Ÿx £j«ü¿-®√-
suit case
(É°æ¤pú≈ áçü¿’èπ◊?)
Sandeep: I've got to carry it because I am
(ÅC ÆæÍ®-é¬F, Ç áéπ\úø îª÷ü∆lç. ¶«ü¿’ ¢ÁRx ´î√a®Ω’ ņ-ö«-EéÀ They have been
applying for an immigrant visa in
éÌØ√o´¤?) Look at the following sentences from the to Hyderabad ÆæÈ®j-†ü∆ é¬ü∆! I, we ûÓ ´÷vûª¢Ë’
Sandeep: Where else? In the US. There are conversation at the beginning been †’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î √™«! ( ¢ÁRx ´î√a®Ω’ ÅE
the US.
very big malls carrying a wide range îÁ°æp-ö«-EéÀ) He, she, it ûÓ ¢ÁRx ´î√a®Ω’ ÅE îÁ°æp-
(Ø√éπC Å´-Ææ®Ωç, ؈’ Å¢Á’-J-鬙 Æœn®Ω- of the lesson.
of goods.
I) A certificate from.... that
°æ-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ -Å°kx îËÆæ’h-Ø√o†’ é¬--•-öÀd.) ö«-EéÀ ᙫ ®√ߪ÷L?
immigrant = ¢ËÍ® -üË-¨¡ç™ Æœn®Ω-°æ-úË-¢√úø’.
(ÉçÈé-éπ\úø Å-¢Á’J-é¬-™ØË, Åéπ\úø î√-™« 1) ... a certificate ... that I do not carry any
2. Where is Vijayawada? DE™ Vijayawada
Pradeep: Why do you want to settle in the US?
®Ω鬩 ≤ƒ´÷†’x/´Ææ’h-´¤-©¢Ë’t °ü¿l °ü¿l infectious diseases.
´’†-éπç-ü¿-JéÀ ûÁL-Æœ† place éπü∆! DE ´·çü¿’
ü¿’é¬-ù«© Ææ-´·-ü∆--ߪ÷-©’ç-ö«®·.) 'The' ®√ü∆.
(Å¢Á’-J-鬙 áçü¿’èπ◊ Æœn®Ω-°æ-ú≈-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’- (Ø√™ Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ ≤ÚÍé Åçô’®Óí¬©’ ™‰´E-
Mall = ü¿’é¬-ù«-© Ææ´·-ü∆-ߪ÷©’çúË îÓô’ ´·êuçí¬ 3. Simple Present Tense, Future tense ûÁ©’í∫’
Ø√o´¤?)
US ™.
É-*a-† certificate.) ¢√é¬u©’ äÍ陫 Öçö«ßª÷! ؈’ ¢Á∞¡Ÿx-ûª’-Ø√o I go,
Sandeep: I want to carry on my research
there. pradeep: OK. I must be going now. I've work at Ééπ\úø carry Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç– Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ ≤ÚÍé Åçô’ I will go Å®Ωnç äéπ-õ‰Ø√!

(Ø√ °æJ-¨--üµ¿-†-†’ Åéπ\úø é̆-≤ƒ-Tç-î√-©-†’- office. Yesterday I made a mistake in ®Óí¬-©’ç-úøôç. 4. soap, paper, bread, Éçé¬ î√™« uncountable
the accounts. I did not carry forward a) Pigs carry/ pigs are the carriers of meningi- nouns †’ ´’†ç- conversation ™ papers,
èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’)
the amount in one of the columns to tis. breads, soaps Åçô÷ plural í¬ °æ©’-èπ◊ûª÷
Pradeep: You can do it here as well.
the next. I have to run the whole ( °æçü¿’© ´©x ¢Á’ü¿úø’¢√°æ¤ ¢√uCµ ¢√u°œ-Ææ’hçC.) Öçö«ç. ÉC éπÈ®-ÍédØ√?
(ÅC Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ îËßÁ·îª’a éπü∆?)
thing on the system again and set it – ï©’x °æ¤-≠æp, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü¿’.
Sandeep: But the universities in the US carry (Ç ¢√uCµE éπL_çîË véÀ´·©’ °æçü¿’™x Öçö«®·)
right. b) A variety of mosquitoes carries malaria. ï¢√•’:1. They have gone to Hyderabad Åçõ‰
much better facilities for the kind of
research I want to do. (ÆæÍ® ØË¢Á-∞«x-Léπ. -Ç°∂‘Æˇ-™ °æ†’çC E†oöÀ (- ´ ’-™‰-J-ߪ ÷ äéπ®Ωéπç üÓ´’-©-´©x ¢√u°œ-Ææ ’hçC.)
O’®Ω-†oô’x ¢√∞¡Ÿx Hyderabad èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x-
™„éπ\™x *†o -§Ò®Ω-§ƒ-ô’ î˨».) (¢√öÀ™ ´’™‰-Jߪ÷ éπ-L-Tç-îË véÀ´·©’çö«®·) ®ΩE Å®Ωnç. ¢ÁRx AJT ´î√a-®Ω-†-ö«-EéÀ –
They have been to Hyderabad
(Å®·ûË -Å-¢Á’-Jéπ-Ø˛ -ߪ‚-E-´-Jq-öÃ-™x ؈’
îËߪ÷-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’†o °æJ-¨-üµ¿-†èπ◊ ´Ææ-ûª’©’ äéπ column (pronunciation- 鬩ç = Ê°-@ °j †’ç* 2)
éÀçCéÀ ¢ËÊÆ ÅçÈé© E©’´¤ ´®ΩÆæ èπÿúÕéπ ™«xçöÀ correct I and
¢ÁRx ´î√a®Ω’ ņ-ö«-EéÀ
Ééπ\úø éπç-õ‰ î√-™« ¶«í∫’ç-ö«®·.) i) The universities in the US carry much better we he, she,
Pradeep: Pity most Indians do not serve their ¢√öÀ™x) *´J ÅçÈ醒, ûª®√yA column °jéÀ ¢Ëߪ’- facilities for the kind of research I want to do.
ûÓ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈,
™‰ü¿’. Ç¢Á·ûªhç ™„éπ\†’ computer ™ áéÀ\ç* ûª°æ¤p it, they ûÓ èπÿ-ú≈ éπÈ®Íéd. Å®·ûË á´J
mother land.
carry shops subject
ÆæJ-C-ü∆lL. system= computer Ééπ\úø Åçõ‰ äéπ îÓô, ´·êuçí¬ ™, N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ØÁjØ√ -Åçõ‰ à
(î√-™«´’çC ¶µ«®Ω-B-ߪ·©’ ´÷ûª%-üË-¨»-EéÀ universities have been \ has been
Å®·Ø√ ÆæÍ®
Run it in the system =
ÆæçÆæn™x ©¶µºu-´’-´ôç. – Å¢Á’-J鬙E
ÊÆ´ îËߪ’-éπ-§Úôç ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%-≠déæ π®Ωç) ™ ؈’ îËߪ÷-©-†’èπ◊ØË °æJ-¨-üµ¿-†èπ◊ ´Ææ-ûª’©’ Ééπ\úÕ (to a place) ņo-°æ¤púø’ , ¢√∞«x ÜJéÀ ¢ÁRx
Sandeep: You don't' understand. The facilities computers ™éÀ áéÀ\ç-îªôç ´î√a-®ΩØË é¬èπ◊çú≈, ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ Ç Ü®Ω’ ûÁ©’Ææ’,
there are different. You don't' need
éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\-´í¬ ©¶µºu-´’-´¤-û√®·. Ééπ\-úÕ-éπç-õ‰ ¶«í¬
Sandeep: Let's meet this evening again. I want ¢√∞¡xé¬ÜJûÓ °æJ-îªßª’ç ÖçC ÅØË Å®Ωnç
any politicians favour to hold a posi- to show you a story the eenadu dis-
¢Á’®Ω’í¬_ Öçö«®·.
ii) There are very big malls carrying a wide
èπÿú≈ ÖçC.
tion or to get a promotion. You've trict edition carried about a scam.
range of goods. e.g. a) I know Mumbai well. I have been there
none of give you orders that you've eenadu
(≤ƒßª’çvûªç éπ-©’Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç >™«x two or three times.
to carry out. Academics enjoy a lot edition (
Åéπ\úø î√©®Ω鬩 ´Ææ’h-´¤©÷, ≤ƒ´÷†÷x ©¶µºu-´’ßË’u
™ ã èπ◊ç-¶µº-éÓ-ù«Eo í∫’Jç-*† - b) She has been to Delhi.
more freedom there. ü¿’é¬-ù«© Ææ´·-ü∆-ߪ÷-©’ç-ö«®·.)
≤Úd-J- Fèπ◊ îª÷°œç-î√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’.)
wide range = NÆæh %ûªv¨ÏùÀ/ î√-™«®Ω鬩.
(úµÕ-Mx ¢ÁRx ´*açC \ úµÕ-Mx Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’)
(†’´y®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ-´ô癉ü¿’.FÖüÓuí∫ç †’´¤y Pradeep: O.K. Take care.
îËÆæ’èπ◊ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊í¬F, Promotion §Òçü¿-ú≈- 2. °∂晫E ´uèπ◊h©, îÓôx,Ê°®Ωx ´·çü¿’The ®√ü¿’.
(ÆæÍ® ñ«ví∫ûªh.) 3) Carry éÀ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç: (Æ‘Y) í∫®Ωs¥çûÓ Öçúøôç.
'ûÁL-Æœ-†-îÓô’— Åçõ‰, Ç ûÁL-Æœ† îÓô’èπ◊ v°æûËu-éπ-
I can't take my wife to the US now because
EéÀ í¬E ®√ï-éÃߪ÷ ÅGµ-´÷†ç Fèπ◊ -Åéπ\®Ω-
™‰-ü¿-éπ\-úø (Research N≠æ-ߪ÷™x). á´®Ω÷      ¢Á’i† Ê°®Ω’çõ‰ 'the' ®√ü¿’. Å™« é¬èπ◊çú≈
she is carrying. Railway station, post office, etc., ™«çöÀ
Daily life situation conversation
Fèπ◊ Çïc-L-´y®Ω’ †’´¤y P®Ω≤ƒ´£œ«ç-îËç-ü¿’-èπ◊/- ™ ÅAûª®Ω-îª’í¬ (Ø√ ¶µ«®Ωu éπúø’-°æ¤ûÓ Öçôç-´©x É°æ¤-pú≈-¢Á’†’ Å¢Á’-J- v°æüË-¨»©’ Åçü¿-Jéà ûÁ©’Ææ’– ´·êuçí¬ ¢√öÀE
carry expressions.
Å-´’©’ °æJ-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊. Åéπ\úø Nü∆u-®Ωç-í∫ç- N†-°æúË ´÷ô™x ü∆çûÓ ´îËa é¬èπ◊ BÆæ’èπ◊ -¢Á-∞¡x-™‰-†’.) í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’-èπ◊-ØË-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊. Å™« ûÁL-Æœ† ¢√öÀ
Carry
™E Nü∆u-Cµ-èπ◊©’ Ééπ\úø éπç-õ‰ áèπ◊\´
≤ƒyûªç-vûªuç ņ’-¶µº-N-≤ƒh®Ω’.) èπ◊ -Ö†o ÅA-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ωù Å®√n©÷, ´’†èπ◊ ûÁL-Æœ-†O 4) Carry éÀ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç, à N≠æ-ߪ’-¢Á’iØ√ ã °ævA-éπ™  ´·çü¿’ 'the' ´Ææ’hçC. ÅçûË-é¬E, Mumbai,
favour = ÅGµ-´÷-†ç/-Å-†’-ví∫£æ«ç.
äéπ-îÓô †’ç* ÉçéÓ-îÓ--ô’èπ◊ -BÆæ’èπ◊-¢Á-∞¡xôç/ (´Ææ’h-´¤-© v°æ-J-ûª-´’-´ôç/ TV™ îª÷°œç-îªôç. Delhi, etc., v°æûËu-éπ¢Á’i† Ê°®Ω’-†o-°æ¤púø’ ®√ü¿’.
Academics = colleges/ universities ™E
†’ ´’†’--≠æfl©†’ îË®Ω-¢Ë-ߪ’ôç, ´’†ûÓ àüÁjØ√ BÆæ’èπ◊-
a) The Eenadu carries the news of some scam 3. Simple Present - I go ™«çöÀ ¢√é¬u™x Å®Ωnç ØËE-
¢Á∞¡xôç
Nü∆u-Cµ-èπ◊©’. or the other almost every day. °æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o-†-E- é¬F, ®ÓW ¢Á∞«h-†-E-é¬F (véπ´’ç
(carry éÀ past tense, past participle - carried) ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ ïJÍí °æ†’-©èπ◊).I will go - Åçõ‰
Academic = Nü∆u N-≠æ-ߪ’-¢Á’i-†.
a) A porter carries luggage = porter (Railway
(ü∆ü∆°æ¤ v°æA®Ó-W -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ °ævA-éπ™ àüÓ äéπ future ™ ¢Á-∞«h†E– Åçõ‰ ¶µºN-≠æu-ûª’h™  Ñ È®çúø’
Prescribing a syllabus for a course is an a
stations/ Bus stations ™«çöÀ îÓôx èπÿM©’) èπ◊ç-¶µº-éÓùç í∫’-Jç-*-† -¢√®Ωh Öçô’çC (v°æ-J-≤ƒh®Ω’).
academic matter =
äéπöÀ é¬ü¿’ éπü∆?
b) The channel carried a live telecast of the
(àüÁjØ√ course is an academic matter = ≤ƒ´÷-†x†’ ¢Á÷≤ƒhúø’. 4. -Å™« ¢√öÀE plural ™ ¢√úøôç ûªÊ°p. Å™« ¢√úø-
b) He was carrying some books. game.
àüÁjØ√ course èπ◊ EÍ®l-PçîË §ƒ®∏√u稡ç Nü¿uèπ◊ (Ç Çô v°æûªuéπ~ v°æ≤ƒ®Ωç channel ™ îª÷°œç-î√®Ω’.)
èπÿ-úø-ü¿’.
Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-çC) (Åûª†’ éÌEo °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ BÆæ’èπ◊-¢Á-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’-Ø√o--úø’.)
Pradeep: I still feel it is a case of distance lend- (past™) (äéÓ\-≤ƒJ, °ævA-éπ™x àüÁjØ√ N≠æߪ’ç ®√´-ö«Eo
- M. SURESAN
-•’-üµ¿-¢√®Ωç 21 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Mohith: I go with dad. I believe in economy The Prime Minister of
and discipline too. Pakistan is only the nominal
head.=
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
(؈’ ´÷Ø√-†oØË Å†’-Ææ-J≤ƒh. §Òü¿’°æ‹, véπ´’-
288 P-éπ~ù« ؈÷ Å´-©ç-G≤ƒh) §ƒéÀ-≤ƒnØ˛ v°æüµ∆E Ê°®Ω’èπ◊
(Believe = †´’tôç. Believe in = ņ’-Ææ-®Ω- ´÷vûª¢Ë’/ Ø√´’éπ” ´·ê’uúø’.
Nisith: How much money have you? Do you
ùÃ-ߪ’-¢Á’i-†-ü¿E/ ´’ç*-ü¿E †´’tôç) The real head is Musharaff=
have? Nisith: A good dad's son you are. I appreciate

v°æ¨¡o:
ÅÆæ-™„j† ØËûª ´·≥ƒ-®Ω°∂ˇ
you.
(F ü¿í∫_®Ω úø•’s áçûª ÖçC? Öçü∆?) 3) I have to carry out his instructions =
Mohith: Why are you asking?
(†’´¤y ûªçvúÕéÀ ûªí∫_ éÌúø’-èπ◊´¤. E†’o ؈’
¢Á’a-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’). carry out = Å´’-©’-°æ-®Ω-îªôç (äéπJ Çïc©’) -1. The nationalist congress party headed by
(áçü¿’-éπ-úø’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?)
Mohith: OK. Thanks. Look here. You've made a) Laxmana always carried out the orders of Mr. Sharad Pawar has complained that the
Nisith: (I was) wondering if you could lend me congress is not consulting its constituent
a mistake in your calculations. You for- Sri Rama =
some money. parties on important issues.
got to carry forwards this amount to X®√-´·úÕ Çïc-©†’ ©éπ~-ù’-úÁ-°æ¤púø÷ P®Ω≤ƒ
the next column. 2. The BJP president has said that BJP will
(†’¢Ëy-´’Ø√o Ø√èπ◊ Å°œp-´y-í∫-©-¢Ë-¢Á÷-†E ņ’-
´£œ«ç-î√úø’.
not support congress at centre.
èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o)
Mohith: I have just enough money to carry me
(ÆæÍ®. üµ¿†u-¢√-ü∆©’. Ééπ\úø îª÷úø’. F ™„éπ\™x b) The King's orders had to be carried out =
ûª°æ¤p î˨»´¤. Ñ E©’´¤ ´®ΩÆæ *´J 3. However, Miss Umabharathi contradicted
through this month. I'm afraid I can't ®√ñ«-ïc©’ á´-È®jØ√ Å´’©’°æ®Ω-î √-LqçüË/
¢Á·û√hEo ûª®Ω’-¢√A E©’´¤ ´®ΩÆæ °j† the rumour that she is disobeying party
lend you any. ņ’-Ææ-Jç-î√-LqçüË.
¢Ëߪ’ôç ´’®Ω-*-§Ú-ߪ÷´¤.) principles.
(ÑØÁ© í∫úø-´-ö«-EéÀ ÆæJ-§Ú-ßË’çûª úø¶‰s ÖçC Nisith: That's like Mohith - always careful c) Carry out my orders. Don't question them
4. The PM Vajpayee has said that only NDA
about calculations.
Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω. Fèπ◊؈’ Å°æ¤p É´y-™‰-†-†’-èπ◊çö«) Ø√ Çïc-©†’ §ƒöÀç. ¢√öÀéÀ áü¿’-®Ω’-îÁ-°æpèπ◊. can provide the stability to the country.
5. The Municipal commissioner, Raghu

What rate do they carry
Veera Reddy, said immediate measures
are being taken up to provide drinking
water to the residents of Kurnool.
-ï-¢√-•’: †÷uÆˇKúø®˝ îÁ•’-ûª’†o Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç Åçû√
Indirect speech is not con-
鬕-öÀd 1 ´ ¢√éπuç™
sulting was not consulting
•ü¿’©’ ÅE, 2 ´
Nisith: My brother-in-law has asked me to buy will not support would not
(Mohith Åçõ‰ ÅçûË. ™„éπ\© N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ 4) I am afraid it is carrying them too far = ¢√éπuç™ •ü¿’©’
him a bike. He would pay me, of support she is disobeying
ÅE, 3 ´ ¢√éπuç™
á°æ¤púø÷ ñ«ví∫ûËh.) ÉC ´’K ÅA ÅE-°œ-≤ÚhçC Ø√èπ◊.
course, but I've to spend now. I am
Mohith: OK. OK. Let's get on with our work. carry something too far = äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo ÅAí¬ •ü¿’©’ she was disobeying ÅE, 4´ ¢√éπuç™
short of Rs 15000/-. If you could lend it
can provide could
•ü¿’©’
to me I would pay off next week.
(ÆæÍ® ÆæÍ® – °æE îËü∆lç) îËߪ’ôç/ ÅAí¬ îÁ°æpôç/ ÅAí¬ v§ƒ´·êuç
provide
☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
ÅE, 5´ ¢√éπuç™
(´÷ ¶«´ ûª†éÓ bike é̆-´’E îÁ§ƒp®Ω’. É´yôç.
measures are being taken
Çߪ’† úøGs-≤ƒh-®Ω-†’éÓ. é¬E ´·çü¿’ ؈’ Daily life situations
™ spoken English ™ î√™« a) We welcome politeness but Hari carries it
up Measures
•ü¿’©’
°ô’d-•-úÕ-°-ö«dL éπü∆. ã 15000 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ carry, carry
ûÓ ´îËa expressions í∫’Jç* too far =
were being taken up
ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ÅE
ûªí¬_®·. †’´¤y-í∫-†éπ ÉÊÆh ´îËa¢√®Ωç îªJa-Ææ’hØ√oç éπü∆. Ñ≤ƒJ ´’J-éÌ-Eoç-öÀE ûÁ©’-Ææ’- ´’®√uü¿ Åçõ‰ ´’†-éπçû√ É≠æd¢Ë’, é¬F £æ«J ÅA-
ÉîËa-≤ƒh†’.) èπ◊çü∆ç. Öçú≈L éπü∆!
´’-®√uü¿ îª÷°œ-≤ƒhúø’. (ÅGµ-©-≠æ-ùÃ-ߪ’-¢Á’i† ü∆E-éπçõ‰ Indirect speech
Mohith: I do have the money but it is all in fixed Look at the following sentences from the
Eߪ’-´÷©
áèπ◊\´) present continuous
deposits. I can't disturb them without conversation between Nisith and Mohith
v°æ鬮Ωç
the loss of interest. b) Rama Rao controls his children too past continuous
above.
†’ í¬,
much. He carries discipline too far = will / can + present verb Would / could +
(Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω úø•’sçC é¬F Åçû√ fixed 1) I have just enough money to carry me
†’
deposits ™ ÖØ√o®·. ´úŒf †≠æd-§Ú-èπ◊çú≈ past verb
through this month. ®√´÷-®√´¤ ûª† °œ©xLo ´’K Åü¿’-°æ¤™ °úø- í¬ ´÷®√aL éπü∆! Å™« áçü¿’èπ◊ îÁ°æp-
¢√öÀE éπC-Lç-îª-™‰†’) 2) What rate do they carry û√úø’. ÅC ÅA véπ´’-P-éπ~ù. ™‰ü¿’? OöÀE éπÈ®-é˙dí¬ á™« Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√™ -ûÁ©’-°æ-
Nisith: What rate do they carry? 3) ... and I have to carry out his instructions. c) She eats very little to stay slim. That's
í∫-©®Ω’. Idioms éÓÆæç àüÁjØ√ äéπ ´’ç* °æ¤Ææhéπç
rate carrying dieting too far =
Ææ÷*ç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
(´úŒf áçûª?) 4) I am afraid that it is carrying them too far.
(Fixed deposit Åçõ‰ ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπü∆? Bank ™ 5) You forgot to carry forward this amount to Ææ†oí¬ Öçú≈-©E î√™« ûªèπ◊\-´í¬ Açô’çC.
– £æ«†’-´’çûª’, v°œßª÷çéπ ¨¡¨»çé˙,
ï¢√•’:
the next column.
ã EKgûª 鬙«-EéÀ (Åçõ‰ 3 ØÁ©©’, 6 ØÁ©©’, éÌEo ÅC ÅA dieting îËߪ’ôç.
í¬®Ωx-CØÁo, éπ®Ω÷o©’.
Ææç´-ûªq-®√©÷, etc) §Òü¿’°æ¤ îËÆæ’-èπ◊ØË ¢Á·û√h©’. Ç 1) To carry me through this month =
Dieting Åçõ‰
1. correct: ' The Nationalist congress
EKg-ûª-é¬©ç °æ‹®Ωh-ßË’u-´-®Ωèπ◊ úø•’s BÆæ’-éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ Å´- ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆: ™«´-´¤-û√-´’ØË ÉC
ÑØÁ© ïJ-Íí-ü∆é¬ í∫úø-´-ö«-EéÀ.
Party headed by Mr Sharad Pawar has
鬨¡ç Öçúøü¿’. ´’K Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’iûË ´’†-éÌîËa ´úŒf ¶µºßª’çûÓ/ Ææ†oí¬ Ø√Wí¬_ éπE-°œç-î√-©ØË éÓJ-éπûÓ
Carry some one through something =
éπØ√o áèπ◊\´ ´úŒféÀ BÆæ’-éÓ-´îª’a. Rate= ´úŒf-¨»ûªç) ǣ慮Ωç ûªT_ç--éÓ-´ôç/ éÌEo ®Ω鬩 ǣ慮Ω complained... reporting verb, 'has
Ééπ\úø
Mohith: Why do you want to know?
éπ≠dæ Ææ´’-ߪ÷™x ûªô’d-éÓ-í∫-L-Í홫 îËߪ’ôç.
complained'. This is in the present tense,
°æü∆-®√n™‰ A†ôç.
a) Gandhi's tenacity carried him through the
(áçü¿’èπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤?) 5) You forgot to carry forward the amount to so the tense of the reported verb need not
freedom struggle=
Nisith: I will pay you that interest or even the next column. be changed, so congress is not consulting
more. Let me have the money.
≤ƒyûªçvûªu §Ú®√-ôç™ í¬çDµ °æô’d-ü¿™‰ Çߪ’†’o
carry forward = äéπ E©’´¤ ´®ΩÆæ *´®Ω Ö†o is correct.
†úÕ-°œç-*çC/ ûªô’d-éÌ-ØË™« îËÆœçC.
(ÅçûË ´úŒf é¬F, Åçûª-éπØ√o áèπ◊\¢Ë é¬F b) Kishore lost his hand in the accident, but ÅçÈ醒, ûª®√yA E©’´ ´®Ω’-Ææ-°j† ¢Ëߪ’ôç – èπÿúÕ- 2. °j†sentence no 1 èπ◊ îÁ°œp-†ô’xí¬ Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈
ØËE≤ƒh. Ø√èπ◊ úøGs´¤y.) his confidence carried him through to éπ©’, BÆœ-¢Ë-ûª© ûª®√yûª. É™«çöÀ ÅçÈ醒 brought reporting verb, has said present tense
Mohith: You can have it then. You know, dad's forward (BF) ÅE èπÿú≈ Åçö«®Ω’. reported verb will not support
success = 鬕öÀd †’
instructions are that I save as much as would not support
a) Add this to the amount carried forward = í¬ ´÷®Ωa-èπÿ-úøü¿’. 鬕öÀd
I can, and I have to carry out his
v°æ´÷-ü¿ç™ îË®· §ÚíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊†o éÀ¨-®˝†’ ÅûªE
†÷uÆˇKúø®˝ ¢√éπuç éπÈ®é˙d.
instructions.
Çûªt-N-¨»yÆæç Nï-ߪ÷-EéÀ †úÕ-°œç-*çC. Ñ ¢Á·û√hEo ´·çü¿’ ´®ΩÆæ *´J ¢Á·û√h-EéÀ
c) His determination carried him through the éπ©’°æ¤. 3. Ñ sentence ™, °j sentences ™™«
(Å®·ûË BÆæ’éÓ. O©-®·-†çûª §Òü¿’°æ¤ îËߪ÷-
©E ´÷ Ø√†o Çü˨¡ç. Çߪ’† ÇüË-¨»©’ difficult bowling and tight fielding to a cen- b) This amount has been carried forward
é¬èπ◊çú≈, reporting verb- Umabharathi said,
tury = 'said' past tense ™ ÖçC. 鬕öÀd she is dis-
§ƒöÀç-î√-LqçüË) from the last page =
Bowling éπ≠dçæ í¬ ÖØ√o, fielding tight obeying ûª°æ¤p.She was disobeying í¬
Nisith: So you keep just enough money that
í¬ page
century
éÀçü¿öÀ ™E ¢Á·û√hEo Ééπ\úø ¢Ë¨»ç. Öçú≈L.
lasts you a month and put the rest in
ÖØ√o, ÅûªE éπ%ûª-E-¨¡aߪ’ç ÅûªEo
the bank in fixed deposits.
éÌõ‰dô’x îËÆœçC. EXERCISE 4. Sentences 1,2 ™x ™«í¬, Ééπ\úÕ reporting
Carry someone through something conver- MATCH THE FOLLOWING verb, 'has said', present tense 鬕öÀd, can
(Åçü¿’-éπE †’´¤y ØÁ©èπ◊ ÆæJ-°æú≈ Öç-èπ◊E sational English common & effec-
N’í∫û√ Fixed deposits ™ °æúË-≤ƒh-´-†o- ™ î√™« provide, correct. ÉC could provide í¬
A B
tive. Practice îËߪ’çúÕ. ´÷®Ωa-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
´÷ô).
2) What rate do they carry. 1. Beverage A. Walker (on the street)
Mohith: Yea. That's what dad says. He insists 5. Ééπ\úÕ reporting verb 'said' sentence 3 ™
rate = interest rate = 2. Colossal B. enjoy ™«í¬ past tense 鬕öÀd, ™°æL reported
on economy and discipline. -Ééπ\úø ´úŒf-¨»ûªç.
(ÅüË ´÷ Ø√†o îÁÊ°pC. Çߪ’-†èπ◊ §Òü¿’°æ¤, carry = ´úŒf-°æ-úøôç 3. Pedestrian C. flow out verbs ÅFo past tense ™, past form ™
véπ´’-P-éπ~ù Åçõ‰ °æöÀdç°æ¤.) a) What rate does the farmer's loan carry? = 4. Relish D. drink Öçú≈L. 鬕öÀd are being taken up, wrong.
(Economy= §Òü¿’°æ¤) È®jûª’© ®Ω’ùçO’ü¿ ´úŒf ¨»ûªç áçûª °æúø’-ûª’çC? 5. Ooze E. huge (very big) ÉC were being taken up Å®·-ûËØË correct.
Nisith: I'm afraid it is carrying them too far. b) These loans carry nominal interests = Idioms èπ◊ ´’ç*°æ¤Ææhéπç Mcmordie's Book of
F. remember
Ñ ®Ω’ù«© O’ü¿ î√™« ûªèπ◊\´ ´úŒf °æúø’-ûª’çC. Idioms.
KEY: 1 D 2 E 3 A 4 B 5 C.
(Ø√éπC ÅA §Òü¿’°æ¤, ÅA véπ´’-P-éπ~ù« ÅE-°œ-
≤ÚhçC) (Nominal = Ê°®Ω’èπ◊ ´÷vûª¢Ë’) - M. SURESAN
-¨¡Ÿ-véπ-¢√®Ωç 23 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

èπ◊û√ç. Å®Ωnç – §ƒûª-•-úÕ† building èπ◊ ´’®Ω-´’t-ûª’©’ Ééπ\úÕ expression: to get car-
îËÆœ, ®Ωçí∫’©’ ¢ËÆœ ´’ç* ÆœnAéÀ BÆæ’èπ◊-®√-´ôç. ried away / to be carried away

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
î√™«´’çC remodelling Åçô’ç-ö«®Ω’, ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’) = (--üË-E´©x-ØÁjØ√) ´¨¡ç ûª°æpúøç/
289 Apsara: Don't be carried away by her glam- üËE-O’--üÁjØ√ ¢Á÷V™ ´’† Çûªt-
our and mistake that she is talent- E-ví∫£æ«ç éÓ™p-´ôç.
Kinnera: Take a look at that woman, getting ed. a) Watching cricket on the TV,
out of the car. (Do you) know who (Ç¢Á’ Çéπ-®Ω{-ùèπ◊ ™-ØÁj Ç¢Á’èπ◊ v°æA¶µº many viewers get carried
she is and what she is? Öçü¿ØË §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ îËߪ’èπ◊) away / are carried away by the happenings
in the match.
v°æ¨¡o :-
(ÇN-úø†’ ã≤ƒJ îª÷úø’. Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’≤ƒ Kinnera: I am her admirer, whatever you say.
Have been able + p.v, may have been able
ÇN-úÁ-´®Ó, àç îËÆæ’hç-üÓ-.) Our classmate Mugda, lasya's first (TV -™ cricket îª÷ÊÆ vÊ°éπ~-èπ◊©’ match ™E
to + p.v., must have been able to + p.v
Apsara: Absolutely no idea. cousin has given me her cell num- Ææç°∂æ’-ô-†© ´©x ´¨¡ç -ûª-°æ¤p-û√®Ω’ / ûª-´’-†’ -û√´· ûÓ
(ÅÆæ©’ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’) ber. She said I could talk to Lasya -´’-®Ω-*§Ú-û√®Ω’.) ¢√é¬u©’ EJt-ûª-¢Á’i-†-°æ¤púø’ ¢√öÀ Å®√n©’ ᙫ
whenever I wanted. b) So carried away was he by his liking for the
Kinnera: She is a leading lawyer and mem-
Öç--ö«ßÁ÷ -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’ .
film star that he was blind to her defects = 1) We have been able to persuade them.
ber of the university syndicate. Her (†’¢Ëy´’Ø√o ņ’ ØËØ√¢Á’ ÅGµ´- ÷-E- E/ fan
word carries a lot of weight in the †’. ´’† classmate ´·í∫¥l ™«Ææuèπ◊ first (Ç film star O’ü¿ Åûª-E-èπ◊†o ¢Á÷V™ Ç¢Á’ 2) He might have been able to keep the
university circles. cousin. Lasya cell phone number üÓ-≥ƒ™‰ç Åûª-EéÀ éπE°œç-îª-™‰ü¿’). promise.

(Ç¢Á’ v°æ´·ê lawyer, university syn- Ø√éÀ-*açC, á°æ¤p-úÁjØ√ ´÷ö«x-úø-´-îªaE c) Don't be carried away by his sweet words. 3) She must have been able to get their
dicate Æ涵º’u-®√©’. Ç¢Á’ ´÷ôèπ◊ uni- îÁ°pœ çC.) He may deceive you = support.
versity ´®√_™ x î√-™« N©’´ -ÖçC) Admirer = Åúøt-ߪ’®Ω – '´’— ØÌ-éÀ\ -°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç = (ÅûªE Aߪ’uöÀ ´÷ô-©-ûÓ †’´¤y ´¨¡ç -ûª-°æpèπ◊. °j ´‚úø’ ¢√é¬u™x Åçúø®˝ ™„jØ˛ îËÆœ† °æü∆©
é¬çG-ØË-≠æ-Ø˛èπ◊ Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ. ¢√úË Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo ûÁ©-

Her word carries a lot of weight
°æ-í∫-©®Ω’
– £æ«Ææqü˛ ¢Á÷®·-Ø˛-ë«Ø˛, áN’t-í∫-†÷®Ω’
ï-¢√-•’:
1) We have been able to persuade them =
(Past action)
¢Ë’´· ¢√∞¡x-èπ◊- †îªaîÁ°æp-í∫-Lí¬ç.
Ωu ïJ-Tç-C
Apsara: Is that so?
2) He might have been able to keep his
(Å´¤Ø√?)
Kinnera: She is that great actress Lasya's
ÅGµ-´÷E /fan. Admire = ÅGµ-´÷-Eç-îª-ôç /- Åûª†’ E†’o ¢Á÷Ææç îË-ßÁ·îª’a.)
3) She is carrying out renovation work for promise =
sister. If Lasya is a talented actress,
¢Á’-a-éÓ-´ôç. first cousins = ņo-ü¿-´·t-© /- Åûª†’ ûª† ´÷ô†’ E©-¶„-ô’d-éÓ-í∫-
the old mansion. L-Íí-¢√-úË¢Á÷/ í∫L-í∫’ç-úÌa (E©-¶„-ô’d-éÓ-éπ-§Ú®‚
this woman is a genius of a lawyer.
Å-éπ\-îÁ-™„x∞¡x Gúøf©’
Apsara: Why waste your valuable cell Carrying out (Carry out) = éÀç-ü¿-öÀ lesson ™ ÖçúÌa) – doubtful.
Lasya
3) She must have been
(Ç íÌ°æp-†öÀ ≤Úü¿J -Ñ¢Á’. Ç¢Á’ carry out
phone talk time? Åçõ‰ Çïc-™«xç-öÀN Å-´’©’°æ-®Ω-îª-úøç ÅØË
able to get their sup-
v°æA¶µº í∫© †öÀ Å®·ûË, Ñ¢Á’ ¢Ë’üµ∆N Å®Ωnç Öçü¿E -ûÁ-©’Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø Carry
Å®·† lawyer.) (áçü¿’èπ◊ cell phone ™ talk time
out èπÿ Å®Ωnç – ņ’-èπ◊†o °æ†’©’ E®Ωy-£œ«ç-îªôç. port = support
¢√∞¡x
Apsara: Lasya, a talented actress?! You
´%-ü∑∆- îËÆæ’èπ◊ç-ö«´¤)
Kinnera: I've a lot of carry over from my last a) She is carrying out repairs / renovation (éπ*a-ûªçí¬) §Òçü¿-í∫-LÍí
alone say that. I don't see any talent
card. I won't be wasting much. work for the old mansion. Öçô’çC (§ÒçCçC).
in her. She's just a glam girl.
(Ç ¶µº´çAéÀ -Ç¢Á’ ´’®Ω-´’t-ûª’©’, Å©ç-é¬-®√©÷ He must have passed =
    
Pass
(™«Ææu v°æA¶µºí∫©-†ö«?! †’¢Ì\-éπ\-ü∆-E¢Ë îË®·-≤ÚhçC.) (éπ*a-ûªçí¬) ÅßË’u
Carry ûÓ ´îËa ´’J-éÌEo expressions Å®Ωnç, Ö°æ- b) The government has set up a committee to
Å™« ÅØËC. -Ç-N-úø-™ Ø√Íéç v°æA¶µº (pass
Öçö«úø’. Åߪ÷uúø’)
carry out an enquiry into the accident =
éπ-E°œç-‰ü¿’. Ç¢Á’-èπ◊†oü¿çû√ Çéπ-®Ω{ù‰.) ßÁ÷í∫ç É°æ¤púø’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. É´Fo èπÿú≈ éπ*a-ûª-
He must have felt angry. He was about to
Glam girl = glamour girl = Åçü¿ç ´÷vûª¢Ë’ - ¢Á’i† ¶µ«´ v°æéπ-ô-†èπ◊ (Precise expression of com-
(Ç v°æ´÷ü¿ç°j Nî√-®Ω-ù-èπ◊ v°æ¶µº’ûªyç äéπ beat me =
ideas èπ◊) î√™« Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø-û√®·.
Öç-úÕ, Åçûª †ô-Ø√éı-¨¡©ç ™‰E û√®Ω. glamour ¢√úÕéÀ ¶«í¬ éÓ°æç ´*a Öçô’çC
mittee E à®Ωp-J-*çC.) (´*açC). ††’o éÌôd-¶-ߪ÷úø’.
ÅÆæ-©’ -Å®Ωn¥ç = Ææç°æü¿, Nïߪ’ç ´©x äéπ ´uéÀh Look at the following sentences from the c) Tests have been carried out to decide
§ÒçüË Çéπ-®Ω{ù.) dialogue above whether the drug is safe or not =
v°æ¨¡o: Thanks, bank, balance, cash ¢Á·ü¿-™„j†
Kinnera: You're wrong. She's definitely tal- 1) Her word carries a lot of weight.
°æü∆-©†’ phonetics v°æ鬮Ωç -ü∑Ëçé˙q / ¶‰çé˙/
(Ç ´’çü¿’ Íé~´’-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i-†ü∆, é¬ü∆ ÅE E®√l¥-Jç-îËç-
ented. 2) You get carried away by her glamour.
¶‰©Ø˛q / Íé≠ˇ... ÅE °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç éπü∆. é¬F
ü¿’èπ◊ °æK-éπ~©’ E®Ωy-£œ«ç-î√®Ω’. (ïJ-í¬®·.) OöÀE ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ®√ÊÆ-ô-°æ¤úø’ ü∑∆uçé˙q, ¶«uçé˙,
(†’´¤y §Ò®Ω-•-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤. Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ´’ç* 3) She is carrying out renovation work for the 5) I have a lot of carry over from my last card
mansion.
¶«u™„Ø˛q, é¬u≠ˇ -Å-E ('ߪ’—鬮ΩçûÓ) ®√≤ƒh®Ω’.
v°æA¶µº -ÖçC, †ô-†™) = ( §Ú®·† card ™ N’T-L§Ú®·† talk time
Apsara: You and others like you get carried 4) Don't be carried away by her glamour
Å™« ®√ߪ’úøç ûª°æ¤p éπü∆!
– §Úûª’© XE-¢√Ææ’, ¢Ëí¬-ߪ’´’t Ê°ô,
Ø√èπ◊ ¶™„-úø’çC.)
away by her glamour and think her 5) I have a lot of carry over from my last card. Carry over = í∫ûªç™ N’T-L-§Ú-®·†ü∆Eo/ ÇT-
action is great. 1) Carries a lot of weight. Ééπ\úø carries èπ◊ §Ú-®·-†ü∆Eo v°æÆæ’hûªç ¢√úø’-éπ-™-éÀ- B-Ææ’-èπ◊-®√-´ôç. ûª÷®Ω’p-íÓ-ü∆-´J
(†’´¤y, F™«çöÀ-¢√-∞¡Ÿx Ç¢Á’ Çéπ-®Ω{-ùÃ-ߪ’-¢Á’i† Å®Ωnç éπ-L-T Öçúø-ôç / -ä-éπ-JéÀ äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷-E-éÀ a) Funds not used in the last financial year ï-¢√-•’:
®Ω÷§ƒ-EéÀ ´¨¡-¢Á’i-§Ú®·, Ç¢Á’ î√-™« v°æA-¶µº- Ææç-•ç-Cµç-* -àüÁjØ√ Öçúøôç. are carried over to the present budget = í∫ûª ûÁ©’-í∫’™ thanks ™«çöÀ ´÷ô-™xE 'a' ûÁL-Ê°
í∫© †öÀ ņ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’) Her word carries a lot of weight. (Ééπ\úø weight ÇJnéπ Ææç´-ûªq-®Ωç™ ¢√úøE Eüµ¿’-©’ Ñ Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç -¨¡-¶«l-EéÀ ÆæÈ®j† Åéπ~®Ωç ™‰ü¿’. Åçü¿’-éπE bank
Kinnera: What do you know? She is rare èπ◊ Å®Ωnç – N©’-´ / -v§ƒ-´·êuç) Ç¢Á’ ´÷ôèπ◊ î√™« budget ™ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’/ ¢√úø-é¬-EéÀ ´≤ƒh®·. ™«çöÀ-¢√öÀ™E 'a' Åéπ~®Ωç ûÁLÊ° ¨¡¶«l-EéÀ ü¿í∫_-
combination of charm and histrion- N©’´ ÖçC. Ç¢Á’ ´÷ô î√™« N©’´ éπ-L-T b) The unused amount in the expired card ®Ωí¬ Ö†o ¨¡•lç, ¶«u. Åçü¿’-éπE Å™«-®√-≤ƒh®Ω’.
ics. Öçô’çC. can be carried over to the next period = ûÁ©’-í∫’-™-èπÿú≈, û√ö«-èπ◊™ 'ö«—, îÁ§ƒp-úø’™
(FÍéç ûÁ©’Ææ’ ? Ç¢Á’ Åçü¿ç, †ôØ√ a) He carries a lot of influence = [Cell Phone] 鬩ç îÁLx† card ™ N’T-L-§Ú- §ƒp ᙫ- °æ-©’-èπ◊-û√®Ó, bank™ èπÿú≈ ba Å™«
éı-¨¡-™«© Å®Ω’-üÁj† éπ©-®·éπ.) Åûª-EéÀ î√-™« °æ©’èπ◊•úÕ ÖçC. ®·† ¢Á·û√hEo ûª®√yA ¢Á·ûªhç™ éπ©’-°æ¤-û√®Ω’. °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
Rare combination = ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ éπ†-°æ-úøE b) The job of a Collector carries a lot of (expire= 鬩ç -îÁ-©xôç) v°æ¨¡o :-
È®çúø’ íÌ°æp ©éπ~-ù«© Å®Ω’-üÁj† éπ©-®·éπ. responsibility = c) This habit of his is a carry over from his Adverb í∫’Jç* N´-®Ωçí¬ -ûÁ-©°æç-úÕ.
Histrionics = †ô†/ †ô-†èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† childhood days =
Collector
– á. §ƒ´E, û√úÕ-°ævA, ņç-ûª-°æ¤®Ωç
ÖüÓuí∫ç î√™« ¶«üµ¿u-ûªûÓ èπÿúÕçC. Ñ Å©-¢√ô’ ÅûªE *†o-°æpöÀ
c) The position of the MD of company carries
N≠æߪ’ç (£œ«ÆœZ-ߪ÷-Eé˙q.) Å®·ûË ÉC áèπ◊\-´í¬ ®ÓV-©- †’ç* ´*açüË.
Éûª-®Ω’© ≤ƒ†’-¶µº÷A §Òçü¿-ö«-EéÀ éÌ-ç-ü¿®Ω’ îËÊÆ a good number of perks = ÉO carry ûÓ ´îËa effective expressions. ´’† ï-¢√-•’:
conversation ™ practice îËü∆lç. Adverb Åçõ‰ verb ûÁLÊ° °æE ᙫ
†ô† – ûÁ*a°ô’d-èπ◊†o ¶µ«-¢√-©ûÓ.) ã company Managing Director °æü¿-NéÀ î√™« ïJ-TçC ÅE îÁÊ°p-´÷ô. He walked slowly.
Apsara: She is certainly poor at acting. ¶µºû√u--™«xçöÀN Öçö«®·. Position = °æü¿N (´÷´‚- Match the following:
(Ç¢Á’èπ◊ †ôØ√ v°æA¶µº ûªèπ◊\¢Ë.) ©’í¬ °æJ-ÆœnA- ÅØË Å®Ωnç-™ áèπ◊\´ ¢√-úø-û√ç). A B Ñ Sentence ™ verb-walked- †úÕ-î√úø’.
Kinnera: She's (she has) bought an old man- (perks = perquisites èπ◊ abbreviation - °æü¿N ´- 1. Farming A. Tell (usually a story) ᙫ †úÕ-î√úø’? Åç-õ‰ slowly ÅØË answer
sion and is carrying out renovation ©x ´îËa Ö*ûª ≤˘éπ-®√u©’ – Ö*-ûªçí¬ car, furniture 2. Polite B. Cultivation ´Ææ’hçC 鬕öÀd slowly ÅØËC adverb. Å™«Íí
work for it. Once it is complete, it's She sang sweetly. Ééπ\úø ᙫ §ƒúÕçC Åçõ‰
-Ö-†o É©’x, °œ©x© îªü¿’-´¤ ¶µºûªuç ™«çöÀN) 3. Narrate C. Area
going to be as glamourous as her. Sweetly ÅE answer ´Ææ’hçC 鬕öÀd sweet-
d) Crimes always carry punishments = 4. Enormous D. Courteous
ly-adverb. ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ 90] Ææçü¿-®√s¥™ x '-ly'
(Ç¢Á’ §ƒûª ¶µº´ç-A -éÌE ü∆EéÀ éÌûªh- ØË®√-©-Èé-°æ¤púø÷ Péπ~ Öçô’çC. 5. Region E. Unnecessary
®Ω÷°æç É°œp-≤ÚhçC. ÅC °æ‹®Ωh-®·ûË, ÅC 2) You get carried a way by her glamour F. Huge
*´®Ω ´îËa ´÷ô©’ Adverbs.
4) Don't be carried away by her glamour. KEY: 1) B 2) D 3) A 4) F 5) C.
èπÿú≈ Ç-¢Á’-™« Çéπ-®Ω{-ùÃ-ߪ’çí¬ Öçô’çC)
(Renovation = È®†-¢Á-ß˝’-≠æØ˛ – ¢Áß˝’ ØÌéÀ\- °æ-©’- - M. SURESAN
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 25 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Suphala: Any way, all our troubles will be a
thing of the past, if only our efforts
ûªLx ûª† °œ©x-©-éÓÆæç à éπ≥ƒdEo
bear fruit.
¶µºJç-îª-ö«-E-ÈéjØ√ Æœü¿l¥-°æ-úø’-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
ûª’çC.
290 (àüÁjØ√, ´’† v°æߪ’-û√o-©Fo °∂æLÊÆh ´’† b) Just because of my
¶«üµ¿-©Fo í∫Aç-*† N≠æ-ߪ÷©´¤û√®·.) respect for him I bore all
Vatsala: Have you met pramila of late?
Vatsala: That’s it. Thank God we are through his misdeeds =
the exams. (Ñ´’üµ¿u v°æO’-©-ØË-´’Ø√o éπL-¨»¢√?) Åûª-E-O’ü¿ íı®Ω´ç ´©x, ÅûªE
Suphala: No. We aren’t on talking terms. b) Parasurama bore a grudge against
(°æK-éπ~-™„j-§Ú-ߪ÷®·. •A-éÀ-§Úߪ÷ç) Åé¬-®√u-©Fo (ûª°æ¤púø’ °æ†’©’) ¶µºJç-î√†’. Kshatriyas =
Suphala: What a relief! Looking back I just
(™‰ü¿’. ¢Ë’ç ´÷ö«x-úø’-éÓ-´-ôç-™‰ü¿’) ÉüË Å®Ωnç/ ¶µ«´çûÓ Â°j† É*a† sentence no 2
wonder how we were able to bear not on talking terms = ´’†-Ææp-®Ωn© ´©x, îª÷úøçúÕ: éπ~vA-ߪ·© O’ü¿ °æ®Ω-¨¡Ÿ-®√-´·úø’ °æí∫ °ç-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
the stress of it all.
-§Úö«x-úøôç ´©x ´÷ö«x-úø-éπ-§Ú-´ôç. 2) ... all these are in the summer when the c) I bear no grudge against him =
Vatsala: What’s gone wrong? students have to bear the hot sun = Åûª-†çõ‰ Ø√Íé-üËy-≠æ-´‚-™‰ü¿’.
(Å•s! áçûª £æ…®·í¬ ÖçüÓ! Å®·-§Ú-
®·çC ûª©--èπ◊çõ‰ Ç äAhúøçû√ ᙫ ûªô’d- (à´’-®·çC?/ àç §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ ïJ-TçC?) É´Fo èπÿú≈ áçúø-¢Ë-úÕE ûªô’d-éÓ-¢√-Lq† ¢ËÆæ-N-™ØË ÉO bear ûÓ ´îËa éÌEo expressions. Practice
èπ◊-Ø√o´÷ ÅE-°œ-≤ÚhçC) Suphala: She wanted my help in the exam hall Öçö«®·. îËü∆lç.
which I refused. Since then she has We can’t bear the heat of Bhadrachalam dur-
Vatsala: Unfortunately this isn’t the end of it.
The worse is yet to come the
borne a grudge against me. ing summer = EXERCISE
entrance exams.
(°æKéπ~ í∫C™ Ø√ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç éÓJçC. ØËØÌ- ¢ËÆæ-N™ ¶µºvü∆-îª©ç ¢ËúÕE ûªô’d-éÓ™‰ç. MATCH THE FOLLOWING:
°æ¤p-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. Å°æp-öÀ-†’ç* Ø√ O’ü¿ üËy≠æç ´·êu í∫´’-Eéπ: ûªô’d-éÓ-´ôç/ ¶µºJç-îªôç ÅØË A B
(ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%-≠æd-´-¨»ûª÷h -É-üË -Åç-ûªç é¬ü¿’.
Éçûª-éπçõ‰ Åüµ∆y†ç (-Çç--üÓ-∞¡-†éπ®Ωç)– v°æ¢Ë¨¡ °ç-éÌçC.) Å®ΩnçûÓ ‘bear’ èπ◊ Ææ´’çí¬ stand èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç.
Vatsala: Has she forgotten all the help she a) I can’t stand your silly behaviour = 1) Obey A. Chase
°æK-éπ~©’ ´·çü¿’-Ø√o®·.) had had from you? 2) traffic B. humble
Suphala: The thing is that all these are in the F °œ©x-ûª-®Ω£æ… †úø-´úÕ Øˆ’ ¶µºJç-îª-™‰†’.
summer when the students have to
(F ü¿í∫_®Ω Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ §ÒçC† Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç b) The boss is too intolerant. He can’t stand 3) pursue C. illegal trade
any one saying no to him = 4) meek D. extraordinary
í∫’Jç* Åçû√ ´’®Ω-*-§Ú-®·çü∆?)
bear the hot sun too.
Suphala: Life’s like that.
(N≠æߪ’ç àçôçõ‰ É´Fo èπÿú≈ ¢ËÆæ-N-™ØË Ç boss ´’K ÅÆæ-£æ«†ç éπ©-¢√úø’/ Boss èπ◊ ´’K 5) remarkable E. follow
(@Nûªç ÅçûË) ÅÆæ-£æ«†ç. ÅûªE ´÷ô-©èπ◊ é¬ü¿’/ ™‰ü¿’ Åçõ‰ F. understand
☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
Öçö«®·, Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’ áçúø†’ èπÿú≈
¶µºJç-î√-L-°æ¤púø’) ¶µºJç-îª-™‰úø’.
KEY: 1 E 2C 3A 4B 5 D.

She has borne a grudge Lesson No 288
N´-®Ωù.
1. Beverage = drink.
™ É*a† Exercise, answers

´’†ç û√Ííôô’´çöÀ
§ƒF-ߪ÷-©†’ (´’ç*-F∞¡Ÿx é¬èπ◊çú≈) – coffee, tea,
èπ◊

food drinks, alcoholic drinks – Oô-Eoç-öÀE
Vatsala: What a pity! We haven’t had a real Carry ûÓ ´îËa expressions ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç éπü∆. 3) They must bear the responsibility for our beverages Åçö«ç. beverage - pronunciation
full vacation since we entered the 9th Carry éÀ é¬Ææh ü¿í∫_®Ω Ææç•çüµ¿ç Ö†o bear í∫’Jç* stress = - ¶„´-Jñ¸ – '¶„— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
class. Our parents have been putting ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. ´’† äAhúÕéÀ ¶«üµ¿uûª ¢√∞¡xüË/ ¢√∞¡x ´™‰x ´’†èπ◊ äAhúÕ. 2. Colossal - Pronunciation - éπ™«-Ææ™ ¸ – '™«—
us through some summer course or (bear - present tense, bore - past tense, borne bear the responsibility = ¶«üµ¿’u©-´ôç.
- Past participle)
the other. They must bear all the
ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç = î√™« °ü¿l-ü¿-®·†/ •%£æ«û˝.
a) The government must bear the responsi- A colossal statue - î√™« ¶µ«K Nví∫£æ«ç. (Öü∆-£æ«-
responsibility for our stress. 1. bear Åçõ‰ ´’†™ î√™« ´’çCéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’– bility for the rising prices. =
(áçûª ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%≠ædç! 9th class ™ Åúø’í∫’-°- ¶µºJç-îªôç, Æ棜«ç-îªôç, ûªô’d-éÓ-´ôç ÅE. ®Ω-ùèπ◊, éπ®√o-ô-éπ-™E íÓ´’-Í®∏-¨¡y-®Ω’úÕ Nví∫£æ«ç)
A colossal waste (of money) = î√™« áèπ◊\´
°®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’†o üµ¿®Ω© ¶«üµ¿uûª v°æ¶µº’-û√y-EüË. =
öÀd-†-°æpöÀ †’ç* ´’†èπ◊ Eï-¢Á’i† °æ‹Jh î√™«-´’-ô’èπ◊ ûªô’d-éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-´ôç/ ¶µºJç-îª-™‰-éπ-§Ú-´ôç °®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’†o üµ¿®Ω-©èπ◊ v°æ¶µº’ûªyç ¶«üµ¿uûª
ÂÆ©´¤-©çô÷ ™‰´¤ éπü∆ Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊. ´’† ÅE not ûÓØË ¢√úø’-ûª’çö«ç. Can’t (Can not) bear ´£œ«ç-î√L/ v°æ¶µº’ûªyç ´™‰x. ´%ü∑∆.
A Colossal amount = î√™« °ü¿l ¢Á·ûªhç.
ûªLxü¿ç-vúø’-™‰¢Á÷ àüÓ äéπ summer course ÅE áèπ◊\´ Åçö«ç. b) She had to bear the responsibility for his
èπ◊ °æç°æ¤-ûª÷ØË ÖØ√o®Ω’. ´’† äAhúÕéÀ ¢√∞Ïx a) I can’t bear his conceit - suffering = ÅûªE ¶«üµ¿-©èπ◊ Ç¢Á’ ¶«üµ¿’u-®√- 3. Pedestrian = °úøÆ œZ-ߪ’Ø˛– 'úø— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
¶«üµ¿uûª ´£œ«ç-î√L.) ÅûªE í∫®Ωyç ؈’ Æ棜«ç-îª-™‰†’. (Ø√èπ◊ *vÈ®-ûª’h- ©-®·çC/ Ç¢Á’ ´™‰x ÅûªE ¶«üµ¿©’. = §ƒü¿-î√J. Roads ™ †úÕ-îË-¢√-∞¡x†’ (¢√£æ«-Ø√-©™
Vacation = Ææ’D®Ω` ÂÆ©´¤©’. éÌ-Ææ’hçC.) c) Syam: Let’s do it. (´’†ç ÅC îËü∆lç) ¢Á∞Ïx-¢√∞¡Ÿx é¬èπ◊çú≈) Pedestrian Åçö«ç.
We are on vacation = ¢Ë’ç Ææ’D®Ω` N®√-´’ç™ b) She can’t bear this news - Pran: I’m not for it. I can’t bear any Pedestrian crossing = §ƒü¿-î √-®Ω’©’ ®Óúø’f-ü∆õ‰
ÖØ√oç. Ñ ¢√®Ωh†’ ÇNúø ûªô’d-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. responsibility for any bad consequences. îÓô’/ Å´-鬨¡ç.
Holidays = ÂÆ©´¤©’. ÉN ´®Ω-Ææí¬ N®√´’ç c) We can’t bear the cold of Kashmir = (؈’ ü∆EéÀ ´uA-Í®éπç. ü∆E-´©x îÁúø’ °∂æL-û√-©èπ◊ Pedestrian Åçõ‰ Åçûª íÌ°æpí¬™‰E – E®√¨¡°æJîË
™‰èπ◊çú≈ Öçúø-†-´-Ææ-®Ωç-™‰ü¿’. é¬Qt®˝ îªL ´’†ç ûªô’d-éÓ™‰ç. ؈’ ¶«üµ¿uûª ´£œ«ç-îª-™‰†’/ ¶«üµ¿’uúÕo 鬙‰†’.) ÅE èπÿú≈.
2. àü¿-®·Ø√ Ææ£æ«-†çûÓ, üµÁj®Ωuçí¬ ¶µºJç-îªôç– bear. 4) ... we carried more books than our backs It’s a Pedestrian movie - Åçûª íÌ°æpí¬ ™‰ü¿’ Ç
Vacation = ´’üµ¿u™ break ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ´®Ω-Ææí¬
could bear =
ÂÆ©´¤©’. Though born a princess, Sita bore the aus- ÆœE´÷, ´÷´‚™‰.
tere life in the forests = His game was pedestrian = àüÓ ´÷´‚-©’í¬
´’† O°æ¤©’ ¢Á÷ߪ’-í∫-L-Tç-ü∆-E-éπçõ‰ ´’†ç áèπ◊\´
Stress = äAhúÕ, ´·êuçí¬ ´÷†-Æ œ-éπ-¢Á’i-†C. ®√èπ◊-´÷-Jí¬ °æ¤öÀdØ√, Æ‘ûª °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ ¢Á÷¨»ç. (back= O°æ¤)
Suphala: But one thing- we needn’t carry any
Åúø-´¤™x E®√-úøç-•-®Ω-¢Á’i† @N-û√Eo ¶µºJç-*çC. Çú≈úø’.
(Austere = ÇÆœdߪ’. Ææ’ê-¶µ-í¬©’ ™‰E î√™« E®√-
Ééπ\úø bare èπ◊ Å®Ωnç ¢Á÷ߪ’ôç.
more so many books, when we join 4. Relish = enjoy - džç-ü¿çí¬ Å†’-¶µº-Nç-îªôç,
a) The elephant can bear a lot of weight =
higher courses.
úøç-•-®Ω-¢Á’i† – ÆæØ√u-Ææ’©’ í∫úÕÊ° @Nûªç – austere Ç≤ƒy-Cç-îªôç. üËE-´©xØÁjØ√ džçü¿ç §Òçü¿ôç.
life.
à†’í∫’ î√™« •®Ω’´¤ ¢Á÷ߪ’í∫-©ü¿’.
a) We relished the food at the restaurant = Ç
(Å®·ûË äéπ N≠æߪ’ç– ´’†ç °j îªü¿’-´¤™x b) The bridge is too weak to bear the weight
Mahatma Gandhi led an austere life. restaurant ™ Ç£æ…-®√Eo (A†-ú≈Eo) ¢Ë’ç džç-
îËJûË ÅEo °æ¤Ææh鬩’ ¢Á÷ߪ’-†-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’.) of heavy traffic =
Bear èπ◊ Ö†o Éûª®Ω Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬-L-°æ¤púø’ îª÷ü∆lç:
Vatsala: How we carried more books than our áèπ◊\´ ®ΩDlE ¢Á÷ߪ’-™‰-†çûª •©-£‘«-†çí¬ ÖçC Cçî√ç.
Look at the following sentences from the b) Narada relished creating quarrels = Ø√®Ω-
backs could bear! (I) shudder to think Ç ´çûÁ†.
dialogue above:
of it. c) The eldest son bears the burden of the ü¿’úø’ éπ©-£æ…Lo éπL-Tç* džç-Cç-îË-¢√úø’
1) ... I wonder how we were able to bear the family = c) We relished his speech yesterday = E†o
(´’† O°æ¤©’ ¢Á÷ߪ’-í∫-L-Tç-ü∆-E-éπçõ‰ stress of it all. ÅûªE Ö°æ-Ø√u-≤ƒEo ¢Ë’ç džç-Cçî√ç.
Ç èπ◊ô’ç• ¶µ«®√Eo °ü¿l éÌúø’èπ◊ ¢Á÷Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’.
2) ... when students have to bear the hot sun.
•®Ω’´¤†o °æ¤Ææh鬙„™« ¢Á÷¨»¢Á÷! ûª©--èπ◊ç-
(burden = ¢Á÷ûª/ ¶«üµ¿uûª) 5. Ooze = (Üñ¸ – ñ¸, size ™ ñ¸ ™«í∫) = 鬮Ωôç
3) They must bear the responsibility for our
õ‰ØË ¶µºßª’çûÓ ´ù’èπ◊ °æ¤úø’-ûª’çC/ ï©-ü¿-J-
5) She has borne a grudge against me = (´·êuçí¬ *éπ\öÀ vü¿´ç) – ØÁ´’t-Cí¬.
stress.
Ææ’hçC/ í∫í∫’-®Ìp-úø’-Ææ’hçC.)
Shudder - ≠æúø. '≠æ— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. ä∞¡Ÿx
Ø√ O’ü¿ Ç¢Á’ üËy≠æç/ éÓ°æç éπLT ÖçC. a) Blood was oozing out of the injury -
4) How we carried more books than our backs bear a grudge = °æí∫/ éÓ°æç/ üËy≠æç ™«çöÀN
(¶µºßª’çûÓ) ï©-ü¿-Jç-îªôç. ¶µºßª’ç-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† Ç™-îª-†- could bear.
Ç í¬ßª’ç †’ç* ®Ωéπhç 鬮Ω’-ûÓçC.
b) The vada was oozing oil =
éπLT Öçúøôç.
©’-í¬F, í∫ûªç™ ´’†ç ûª°œpç--èπ◊†o °†’ v°æ´÷- 5) She has borne a grudge against me. a) Mandhara bore a grudge against Sri
1) I wonder how we were able to bear the
ü∆-©’-í¬F í∫’®Ω’hèπ◊ ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ éπLÍí ü¿úø. Rama =
´úø-™ç* †÷ØÁ 鬮Ω’-ûÓçC.
A snake crawled by me; it didn’t hurt me, stress of it all. c) Pus oozed from the wound =
X ®√´·úÕ O’ü¿ ´’çüµ¿-®Ωèπ◊ éÓ°æç/ üËy≠æç ÖçúËC.
though. I shudder whenever I remember it. Ééπ\úø bear èπ◊ Å®Ωnç °j† îÁ°œp-†ô’x ¶µºJç-îªôç/ (´’çüµ¿®Ω Ææ©£æ… O’ü¿ØË ®√´·úø’ Åúø-´¤-©-Èé-∞«x-©E í¬ßª’ç™ †’ç* <´· 鬮Ω’-ûÓçC.
Ø√ °æéπ\ØË §ƒ´· §ƒèπ◊\çô÷ ¢ÁRxçC. Å®·ûË ûªô’d-éÓ-´ôç. ü¿¨¡-®Ω-ü∑¿’úÕo ÈéjÍé®· éÓJçC. •çû√-ô™ ®√´·úø’
†ØËoç îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’. é¬E ÅC í∫’®Ìh-*a-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x ä∞¡Ÿx a) A Mother is prepared to bear any hardship Çúø’-ûª’†o •çA ´’çüµ¿-®Ωèπ◊ ûªT-LçC– Åçü¿’-´©x Ç
í∫í∫’-®Ìp-úø’-Ææ’hçC. for the sake of her children = °æJ-ù«´’ç.) - M. SURESAN
-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 27 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

5) They bore the signature of
(äéπ N≠æߪ’ç àN’-ôçõ‰, ´÷ ´ßÁ÷ï† Nü∆u鬮Ωu-
the governor.
véπ´’ç °æ¤ùu´÷ ÅE ߪ÷¶µ„j ¨»ûªç ví¬´’Ææ’n©’ É°æ¤púø’
1) Your weary face and lean
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
®√ߪ’úøç, îªü¿´úøç -ØË®Ω’aèπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’. Åéπ\úÕ °œ©x©çü¿®Ω÷
291 •úÕ-Èé-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. °æJ-¨¡Ÿ-v¶µºûª N©’´ ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ appearance bear proof of
ØËJpçî√ç.) it.
Snehit: Hi Sobhit, when did you come back? Hygene = Ç®Ó-í¬u-E-éπ-´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’i† °æJ-¨¡Ÿ-v¶µºûª. bear proof of = ®Ω’V´¤í¬
Snehit: Who bore the expenses of the
(á°æ¤púø’ AJ-íÌî√a¢˛?) Öçúøôç.
Sobhit: The day before (yester day). camp? 1) The blood on his body bears proof of some (F v°æߪ÷ù ê®Ω’a †’¢Ëy ¶µºJç-î√L.)
(¢Á·†o, conversation ™ ¢Á·†o ÅØËç- fight between the murdered man and the 5) They bore the signature of the governor.
(Ñ ê®Ω’a Åçû√ á´®Ω’ ¶µºJç-î√®Ω’?)
ü¿’èπ◊ ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ The day before attackers. (ÅN í∫´-®Ωo®˝ Ææçûª-éπçûÓ ÖØ√o®·.)
Sobhit: An NGO.
yester day ÅE °æ‹Jhí¬ Å†-èπ◊çú≈, the (ÅûªúÕ üË£æ«ç-O’C ®Ωéπhç ´’®Ω-éπ©’, £æ«ûªuèπ◊ í∫’È®j† Bear signature = ÆæçûªéπçûÓ Öçúøôç.
(ã v°æ¶µº’-ûËy-ûª®Ω ÊÆ¢√-ÆæçÆæn.)
day before ÅE Åçö«®Ω’.) Åûª-úÕéÃ, Åûª-úÕE üÁ•s-B-Æœ† ¢√JéÀ ´’üµ¿u §Úö«xô a) You received the money, you can't deny it.
NGO- Non Government Organization.
Snehit: You are rundown, aren't you? ïJ-Tç-ü¿E ®Ω’V´¤ îËÆæ’h-Ø√o®·.) The receipt bears your signature.
b) The broken neck bone bears proof that
Ææyîªa ¥çü¿ ÊÆ¢√ ÆæçÆæn©†’ É™« Åçö«®Ω’. (†’¢√y-úø•’s BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o´¤. é¬ü¿-†-™‰´¤. Ñ
(¶«í¬ F®Ω-Ææçí¬ Ö†o-ô’x-Ø√o´¤ éπü∆?) Snehit: What part of the expenses did they
Sobhit: Why do you say that? I'm all right. Bob Woolmer was done in. ®ΩÆ‘ü¿’™ F Ææçûªéπç ÖçC)
bear?
(áçü¿’-éπ™« Åçô’-Ø√o´¤? ؈’ èπ◊™«-≤ƒ- (Bob Woolmer £æ«ûªuèπ◊ í∫’®Ω-ߪ÷u-úøE ÅûªúÕ NJ- b) The blank paper bears his signature.
(ê®Ω’a™x áçûª ¶µ«í∫ç ¢√∞¡Ÿx ¶µºJç-î√®Ω’?) T† ¢Á’úø á´·éπ ®Ω’V´¤ îË≤ÚhçC.) (Ç ë«S-é¬-Tûªç ÅûªúÕ Ææçûª-é¬Eo éπLT ÖçC/
í¬ØË ÖØ√o) Sobhit: The whole of it. We were comfort-
Snehit: Your weary face and lean appear- Be done in - (Passive of do in) = £æ«ûªu îËߪ’ Ç ë«S é¬Tûªç O’ü¿ ÅûªúÕ Ææçûªéπç ÖçC.)
ably lodged and fed and every one
ance bear proof of it.
of us did have the satisfaction of
-•-úøôç. Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ bear ¢√úÕ† îÓôxçû√ Carry ¢√úÌa.
2) Please bear with me for a few minutes. Postal cards, covers, etc O’ü¿ stamps Öçúøôç
(F ÅLÆœ† ¢Á·£æ«ç, *éÀ\-§Ú-®·† Ç鬮Ωç doing real service.
ü∆EéÀ ®Ω’V´¤í¬ ÖØ√o®·.) Bear with someone (me/ him/ them, etc) = èπÿú≈ bear Åçö«ç.
(¢Á·ûªhç ê®Ωaçû√ ¢√JüË. ´’ç* •Ææ,
Sobhit: It's true. I am a little tired but other- äéπ-JûÓ ã°œ-éπí¬ Öçúøôç. The cover doesn't bear any stamps.
AçúÕ à®√pô’ î˨»®Ω’. ´÷™ v°æA
wise I am in perfect health. a) I am an old man and perhaps keep saying (Ç éπ´®˝ O’ü¿ ≤ƒdç°æ¤©’ ™‰´¤.)
äéπ\®Ω÷ Eï-¢Á’i† ÊÆ´-îË-Æ œ† ûª%°œh
unnecessary things. Bear with me.
(é¬Ææh ÅL-Æœ-§Ú-®·† ´÷ô-¢√-Ææh-´¢Ë’, é¬F §Òçü∆®Ω’.) Exercise: Match the following:
Snehit: What were the rewards?
¶«í¬ Ç®Ó-í∫uçí¬ ÖØ√o.) (ØËØËüÓ Â°ü¿l-¢√-úÕE. ņ-´-Ææ®Ω¢Á’i† N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ A B
1. Harass A) clever

What were the rewards? 2. Fair
3. Mend
4. Excessive
5. Shrewd
B) too much
C) unnecessary
D) repair
E) trouble /annoy
F) just/ impartial
Snehit: Did you have a good time at the vil- Key: 1)E 2)F 3)D 4)B 5)A
(O’éÌ-*a† v°æA-°∂æ©ç àçöÀ?)
lage? How did your social service ´÷ö«x-úø-û√-ØË¢Á÷. é¬Ææh ã°œéπ°æô’d.) Lesson no 289 ™ É*a† matching π◊
Sobhit: More than anything the satisfaction
go? b) Am I asking you too many questions?
of having served the under privi-
Please bear with me. N´-®Ωù.
(Ç ví¬´’ç™ Fèπ◊ ÆæçûÓ-≠æç-í¬ØË í∫úÕ- leged people of a remote village. 1) farming = cultivation = ´u´-≤ƒßª’ç/ ≤ƒí∫’.
Providing sources of drinking water
*çü∆? O’ Ææç°∂æ’ ÊÆ´ 鬮Ωu-véπ´’ç ᙫ (´’K áèπ◊\´ v°æ¨¡o-©-úø’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o-ØË¢Á÷. é¬Ææh Ø√°æôx
Å®·ûË farming ´u´-≤ƒ-ߪ÷-EéÀ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ °æJ-N’ûªç
was our greatest achievement.
ïJ-TçC?) ã°œéπ °æô’d.)
c) Pranav: Could you lend me your book
Sobhit: Could you wait for ten minutes? I
é¬èπ◊çú≈ É°æ¤púø’ ÅEo-®Ω-鬩 °ç°æ-é¬-©èπÿ ¢√úø’-ûª’-
(áéπ\úÓ ´÷®Ω’-´‚© èπ◊ví¬-´’ç™... ´Ææ-
once more?
have this report to finish.
Ø√o®Ω’.
ûª’©÷, Å´-é¬-¨»©èπ◊ ØÓ-éÓE v°æï-©èπ◊ poultry farming = éÓ∞¡x °ç°æéπç.
(é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ Çí∫¢√? ØËF report °æ‹Jh-îË- (´’®Ó-≤ƒJ F °æ¤Ææhéπç É≤ƒh¢√ Please?)
Aqua farming = îË°æ©’, ®Ìߪ’u-™«xçöÀ ï©-îª-®√©
ÊÆ´-îË-ߪ’ôç. ´’ç* FöÀ ´†-®Ω’-©†’
ߪ÷L.) à®√pô’ îËߪ’ôç ´÷ Åûªuçûª íÌ°æp
Prasad: Have it.
Snehit: How many volunteers participated in (BÆæ’éÓ) ¶µ«K °ç°æéπç (¢√u§ƒ-®Ω- Ææ-®Ω-R™)
≤ƒüµ¿†.) Farm = ≤ƒí∫’™ Ö†o ¶µº÷N’.
the programme? The under privileged = Ææ´÷-ïç™ N’í∫û√ ¢√J- Pranav: Perhaps I am asking you too often.
Farm house = §Ò©ç™ E´-Æ œç-îª-ö«-EéÀ éπô’d-èπ◊ØË
(áçûª ´’çC volunteers Åçü¿’™ éπØ√o ûªèπ◊\´ ´Ææ-ûª’©÷, Å´-é¬-¨»©’†o¢√-∞¡Ÿx/-´-®√_©’. Please bear with me.
§ƒ™Ô_Ø√o®Ω’?) ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ¢Á†’-éπ-•-úøf-¢√∞¡Ÿx ÅØÌa.) (´’K áèπ◊\-´≤ƒ®Ω’x Åúø’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o-ØË¢Á÷. É©’x.
2) Polite = Courteous = ´’®√uü¿ Ö†o
Volunteer- ¢√©ç-öÀߪ’ – àüÁjØ√ 鬮Ωu-véπ-´’ç™ Snehit: Any recognition from the govern- é¬Ææh ã°œéπ îª÷°œç/ à´’-†’-éÓèπ◊)
He talks very politely.
Ææyîªa ¥ç-ü¿çí¬ ÊÆ¢√-ü¿%-éπp-ü∑¿çûÓ §ƒ™Ô_-ØË-¢√∞¡Ÿx.) ment? 3) Our efforts did bear (bore) fruit =
Sobhit: Please bear with me for a few more (v°æ¶µº’ûªyç †’ç* à¢Á’iØ√ í∫’Jhç°æ¤ bear fruit = °∂æLç-îªôç. (°æü∑¿-鬩÷, v°æߪ’-û√o©÷.) (-Å-ûª-úø’ î√™« ´’®√u-ü¿í¬ ´÷ö«x-úø-û√úø’.)
minutes. Yes It's over. You were ask- She refused to do it, though politely.
´*açü∆?) a) The government's attempts to hold the
ing me how many participated in the Sobhit: We had certificates of appreciation price line have yet to bear fruit. (´’®√u-ü¿-í¬ØË Ç °æE îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ç¢Á’ A®Ω-Ææ \-Jç-
programme, weren't you? from the government, of course. (üµ¿®Ω-©†’ Åü¿’-°æ¤™ ÖçîËç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æ¶µº’ûªy v°æߪ’- *çC.)
(Éçé¬-ÊÆ°æ¤ Ø√ûÓ ã°œéπ °æô’d. Ç.. ÅC They bore the signature of the gov- û√o©’ Éçé¬ °∂æLç-îª-™‰ü¿’.) Courteous ÅØ√o ÅüË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC.
Å®·-§Ú-®·çC. Åçü¿’™ ¢√©ç-öîΩ’x áçûª ernor himself. hold the price line = üµ¿®Ω-©†’ Åü¿’-°æ¤™  Öçîªúøç / politeness = courtesy (éπôÆ‘ – 'éπ— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-
´’çC §ƒ™Ô_-Ø√o-®ΩE ÅúÕí¬´¤ éπü∆?) (v°æ¶µº’ûªyç †’ç* v°æ¨¡ç≤ƒ°ævû√©’ check the prices. èπ◊û√ç. éπ, bird ™ • ™«í∫
Snehit: Yes, I was. (Å´¤†’) §Òçü∆ç. Å´Fo í∫´-®Ωo®˝ Ææçûª-é¬-©ûÓ b) His two sons are in the states and his 3) Narrate = éπü∑¿ îÁ°æpôç/ äéπ ´%û√hç-û√Eo/
Sobhit: As many as fifty. ÖØ√o®·.) efforts to see them well settled have Borne éπü∑¿†’ N´-Jç-îªôç.
(50 ´’çC ´®Ωèπÿ ÖØ√o®Ω’) Snehit: Good to see you back. fruit. Pronunciation - †È®-ß˝’ö¸– È® ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç.
Snehit: What did you achieve? She Narrated the short story to her chil-
    (ÅûªúÕ Éü¿l®Ω’ éÌúø’-èπ◊©÷ Å¢Á’-J-鬙 ÖØ√o®Ω’.
dren. (Ç¢Á’ ûª† °œ©x©èπ◊ Ç éπü∑¿ îÁ°œpçC)
(O’Í®ç ≤ƒCµç-î√®Ω’?) English Daily life situation conversations
°œ©x©’ ¶«í¬ Æœn®Ω-°æ-úø-ö«-EéÀ Åûªúø’ îËÆœ† v°æߪ’-
Sobhit: Our efforts did bear fruit and we
™ û√o©’ °∂æLç-î√®·.) 4) Enormous = huge = î√™«-°-ü¿l-üÁj†/ î√™«
™ frequently used expressions (ûª®Ωîª÷ ¢√úË
really succeeded. 4) What part of expenses did they bear? áèπ◊\-¢Áj†.
'bear'
a) The Rashtrapati Bhavan is an enormous
´÷ô©’) -™ äéπ-õ„j† Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ éÌEo
(´÷ v°æߪ’-û√o-©Fo °∂æLç-î√®·, ¢Ë’ç Lesson bear expenses = ê®Ω’a©’ ¶µºJç-îªôç.
building.
éÀçü¿öÀ ™ îª÷¨»ç. ´’J-éÌEo É°æ¤púø’ ûÁ©’-
Eïç-í¬ØË éπ%ûª-éπ%-ûª’u-©ßª÷uç) Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. a) The government bears the expenses of the
Snehit: What in? Study the following sentences from the ministers' foreign tours. (®√≠æZ-°æA¶µº´†ç î√™«-°ü¿lC.)
b) Sita had enormous patience.
(üËçöx) conversation between Snehit and Sobhit. (´’çvûª’© NüË-Q -v°æ-ߪ÷-ù«© ê®Ω’a†’ v°æ¶µº’-ûªy¢Ë’
Sobhit: For one thing thanks to our adult lit- 1) Your weary face and lean appearance bear ¶µºJ-Ææ’hçC.) (Æ‘ûªèπ◊ î√™« ã®Ω’p ÖçC.)
eracy programme, 50% of the adult b) He bore the expenses / cost of the 5) Region =
proof of it.
ã v§ƒçûªç.
villagers ended up reading and writ- orphan's education. Telangana region = ûÁ©ç-í¬ù« v§ƒçûªç
2) Please bear with me for a few more min-
ing. All the children there are now utes. (ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’©’ ™‰E Ç °œ©x-¢√úÕ îªü¿’´¤ ê®Ω’a Andhra region = Ççvüµ¿ v§ƒçûªç
going to school. We taught them the
3) Our efforts did bear fruit. Åûª†’ ¶µºJç-î√úø’.)
value of hygene. c) You have to bear the expenses of your
4) What part of expenses did they bear? - M. SURESAN
travel.
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 29 -´÷-Ja 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Sravan: No luck there. The police have yet to 1) He couldn't catch the early
catch the thief. morning train.
(™‰ü¿’. police ©’ Éçé¬ üÌçí∫†’ °æô’d-éÓ- Åûª†’ §Òü¿’löÀ train †’ Åçü¿’-éÓ-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 292 ¢√Lq ÖçC.) ™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’.
Bhavan: It seems he caught hold of the thief Bus, train ™«çöÀ ¢√£æ«-Ø√-©†’
Sravan: I suppose Pavan has left? as he grabbed the suit case, but the Åçü¿’-éÓ-´úøç catch.
thief was stronger than him and a) He wants to catch the
7) Pavan caught an employee red handed.
(°æ´Ø˛ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ߪ÷-úø-†’-èπ◊çö«?)
escaped. early morning flight to Mumbai.
í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. °j sentence ™ question word
order (verb + subject order) ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√ *´®Ω (Ç üÌçí∫ suitcase †’ ™«éÓ\-í¬ØË °æ´Ø˛ §Òü¿’lØËo ´·ç¶„jéÀ ¢Á∞Ïx N´÷-Ø√Eo Åçü¿’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’- ØË®Ωç îËÆæ’hç-úøí¬ ã ÖüÓu-TE °æ´Ø˛ °æô’d-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
Catch red handed = (äéπJo) ØË®Ωç îËÆæ’hç-úøí¬
question mark ÖçC. äéÓ\≤ƒJ î√™« Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ ¢√úÕE °æô’d-èπ◊-Ø√o-úøô. é¬F üÌçí∫ Éûª-úÕ-éπçõ‰ èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o-úø-ûª†’.
É™« questions Åúø-í∫-´îª’a. •©-´ç-ûª’-úø-´-ôçûÓ ûª°œpç--èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.) b) You go to Tirupathi by train and catch a (ÉçéÌ-éπ®Ω’) °æô’d-éÓ-´ôç.
Bhavan: Yea, he has, by the 11 o' clock train. grab = üÌ®Ω-éπ-•’-a-éÓ-´úøç/ ™«éÓ\-´úøç bus there to Tirumala. a) The police caught the man red handed
A®Ω’-°æ-AéÀ train ™ ¢ÁRx Åéπ\úø A®Ω’-´’-©èπ◊ bus while he was stealing.
(Å´¤†’. ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’ 11 í∫çô© •çúÕéÀ.) Sravan: Unfortunate, really.
Sravan: But he told me that he would leave
Åçü¿’éÓ (áèπ◊\) Åûª†’ üÌçí∫-ûª†ç îËÆæ’hç-úøí¬ police °æô’d-
(Eïçí¬ ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%≠ædç.)
early in the morning. 2) He caught a bad cold.
Bhavan: Pavan caught an employee in his
èπ◊Ø√o®Ω’.
b) She was caught red handed while abduct-
company red handed stealing office
(Ø√ûÓ §Òü¿’lØËo ¢Á∞«h-†-Ø√oúø’?) Åûª-EéÀ N°æ-K-ûª-¢Á’i† ï©’•’ îËÆœçC.
Bhavan: He couldn't catch the early morning property. He got him suspended. He
Ééπ\úø catch èπ◊ Å®Ωnç– àüÁjØ√ ¢√uCµ ≤Úéπôç, ing the child.
train. He was unable to get up early thinks that this employee had his suit
ûªí∫-©ôç. Gúøf†’ üÌçT-LÆæ÷h (kidnap îËÆæ÷h) üÌJéÀ §Ú®·ç-
enough. case stolen. cold = îªL, a cold/ common cold = ï©’•’ ü∆¢Á’.
(§Òü¿’l† train †’ Åçü¿’-éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. (office ≤Òûª’h üÌçí∫-ûª†ç îËÆæ’hç-úøí¬ office a) There are plenty of mosquitoes. Be care- Abduct = kidnap.
§Òü¿’lØËo ™‰´-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’.) ™E ÖüÓu-TE °æ´Ø˛ °æô’d-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’. ÅûªúÕE ful. You may catch maleria. 8) I'll catch you later.
Sravan: Why? (àç?) suspend îË®·ç-î √úø’. Ç ÖüÓuÍí Ñ üÓ´’©’ ¶«í¬ ÖØ√o®·. ñ«ví∫ûªh. Fèπ◊ ´’™‰- ؈’ ´’Sx ûª®Ω’-¢√ûª ´÷ö«x-úø-û√†’.
Bhavan: He caught a bad cold during the üÌçí∫-ûª†ç îË®·ç-î√-úøE °æ´Ø˛ ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’- Jߪ÷ ûªí∫-™Ôa. Catch some one later = ´’Sx ûª®√yûª ´’ö«x-úøôç.
night, and had no sleep at all. Ø√oúø’.) b) Don't stay too long in the water. You'll Catch some one = äéπJE éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç/ äéπ-JûÓ
(®√vA î√™« ¶«í¬ ï©’•’ îËÆœçü¿ûª-úÕéÀ. Sravan: Pavan is too honest and too strict to catch a fever. F∞¡x™x áèπ◊\-´-ÊÆ°æ¤ Öçúøèπ◊. ´÷ö«x-úøôç.
ÅÆæ©’ Evü¿-°æ-ôd-™‰ü¿’.) tolerate such things. ïy®Ωç ûªí∫’-©’-ûª’çC. a) Kumar: Hello Prakash, this is Kumar.
Prakash: You'll excuse me Kumar. I am in

I catch what you say
a meeting. I'll catch you later.
(Kumar, à´’-†’-éÓèπ◊ (éπ~N’ç). ؈’ meet-
ing ™ ÖØ√o. ûª®√yûª ´÷ö«x-úøû√.)
b) I missed his call but he caught me later.
(ÅûªE phone call miss Åߪ÷u†’. é¬F Åûª†’
Sravan: Then was it he I caught sight of on his 3) Was it he I caught sight of?
´’Sx phone î˨»úø’.)
(Å™«ç-öÀ-¢√öÀE Æ棜«ç-îª-™‰-†çûª Eñ«-ߪ’-B-°æ-
way to the station? I saw him from a ®Ω’úø÷ Eéπ\*a ´’E≠‘ °æ´Ø˛.) = ÅûªØËoØ√ ؈’ îª÷ÆœçC?
distance, so (I) wasn't sure it was he. EXERCISE
Bhavan: OK. My bus is coming. I'll (I will) catch Catch sight of = äéπJo/ äéπ ´Ææ’h-´¤†’ ņ’-éÓ-
Moreover I had been under the you later. èπ◊çú≈ îª÷úøôç/ éπçô-•-úøôç Match the following
impression that he must have left by a) He doesn't go anywhere near the police
(Ø√ bus ´≤ÚhçC. FûÓ ûª®√yûª -´÷ö«x-úø- A B
the morning train. station. He is afraid that police may catch
û√†’.) 1. Alien A. embrace
(Å®·ûË ÅûªØËoØ√ ؈’ station èπ◊ ¢Á∞Ïx-ô- sight of him.
☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ 2. Cobbler B. change
°æ¤púø’ îª÷ÆœçC? ü¿÷®√-†’oç* îª÷¨»†’, Åûª†’ police station ü¿J-ü∆-°æ¤-©-Èé-∞¡xúø’, police
3 hug C. Foreign
Åçü¿’-éπE ÅûªØË ÅE éπ*aûªçí¬ Å†’-éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú- Real life situations™ English conversation ™ ¢√∞¡x éπçô-•-úø-´-îªaE ¶µºßª’ç.
ߪ÷†’. ÅçûËé¬èπ◊çú≈ Åûª†’ §Òü¿’l† train ûª®Ωîª÷ NE-°œçîË ´÷ô™x catch äéπöÀ. catch/ catch 4 Shift D. weak
b) I caught sight of him as he was getting
™ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ߪ÷-úøØË ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ’çûÓ ÖØ√o.) ûÓ èπÿúÕ† expressions éÌEo É°æ¤púø’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. down from the bus. 5. Stubborn E. shoe maker/ repairer
Bhavan: No doubt. It was him. (catch - present tense. caught - past tense and Åûª†’ bus Cí∫’-ûª’-†o-°æ¤púø’ Ø√ éπçô-•-ú≈fúø’. F. firm

(ÅûªØË. ÆæçüË-£æ«ç-™‰ü¿’.) participle.) 4) He has out done the others in the compa-
Catch ny but the others are catching up =
Sravan: He appeared to be worried about
Åçõ‰ î√™«-´’ç-CéÀ ûÁL-Æœ† Å®√n©’:
1) Lesson 290 matching exercise
something during his stay here, was- í¬L™ áí∫’-®Ω’-ûª’†o (•çA ™«çöÀ) ´Ææ’h-´¤Lo °æô’d- Éûª-®Ω’-©-éπçõ‰ ¶«í¬ °æE-îË-¨»úø’, é¬F Éûª-®Ω’©’ ÉûªE ™E èπ◊ N´-®Ωù:
n't he?
éÓ-´úøç.Catch a ball/ catch a fruit (falling) etc. ≤ƒn®·-†ç-ü¿’-éÌç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’. 1. Obey = follow = (Çïc©’, Çü˨»©’ ™«çöÀN)
I caught the keys as he threw them to me. Catch up = ´·çü¿’†o ¢√∞¡x†’ (§ÚöÙ , véÃúø™ x, ņ’-Ææ-Jç-îªôç/ §ƒöÀç-îªôç/ P®Ω-≤ƒ-´-£œ«ç-îªúøç/
(Åûª-E-éπ\úø Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ üËE N≠æ-ߪ’¢Á÷ ≤ƒCµç-îª-ôç™) ÆæO’-°œç-îªôç. •ü¿’l¥™„j Öçúøôç.
Åûª†’ û√∞¡ç-îÁ-´¤©’ Ø√¢Áj°æ¤ NÆœJûË Øˆ’ °æô’d-èπ◊-Ø√o†’.
a) India is ahead of China in software, but
Çü¿’®√l °æúø’-ûª’-†oô’d éπ†-°æ-ú≈fúø’, éπü∆?)
2) ûª°œpç--èπ◊E §ƒJ-§Ú-ûª’†o ¢√∞¡x†’/ ïçûª’-´¤-©†’ Obey my orders = Ø√ Çïc-©†’ §ƒöÀç.
Bhavan: He certainly was worried. He has out- China is catching up.
done the others in his company, but
°æô’d-éÓ-´úøç, catch. (Obey îËÊÆ-¢√∞¡Ÿx obedient í¬ Öçö«®Ω’.) An
a) She tried to catch her child running on to Software ™ îÁjØ√ éπçõ‰ ¶µ«®Ωû˝ ´·çü¿ç-ï™ obedient child = ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’© ´÷ô-NØË Gúøf.
others are catching up. He doesn't
the road. 2. Traffic = Illegal trade = îªôd N®Ω’-ü¿l¥¢Á ’i†
ÖçC, é¬F îÁjØ√ ´’†Lo ÆæO’-°œ-≤ÚhçC. (ûªy®Ω™ØË
like it, naturally. He wants to stay on ´’†ûÓ Ææ´÷-†-´’-´ya)
top always.
Road O’CéÀ °æ®Ω’Èíûª’h-ûª’†o ûª† Gúøf†’ °æô’d-éÓ-´- b) India can never catch up with Japan in
¢√u§ƒ®Ωç. (´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç= ®√éπ-§Ú-éπ©’ – Road
ú≈E鬢Á’ v°æߪ’-Aoç-*çC. technology.
O’ü¿). Trafficking in women/ Immoral traffick-
ing = Çúø-¢√-JûÓ (´uGµ-î √®Ω) ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç îËߪ’ôç.
(Å´¤†’. Eïç-í¬ØË ÇçüÓ-∞¡† îÁçü¿’-ûª’- b) The cat caught the mouse = °œLx á©’-éπ†’
Ø√oúø’. Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ¢√∞¡x company ™ Éûª- °æô’d-èπ◊çC. ≤ƒçÍé-A-éπçí¬ ¶µ«®Ωû˝ ï§ƒØ˛ ≤ƒn®·éÀ îË®Ω’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. Immoral Trafficking Act = ´uGµ-î √®Ω E®Ó-üµ¿éπ
®Ω’© éπçõ‰ ¶«í¬ °æE-îË-¨»úø’, é¬F Éûª-®Ω’©’ c) In the race Hemu has the lead, but Hari is
Ñ Å®√n-©ûÓ ´’†ç catch áèπ◊\´ ¢√úø’-ûª’çö«ç. catching up.
îªôdç.
É°æ¤púø’ catch/ catch ûÓöÀ ´îËa expressions 3. Pursue = chase = ¢Áçô-•úÕ ûª®Ω-´’ôç.
èπÿú≈ ÉûªE v°æ´÷-ù«-©†’ Åçü¿’-éÓ-¶-ûª’-
Ø√o®Ω’. Åü¿-ûª-E-éÀ-≠dçæ -™‰ü¿’. Ææ£æ«-ï¢Ë’ éπü∆? Ç (°æ®Ω’í∫’) °æçüÁç™ Ê£«´· ´·çü¿’-Ø√oúø’
´’J-éÌEo í∫´’-Eü∆lç. Å®·Ø√ £æ«J ÅûªúÕE ÆæO’-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. 1) The police pursued the thief = Police ©’
Look at the following expressions from the
á°æ¤púø÷ ÅûªØË ´·çü¿’ç-ú≈-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’.)
5) I catch what you say.
üÌçí∫†’ ¢Áçö«-ú≈®Ω’.
stay on top= Éûª-®Ω’-©-éπçõ‰ áûªh-®·† (Ö†oûª) dialogue between Bhavan and Sravan:
†’´y-†oC Ø√éπ-®Ωn-´’-´¤-ûÓçC. 2) Ö†oûª Nü¿u™«çöÀN Ŷµºu-Æ œç-îªôç.
ÆœnA™ Öçúøôç. 1) He couldn't catch the early morning train. 3) äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo ´ü¿-©-èπ◊çú≈ ü∆EE í∫’Jç*
catch (Ééπ\úø) = Å®Ωn-´’-´úøç/ N†-°æ-úøôç
Sravan: I catch what you say. That's the trou- 2) He caught a bad cold.
a) I couldn't catch him in that noise and ´÷ö«x-úøôç, àüÁjØ√ îËߪ’ôç.
ble with all those who want to remain 3) Was it he I caught sight of on his way to the crowd . 4. Meek = humble = ≤ƒüµ¿’ Ææy¶µ«´ç éπLT,
unbeaten. station. Åçûª íÌúø´/ ï†ç™ Åûª†’ îÁ°œpçC Ø√èπ◊ N†- E®√-úøç-•-®Ωçí¬ ÖçúË
(†’´y-ØËC Ø√éπ®Ωn´’®·çC. Éûª-®Ω’©ûÓ ãúÕ- 4) He has outdone the others in his company °æ-úø-™‰ü¿’. 5. Remarkable = Extraordinary = Å≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ω-ù-
§Ú-èπÿ-úø-ü¿-†’-èπ◊-ØË-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊ ÉüË ¶«üµ¿.) but the others are catching up. b) It's difficult to catch his English. ¢Á’i†/ ¶«í¬ îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-ûª-T† India's progress in
unbeaten = Åñ‰-ߪ·-™„j† 5) I catch what you say. ÅûªúÕ English Å®Ωn-´’-´ôç éπ≠dçæ . software is remarkable = software ™ ¶µ«®Ωû˝
Bhavan: Has he got back his lost suit case 6) The police have yet to catch the thief. 6) The police have yet to catch the thief. v°æí∫A îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-ü¿-í∫_üË (íÌ°æpí¬).
yet? 7) Pavan caught an employee red handed §ÚM-Ææ’©’ -üÌçí∫-Eçé¬ °æ-ô’déÓ-™‰-ü¿’.
(Åûªúø’ §ÚíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊†o suitcase üÌJ-éÀçü∆/ stealing office property. üÌçí∫Lo, ØË®Ω-Ææ’n-©†’ §ÚM-Ææ’©’ °æô’déÓ´úøç =
Åûª†’ AJT §Òçü∆ú≈?) 8) I'll catch you later. catch thieves/ criminals, etc. - M. SURESAN

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