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37: Girkmann Verification Problem

**3.37 Girkmann Verification Problem
**

Summary

354 355

Detailed Description Results 359 361

Modeling Tips Input Files

365

3.37- Marc User’s Guide Summary

Summary

Title Problem features Girkmann Verification Problem The Girkmann problem is a numerical verification exercise in solid mechanics proposed by Juhani Pitkäranta, Ivo Babuška, and Barna Szabó in 2008. The importance of verification is self-evident.

h h = 0.06 m Rc = 15.00 m α = 2π/9 a = 0.60 m b = 0.50 m Rm = Rc/sin(α) Qα α Rc Mα Qα Mα ring b B

Geometry

shel l

X Z Y

ρ=

33 3

5.71 k

g/m 3

A

a

Rc

C L

p = 27,283.1 N/m2

Material properties Analysis type Boundary conditions Element type FE results

E = 2.059x1010 N/m2, = 0.0, = 3335.71 kg/m3 Static with elastic material behavior Axial displacement at centerline = 0, pressure and gravity loads indicated Axisymmetric shell and solid elements are connected with displacement and slope continuity. Bending moment and shear force at shell-ring interface; meridional angle at maximum bending moment. The authors invited their readers to solve this problem and verify the results are accurate to within 5 percent. The results herein are within 0.50 percent.

300 250 200 150 100 50

Bending Moment (Nm/m)

**Meridional Angle (degrees)
**

0 10 -50 38.137o 20 30 40

ρ=3 335

.71

kg /

m3

C L

p = 27,283.1 N/m2

CHAPTER 3.37 3.37Girkmann Verification Problem

The Girkmann problem consists of a spherical shell connected to a stiffening ring at the crown radius. The objective of the analysis is to accurately estimate: a) the shear force and bending moment acting at the junction between the spherical shell and the stiffening ring b) determine the location (meridional angle) and the magnitude of the maximum bending moment in the shell. The model problem was first discussed by Girkmann in 1956, subsequently by Timoshenko and Woinowski-Krieger in 1959. The results are compared to the solutions by the classical methods to demonstrate the accuracy.

Detailed Description

Element type 1, an axisymmetric, straight, thick-shell element is used for modeling the spherical shell and element type 10, an axisymmetric, four-node, quadrilateral element is used to model the stiffening ring. The geometry for the Girkmann problem is shown in Figure 3.37-1. The x axis is the axis of rotational symmetry. A spherical shell of thickness h and mid-surface radius Rm, is connected to a stiffening ring at the meridional angle α and a crown radius of Rc. The dimensions of the ring are a and b.

h h = 0.06 m Rc = 15.00 m α = 2π/9 a = 0.60 m b = 0.50 m Rm = Rc/sin(α) Qα α Rc Mα Qα Mα ring b B

shel l

ρ=

X Z Y

33 3

5.71 k

g/m 3

A

a

Rc

C L

p = 27,283.1 N/m2

Figure 3.37-1

The Girkmann Problem Geometry

3.37- Marc User’s Guide Detailed Description

A close-up of the shell-ring intersection for the Girkmann problem is shown in Figure 3.37-2. The Mesh consists of 2208 elements and 2270 nodes.

Figure 3.37-2

The Girkmann Shell - Ring Close-up

The axisymmetric solid elements for the stiffening ring are generated by *add_elements and re-meshed with *subdivide_elements (Figure 3.37-3). The axisymmetric shell elements for the spherical shell are generated using *expand_nodes.

X Z Y

Figure 3.37-3

Building the Ring using Subdivide

CHAPTER 3.37 3.37Girkmann Verification Problem

A local Cartesian coordinate system (*new_coord_system) is created with the shell solid intersection node as origin, the local X axis along the 400 inclined edge of the ring and the local Y axis normal to that. All the nodes on the 400 inclined edge of the ring and the end node of the shell at the intersection are transformed into this co-ordinate system (Figure 3.37-4).

Lo ca lY

Di re ct io n

X Z Y

Figure 3.37-4

Coordinate Transformation (colored arrows) for Joining the Shell and Ring

Servo links constrain the translation and rotation displacements of the end node of the shell joining the inclined edge of the ring. The local Y displacement of the nodes on the ring edge is the sum (with appropriate sign) of the local Y displacement of the end node of the shell at the intersection and Z rotation times the distance of that node from the end node of the shell (see Figure 3.37-8). The local X and local Y displacement of the coincident nodes of solid and shell at the intersection are constrained to be equal.

Lo ca lX

Di

re ct io n

3.37- Marc User’s Guide Detailed Description

The material for all elements is linear elastic, isotropic with Young’s modulus of 2.059e10 N/m2 and density of 3335.71 Kg/m3. Pressure of 27283.14706 N/m2 is applied is applied to the bottom face (left) of the ring as an edge load (Figure 3.37-5). An acceleration of -9.81 m/s2 is applied in the X direction (although not necessary the Y and Z components of acceleration is set to zero as well) only to the shell elements, whose mass times this acceleration will determine the weight or gravity load of the shell structure. The stiffening ring is assumed to be weightless. The displacement of the node on the axis of symmetry is constrained in the axial direction.

shel l

ρ=

333

5.71 k

g/m 3

Rc p = 27,283.1 N/m2

apply1 -> Axial Disp = 0 X Z Y apply2 -> Pressure Load apply3 -> Gravity Load

C L

Figure 3.37-5

Loads and Boundary Conditions

By design, the axial (vertical in Figure 3.37-5) force on the ring equilibrates the weight of the shell.

CHAPTER 3.37 3.37Girkmann Verification Problem

Results

The internal forces from the force balance file (girkmann_job1.grd) are listed below for the node (2270) on shell at the intersection.

node node node node 2270 2270 2270 2270 internal force from element externally applied forces tying/mpc forces reaction - residual forces 2208 -0.1571E+07 0.1735E+07 -0.4710E+03 0.0000E+00 0.1572E+07 -0.1735E+07 0.6319E-05 -0.7750E-05 0.0000E+00 -0.3475E+04 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.3475E+04 0.0000E+00 0.1676E-07 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00

3575 The bending moment at the shell-ring interface becomes, M = 3575 = -------------- = 36.871 Nm/m . ----------D 30 – 1571000 The axial force at the shell-ring interface becomes, Q = ----------------------- = – 16668.828 N/m . D The radial force at the shell-ring interface becomes, 1735000 Q r = -------------------- = 18408.922 N/m . D

The shear stress at the shell-ring interface (Figure 3.37-6) is -15658.2 N/m2, and when multiplied by the thickness gives a shear force of -939.492 N/m.

-15236.7 Inc: 0 Time: 0.000e+000 84066.9 -15404.7 93494.7 -3.277e+004 -15573.5 83583.3 140071 77680 70742.5 -15658.2 66222.7 -32766.4 63572.1 73937.8 13389.1 X 29697.9 Z Y 42517.6 Comp 12 of Stress Layer 1 31703.8 job1 61789.1 80888.5 43299.7 62333.3 83265.8

7.668e+005

71077

Figure 3.37-6

Shear Stress (Component 12) at the Shell-Ring Interface

3.37- Marc User’s Guide Results

The bending moment is estimated from the shell stresses as follows: B = Comp 11 of Stress at Layer 1 - Comp 11 of Stress at Layer 5 2 M B = B bd 6 = B 1 0.06 6 Using the above, the bending moment can be plotted versus the meridional angle as shown in. The maximum bending moment is 255.103 Nm/m at a meridional angle of 38.137o.

300 250 200 150 100 50

2

2

Bending Moment (Nm/m)

**Meridional Angle (degrees)
**

0 10 -50 38.137o 20 30 40

Figure 3.37-7

Bending Moment versus Meridional Angle

**The results are summarized below and compared to the reference values.
**

Result Bending Moment (Nm/m) Axial Force (N/m) Radial Force (N/m) Shear Force (N/m) Max. Bending Moment in the shell (Nm/m) Meridional Angle of Max. BM (degree) Marc 36.871 -16668.828 18408.922 -939.492 255.103 38.137 Reference (1) 36.81 -16700 18400 -943.6 253.97 38.08 % Error 0.17% -0.19% 0.05% -0.44% 0.45% 0.15%

(1) The Problem of Verification with Reference to the Girkmann Problem by Barna Szabó, Ivo Babuška, Juhani Pitkäranta, and Sebastian Nervi. The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences Report 09-17, 2009. See www.ices.utexas.edu/research/reports/2009/0917.pdf. Editorial Comment: The above reference is well worth reading; the authors received 15 solutions and among their comments the following is worth repeating, namely: “Another respondent wrote: “Regarding verification tasks for structural analysis software that has adequate quality for use in our safety critical profession of structural engineering, the solution of problems such as the Girkmann problem represents a minuscule fraction of what is necessary to assure quality.” We [the authors] agree with this statement. That is why we find it very surprising that the answers received had such a large dispersion. For example, the reported values of the moment at the shell-ring interface ranged between -205 and 17977 Nm/m. Solution of the Girkmann problem should be a very short exercise to persons having expertise in FEA, yet many of the answers were wildly off.”

CHAPTER 3.37 3.37Girkmann Verification Problem

Modeling Tips

To review the model, read in the Marc input file girkmann.dat into Mentat. All of the modeling information will be present. Axisymmetric models in Marc use the global x axis as the axis of rotation. The meshing is relatively straight forward and is not repeated here. However, an important feature in this model are the transformations and constraints between the end shell node (n:2770) where it joins the inclined plane of the ring (n:11). To review the transformations and constraints let’s read in the input file and go to modeling tools.

FILES MARC INPUT FILE READ girkmann.dat, OK SAVE AS girkmann, OK FILL MAIN MODELING TOOLS TRANSFORMATONS TRANSFORMATION PLOT SETTINGS TRANSFORMATIONS DRAW TRANSFORMATIONS DRAW MAIN LINKS SERVO LINKS MAIN

(turn on) (should look like Figure 3.37-4) (turn off)

(see Figure 3.37-8)

We see that servo link 1 in Figure 3.37-8, constrains the ring node 110 to have its second degree of freedom related to the second (translation normal to incline) and third (rotation) of the end shell node 2770 by the moment arm of length 0.03m. This is repeated 15 more times for all nodes along the ring incline edge. Servo link 17 and 18, simply equate the first and second degrees of freedom to the coincident nodes 2270 of the shell and 11 of the ring. These servo links are automatically generated with the N to 1 SERVOS button, where you need only select the proper nodes and all of the coefficients (aka moment arms) are computed automatically by Mentat. Furthermore, since the shell elements have three degrees of freedom per node, while the ring elements have only two degrees of freedom per node, node 11 and node 2270 should never be the same node number, but constrained together as shown here. Also since the nodes are separate, the results will not be nodal averaged across the shell and solid axisymmetric elements. Finally, getting this step wrong will give incorrect results that may not be obvious.

3.37- Marc User’s Guide Modeling Tips

**2262 2263 2264 2265 2266 2267 2268 165 176 2269 187
**

0.03

110 121 132 143 154

109

108

Lo

Z, dof 3

ca

lX

,d

Lo

of

ca

1

lY

2270 11 22 33 44 55

,d

of

2

66 X 88 Z Y 99

Servo 1: dof 2 n:110 =1*dof 2 n: 2270 + 0.03*dof 3 n:2270

77

Figure 3.37-8

Servo Link 1

You may wish to run the model; to do so simply go to Jobs, run and submit the simulation, for example

JOBS RUN SUBMIT

After the simulation completes, let’s examine how we can produce check the validity of the servo links, the bending moment versus meridional angle shown in Figure 3.37-7, and some other ways to help visualize the results.

OPEN POST FILE (RESULTS MENU) DEFORMED SHAPE SETTINGS AUTOMATIC RETURN DEF & ORIG (opens results and jumps to results menu) (turn on) (should look like Figure 3.37-9)

The servo links must keep the angle (a right angle in this case) between the shell and ring edge the same before and after deformation. Since the deformations are very small, the scaling of the deformed shape was set to automatic and the magnification factor is over 400 in Figure 3.37-9.

CHAPTER 3.37 3.37Girkmann Verification Problem

Inc: 0 Time: 0.000e+000

X Z Y

Figure 3.37-9

Shell-Ring Edge Originally Perpendicular must remain Perpendicular - Displacements Automatically Magnified over 400 times.

The strategy to computing the bending moment in the shell is simple; we will just collect bending stress along a path from the centerline to the end shell node.

PATH PLOT NODE PATH n:803 n:2270 # ADD CURVES ADD CURVE Arc Length Comp 11 of Stress Layer 1 Arc Length Comp 11 of Stress Layer 5 SHOW ID 100 FIT RETURN CLIPBOARD COPY TO

(should look like Figure 3.37-10)

The xy data is now in the clipboard and can be exported to Microsoft Excel for additional processing to compute the bending moment from the bending stresses at the top and bottom layers of the shell element that was used to produce the plot in Figure 3.37-7.

3.37- Marc User’s Guide Modeling Tips

Y (x1e5) -0.025 2130 2030

1930 2230 1830 1130 1230 1330 1430 1630 1530 1730 1430 1630 1530 1730 1830 1930 2230

830

930

1030

2030 -8.529 0 2130 1.629 1

Arc Length (x10) Comp 11 of Stress Layer 1 Comp 11 of Stress Layer 5

Figure 3.37-10 Bending Stress of Top and Bottom Shell Layers along Arc Length of Shell Elements from Center Line to Shell-ring Intersection

Also we can use the expand feature to expand (rotated 40o) our results about the axis of rotation.

Inc: 0 Time: 0.000e+000

-2.520e+003 -4.939e+004 -9.625e+004 -1.431e+005 -1.900e+005 -2.369e+005 -2.837e+005 -3.306e+005 -3.775e+005 -4.243e+005 -4.712e+005 X Z job1 Comp 11 of Stress Layer 1 Y 4

Figure 3.37-11 Axisymmetric Shell Element Results Expanded about the Rotational Symmetry Axis

CHAPTER 3.37 3.37Girkmann Verification Problem

Finally we can visualize the shell-ring intersection by closing the post file and adjusting the plot settings as follows:

MAIN RESULTS CLOSE MAIN GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES PLOT SETTINGS SHELL PLOT EXPANDED DEFAULT THICKNESS = 0.06 DRAW

(should look like Figure 3.37-12)

0.

06

Shell

Servo Links

Ring

X Z Y

Figure 3.37-12 Expanded Shell Plot Showing the Shell’s Thickness at the Shell-Ring Intersection

Hence we can see that the thickness of the shell is identical to the length of the inclined ring edge that has all of the servo links illustrated in Figure 3.37-8.

Input Files

The files below are on your delivery media or they can be downloaded by your web browser by clicking the links (file names) below. File girkmann.dat Description Marc input file to run the above problem

3.37- Marc User’s Guide Input Files

The Girkmann problem is a numerical verification exercise in solid mechanics proposed by Juhani Pitkäranta, Ivo Babuška, and Barna Szabó in 2008. This example solves this verification problem using...

The Girkmann problem is a numerical verification exercise in solid mechanics proposed by Juhani Pitkäranta, Ivo Babuška, and Barna Szabó in 2008. This example solves this verification problem using the Marc finite element program. This document is a review copy.

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