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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 2 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛

2
v°æ¨¡o: 1. Present perfect continuous tense †’ passive ™éÀ ᙫ ´÷®√a--L?
2 Passive verb
. †’ à tense ™ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L?subject, object
í∫’Jhç-îªúøç ᙫ?
ï¢√•’: 1. Perfect continuous
– öÀ.éÀ-®Ω-ù˝- π◊-´÷®˝, íÓ®Ωçôx
tenses (present, past and future) èπ◊
Passive voice ™‰ü¿’.
2. Active voice ™ verb à tense ™ Öçô’çüÓ, Passive ™ èπÿú≈
ÅüË tense ™ Öçô’ç-C/-Öç-ú≈L.
e.g.: Active: He waters the plants everyday.- verb - waters,
tense -present simple.
sentence passive: The plants are watered by him
v°æ¨¡o: 1) -O’®Ω’ passive forms exercise ™ Four ï¢√•’: 1) Four were killed and ten were injured
Ñ èπ◊
everyday. Verb - are watered - are + pp. Passive Ñ subject, the
™
plants. (sentence subject) Verb - are
-üËEo í∫’Jç* îÁ°æ¤hçüÓ, ÅC ü∆E were killed and ten injured in the acci- Å-†-ú≈-EéÀ •ü¿’©’, were È®çúø’ clauses èπÿ äéπõ‰
watered. (subject sentence
ûª®√yûª èπ◊ Åûªuçûª ´·êu-´’-®·† ´÷ô/- dent yesterday Four were
ÅE Éî√a®Ω’. (common) 鬕öÀd, four were killed and ten, injured
´÷-ô©’, verb). killed and ten were injured in the acci- Å--ØÌa. ûª°æ¤p-™‰ü¿’, Å®·ûË ten °æéπ\-† comma Öçõ‰
dent yesterday ÅE Öçú≈L éπü∆? clear í¬ Öçô’çC. ´÷ö«x-úË-ô°æ¤púø’, ten °æéπ\†

v°æ¨¡o: 1. Past perfect, continuous, Future per- Did you bring my book yesterday? (last day
correct.
2) ÅüË ™„Ææ-Ø˛™ transformation principles (d)
™ shall be/ should be... ©èπ◊ + 1st RDW
comma ņ™‰ç éπü∆, Åçü¿’-éπE, ten Å-E é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ Ç°œ,
injured Åçö«ç. 2) ÅçûË éπü∆? e.g.: You shall do
fect
ņç) – ÉD
í∫’-Jç-* -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. active Å®·ûË shall be/ should be... + pp it. (AV. verb: shall + 1st RDW) DEéÀ Passive
Have + pp/ has + pp - past action, time
2. Ø√ •’é˙ BÆæ’éÌî√a®√ Åçõ‰ Ñ ®ÓV Å®Ωnç™
DEo
passive ÅØ√o®Ω’. ÉC éπ®Ω-ÍédØ√? Voice: It shall be done by you -Verb: shall be +
not stated (í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† °æE, à ®ÓV/ á-°æ¤p-úø’
éÀçC-¢√-öÀ™ ¢Á·ü¿-öÀC Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-´î√a? 3) What nonsense are you talking?; What done - shall be + pp (done) He
time
Å-E îÁ°æp-E) Ææç-ü¿®√s¥-™x ¢√-úø-û√ç. Ç Nüµ¿çí¬ éπü∆? Å™«Íí
Have you bought my book. should carry it (A.V.verb: should carry - should
Have you brought my book, correct. Past nonsense you are talking . ûËú≈ -à-N’-öÀ?
Did you bring (my) book last day - + 1st RDW). Passive: It should be carried
action, time stated 4) Were you, by any chance, in college last
Ñ È®çúÕç- (í∫ûªç™ á°æ¤púø’ ïJ-TçD DEéÀ
by him. Verb: should be carried (should be +
yesterday, last year etc. evening? in the college
öÀ™ ¢Á·ü¿-öÀC á°æ¤púø’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L? Å™«Íí ûÁLÊ° °æü¿ç, ) Ææç-ü¿®Ωs¥- ņ-´î√a? 鬙‰ñ¸ carried - pp)- 3) What nonsense are
Did you bring my book yesterday? cor- The
§Òü¿’l† ïJ-T† ü∆E í∫’Jç* ≤ƒßª’çvûªç ´÷ö«x-úø’- ¢Á’i-ûË ûÁL-ÆœçüË éπü∆? Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L éπü∆? ÆæÈ®j-†üË éπü∆?
èπ◊-ØË-ô-°æ¤púø’ ü∆Eo present perfect ™‰ü∆ simple you talking? correct. What nonsense you are
rect.
talking correct question form 4)
past üËEo Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L?
– áØ˛.-°ç-ôߪ’u, °∂æ’ö¸-Íé-Ææ®˝ ÅØËC é¬ü¿’-éπü∆?
Has he given the money?
has he given? (Åûªúø’ Éî√aú≈?), Has he college college
Has he taken your book? }Correct. Because
ã Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’ ¢√∞¡x í∫’-Jç-* -´÷-ö«x-úË-
taken? Åûªúø’ BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√oú≈?– Å-ØÌî√a? ô-°æ¤púø’,in college In the college
ÅØË ÅØ√L.
has given, has taken - refer to past actions, College college
ï¢√•’: 1. Past
ņç. éÀ Ææç•ç-üµ¿ç -™‰-E-¢√∞¡Ÿx ™ Ö†o-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
– G.îªçü¿’, ÆœJ-ÊÆúø’
time not stated. past in the college e.g.: My father was
perfect, continuous, Future
(á°æ¤púø’ ïJ-TçD ûÁ-L-ߪ’E
390
°æ¤úË Åçö«ç.
actions.) in the college yesterday to meet the principal.
perfect tenses †’ í∫’-Jç-* -î √-™«
N´-®Ωçí¬ §ƒûª lessons ™ îÁ§ƒpç, (´÷ father èπ◊ college ûÓ Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰ü¿’-éπü∆?).
ZPHS, Ghatkesar Teacher

Y ou ar e mistaken
îª÷úøçúÕ. Å™«Íí O’®Ω’ ™ ņ’-
You go to school at 9.30/ You
2. Have you brought my book? – †’´¤y
éÓçúÕ. Å°æ¤púø’
attend school everyday. The school
Ø√ °æ¤Ææhéπç ûÁî√a¢√? (ÉC correct) éπçõ‰ O’®Ω’ school
é¬ü¿’. áçü¿’-
èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ¢√∞¡Ÿx éπ†’éπ.

v°æ¨¡o: I. a) Please inform me the proper word for i) A teacher by profession, he makes
the following. 'A' is having a job. The emol- some money on the side by writing v°æ¨¡o: 1. English ™ formal, informal 3. È®çúø÷ Åçûª Ç¢Á÷-ü¿-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† sentences 鬴¤.
uments paid are not sufficient to meet stories. (´%Ah-Kû√u teacher Åûª†’. words ÖØ√o®· éπü∆? Åçõ‰ ÆæÈ®j† ¢√éπuç: Among those pens the one
both ends. So 'A' is doing another job, to éπü∑¿©’ ®√Æœ ´’J-éÌçûª Ææ秃-Cç--èπ◊ç- àN’öÀ? with the black refill is mine OR Among
have more salary to meet. - I am wishing ö«úø’.) 2. '´÷ô ûª°æp-úøç— – ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ those the pen with the black refill is mine.
some sentence and words, whether they ii) A teacher, writing stories is his à´’ç-ö«®Ω’? O’ sentences ™ mine among those ÅØËC
are correct or not? sideline (sideline = a job in addi-
tion to the main job)
3. The pen which has black ÆæÈ®j† word order é¬ü¿’. É™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’ clarity
1. A second string to the bow. M.SURESAN î√-™« ´·êuç. Åçü¿’-éπE, Among those pens,
refill is mine among those.
2. A substitute job to meet the demand. iii) a) A second string to the bow: The correct
form of this expression is, a) Have more The pen that has black refill is mine among ´·ç-ü¿’çõ‰ ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC.
3. Mercenary (Adj). -Ñ ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ single word
then string to your bow; b) Have another/ those – OöÀ™ àC éπÈ®é˙d? ûËú≈ à-N’öÀ? 4. The pens that are blue in colour, correct.
or sentence
(The blue pens are mine/ mine are the
ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. more strings to your bow. 4 The pens that are blue in colour are mine.
.
ï¢√•’: I Hope you don't mind noting the fol-
– >.N. °æü∆t-´A, äçíÓ©’ The meaning of these expressions is, "to have The pens those are blue in colour are blue pens simple
Åçõ‰ Éçé¬ éπü∆?)
more than one plan, idea or skill you can use mine. - OöÀ™ àC éπÈ®é˙d? 5. È®çúø÷ äéπõ‰. Å®·ûË sentence *´®Ω ´*a-†-
lowing: We don't say: a) A is having a job, b) it you need to." It does not mean an addition- °æ¤púø’ 'depend upon' better. I depend on
5 Depend on, depend upon -
To meet both ends; but we say: a) A has a job, al job.
. ûËú≈ à-N’öÀ?
him - depend, sentence -´’üµ¿u™ ´*açC
b) To make both ends meet. 6
b) A substitute job means a job that you do
(@Nûªç í∫úÕ-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ . †’´¤y §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ î˨»´¤, †’´¤y §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ 鬕öÀd, on ¢√ú≈ç (upon ¢√úÕØ√ ûª°æ¤p-™‰ü¿’).He
î√L-†çûª Ææ秃-Cç-îªôç) instead of the job that you are doing now, °æú≈f´¤. - is not to be depended upon - Ééπ\úø depend
II. a) Doing a second job for additional income not an additional job. You have mistak-
sentence *´®Ω ´*açC. 鬕öÀd depend upon
Ñ ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™
= Make (some, a little, etc) money on the c) Mercenary means doing anything just for en, You are mistaken
side the sake of money. The men who work for a
ÅE ®√ߪ’-´î√a? É™« ¢√úøôç better (on ¢√úÕØ√ ûª°æ¤p ™‰ü¿’).
7 Happy Sankranti to everybody.
6. †’´¤y §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ î˨»´¤ = You have made a
.
b) A job a person does in addition to their main goonda are mercenaries because they do Happy Sankranti everybody.
mistake. †’´¤y §Ò®Ω-°æ-ú≈f´¤ = You are mis-
– OöÀ™ àC
= a sideline. anything just for money.
taken. You have mistaken - Ñ sentence
éπÈ®é˙d?
v°æ¨¡o: éÀç-C-¢√é¬u-™x -¢Á·-ü¿-öÀ-C -O’ lesson -™ -É-*-aç-C. form; 2) the be form + the ... ing form; 3) The
be form + the past participle; 4) have/ has/
8. Enter the house, enter into the house ™ -àç -§Ò®Ω-§ƒ-ô’ -îËÆœç-D -îÁ°æp-ôç -™‰-ü¿’, sen-
´’üµ¿u ûËú≈ à-N’öÀ? tence °æ‹®Ωh-´-™‰ü¿’. You have mistaken him
had/ shall have/ will have, etc... + past par-
È®ç-úÓ -¢√éπuç èπÿ-ú≈ ÆæÈ®j-†-üË-Ø√? é¬éπ-§Ú-ûË éπÈ®é˙d
9. English vocabulary éÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ´’ç* for his brother - ÅûªE ûª´·túÕ-E /ņo†’ Åûª-
-¢√éπuç -ûÁ-©°æç-úÕ. ticiple; 5) The Doing Words and 6) shall,
1. If you study well. (If you are study well.) should, will, would etc + the 1st RDW.
°æ¤Ææhéπç Ææ÷*ç-îªçúÕ. -úÕí¬ §Ò®Ω-•-ú≈f´¤ †’´¤y. You have mistaken
2. He went to a movie last night. (He went You see that are (be form) + study (1 st
ï¢√•’: 1.Formal Åçõ‰ ã °æü¿l¥A v°æ鬮Ωç îËÊÆ ÅE,
– Ç®˝.-P´, È®j™‰y-éÓ-úø÷®Ω’ ÅE ´C-™‰ÊÆh -ü∆Eo -á-™« §Ò®Ω-•-úÕçC ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’.
for a movie last night.) RDW) is not among the 6 forms of the verb. 7. Both are correct. Happy sankranthi to
3. Whom do you help? (Whom do you help be from
í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓçúÕ: Doing Words
ûª®√yûª ´·êuçí¬ ´÷†´ Ææç•ç-üµ∆-™x. °ü¿l-¢√-∞¡}ûÓ, íÌ°æp everybody = v°æA ¢√Jéà džçü¿ Ææçvé¬çA.
to?) ¢√∞¡}ûÓ, ´’†èπ◊ -Åçûªí¬ °æJ-îª-ߪ’ç-™‰E ¢√∞¡}ûÓ– -á-™« Happy Sankranthi every body = (O’ áü¿’-
4. She came here to join a college. (She
®√ØË-®√´¤.
2. Went for a movie
-Åç-õ‰ -Å-™« -´÷-ö«x-úøç éπ-ü∆?(ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-©ûÓØÓ, ņo-ü¿- ®Ω’í¬ Ö†o-¢√-∞¡}†’)every body ÅE °œL*
came here to join in a college.
ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. ´·t-©-ûÓØÓ -´÷-ö«x-úÕ-†-ô’x). î√-™« íı®Ω-´çí¬, ã °æü¿l¥-
5. To join a software institute. (To join in a 3. ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’. Help ûª®√yûª to preposition ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ¨¡Ÿ¶µº-Ææç-vé¬çA ûÁ-©°æôç.
®√ü¿’. (I help/ helped him Åçö«-¢Ë’ -é¬-F Aí¬ ¢√JûÓ ´÷ö«-x-úøû√ç. ¢√∞¡xûÓ ´u´-£æ«-JçîË B®Ω’ 8. äéπ v°æüË-¨¡ç-™ éÀ v°æ¢Ë-Pç-îªôç – Enter a place.
software institute.) èπÿú≈ äéπ °æü¿l¥-Aí¬ Öçô’çC. ÉC formal. äéπ offi-
6. How are you? (How you are?) I help/ helped to him ņç) ä°æpçü¿ç èπ◊ü¿’-®Ω’a-éÓ-´úøç, Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù-™éÀ Cí∫úøç
cer ûÓØÓ, ã °ü¿l ´uéÀh-ûÓØÓ ´’†ç formal í¬ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ, enter into an agreement/ into
4. Join in ûª°æ¤p. Join a college correct.
Öçö«ç. ´’† friends ûÓ informal í¬ Öçö«ç.
ï¢√•’: 1. If you are study well - ÉC ûª°æ¤p-éπü∆? a conversation, etc.
– ñ„.G.Æœ. ê´’tç
5. ÉC èπÿú≈ -´·-ç-ü¿’ -¢√éπuç ™«í¬ØË. ´’† ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’™-ûÓ, ´·êuçí¬ ûª©’x-©ûÓ informal 9. Vocabulary
6. How you are? ÉC correct question form
Are study verb from
éπçô÷ v°æûËu-éπçí¬ -ÖçúË °æ¤Ææh-鬙‰
™«çöÀ
Please remember: The verb must be in
™‰ü¿’ éπü∆?
é¬ü¿’ í∫ü∆?(Question: Verb always before
í¬ Öçö«ç. îªü¿-´-†-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. O©-®·-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x English
2. Failing the word - fail your / his/ their word.
one of the 6 forms given here: 1) The be the subject)
îªü¿-´çúÕ.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 4 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Nipun: Chandan is fighting the election this
Last lesson ™ ´’†ç spoken English ™ fight èπ◊
time too, but it's going to be tougher for
him than last time.
Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ´÷ô©’ îª÷¨»ç éπü∆. ´’J-éÌEo ´÷ô©’
fight èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†¢Ë, ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. Ñ lesson
(Ñ≤ƒJ èπÿú≈ îªçü¿Ø˛ áEo-éπ™x §Úöà îËÆæ’h-
Ø√oúø’. éÀçü¿-öÀ-≤ƒ-J-éπçõ‰ Ñ≤ƒJ Èí©-´úøç ™ fight ûÓ ´îËa ´÷ô©’ ÅFo §Ú®√-ö«-EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-
Åûª-úÕéÀ áèπ◊\´ éπ≠dçæ .) *-†¢Ë é¬éπ-§Ú-´ôç îª÷≤ƒhç.
Look at the following sentences from the
Sugun: Yea. He has to fight more people for
dialogue above.
leadership than he did last time.
1) Chandan is fighting an election this time too.
(Å´¤†’. Ø√ߪ’-éπûªyç éÓÆæç éÀçü¿öÀ≤ƒJ-éπçõ‰
Ñ≤ƒJ áèπ◊\-´-´’ç-CûÓ §ÚöÃ-îË-ߪ÷Lq ÖçC.) 2) He has to fight more people for leadership
than he did last time.
Nipun: He has the toughest challenge from
Nandan. Nandan has the support of a 3) Chandan had to fight off his crowd of admir- b) You don't always fight people to win. You b) In spite of the early loss of wickets, the
sizable section of the voters. ers to come out of the auditorium. do it just for the pleasure of it. Pak team has plenty of fight left in it.=
(Åûª-úÕéÀ í∫öÀd-§Úöà †çü¿Ø˛ †’çîË. ãô-®Ωx™ 4) Hari has still plenty of fight left in him. Èí©-´-ö«-E-éπØË Éûª-®Ω’©ûÓ §Úöà îËߪ’ç. džçü¿ç ûªy®Ωí¬ wickets éÓ™p-®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, Pak ïô’d™
îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-ü¿í∫_ ´®Ω_¢Ë’, †çü¿-Ø˛†’ •©-°æ-®Ω’-Ææ’h- 5) The next candidate that has a fighting éÓÆæç èπÿú≈ îË≤ƒhç. Éçé¬ §Ú®√-ô-°æ-öÀ´’/ éÓJé¬ ÖØ√o®·.
chance in him is Nandan.
3) Fight (something/ somebody) off = äéπ-JE/ 5) Have a fighting chance = v¨¡´’-°æúÕ, éπ%ûª E¨¡a-
Ø√o®Ω’.)
sizeable/ sizable= áèπ◊\´ ¶µ«í∫¢Ë’ 6) Our friends fought about this issue for a
whole hour.
äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo E®Ó-CµçîËçü¿’èπ◊ v°æߪ’-Aoç-îªôç, é¬Ææh ߪ’çûÓ Nïߪ’ç ≤ƒCµç-îª-í∫-©-í∫úøç.
Sugun: I disagree with you there. He is not üˆ®Ω†b uçûÓ èπÿú≈. a) If you starts working at it, you still have a
such a serious opposition to Nandan. 7) I left them to fight it out.
a) The stars had to fight off the crowds to fighting chance =
(ÅC ØËØÌ-°æ¤p-éÓ†’. Åûªúø’ †çü¿-Ø˛èπ◊ Åçûª 1) Fighting an election: Fight an election Åçõ‰ get out of the auditorium = †’´¤y éπ≠d-°æ æ-úÕûË, †’´¤y ≤ƒCµç-îª-í∫-LÍí Å´-鬨¡ç
°ü¿l §Úöà àç é¬ü¿’.) ûÁ©’-Ææ÷hØË ÖçC éπü∆? áEo-éπ™x §Úöà îËߪ’ôç
Nipun: What do you know? The other day after ÅE. Ç Æ涵«-ÆænL †’ç* •ßª’-ô-°æ-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ç ÆœE´÷ ÖçC.
making a speech, Chandan had to fight a) Only the rich can û√®Ω©’ ïØ√Eo ûÓÊÆÆœ b) Don't worry. Begin now. You still have a
off his crowd of admirers to come out of make it to the ®√¢√Lq ´*açC. fighting chance =
the auditorium. That's the following he Assembly or b) The police had to ¶«üµ¿-°æ-úøèπ◊. É°æ¤púø’ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç. Fèπ◊ Nï-ߪ÷-
has. Parliament in India. fight off the demon-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
´-é¬-¨»©’ ÖØ√o®·.
Fighting an elec- strators to take the
(àç ûÁ©’Ææ’ Fèπ◊? ¢Á·ØÌoéπ®ÓV Ö°æ-Ø√uÆæç
tion costs a lot =
391 6) fight about = ¢√Cç--éÓ-´úøç.
É*a† ûª®√yûª Ç Æ涵º †’ç* •ßª’-öÀ-éÌ-îËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ Minister out = a) They fought about for
ûª† ÅGµ-´÷-†’© a whole night but did

I left them to fight it out
not arrive at any set-
´’üµ¿u †’ç* ®√´-ú≈-
EéÀ áçûÓ §Ú®√-ú≈Lq tlement =
´*açC. Åçûªí¬
ÅGµ-´÷-EçîË ¢√∞¡Ÿx- ®√vûªçû√ ¢√Cç--éÌE à
Ø√o-®Ω-ûª-úÕéÀ.) B®√t-Ø√-Eéà ®√™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷®Ω’
admirers= fans= ÅGµ-´÷-†’©’. ¶µ«®Ω-û˝™ Ææç°æ-†’o™‰ Assembly ´’çvAE •ßª’-ôèπ◊ BÆæ’-èπ◊-´-îËaç-ü¿’èπ◊
¢√∞¡Ÿx.
following= ´’ü¿lûª’/ support. b) The boys in the back benches are fight-
©èπ◊-í¬F, Parliament èπ◊í¬F áEo-éπ- §ÚM-Ææ’©’ v°æü¿-®Ωz-èπ◊-©†’ îÁü¿-®Ω-íÌ-ö«dLq ing about the best actor =
The hero has a large fan following= Çhero ´-í∫-©®Ω’. áEo-éπ™x §Úöà îËߪ’ôç ´*açC.
èπ◊ °ü¿l Ææçêu-™ØË ÅGµ-´÷†/ ņ’-Ω í∫ùç î√™« ê®Ω’aûÓ èπÿúÕ† °æE. demonstrators = v°æü¿-®Ωz-èπ◊©’
*´J benches ™ èπÿ®Ω’a†o °œ©x©’, Öûªh´’
ÖçC. †ô’úÕ í∫’Jç* ¢√Cç--èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’.
b) To fight an election is one Though old, he fought the robbers
Sugun: Do you know that the other candidate 7) fight it out = àüÁjØ√ N≠æߪ’ç B®√t†ç îËÆæ’-éÓ-
thing, to win is quite another. off =
Hari has still plenty of fight left in him? ´ôç (settle îËÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç)
You can't count him out. áEo-éπ™x §ÚöÃ-îË-ߪ’ôç äéπ áûª’h, M.SURESAN ´·Ææ-L-¢√-úÁj-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, Ç üÓ°œ-úÕ-í¬-∞¡xûÓ a) He just left home leaving his wife and his
(ÉçéÓ Å¶µºuJn £æ«JéÀ èπÿú≈ ´’ç* §Úöà ɴy- Èí©-´ôç äéπ áûª’h. §Ú®√úÕ ûªJ-¢Ë’-¨»úø’. mother to fight it out =
í∫© ¨¡éÃh, Ææçéπ©pç ÖØ√o-ߪ’E ûÁ©’≤ƒ Fèπ◊? 2) To fight people = compete = Éûª-®Ω’-©ûÓ §Úöà 4) Plenty of fight (left) in somebody = Éçé¬
ÅûªúÕo ûËL-éπí¬ BÆœ-§ƒ-Í®-ߪ’™‰ç.) Åûª†’ •ßª’-öÀ-Èé-Rx-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’, ûªLxF ¶µ«®Ωu†’
îËߪ’ôç. ã°œéπ/ ¨¡éÀh N’TL Öçúøôç. §Úö«x-úø’-éÓ-´’E.
Nipun: Still he may not be the force that a) He has to fight 5 other candidates to be a) My grandmother still has plenty of fight
b) Let's go. Let them fight it out =
Nandan is. Chandan is still the through to the assembly = left in her to walk the whole distance. =
favourite, but the next candidate that ´’†ç ¢Á∞«lç °æü∆. ¢√∞¡xØË ûË©’a-éÓF (§Úö«xô,
has a fighting chance in him is Nandan,
ÅÂÆçHxéÀ ¢Á∞«x-©çõ‰ Åûªúø’ ´’®Ó âü¿’-í∫’-JûÓ Éçûª-ü¿÷-®Ω´‚ †úÕ-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´÷ Å´’t-´’tèπ◊/ ¢√ü¿†).
certainly not Hari.
§ÚöÃ-îË-ߪ÷Lq ÖçC. ¶«´’tèπ◊ Éçé¬ ã°œéπ/ ¨¡éÀh N’TL ÖçC.

-v°æ-¨¡o:
(Å®·Ø√ Åûª†’ †çü¿Ø˛ Åçûª íÌ°æp/ í∫öÀd
v°æûªuJn 鬙‰úø’. Åçü¿®Ω÷ ņ’-èπ◊-ØËC îªçü¿ØË a= Å – ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ´’†ç ´÷´‚©’í¬ Öîªa- vi) U - DEo 'full' ™«çöÀ ´÷ô-™x, 'Ö— ™« °æ©’-
Èí©’-≤ƒh-úøE. Å®·ûË ÅûªE ûª®√yûª àüÁjØ√ 1. C.P.Brown Dictionary JçîË 'Å—èπ◊, English ™ a ®√ü¿’. èπ◊û√ç. (full - °∂椙¸)
§Ú®√úÕ Èí©-´-í∫© Ææ´’-®Ωnûª ÖçúËC †çü¿- ™ pronunciation -èπ◊ Ææç-•ç- a = Ç – ÉC, cot ™E Å ™«í¬ °ü¿-´¤©’ rule ™«çöÀ ´÷ô™x 'Ü— ™« °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
Ø˛Íéí¬F, £æ«JéÀ é¬ü¿’.) Cµç-* éÀç-C-N -Ø√èπ◊ Å®Ωnç í∫’çvúøçí¬ A°œp, Ø√©’éπ °æéπ\-©’ -°jéÀ A°æ¤pû√ç – (®Ω÷™¸)
Sugun: Let's wait and see. Yesterday our 鬙‰ü¿’. -N-´®Ωçí¬ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰- fall ™ ™«í¬. But ™«çöÀ ´÷ô™x U †’ 'Å— í¬ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
friends Karthik, Ramesh, Pratap and ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’. 'a' †’ English ™ à °æ-ü¿ç™ èπÿú≈, 'à— í¬ 2) îªC-¢Ë-ô-°æ¤púË dictionary ™
others fought about this issue for a a - a- ,a' , a^ , a , a^ a – Å, Å, °æ
v v Å®√n©’
whole hour. I left them to fight it out.
°æ©éπç. 'áß˝’—-™«í¬ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç, fate (°∂ß˝’-ö¸) îª÷Ææ’èπ◊çô÷ îªC-NûË, O’ îªü¿’-´¤- ≤ƒ-í∫ü¿’, NÆæ’-
d-ed-et - úøü¿ ™ ™«.
E- e- e' e - áà, -É, Ñ
(îª÷ü∆lç. E†o ´’† ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’©’ é¬Khé˙, v
Íí-Ææ’hçC, îªü¿-´-úøç ÇÊ°-≤ƒh®Ω’. Å™«é¬èπ◊çú≈ îªü¿’-
®Ω¢Ë’≠ˇ, v°æû√°ˇ, Éûª-®Ω’©÷ ã í∫çô-ÊÆ°æ¤ ÉüË - .. ii) d E bad ™ 'úø—™« °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. ´¤-èπ◊ç-ô÷-§ÚûË, Ææçü¿-®√s¥-Eo-•öÀd éÌEo ´÷ô©
i - i i - É, Ñ, â Looked, booked ™ d (ed), t í¬ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. Å®√n©’ dictionary Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç- ™‰-èπ◊çú≈ î√©-
¢√Cç--èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’. ¢√∞¡xØË ûË©’a-éÓ-´’E ؈’ - ' ^
O - O, O , O - ãä Looked = ©’é˙d. ≤ƒ®Ω’x correct í¬ØË Ü£œ«ç--éÓ-í∫©ç. ÅçûË-é¬-
´îËa¨».) - ' ^ v
U - U U ,U U - ÖÜ, Ç – OöÀ-E ᙫ °æ©é¬-™
Nipun: It's unfortunate that the candidates are iii) E (e) E, bet ™«çöÀ °æü∆™x, 'á— í¬ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. èπ◊çú≈ áèπ◊\-´-≤ƒ®Ω’x äÍé-´÷ô ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’, ÅC
fighting on the basis of caste.
ûÁ©-°æçúÕ. 'à— ™« à °æü¿ç-™-†÷- ®√ü¿’ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁLÆœ. fete ´’† mind ™E, auto register ´©x, ´’†
2. English paper îªC-¢Ë-ô-°æ¤púø’ Å®√n©’ îª÷-úÌ-ü¿lE v°æߪ’-ûªoç -™‰-èπ◊çú≈ ´’† speech ™ ¢√úË-
(¢√∞¡Ÿx èπ◊©ç v§ƒA-°æ-C-éπ† §ÚöÃ-îË-ߪ’ôç ü¿’®Ω- ÅØË ´÷ô™ °߽’ö¸ (áß˝’)™« ´Ææ’hçC. feel
ü¿%-≠d-éæ π®Ωç) O’®Ωç-ö«®Ω’. îªC-N† ûª®√yûª îª÷úø-ö«-EéÀ í∫’®Ω’hç- ™ 'Ñ—™« ´Ææ’hçC. ߪ’ôç ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC. îªC-N† ûª®√yûª ÅEo
Sugun: Nandan did not do it at first. But when
úø´¤ éπü∆? ûÁ©’í∫’ O’úÕߪ’ç ¢√JéÀ Oxford à iv) i - ÉC fit, kill ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀ™ x 'É— ™« °æ©’-
´÷ô©÷ ´’-J-*-§Úç- éπü∆? à È®çúø’- ´‚úø’
Chandan started it, Nandan wanted to
ÆœKÆˇ ᙫ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC?
èπ◊û√ç.Magazine ™«çöÀ ´÷ô™ '´÷í∫-@Ø˛—– ´÷ô-©-®·Ø√ í∫’®Ω’hç-ö«-®·-éπü∆. O’®Ω’ ¢√öÀ
Å®√n©’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çõ‰ î√©’. Telugu Medium
fight fire with fire and started the caste
– G.Ææ-Ah-¶«•’, éÓ®Ω’-éÌçúø
appeal. -ï-¢√-•’: 'Ñ— ™« °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. ¢√∞¡Ÿx Oxford Dictionary *´®Ω defining
sign ™«çöÀ ´÷ô™x 'â— ™« °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
O’®Ω’ ®√Æœ-†N pronunciation (Ö-î√a®Ω-ù)èπ◊ words list ÅE Öçô’ç-C. -´·ç-ü¿’ -¢√öÀ
(¢Á·ü¿ô †çü¿Ø˛ Å™« îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’. é¬E v) O - ÉC British English ™ 'ä¢˛— ™« °æ©’-
Chandan ü∆Eo v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îªôç îª ÷Æœ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†N. Å®√n©’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çõ‰ N’í∫-û√-¢√-öÀéÀ Å®√n©’
i) a = a- = (Å)= cot ™ Å í¬ °æ©’èπ◊û√ç –
èπ◊û√ç – go - íÌ¢˛ (¢˛ °æLéà °æ©éπ†ô’x - ûÁ©’Ææ’éÓ-´-úøç -Ææ’-©¶µºç. -¢√öÀ Å®√n-©èπ◊ éÌçûª-
´·©’x†’ ´·©’x-ûÓØË Bߪ÷-©E, û√†’ èπÿú≈
èπ◊©ç v°æ≤ƒh-´† ûÁî√aúø’.) Å®·ûË ÉC °æL-Íé-ô-°æ¤púø’ °ü¿-´¤©’ í∫’çvúøç-í¬ - Öç-ô’ç-C). American English / Indian 鬩ç àü¿-®·Ø√ English - Telugu Dictionary
English ™ ä ÅE ´Ææ’hçC – go - íÌ/ íÓ.
Nipun: OK. Let's wait and watch. (¢Ë* îª÷ü∆lç.) A°œp, Ø√©’éπ °æéπ\-©’- °jéÀ A°æ¤pû√ç. ¢√úøçúÕ.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 6 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Subhakar: So, what's new?
´’†ç éÀçü¿öÀ È®çúø’ lessons ™ spoken
English ™ ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ω-ùçí¬ NE-°œçîË fight, ü∆EûÓ ´îËa
(Å®·ûË àçöÀ N¨Ï-≥ƒ©’?)
Jayakar: I am returning from Vishnu. A piece Éûª®Ω ´÷ô©’, ¢√öÀ ¢√úøéπç îª÷¨»ç. Éçé¬ fight èπ◊
of good news is that he has got
admission into IIM.
Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ´÷ô©’, conversation ™ ûª®Ωîª÷
¢√úø-í∫-L-T-†N ´’J-éÌEo ÖØ√o®·. Ñ lesson ™
(Vishnu ü¿í∫_®Ω †’ç* AJ-íÌ-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’.
¨¡Ÿ¶µº-¢√®Ωh. Åûª-úÕéÀ IIM ™ v°æ¢Ë¨¡ç ©Gµç- ¢√öÀE îª÷ü∆lç. ¢√öÀE ûª®Ωîª÷ O’ conversation ™
*çC.) ¢√úË Å´-é¬-¨»-©’ç-ö«®·.
Look at the following sentences from
(IIM = Indian Institute of Management)
the conversation at the beginning of the les-
Subhakar: That's really great. Getting admis-
son.
sion into IIM is certainly an
achievement. I should walk a hun- 1) The thing to be appreciated here is his fight-
2) fight back = (´’†Íéç £æ…E ï®Ω-í∫-èπ◊çú≈) áü¿’-®Ω’- 4) Fight to the finish = Åö Éö ûË™‰-ü∆éπ
dred miles to shake hands with ing spirit.
§Ú-®√ôç. §Ú®√ -úøôç/ v¨¡N’ç-îªôç.
him. 2) His failure in his first attempt roused his
a) Pakistan fought back to avoid defeat= a) This exam is going to be a fight to the fin-
(Eïçí¬ íÌÊ°p. IIM ™ v°æ¢Ë¨¡ç Åçõ‰ desire to fight back.
ãôN’ ûª°œpç--èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ §ƒéÀ-≤ƒnØ˛ áü¿’-®Ω’-E-L* ish for me =
àüÓ °∂撆鬮Ωuç ≤ƒCµç-*-†õ‰x. ´çü¿¢Á’i∞¡Ÿx 3) He has put up a good fight this time. §Ú®√-úÕçC.
†úÕ-îÁjØ√ Åûª-úÕéÀ shakehand É¢√y- 4) He has fought to the finish. b) The tribals in India do not have the power
؈’ ´÷vûªç Ñ °æKéπ~ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ û√úÓ Ê°úÓ
ûË©’a-èπ◊ç-ö«†’.
LqçüË.) 5) He'd fight tooth and nail for any thing he to fight back, though they are exploited=
Walk a hundred miles to shakehands with b) This time it is going to be a fight to the fin-
wants.
ish. Either he or me will stay=
somebody=
üÓ°œ-úÕéÀ í∫’®Ω-´¤-ûª’-†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, ¶µ«®Ωûª TJ-ï-†’-©èπ◊
1) Fighting spirit-
á´-È®jØ√ àüÁjØ√ °∂æ’†-鬮Ωuç ≤ƒCµÊÆh §Ú®√úÕ ≤ƒCµç-î√-©ØË éÓJéπ/ ü∆Eo áC-JçîË ¨¡éÀh ™‰ü¿’.
Ñ ´÷ôçö«ç. áçûª éπ≠d-°æ æ-úÁjØ√ ≤ƒCµç-î√-©ØË í∫öÀd E®Ωgߪ’ç. (Ææ’©- (exploited= äéπJ •©-£‘«-†-ûª†’ ´’† ¶«í∫’èπ◊ Ñ≤ƒJ Åö Éö ûËL-§Ú-ßË’-ü∆é¬ §Ú®√-úøû√/
Jayakar: The thing to be appreciated here is v°æߪ’-ûªoç-îË≤ƒh. ¢√úø’ç-ö«úÓ Øˆ’ç-ö«ØÓ
¶µºçí¬ EÆæp %£æ« îÁçü¿-èπ◊çú≈, EÆæq-£æ…-ߪ’ûª îª÷°œç-îª- ¢√úø’-éÓ-´ôç; Ũ¡-éπh-ûª†’ ¢√úø’-éÓ-´ôç/ ´÷´‚-
his fighting spirit. Really hats off to ûË™«L.
èπ◊çú≈) ©’í¬ üÓ°œ-úÕéÀ í∫’®ΩßË’u •©-
his patience and perseverance. c) The third time was a fight to the finish.
a) The one that suc- £‘«-†-´-®√_-©†’, they are
(´’†ç ¢Á’a-éÓ-¢√-LqçC áçûª éπ≠d-¢æ Á’iØ√ ceeds in life is exploited Åçô’ç-ö«®Ω’) The result was in his favour=
3) Put up a good
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
≤ƒCµç-î√-©ØË éÓJéπ/ ≤ƒCµç-îË-´-®Ωèπ◊ §Ú®√- always the one with ´‚úÓ-≤ƒ-JéÀ ûËLç-ü¿C. °∂æLûªç ¢√úÕéÀ ņ’-èπÿ-
ú≈-©ØË éÓJéπ. Eïçí¬ ÅûªúÕ ã®Ω’p†÷,
fighting spirit = 392 fight= ©çí¬ ÖçC.
°æô’d-ü¿©†÷ ¢Á’a-éÓ-¢√-LqçüË.)
5) Fight tooth and nail=
appreciate: Åv°‘-≠œ-á-

He has fought to the finish
ß˝’ö¸ – v°‘ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’- í∫öÀd °æô’d-ü¿-©ûÓ -§Ú®√-
èπ◊û√ç= ¢Á’a-éÓ-´ôç; úøôç.
patience- °߽’-≠æØ˛q– a) The residents of the
ûÁ©’Ææ’ í∫ü∆? ã®Ω’p/ new colony are fight-
ã°œéπ. ing tooth and nail for a
perseverance- °æ (bird ™ '•— ™«) ÆœN-ߪ’- road and bus stop =
éπ≠d-°æ æ-úø-®·Ø√ ≤ƒCµç-î√-©-†’-éÌ-ØË-¢√∞Ïx/ éπ≥ƒd-©èπÿ, ¨¡vûª’-´¤-©èπÿ Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬
®ΩØ˛q– N ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. Å®Ωnç= °æô’d-ü¿©– §Ú®√úÕ Èí©-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊-ØË-¢√∞Ïx @N-ûªç™ ™Ôçí∫-èπ◊çú≈ O©-®·-†ç-ûª-´-®Ωèπÿ §Ú®√- Ç colony ¢√Ææ’©’ éÌûªh road, bus stop éÓÆæç
≤ƒCµç-îË-´-®Ωèπ◊ Nv¨¡-N’ç-îªE í∫’ùç; hats off- Nïߪ’ç ≤ƒCµ-≤ƒh®Ω’. úøôç/ ™ÔçT-§ÚßË’ ´®Ωèπÿ §Ú®√-úø’- ÇçüÓ-∞¡† îËÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ω’.
á´J†-®·Ø√ ¢Á’a-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úË ´÷ô. b) It is not just enough to have ûª÷ç-úøôç/ N°∂æ-©-´’-ßË’u-´-®Ωèπÿ v°æߪ’-Ao- b) They are fighting tooth and nail for the
ambition. You should have the withdrawal of new taxes =
ñ£æ…®˝ ™«í¬. Ææ÷hç-úøôç. (v°æߪ’-ûªo-™ °æç ™‰éπ-§Ú-
Subhakar: His failure in his first attempt
fighting spirit= ´ôç.)
roused his desire to fight back. It
éÌûªh °æ†’o© Ö°æÆæç£æ«®Ωù éÓÆæç ¢√∞¡Ÿx í∫öÀdí¬
a) They lost the match in the end,
did not disappoint him, but has
Çé¬çéπ~/ àüÓ ≤ƒCµç-î√-©ØË éÓJéπ §Ú®√-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
M.SURESAN
fought back successfully. ´÷vûª¢Ë’ î√©ü¿’. áçûª éπ≠d-°æ æ-úÁjØ√ but they did put up a good fight = ÉC èπÿú≈ ûÁ©’Ææ’éÓçúÕ:
(¢Á·ü¿öÀ ߪ’ûªoç N°∂æ-©-´’-´úøç Åûª-úÕ™ ≤ƒCµç-î√-©ØË E®Ωgߪ’ç/ §Ú®√-ô-Ææ÷p¥Jh Å´-Ææ®Ωç. ãúÕ-§Ú-ߪ÷®Ω’, é¬F (ãúø-èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊) Fight fire with fire =
áü¿’®Ω’ §Ú®√-ú≈-©ØË éÓJ-éπ†’ Í®°œçüËí¬F, c) Gandhi's desire for peace was matched Bv´ v°æߪ’-ûªo¢Ë’ î˨»®Ω’.
by his fighting spirit. He fought so hard for
´·©’x†’ ´·©’x-ûÓØË Bߪ’ôç.
Åûª-úÕE E®Ω’-û√q-£æ«-°æ-®Ω-îª-™‰ü¿’. áü¿’®Ω’ b) All credit to them for putting up a stiff You set a thief to catch a thief. This is fight-
peace=
§Ú®√úÕ ï®·ç-î√úø’) fight. Doesn't matter if they lost= ing fire with fire =
Jayakar: He has put up a good fight this ¨»çA 鬢√-©E áçûªí¬ éÓ®Ω’èπ◊-Ø√oúÓ í¬çDµéÀ
ãúÕ-§Ú-ûËØËç?/ N°∂æ-©-¢Á’i-ûËØËç? ¢√∞¡Ÿx ´÷vûªç
time, and has won. IIM was his life Åçûªí¬ (Ææ´÷-†çí¬) àüÁjØ√ ≤ƒCµç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ üÌçí∫†’ °æô’d-éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ ÉçéÓ üÌçí∫†’ EßÁ÷-Tç-
í∫öÀd v°æߪ’-ûªo¢Ë’ î˨»®Ω’. Åçü¿’èπ◊ ¢√∞¡x†’ ´’†ç
time goal. His stand was IIM or his E®Ωgߪ’ç/ éπ%≠œ (§Ú®√-ô-Ææ÷p¥Jh) ÖçúËC. ¨»çA îªôç, ´·©’x†’ ´·©’xûÓ Bߪ’-úø¢Ë’.
father's business. He would not éÓÆæç í∫öÀd §Ú®√-ô¢Ë’ î˨»úø’. (¨»çA éÓÆæç ¢Á’a-éÓ-¢√-LqçüË.
study any other course. §Ú®√ôç – Ñ ´÷ô™x ¢Áj®Ω’üµ¿uç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ) All credit = ¢Á’a-éÓ-¢√-Lq† N≠æߪ’ç.
(Ñ≤ƒJ àüÓ äéπöÀ ûË©’a-éÓ-¢√-©E v¨¡N’ç-
î√úø’. IIM ™ îªü¿-¢√-©-ØËD ÅûªúÕ @N-ûª- Q. i) Who do you like the most?
b) Congress
í∫´’uç. ÅûªúÕ ¢ÁjêJ, IIM í¬F, ™‰éπ-§ÚûË ÅØÌî√a?
Govt's free
Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u©èπ◊ ûËú≈ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
¢√∞¡x Ø√†o ¢√u§ƒ®Ωçí¬F. ÉçÍé course Who/ Whom - È®çúø÷ éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? ii) I am interested in reading.
power supply to
ii) Vis-a-vis Åçõ‰ Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’öÀ? ᙫ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷- You are satisfied. tense
farmers vis-a-
îªü¿-´-èπÿ-úø-ü¿E.) Ñ ¢√é¬u©’ à ™
goal = í∫´’uç Tç-î√L? vis TDP's
ÖØ√oßÁ÷ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
Subhakar: Yea. He wanted to see it through to - Dhana, OU Campus, - Bharathi, Hyderabad
promise of a kilo
the end and he did. He has fought Hyderabad. rice for two A. i) They were living in America - í∫ûªç™ äéπ
to the finish. A. i) Who do you like most ÅØË Åçö«ç. Å™«Íí rupees = È®jûª’-©èπ◊ Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ ïJ-T† °æE – Å°æ¤púø’ ¢√∞¡Ÿx
(Å´¤†’. ü∆E Åçûª’ îª÷ú≈-©-†’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’. ÅØ√L, present day spoken English ™. é¬çvÈíÆˇ v°æ¶µº’ûªy America ™ E´-Æ œ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’ ÅE.
columns
îª÷¨»úø’. *´-J-´-®Ωèπÿ §Ú®√-ú≈úø’ ¢Á·û√h- Ñ ™ DE í∫’Jç* î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x N´- They had been living in America Åçõ‰,
Ö*ûª Nü¿’uû˝ Ææ®Ω-
'Whom' Modern English
EéÀ.) Jçî√ç. ¢√úøéπç í∫ûªç™ äéπ °æEéÀ-´·çüË ¢√∞¡Ÿx America ™
Jayakar: He has always been the fighting
°∂æ®√, ûÁ©’-í∫’-ü˨¡ç
™ ™‰ü¿’. ´’†™«çöÀ Indian speakers of
type. He'd fight tooth and nail for È®çúø’ ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©èπ◊ éÀ™ Gߪ’uç °æü∑¿éπç, äéπ- E´-Æœç-îªôç v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç*, Ç °æE-ü∆é¬ ÖØ√o-®ΩE.
English- 'Whom' They had been living in America when
anything he wants.
í∫’J* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-†-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. ü∆EûÓ äéπöÀ §ÚLÊÆh ...
Who ¢√úøôç î√™« §ƒçúÕûªuç/ ví¬çC∑éπç. Q. Please explain: Roosevelt became the President-
(á°æ¤púø÷ §Ú®√úË ûªûªy¢Ë’/ *´-J-´-®Ωèπÿ
v°æߪ’-AoçîË ûªûªy¢Ë’ Åûª-úÕC. ûª†èπ◊ 鬢√- ii) Vis-a-vis- Pronunciation: OÇO/ OÅO. She neither returned the books nor paid Roosevelt Åüµ¿uèπ~◊úøßË’u-ô-°æp-öÀéÀ ¢√∞¡Ÿx
LqçC ´îËa-´-®Ωèπ◊ v°æߪ’-Ao-Ææ÷hØË Öçö«úø’ È®çúÕç-öÀ-™†÷, È®çúÓ O ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç– Å®Ωnç. the bill. Besides ......... (complete as direct- America ™ E´-Æœ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’– ¢√∞¡Ÿx Åçûª-èπ◊-
í∫öÀd E®Ωg-ߪ’çûÓ.) §ÚLa-îª÷ÊÆh, Ç Ææç•çüµ¿çí¬/ Ç ØË°æ-ü∑¿uç™. ed) Roosevelt President
´·çüË Åéπ\úø ÖØ√o®Ω’,
- NV Reddy, Ugranapalle
Subhakar: All said and done it's a great a) What do you think of India's relations
A.
ÅßË’u´-®Ωèπ◊ èπÿú≈ ÖØ√o®Ω’ ÅE.
achievement. I'll go to him and con- Besides not returning the books, she did
with the US vis-a-vis Pakistan? = Å¢Á’- ii) È®çúø÷ Present Tense éπü∆ (Are - Present
gratulate him personally. not pay the bill.
J-é¬ûÓ ¶µ«®Ωû˝ Ææç•ç-üµ∆©’, §ƒéÀ-≤ƒnØ˛ Ææç•ç- Tense)
(àüË-¢Á’iØ√ ÉC °∂æ’†-é¬-®Ωu¢Ë’. ؈’ ¢ÁRx üµ∆-©ûÓ §ÚLa îª÷ÊÆh ᙫ ÖØ√o®·, F ÅGµ- Q. i) They were living in America.
´uéÀh-í∫-ûªçí¬ ÅûªúÕE ÅGµ-†ç-C-≤ƒh†’.) v§ƒ-ߪ’ç™. They had been living in America.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 9 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Q. Simple present tense ™ A. Simple present ™ ÅEo
subject singular ™ Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ singulars èπÿ 's'/ 'es'îË®Ωa®Ω’.
verb 's' 'es'
èπ◊ í¬F, í¬F îË®√-L- III person singular (He,
éπü∆. é¬E "I go to school" ™ she, it) èπ◊ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ s/ es îË®Ω’-
Å™« Öçúø-üÁç-ü¿’èπ◊? Éçü¿’™ 'I' ≤ƒh®Ω’.'I' first person singu-
singular éπü∆? He, she, it lar 鬕öÀd ü∆EéÀ s/ es îË®Ωa®Ω’.
¢Á·ü¿-™„j† singulars Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ Å™«Íí you èπ◊ Å®Ωnç, †’´¤y/
Å™«çöÀ ¢√é¬u™x verb èπ◊ s/ es O’®Ω’ È®çúø÷. Å®·ûË you †’
îË®Ω’-ûª’çC éπü∆? Ñ ÆæçüË£æ«ç á°æ¤púø÷ plural subject í¬ØË
B®Ωa-í∫-©®Ω’. °æJ-í∫-ùÀ≤ƒhç– You are, You
- N. Bhanuchandar, were, You have been, etc.
Madhuvaripalem Q. i) ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ¢Á·ûªhç verb patterns ™‰ü∆ model ii)
O’ Ñ v°æ¨¡o é¬Ææh ÅÆæp≠ædçí¬ ÖçC. ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ÅEo
sentences áEo? 275 ÖØ√o-ߪ’E îªC-¢√†’, adjectives †÷ comparative degree ™
Q. A doctor treats patients -Å-ØË-C éπÈ®é¬d? A doc- ÉC î√™«-´’ç-C-éÌîËa ÆæçüË-£æ«¢Ë’. áéπ\-úø-®·Ø√ ¢√úø’-ûª÷ØË Öçö«ç éπü∆? È®çúø’ Åçûªèπ◊ N’ç*
Eï-¢Ë’Ø√? Å´Fo ÖçúË °æ¤Ææhéπç ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
tor treats the patients éπÈ®é¬d? The patients - 'the'
¢√ú≈™«, èπÿúøü∆ ÅE ÆæçüË£æ«ç ´ÊÆh, Ç ii) Compartive degree ™ Ö†o adjectives †’ Ö†o ´’†’-≠æfl-©†’, ´Ææ’h-´¤-©†’, N≠æ-ߪ÷-©†÷
Å-E -¢√-úÌ-î√a? -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’. ´÷ôèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ à ÅØË v°æ¨¡o ¢ËÆæ’-éÓçúÕ. Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-TçîË Ææçü¿-®√s¥-©†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. §ÚLa-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x comparative degree ´Ææ÷hØË
- Dasaradhi Naik, Kasibugga Answer ´ÊÆh, the ¢√úøçúÕ. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ¢√úø-éπçúÕ. Öçô’çC. Åçõ‰ ´’†ç ¢√úø’-ûª÷ØË Öçö«ç éπü∆?
iii) It is of no use. DE Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’öÀ?
A. A doctor treats patients, correct. Lecturers in this college teach well.
Éçéπ ÅEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥©÷ Å¢Ë éπü∆? O’ ÆæçüË£æ«ç
iv) Be + of ûÓ ÖçúË ¢√é¬u© í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
The patients patients?
ÅE á°æ¤p-úøçö«ç? à Ééπ\úø lecturers ´·çü¿’ 'the' ¢√ú≈™«, èπÿúøü∆? Ææp≠ædçí¬ ûÁ©-°æçúÕ.
question answer - T.Satyanarayana, Bhimavaram iii) It is of no use ÅE É°æpöÀ English ™ ņ-ôç-
ÅE ¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊çõ‰, ´ÊÆh Å°æ¤púø’ question ¢Ëߪ’çúÕ: à (which) lecturers ¶«í¬
The patients correct.
ņôç A. i) English ™ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ 275 patterns Ö†oô’d ™‰ü¿’. It is no use Åçö«ç. It is no use talk-
¶Cµ-≤ƒh®Ω’?
A doctor treats the patients in this area
Answer: Lecturers in this college. É™«
ÅçîªØ√. Å®·ûË Daily life ™ Å´-Ææ-®Ω-´’ßË’u, ing to a fool -´‚®Ω’^úÕûÓ ´÷ö«x-úøôç E®Ω’-°æ-
(Doctor patients
à †’ treat îË≤ƒhúø’? ÅE Informal/ formal writing ™ ´îËa, ¢√úË pat- ßÁ÷í∫ç. Å®·ûË Be + of Åçõ‰– ÖçC/Å®·çC
patients in this area
v°æ¨¡o ¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊çõ‰, ÅE Ééπ\úø ÖçC 鬕öÀd, lecturers ´·çü¿’ 'the' terns 45/ 50 éÀ N’ç¤. Patterns Åçûª ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC.
patients èπÿ©ç-éπ≠æçí¬ Å¶µºu-Æœçéπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. ´’†ç iv) a) He has been of great help to me =
ï¢√•’ ´Ææ’hçC 鬕öÀd, Ééπ\úø ´·çü¿’ ®√¢√L.
the Lecturers teach. Ééπ\úø lecturers ´·çü¿’
¢√ú≈L.) conversation ¶«í¬ practise îËÆæ÷h, English Åûªúø’ Ø√èπ◊ î√™« Ææ£æ…ߪ’çí¬ ÖØ√oúø’.
a) A teacher teaches students stu- 'the' Å´-Ææ-®Ω´÷? à/ which lecturers teach?

ÅØË question ¢Ëü∆lç– answer ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆? îªü¿-´ôç, TV news telecasts Nçô÷çõ‰ b) She is of a noble mind =
dents?- no answer. So, no 'the' before
patterns ûÓ Ææç•çüµ¿ç Öü∆-ûªh-¢Á’i† (íÌ°æp) ´’†Ææ’ éπ™«-Núø Ç¢Á’.
students) Åçü¿’-éπE, lecturers
b) A teacher teaches the students who live teach ņo sentence
™‰èπ◊çú≈ English ™ c) She is of Indian origin settled in the US=
on this colony. Question ¢ËÆæ’-éÓçúÕ. Ç ™ lecturers ´·çü¿’ communicate îËߪ’í∫©ç, Ç¢Á’ ¶µ«®Ωûª Ææçûª-AéÀ îÁçC America ™ Æœn®Ω-°æ-
teacher students teach 'the' ¢√úøç.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 393 ™‰èπ◊çú≈.
à èπ◊ îËÆæ’hçC?– Ñ Ææ’Ø√-ߪ÷Ææçí¬, ûª°æ¤p©’ ú≈f-Núø.
d) They are of equal competence =
question answer, students who live in
èπ◊
this colony ÅE ¢√∞¡xçû√ äÍé ≤ƒ´’®Ωn uç

I pr efer cof fee to tea
´Ææ’hçC éπü∆? Åçü¿’- Ö†o-¢√∞¡Ÿx.
éπE students ´·çü¿’ É™« Éçé¬ áØÁj oØ√
'the' ¢√úøû√ç. ®√´îª’a. Practise îËÆœ
îª÷úøçúÕ.

I will give you Rs. 1000/-. What Q. i) I am given ii) I was given
Q. i) What is your plan? What will be your ii) I was given - ؈’ É´y-•-ú≈f†’– past ™ àN’-´y-
plan? will be your plan? = iii) I will be given.
Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u© Å®Ωnç äéπ-õ‰Ø√? à ؈’ Fèπ◊ ¢Ë®· ÉN éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? OöÀ •-ú≈f®Ω’? ÅØË v°æ¨¡oèπ◊ answer Öçõ‰ sentence
¢√éπuç á°æ¤púø’ ¢√ú≈™ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’. plan
®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-L-≤ƒh†’. F àN’öÀ? Å®√n©’, õ„ØÁqÆˇ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. improve Å´¤-ûª’çC.
ii) I prefer coffee to tea. Éçü¿’™ üËEE pre- If I gave you Rs. 1000/-. What - Ch. Ranjith Kumar, Medak.
I was given a prize =
fer îËÆœ-†ô’x? N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. would be your plan? = ؈’ Fèπ◊ A. O’ sentences ÅEoç-öÀ™  verb, Be
form + participle [am/ was/ will be (be
؈’ •£æ›-´’A É´y-•-ú≈f†’ (Ø√èπ◊ •£æ›-´’A É´y-
- M.D. Mohiyoddin, Sangareddy. ¢Á®·u ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ Éî√a-†-†’éÓ
M.SURESAN forms) + given (past participle)] Åçõ‰
•-úÕçC). ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’ – Ø√èπ◊ •£æ›-´’A
A. i) What will be your plan? - F v°æù«-Réπ (É´yôç ™‰ü¿’) F plan àN’öÀ? Éî√a®Ω’/ ´*açC.
What would be your plan? ņo-°æ¤púø’ DE verb is in the passive voice- Å®Ωnç ᙫ ´Ææ’hçC?
àN’öÀ?/ ᙫ Öçô’çC? future ™. iii) I will be given = ØËE-´y-•-úø-û√†’/ Ø√èπ◊ É´y-•-úø’-
´·çü¿J sentence (conversation ™) †’ •öÀd i) I am given = ØËE-´y-•-úø-û√†’, Ééπ\úø, N’í∫û√
What would be your plan?- ÉC Ü£œ«ç-- ûª’çC (Future ™). àC?
ÉC ÆæÈ®j-†ü∆, é¬ü∆? ÆæÈ®jûË Å®Ωnç ᙫ Öçô’ç- È®çúø’ sentences ™ èπÿú≈ '؈’— àC É´y-•-úø-
èπ◊ØË v°æÆæ’hûªç ≤ƒüµ¿uç é¬E N≠æߪ’ç. I will be given the money =
If you were elected Chief Minister, what
ü¿E îÁ°æp-´îª’a. Independent í¬ äÍé sen- û√ØÓ îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’. Åçõ‰ O’ sentences äéπ
would be your plan? = CM
tence í¬ What would be your plan? ÆæJ- Nüµ¿çí¬ correct. O’ sentence †’ É™« Ø√èπ◊ úø•’s É´y-•-úø’-ûª’çC (Ø√èπ◊ úøGs-≤ƒh®Ω’,
†’´¤y É°æ¤púø’
é¬ü¿’. What will be your plan? is correct. imporve îËߪ’-´îª’a. future ™)
I am given - Present simple (PV)
í¬ áEo-éπ-®·ûË (É°æ¤pú≈ Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆?)
ii) I prefer coffee to tea ņo-°æ¤púø’ coffee ØË pre- I am given homework everyday. (v°æA-®ÓW
F v°æù«-Réπ àN’öÀ? I was given - Past simple (PV)
fer îËÆ œ-†ô’d. Prefer ¢ÁçôØË ´îËa-ü∆ØËo ´’†ç ؈’ homework É´y-•-úø-û√†’ – ´÷´‚©’
prefer îËÆ œ-†ô’d. ûÁ©’-í∫’™, v°æA-®ÓW Ø√èπ◊ home work É≤ƒh®Ω’) I will be given - Future simple (PV)
Q. éÀçC ´÷ô-©†’ Ççí∫xç™ à´’ç-ö«®Ó ûÁL-ߪ’-
ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’.
1) Çí∫®Ωs¥ X´’ç-ûª’úø’; 2) Å©p-Ææç-ûÓ≠œ; 3) Å≤ƒ- Q. Naturally, certainly, by the by, any how,
üµ¿’uúø’; 4) üË´¤úÕ v°æ≤ƒü¿ç; 5) Ø√èπ◊ ≤Òçûª Q. i) The wall. C ¢√™¸/ ü¿ ¢√™¸ -à-C éπÈ®é˙d? ii) ever (á°æ¤púø÷/ á°æ¤p-úÁjØ√), never (á°æ¤púø÷
™‰ü¿’/ á°æ¤púø÷ é¬ü¿’)– OöÀE we can use by all means
ii) Which tense do we use with 'ever' and
É©’xçC; 6) Ø√èπ◊ Éü¿l®Ω’ éÌúø’-èπ◊©’; 7) EÆæp%£æ«; ™«çöÀ °æü∆©’ éÌEo ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
8) öà «x-Jçü∆?; 9) ÅFo é¬ßª’-™‰Ø√?; 10) 'never'? with simple present or present them in almost all tenses. - N.P. Santosh Kumar, Secunderabad.
ôd°æ¤ îª÷°æ¤; 11) E®Ω’-üÓu-í∫-¶µº%A; 12) îªçvü¿-´’ç- perfect? Please clarify. a) Nothing good ever happens here A. Common sentence beginings in spoken
úø©ç; 13) ¶µº÷íÓ∞¡ç. - Adyan, Warangal (present tense) English.
- G. Ashok, Godhur b) Have you ever seen such a movie 1) How about ... ?/ What about ... ?
A. i) ûÁ©’í∫’ ¨¡¶«l©’, Å, Ç, É, Ñ, Ö, Ü, á, à,
A. 1) Born rich, 2) easily pleased, 3) a tough â, ä, ã, å– Ñ ¨¡¶«l™x üËE-ûÓ-ØÁjØ√ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº- (present perfect) 2) At long last (*´-JéÀ/ áôd-Íé-©èπ◊)
guy/ a tough customer, 4) God's grace/ ´’ßË’u English ´÷ô© ´·çü¿’, the E 'C— c) Did he ever help you when he was 3) In the first instance (¢Á·ü¿ô/ ÅÆæ©’)
gift, 5) I own a house/ My home is my alive? (past) In the first instance why did you go there
í¬ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. N’í∫û√ ¨¡¶«l© ´·çü¿’ 'the' E
own, 6) I have two sons, 7) Despair, 8) d) Will you ever understand this? at all?
Has the tea gone cold?
'ü¿— í¬ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. Wall- ¢√™¸ éπü∆? Å (ÅÆæ©’ †’¢Áyç-ü¿’-Èé-Rx-†-ôx-éπ\-úÕéÀ?)
(«x-J-§Ú-®·çü∆? †’ç* å ´®Ω-èπ◊†o ¨¡¶«l-©™ ¢√ (wall) ™‰ü¿’ (future), etc. 4) As long as .../ so long as ... (ÅC
Is the tea cold
Åçõ‰ û√Ííç-ü¿’èπ◊ O™‰xèπ◊çú≈), Same is the case with 'never' As long as money
enough (to drink)? =
éπü∆? Åçü¿’-éπE the wall= ü¿ ¢√™¸ ÅØË ÅßË’uçûª/ ÖçúË ´®Ωèπ◊)
û√Ííç-ü¿’èπ◊ O©-®·- a) He never comes here (Pr. tense) plays a role in elections we can't have
9) Are all of them
Åçö«ç. C wall ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’.
†çûªí¬ x-•-úÕçü∆?, b) He never knew about this (when he was real democracy. (áEo-éπ™x úø•’s §ƒvûª
raw?, 10) One of somebody's occasional The (C) egg (áí˚); ü¿ book.
alive)- Past ÖçúË-´-®Ωèπ◊, Eï-¢Á’i† v°æñ«-≤ƒy´’uç Öçúøü¿’)
visits/ a casual visit, 11) Unemployment The (C) idea (â); The (ü¿) university 5) In case/ if/ suppose/ given/ assuming, etc.
c) He will never know (Future), etc.
allowance, 12) The lunar region/ world, (Å †’ç* å ´®Ω-èπ◊†o ¨¡¶«l™x ߪ‚ ™‰ü¿’ 6) Surely/ by no means/ at any rate/ at any
13) The globe. 鬕öÀd) cost, etc.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 11 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Nischala: Poor Jwala. Her brother has come Nischala: He won't be here. His father has
to a bad end. (I have) been expect- taken a positive view of it. He feels
ing it, the way he was carrying on. this is not the end of the world for his
Nikhila: Yea. Getting drunk all the time and son. He would go to the ends of the
moving with anti social characters. earth to resettle him at some other
Her father tried to give him good place.
education, and launch him on a (Åûª-úÕ-éπ\úø Öçúøúø’. ¢√∞¡} Ø√†o ÅûªúÕ
good career, but that couldn't be. í∫’Jç* Ææ’´·ê ¢Ájê-J-ûÓØË ÖØ√oúø’.
(Å´¤†’. á°æ¤púø÷ û√T Å≤ƒç-°∂œ’éπ ¨¡èπ◊h- Çߪ’† v°æ鬮Ωç ÉüËç ÅûªúÕ @N-ûªç™
©ûÓ A®Ω-í∫úøç. ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o Åûª-úÕE ¶«í¬ Åûªuçûª Åüµ∆y-†-¢Á’iç-Cí¬ Å†’-éÓ-´ôç
îªC-Nç*, ´’ç* ÖüÓu-í∫ç™ ÖçúËô’x ™‰ü¿’. Åûª-úÕéÀ ÉçéÓîÓô °æ¤†-®√-¢√Ææç
îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æߪ’-Aoç-î√®Ω’, é¬F ÅC ï®Ω-í∫- éπLpçîË Bv´ v°æߪ’ûªoç îËÆæ’h-Ø√oúø’). c) It's no surprize Sanjay Dutt has come to a) The judge told Sanjay Dutt that the pun-
™‰-éπ-§Ú-®·çC.) Nikhila: Let's hope for the best. a bad end. He should not have been ishment was not the end of the world for
Nischala: What's it now? Six months in jail, is (´’çîË ÇPü∆lç). found in possession of weapons = him, and that he had a lot of future ahead
it?     Sanjay Dutt èπ◊ Péπ~ °æúøôç™ Ǩ¡a®Ωuç àç = Ñ Péπ~ûÓ Åçû√ Å®·-§Ú-™‰-ü¿E, ÅûªúÕéÀ Éçé¬
(à´’-®·ç-C-°æ¤púø’? Ç®Ω’-ØÁ-©© ñ„j©’ Pé~¬?) Spoken English ™ î√™« ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢√úø-í∫©, ™‰ü¿’. -ûª-† ü¿í∫_®Ω Çߪ·üµ∆©’ Öç-éÓ-¢√-Lqç-C ´’ç* ¶µºN-≠æu-ûª’hç-ü¿E, Ø√uߪ’-´‚Jh Ææçïß˝’
Nikhila: Something like that, I've been told. Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬ Å®Ωn-´’ßË’u ´÷ô©’, 'end' ûÓ é¬ü¿’.
(Å™«ç-öÀüË– Ø√Èé-´®Ó îÁ§ƒp®Ω’.) éπLÆœ ´îËa ¢√öÀE ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊E ´’† conversation ™ come to a bad end = come to a sticky
ü¿û˝ûÓ ÅØ√oúø’.
b) This failure in this exam need not be the
Nischala: Jwala used to tell me that her dad practise îËü∆lç. end.
end of the world for you. Try again and
was at the end of the rope trying to Look at the following sentences from the 2) At the end of the rope =
you will succeed = fail
àüÁjØ√ v°æߪ’ûªoç
dialogue above.
set right her brother.
Ñ °æK-éπ~™ Å´-úøçûÓ
îËÆœ Å©-Æœ-§Ú-´úøç/ NÆœ-T¢Ë≤ƒ®Ωúøç.
1) Her brother has come to a bad end.
Åçû√ Å®·-§Ú-®·-†õ‰xç é¬ü¿’. ´’Sx °æKéπ~ ®√®·.
(ñ«y© Ø√ûÓ Åçô÷ç-úËC– ûª† ûª´·t-úÕE a) The teacher was at the end of her rope pass Å´¤-û√´¤.
2) ..... her dad was at the end of the rope trying teaching the boys end of the world á°æ¤púø÷ not ûÓØË ¢√úøû√ç.
´’ç* ´÷®Ω_ç™ °õ‰dç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o
v°æߪ’ûªoç îËÆœ Å©-Æœ-§Ú-ߪ÷-úøE.) to set right her maths =
brother. 5) The be all and end all of (life) =
Nikhila: Well, that appears to be the end of ûª† Nü∆u-®Ω’n-©èπ◊ í∫ùÀûªç
story for him. 3) Well, that appears to @Nûª °æ®Ω-´÷-´Cµ. (@N-ûªç™ ÅEoöÀéπçõ‰ ´·êu-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
ØË®√p-©ØË v°æߪ’-ûªoç™
be end of story for
¢Á’iç-Cí¬ ¶µ«Nç-îËC).
(Åçûª-öÀûÓ ÅûªúÕ éπü∑¿ ´·T-Æœ-†-ô’xçC.)
him.
394 Ç¢Á’ NÆœT ¢Ë≤ƒ-J- a) Money is not the be all and end all of life,
Nischala: But there is still hope for him. The
is it? =
§Ú-®·çC. úø¶‰s @Nûª °æ®Ω-´÷-
six months in

(That's) the end of stor y
jail may
´Cµ é¬ü¿’ éπü∆?
b) His career is the be all
change him,
and end all of his life =
and he can
still have a
ÅûªúÕ ÖüÓu-í∫¢Ë’/ ¢√u°æ-
good career.
éπ¢Ë’ ÅûªúÕ @Nûª °æ®Ω-´÷-
This may not be the end of the world 4) This may not be the end of the
´Cµ.
b) I am at the end of my rope. I can't
for him, may it? c) Cricket appears to be the be all and end
world for him. any more make them understand
all of his life =
(Å®·Ø√ àO’ Å®·-§Ú-™‰-ü¿’™‰. Éçé¬ éÌçûª 5) A job ... is not the be all and end this =
Ǩ¡ ÖçC. Ç®Ω’ ØÁ©© jail Åûª-úÕ™ all of life. ؈’ NÆœ-T-¢Ë-≤ƒ-J-§Ú-ߪ÷†’. ¢√∞¡xéÃ
véÀÈéö¸ ÅûªúÕ @Nûª °æ®Ω-´÷-´-Cµí¬ ÅE°œ-≤ÚhçC.
6) Go to the ends of the earth =
6) He would go to the ends of the
´÷®Ω’p BÆæ’-èπ◊-®√-´îª’a; Éçé¬ Åûªúø’ N≠æߪ’ç Å®Ωn-´’-ßË’uô’x îÁߪ’u-™‰†’.
earth for his son. 3) End of story = éπü∑¿ ´·T-Æ œ-†õ‰x/ äéπ
@N-ûªç™ ¶«í¬ Æœn®Ω-°æ-úø-´îª’a. Åçû√ Å®·- N¨¡y-v°æ-ߪ’ûªoç îËߪ’úøç/ áçûª v¨¡´’ÈéjØ√ Æœü¿l¥-°æúÕ
§Ú-®·-†ô’x é¬ü¿’ éπü∆?) 1) Come to a bad end= ü¿’®Ωt-®Ωùç N≠æߪ’ç í∫’Jç*é¬F äéπ ´uéÀhE í∫’Jç* v°æߪ’ûªoç îËߪ’úøç, àü¿-®·Ø√ ≤ƒCµç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊
Nikhila: What do you mean? With this con- a) Gandhi went to the ends of the earth to
§Òçü¿úøç, Péπ~ §Òçü¿úøç, ´·êuçí¬ M.SURESAN é¬F Éçéπ îÁÊ°pçü¿’èπ◊ àO’-™‰ü¿’/ îÁ§ƒp-
viction can he get any job? Lqç-ü¿çû√ Å®·-§Ú-®·-†õ‰x. unite Hindus and Muslims =
Ææyߪ’ç-éπ%-û√-°æ-®√üµ¿ç ´©x (ûª† ´’®Ω-ù«-
(àçöÀ F ÖüËl¨¡ç, àç Å®·-§Ú-™‰ü¿’™‰ ņ- EéÀ/ ûª†èπ◊ °æúÕ† Péπ~èπ◊ ûªØË é¬®Ω-ù-¢Á’iûË) (àüÁjØ√ a) Well, he is not coming here. That's the £œ«çü¿÷, ´·Æœxç âéπu-ûª-éÓÆæç í¬çDµ N¨¡y
úøç™? Ñ Péπ~ûÓ Åûª-úÕÍé´’Ø√o ÖüÓuí∫ç ´‚úøôç) end of story = Åûª-úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ®√´úøç ™‰ü¿’. v°æߪ’ûªoç î˨»úø’/ áçûÓ v¨¡´’ûÓ v°æߪ’-Aoç-
´Ææ’hçü∆?) a) Saddam Hussain came to a bad end, ÅçûË. (Ééπ îÁ§ƒp-LqçüËç ™‰ü¿E.) î√úø’.
conviction = court üÓ≠æfl-©èπ◊ NCµçîË Péπ~ because of his inhuman behaviour = b) He told his father that he'd marry only b) Some of our elected representatives
Nischala: A job in government service or a pri- that girl. (That's) the end of story =
would go to the ends of the earth to
ûª† Å´÷-†’≠æ v°æ´-®Ωh† ´©x Ææü∆lç £æ›ÊÆØ˛ Ç
vate organisation is not the be all
amass wealth =
Å™«çöÀ ´’®Ωùç §Òçü∆úø’. Ç´÷t-®·ØË Â°Rx-îË-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«-†E ¢√∞¡x Ø√†oûÓ
and end all of life, is it? b) The way he is acting, he will certainly îÁÊ°p-¨»úø’. ÅçûË. Ééπ îÁ§ƒp-Lqç-üËç-™‰ü¿’.
(v°æ¶µº’-ûÓy-üÓuí∫ç é¬F, private ÆæçÆæn™ 4) Not the end of the world = Åçû√ Å®·§Ú-®·-
Ææç°æü¿ èπÿúø-¶„-ô’d-éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ, àüÁjØ√/ -à v°æߪ’-ûªo-
come to a bad end:
ÖüÓuí∫ç é¬F @Nûª °æ®Ω-´÷-´Cµ é¬ü¿’ †ô’x é¬ü¿’. (´’ç* ï®Ω-í∫-´îª’a, É°æ¤púø’ èπÿú≈) (ï®Ω- ¢Á’iØ√ îË≤ƒh®Ω’.
¢√úÕ îËûª©’ îª÷Ææ’hçõ‰ ¢√úÕ-ÍéüÓ îÁúø’ ï®Ω’-í∫’-
éπü∆?) ûª’çC/ ¢√úÕ-ÍéüÓ ´‚úÕçC. í¬-Lq† îÁúø’ Åçû√ ï®Ω-í∫-™‰ü¿’.)
Nikhila: What else can he do?
EXERCISE No parent can be indifferent to adjourn X complete/ conclude
(ÉçÍéç îËߪ’í∫©-úø-ûª†’?) E®Ω÷t-©† Öü¿u-´÷Eo éÀçü¿öÀ ÇC-¢√®Ωç
Match the words under A with their child's welfare = ( °æ‹Jh îËߪ’úøç/ ´·Tç-îªúøç)
Nischala: He can jolly well run his father's v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-î√®Ω’.
their meanings under B. 5. Fake- °∂-ß˝’é˙= (B) bogus- •÷ô-
business. It's profitable business
à ûªLxü¿çvúø’©’ èπÿú≈ ûª´’ °œ©x© Rockets, satellites ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀE
A B éπ°æ¤/ ´÷ߪ’/ †éÀM/ N’ü∑¿u. News
and he can assist his father.
ÆæçÍé~´’ç °æôx E®Ωx-éπ~uçí¬ Öçúø®Ω’.
1. Indifferent A false Indifferent X concerned (Çü¿’-®√l-
éπéπ~u-™éÀ, éÌûªh ؈éπ†’ ï™«-™xéÀ v°æ¢Ë-¨¡-°- papers ™ îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’çö«ç éπü∆:
(¢√∞¡x Ø√†o ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç îªéπ\í¬/ £æ…®·í¬ 2. Violate B bogus °æúË, ÇÆæéÀh îª÷Ê°) ôdúøç èπÿú≈ launch. Fake encounters = •÷ô-éπ°æ¤
îËÆæ’-éÓ-´îª’a. ¢√∞¡x ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç ™«¶µ«™x 3. Launch C break launch X terminate (´·Tç-îªúøç )
2. violate - (C) break= Ö©xç-°∂œ’ç-îªúøç/ Åéπ-≤ƒtû˝ ´·ë«-´·" §Ú®√ôç.
ÖçC. Åûªúø’ ¢√∞¡x Ø√†oèπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’- 4. Adjourn D uninterested pronunciation- ™«çî˝. Öü∆: Police, ´÷-N-Æˇd©’ ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈
ÅA-véπ-N’ç-îªúøç (E•ç-üµ¿-†©’/ îªö«d©
´îª’a.) 5. Fake E postpone 4. Adjourn- Åï-Ø˛– ï, bird ™ '•— ™«– äéπ-J-éÌ-éπ®Ω’ áü¿’-®Ω’-°æ-úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’ ïJÍí
jolly well = £æ…®·í¬
™«çöÀ ¢√öÀE)
F start 'ï— ØÌéÀ\°æ©’-èπ◊û√ç= (E) postpone– §Ú®√ôç, encounter.
The police fined him for violating
You can jolly well talk what you like but G spend Æ涵º©÷, Ææ´÷-¢Ë-¨»©÷, ´·êuçí¬ court
traffic rules= ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ àüÁjØ√ éπ≥ƒd©’ áü¿’-®Ω-´úøç,
action is not that easy. Answers proceedings (鬮Ωu-éπ-™«-§ƒ©’) û√û√\- encounter.
1-D; uninterested =
vö«°∂œé˙ E•ç-üµ¿-†©’ ÅA-véπ-N’ç-*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊,
= ´÷ô©’ £æ…®·í¬ îÁ§Òpa, FÍéç. îËÊÆ-ô-°æ¤púø’ v¨¡ü¿l¥-™‰E/ îª÷°æE, §ÚM-Ææ’©’ Åûª-úÕéÀ -ï-J-´÷-Ø√ NCµç-î√®Ω’. L-éπçí¬ Ç°æúøç/ ¢√®·-ü∆-¢Ë-ߪ’úøç. The West Bengal government
ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC Åçûª Ææ’©¶µºç é¬ü¿E. E®Ωxéπ~uç îËÊÆ. The speaker (of the assembly) encountered opposition in
violate X observe (§ƒöÀç-îªúøç)
Nikhila: It seems he is repentant. Some doctors and nurses in govt adjourned the assembly till Nandigram = †çC-ví¬ç™ v°æ¶µº’-û√y-EéÀ
Observe traffic rules =
hospitals are indifferent to the Monday = v°æA-°∂æ’-ô† (ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈) áü¿’-®Ω-®·uçC.
(Traffic
(Åûªúø’ î√™« °æ¨»a-û√h-°æp-úø’ûª’†oô’dçC.) ÅÂÆçHx Åüµ¿u-èπ~◊úø’ Ææ´÷-¢Ë-
patients' health = Fake notes= †éÀM currency ØÓô’x/
E•ç-üµ¿-†-©†’ §ƒöÀç-îªçúÕ.)
Nischala: That he is. v°æ¶µº’û√yÆæ’°æ-vûª’™x
3. launch = (F) start = v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îªúøç
¨»Eo ≤Ú´’-¢√®Ωç ´®Ωèπ◊ EL-Ê°-¨»®Ω’/
(Å´¤†’.) éÌçûª-´’çC doctors, nurses ®Óí∫’- ≤Ú´’-¢√-®√-EéÀ ¢√®·ü∆ ¢Ë¨»®Ω’. üÌçí∫ ØÓô’x
He faked innocence = Åûªúø’ Å´÷-
– àüÁjØ√ °ü¿l áûª’h†, ã Öü¿u-´’癫
Nikhila: But people don't forget things so
©†’ E®Ωxéπ~uç îË≤ƒh®Ω’/ °æöÀdç--éÓ®Ω’. v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îªúøç. The judge adjourned the case till
soon, you know. He is indifferent to studies = the next month= case
ߪ’-éπûªyç †öÀç-î√úø’.
The minister, launched pulse Ø√uߪ’-´‚Jh
fake X genuine (ñ„†÷u-®·Ø˛) = ÅÆæ-
(é¬F v°æï©’ É™«çöÀ N≠æ-ߪ÷-©†’ Åçûª ¢√úÕéÀ îªü¿’´¤ O’ü¿ v¨¡ü¿l¥-™‰ü¿’. polio programme/ campaign last case
†’ ´îËa ØÁ©èπ◊ ¢√®·ü∆ ¢Ë¨»®Ω’/
Indifferent ûª®√yûª to ´Ææ’hçC.
©-®·†, ¢√Ææh-´-¢Á’i†/ Eï-¢Á’i†.
Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬ ´’Ja-§Ú®Ω’ éπü∆?) sunday = polio
´’çvA 鬮Ωu-véπ´’ç/ N≠æ-ߪ÷-©†’ ´îËa ØÁ© ´®Ωèπ◊ ǧƒ®Ω’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 13 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Jayanthi: You appear very down today. What
could be wrong?
(ÉçéÓ-≤ƒJ v°æߪ’-Ao≤ƒh. ´÷ cousin
v°æùA È®çúÓ-≤ƒJ select Å®·çC. ûª†
(î√™« Nî√-®Ωçí¬ éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤. à´’- í∫’Jç* áçûÓ (íÌ°æpí¬) ņ’-èπ◊ç-öçC.
®·çC? à´’®· ÖçúÌa? ´÷ ö«d©’ èπÿú≈ ´’´’tLo §Ú©’-Ææ’hç-
down= Nî√-®Ωçí¬/ E®√-¨¡í¬/ EÆæp %£æ«í¬) ö«®Ω’. 鬕öÀd ؈’ ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ IAS
Vinathi: I've failed to make it to the civils a 鬢√LqçüË.)
second time. You can imagine my give something a try = v°æߪ’-Aoç* îª÷úøôç/
disappointment. Try as I might, I'm
v°æߪ’-Aoç-îªúøç– ÉC conversational. O’®Ω÷
unable to get over it.
practise îËߪ’çúÕ.
(Civils exam ´’Sx pass 鬙‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’. Jayanthi: All the best to you then. By the bye
has Unnathi called you?
Ø√ E®√¨¡ †’´‹y-£œ«ç--éÓ-í∫-©´¤. áçûª 2) A career that ends all careers (something
v°æߪ’-Aoç-*Ø√ Ç EÆæp %-£æ«†’ ´÷vûªç At the end of the day - ÉC î√™« com-
that ends all somethings) =
äÍé ®Ωé¬-EéÀ îÁçC† mon expression
§ÚíÌ-ô’d-éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o†’.) (Fèπ◊ Nïߪ’ç ©Gµç-î√L. ÅC ÆæÍ®. í¬ NE-°œçîË éπü∆? Å®Ωnç:
get over= (¶«üµ¿-™«çöÀ ¢√öÀE) ÅCµ-í∫-N’ç-îªúøç.
Ö†oA FÍé-´’Ø√o phone îËÆœçü∆?) ¢√öÀ™x äéπöÀ N’í∫û√ ¢√ô-Eoç-öÀ-éπçõ‰ N’†oí¬ àüÁj-ûËØËç/ *´-JéÀ.
Vinathi: No. I've been waiting for it for weeks Öçúøôç/ ´·êuçí¬ Öçúøôç.
Jayanthi: Cheer up Vinathi. Keep your end up. a) At last, he thought he had bought a car a) At the end of the day, how hard you've
on end. I will call her today.
IAS is not the end of the road for that would end all cars = car
*´-JéÀ ÅEo worked is not important, how much
you. you've scored/ what marks you've got is
(¢√®√-©’í¬ ü∆E-éÓ-Ææ¢Ë’ îª÷¨». ؈’ car
phone îË≤ƒhE¢√y∞¡)
© éπçõ‰ íÌ°æp éÌØ√o-†E ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
(¶«üµ¿-°æ-úøèπ◊. E®√¨¡ éπL-TçîË N≠æ-ߪ’¢Ë’. b) The youth of today think that a software important = àüË-¢Á’iØ√/ *´-®Ωèπ◊/ á´-È®jØ√
Å®·-§Ú-®·ç-Cí¬. ´’®Ω-*-§Ú®· Ö™«x-Ææçí¬     job in the US is the career that ends all îª÷ÊÆC, †’´¤y áçûª éπ≠d-°æ æúÕ îªC-¢√-´E é¬ü¿’,
Öçúø’. DçûÓ àç Å®·-§Ú-™‰-ü¿’í¬) éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ spoken English/ daily conver- careers = software job
Å¢Á’-J-鬙 ÉçÍé FÈéEo marks ´î√a-ߪ’E.
Vinathi: That has been life time ambition, you sation ™ ûª®Ωîª÷ end ûÓ ´îËa éÌEo expressions career éπØ√o íÌ°æpC/ ´·êu-¢Á’i-†-Cí¬ ¶µ«N-Ææ’h- b) At the end of the day what we've said
know. îª÷¨»ç éπü∆? ´’J-éÌEo Ø√o®Ω’ ÑØ√öÀ ߪ·´ûª. ÉC Ñ ´’üµ¿u ¶«í¬ matters, not what we feel = *´-JéÀ ´’†ç
(ÅC Ø√ @Nûª Ǩ¡-ߪ’çí¬ ÖçúÕçC, expressions É°æ¤púø’ ûÁ©’- ¢√úø’-ûª’†o expression- à´’-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-†oC é¬ü¿’, ´’†ç àç îÁ§ƒp-´’-†oüË
ûÁ©’≤ƒ?) practice îËߪ’çúÕ. °æöÀdç--èπ◊ç-ö«-È®-´-È®jØ√.
Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. ÉN O’®Ω’ O’
Here is at last the
Jayanthi: Well, civils is not the career that conversation ™ ¢√úÕ 4) End of the road/ the line = *´J ü¿¨¡/ àüÁjØ√
- Ç çí∫ x - ¶ µ « - ≠ æ - ù
movie that ends all
ends all careers, Vinathi. There are îª÷úøçúÕ. áçûª effective
other careers as bright as, or even
395 movies =
´·†’-°æ-öÀ™« é̆-≤ƒ-Tç-îª-™‰E ÆœnA.
í¬ Öçö«ßÁ÷ ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC. a) Nutanprasad's injury was the end of the
brighter than road for him = †÷ûª-Ø˛-v°æ-≤ƒ-

Keep your end up
IAS or IPS. (shooting
ü˛èπ◊ Ææ´’-
(ÅEo careers ߪ’ç™) Å®·† í¬ßª’çûÓ
éπçõ‰ civils Çߪ’† ´÷´‚©’ †ô†
(IAS/ IPS Åçûª-¢Á’i-§Ú-®·çC/ †ô-††’
™«çöÀN) é̆-≤ƒ-Tç-îª-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷®Ω’.
Look at the following expressions
b) When she fell seriously ill she thought it
´÷vûª¢Ë’ *´-JéÀ ´*açC ÅÆæ©’ *vûªç– N’í∫-û√-
from the conversation above:
was the end of her career as an athlete =
íÌ°æpN/ ´·êu-¢Á’i-†O 鬴¤ éπü∆? Åçûª- ¢√-öÀ-éπØ√o íÌ°æpC
íÌ-°æpO, Åçûª-éπçõ‰ íÌ°æpO, Éûª®Ω careers 1) Keep your end up 3) Keep (somebody's) end of the
2) Civils is not the career that ends
Ç¢Á’ Bv´çí¬ ï•’s-°æ-úøf-°æ¤púø’ véÃú≈-é¬-J-ùÀí¬ ûª†
ÖØ√o®· éπü∆?) deal = ûª†-´çûª’ °æE û√†’ îËߪ’úøç/
Vinathi: Well, that's a poor consolation you all careers ûª† ¶«üµ¿u-ûª†’ û√†’.
*´-J-ü¿¨¡ ´îËa-Æœç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊çC/ é̆-≤ƒ-í∫-™‰-ü¿-†’-
3) You've kept your end of the deal èπ◊çC.
know. You can never get rid of the a) The bowlers have done their
4) At the end of the road, it is the Athlete = áD∑xö¸ - a, any ™ 'á— ™«.
feeling that you could not achieve job. The batsmen should now keep
result that matters, not the effort. 5) No end of = áèπ◊\-´í¬/ ÅN’-ûª-¢Á’i†
what you wanted to. It keeps eating M.SURESAN their end of the deal = Bowlers
5) She thinks no end of herself a) It is no end of trouble to get anything
you up. 6) I've been waiting for it for weeks on end. (ûªèπ◊\´ °æ®Ω’-í∫’-L*a áèπ◊\´ NÈéô’x °æúø-
batsmen done in a government office = v°æ¶µº’ûªy
1) Keep (somebody's) end up = continue to
íÌöÀd) ûª´’ °æE û√´· î˨»®Ω’. Ééπ ûª´’
office
(Å™« ņ’-èπ◊E Ææ®Ω’l-èπ◊-§Ú-¢√-LqçüË. é¬E ™ °æE-îË-®·ç--éÓ-´úøç î√™« éπ≠dçæ /
be happy and cheerful even in difficulties =
´’†ç ņ’-èπ◊-†oC ≤ƒCµç-îª-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷-´’ØË ´çûª’ ¶«üµ¿uûª E®Ωy-£œ«ç-î√L.
b) Son, I've paid your fees, bought you all °ü¿l Ææ´’ÊÆu.
b) She is no end happy with the money she
¶µ«´ç ´’†Lo ´ü¿-©ü¿’ éπü∆? ÅC ´’†Lo the books and provided all that you need.
éπ≥ƒd™x èπÿú≈ Öû√q-£æ«çí¬ Ö™«x-Ææçí¬ Öçúø-í∫-©-í∫úøç.
¶«Cµ-Ææ÷hØË Öçô’çC.) a) Sita, wife of lord Sri Rama, kept her end Now, you keep your end of the deal = got as a prize =
•£æ›-´’-Aí¬ ´*a† úø•’sûÓ
get rid of = ´C-Lç--éÓ-´úøç up even during her stay in the forests = fees
¶«•÷, F éπö«d†’. °æ¤Ææh-é¬-©Fo éÌE-î√a†’, Ç¢Á’ î√™« ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ÖçC.
consolation= ãü∆®Ω’p, ´†-¢√-Ææç™ èπÿú≈ X®√-´·úÕ ¶µ«®Ωu Æ‘ûª ûª† Fé¬\-´-©-Æœ† ´Ææ-ûª’-©Fo éπLpç-î√†’. Ééπ F 6) On end = continuously = î√™« 鬩çí¬
poor consolation = ÆæÈ®j† ãü∆®Ω’p é¬ü¿’ ÆæçûÓ-≥ƒEo éÓ™p-™‰ü¿’/ Ö™«x-Ææç-í¬ØË í∫úÕ-°œçC. ¶«üµ¿u-ûª†’ †’´¤y E®Ωy-£œ«ç (¶«í¬ îªCN a) We've been waiting for you for hours on
Jayanthi: That's true. Any way you've kept b) The one who keeps their end even in dif- ´’ç* ´÷®Ω’\©’ ûÁa-èπ◊E). end = ¢Ë’ç F éÓÆæç í∫çô© ûª®Ω-•úÕ
your end of the deal. 'Do what you ficulties are real heroes = éπ≥ƒd™x èπÿú≈ c) Though India has done its part of the job, îª÷Ææ’hØ√oç.
ought to do, and leave to God the Ö™«x-Ææçí¬ Öçúø-í∫-L-Íí-¢√Í® Eï-¢Á’i† O®Ω’©’ Pakistan has failed to keep its end of the b) For weeks on end, he was to be seen
rest', says the Geetha. So don't c) All that you've lost is just an exam. Keep deal = ¶µ«®Ωû˝ ûª†-´çûª’ °æE-îË-Æœ-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, §ƒéÀ- nowhere = ¢√®√© ûª®Ω-•úÕ Åûª-ØÁ-éπ\ú≈ éπE-
worry. (ÅC Eï¢Ë’. †’´¤y îËߪ’-í∫-L-Tç- your end up = †’´¤y exam fail
™ Åߪ÷u´¤. ≤ƒnØ˛ ûª† ¶«üµ¿u-ûª™ N°∂æ-©-¢Á’içC (ûª† ´÷ô °œç-îª-™‰ü¿’.
ü¿çû√ †’´¤y î˨»´¤ éπü∆? '†’´¤y îËߪ÷- ÅçûË-éπü∆? ´’®Ω-*§Ú/ ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ Öçúø’. E©-¶„-ô’d-éÓ-™‰ü¿’).
LqçC †’´¤y îÁß˝’. °∂æLûªç üË´¤-úÕ-éÌ-C-
EXERCISE He is here with the purpose of
™„ß˝’—, ÅØ√oúø’ °æ®Ω-´÷-ûª’túø’ Uûª™. We
(ÂÆéπ†x ü¿¨»ç-éπçûÓ) éÌ©’-≤ƒh®Ω’. 3-D. Acquire = earn = Ææ秃-Cç--éÓ-
Vinathi: I'm afraid that hardly comforts me. At Match the words under A with getting some information =
are precise in weighing gold = Within three years
´úøç/ §Òçü¿úøç. àüÓ
the end of the day, it is the result that their meanings under B X of entering politics, he acquired
•çí¬®Ωç î√™« éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ûª÷≤ƒhç Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç éÓÆæç Åûª-úÕ-éπ\úø ÖØ√oúø’.
matters, and not your effort. A B vague I have a
(ÅÆæp-≠æd-¢Á’i†). property worth Rs. 60lakh. = ®√ï-éÃ- 5-B. Mention = talk îÁ°æpôç/ äéπ-JE
(ÅC Ø√éπçûª Ü®Ωô éπL-Tç-îªúøç ™‰ü¿’. 1. Precisely A. Aim vague idea of his address = ÅûªE ߪ÷™x v°æ¢Ë-Pç-*† ´‚úË-∞¡x-™Ê° 60 í∫’Jç*, äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-
àüË-´’Ø√o, ´’†¢Ë’ç ≤ƒCµç-î √-´’-ØËüË 2. Ridiculous B. talk address Ø√èπ◊ ÅÆæp-≠dçæ í¬ ûÁ©’Ææ’/ ©éπ~© N©’´éπ© ÇÆœh Ææ秃-Cç-î√-úø- úøôç/ v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-îªúøç. The CM men-
´·êuç é¬F, ´’†ç áçûª v°æߪ’ûªoç î˨»- 3. Acquire C. need ÆæJí¬ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’. ûªúø’. Degree (îªü¿’´¤)/ fame/ tioned the Rs.2 per kilo scheme,
´’E é¬ü¿’ éπü∆?) 4. Purpose D. earn 2-F. Ridiculous = absurd = £æ…≤ƒu- ë«uA/ friendship/ money/ position while talking about his govern-
matters = ´·êu-´’-´ôç. 5. Mention E. exactly Ææp-ü¿-¢Á’i†. It is ridiculous to say that (°æü¿N, ÆœnA) – Oô-Eoç-öÀF Ææ秃-Cç-îª- ment's programme = ûª† v°æ¶µº’ûªy
It matters little whether he comes or not = F. absurd success can be achieved ú≈Eo èπÿú≈ acquire Åçö«ç. é̆úøç v°æù«-R-éπ†’ í∫’-Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’ûª÷, È®çúø’
ÅûªúÌ≤ƒhú≈ ®√ú≈ ÅØËC Åçûª ´·êuç é¬ü¿’ G. question overnight =
®√vAéÀ ®√vûË Nï-ߪ÷Eo ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ÖçC. The govern- ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©èπ◊ éÀ™ Gߪ’uç °æü∑¿éπç
KEY: 1-E. Precisely= exactly- éπ*a- ≤ƒCµç-îª-í∫©ç ņúøç £æ…≤ƒu-Ææpü¿ç. He ment has acquired land for col- í∫’Jç* CM ´÷ö«x-ú≈®Ω’/ v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-
Jayanthi: So what are you going to do?
ûªçí¬, accurate í¬, correct í¬. looks ridiculous in red trousers lege - Ééπ\úø acquire = ÊÆéπ-Jç-îªôç. î√®Ω ’. Don't mention his name,
(Å®·ûË àç îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?) and green shirt = Ç áv®Ω pants, said he to his daughter = ÅûªE
The time now is 8.49 AM precise- 4-A. Purpose = aim= ÖüËl¨¡ç, ©éπ~uç.
Vinathi: I'll give it another try. My cousin
ly. Æ洒ߪ’ç É°æ¤púø’ correct (éπ*a- green teashirt ™ î√™« £æ…≤ƒu-Ææp- He went to Hyderabad with the
Ê°®Ω’ îÁ°æpèπ◊, ÅE ûªçvúÕ èπÿûª’-®Ω’ûÓ
Pranathi has succeeded in her sec- ÅØ√oúø’ X omit = (v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-îª-èπ◊çú≈)
ond attempt and she thinks no end of
ûªçí¬) 8.49 §Òü¿’l†. In running ü¿çí¬ éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. (Åçü¿®Ω÷ Åûª-úÕE purpose of learning computers =
races time is measured precisely îª÷Æœ †¢Ëyô’x) X sensible (Ææ´u- Computers ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ (ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊ØË
´C- ™‰-ߪ’úøç.
herself. Our relatives too keep com-
= °æ®Ω’í∫’ °æçü∆™x Æ洒ߪ’ç éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ¢Á’i†)/ serious.
paring us. So I must make it.
ÖüËl-¨¡çûÓ) Åûªúø’ £j«ü¿-®√¶«ü˛ ¢Á∞«}úø’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 16 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
v°æ¨¡o: After 15 overs Australia ï¢√•’: ü˨»© Ê°®ΩxûÓ, Ç ü˨»©
were 121-2 ÅØË ¢√é¬uEo ïôx†’ í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«xúËô°æ¤púø’ plur-
cricket v°æûªuéπ~ v°æ≤ƒ-®Ωç™ al ¢√úøû√ç. India were 121/2 at
were
îª÷¨»†’. -Ñ ¢√éπuç™ lunch ņo-°æ¤púø’ Å®Ωnç– Lunch Ææ´’-
Ö†o îÓô was Öçú≈L ߪ÷-EéÀ ¶µ«®Ωûª ïô’d (team) ™E
éπü∆? àC, áçü¿’èπ◊ éπÈ®éÓd players 121 °æ®Ω’-í∫’©’ î˨»-®ΩE.
N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x singular í¬F
– áÆˇ.-üµ¿-®Ωt-°æ¤J, ¢Áçéπ-ö«-°æ‹®˝, plural í¬F ¢√úÌa. India was
ÇC-™«-¶«ü˛ ->-™«x 121/2 ÅE èπÿú≈ ÅØÌa.

v°æ¨¡o: i) Who/ what/ which ©’ subject í¬ ï¢√•’: iii)O’ question éÌçûª ÅÆæp≠ædçí¬ ÖçC. Ø√èπ◊ Å®Ωn-¢Á’i- 1) Beauty (Noun)
Sentence Patterns

¢√úÕ† v°æ¨¡o™x do/ does/ did áçü¿’èπ◊ i) Who, which ques-
ûÓ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ †ç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ Ñ example ÉÆæ’h-Ø√o†’, îª÷úøçúÕ. Noun (Subject) Verb Object
¢√úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’? Éçü¿’™ subject í¬ ¢√úÕ† tions do, does, did
™ 2)
¢√úøç. 1. Beauty (n) = Åçü¿ç The beauty of Kashmir + attracts + a large ...
eg: Who broke the jug? What What do 2) Beautiful (Adj)
The beauty of Kashmir attracts a large num-
°æü∆©’ àN? ûÓ ¢√úøû√ç éπü∆?
ii) Who/ what/ which ©’ object í¬ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷- you know? What does he want? Subject Verb subject complement
ber of tourists. (Adjective)
TçîË Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x do/ does/ did ¢√úøû√ç. What did he say? 3) Who, which
2. Beautiful (adj) = The scenery of Kashmir + is + beautiful
negative questions
Åçü¿-¢Á’i†, Åçü¿çí¬ Ö†o.
eg: Who do you want to play with your ûÓ èπÿú≈ ™ 3) Beautifully (adv)
do, does, did Who The scenery of Kashmir is beautiful.
team? ¢√úøû√ç éπü∆. Sub Verb Object Adverb
does not know it? Which (of 3. Beautiful (Adv) = Åçü¿çí¬ He + decorated + the house + beautifully
Éçü¿’™ object í¬ ¢√úÕ† °æü∆©’ àN?
you) did not do the home work, He decorated the house beautifully. 4) Beautify (verb)
subject àC? N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
etc. Oô-Eoç-öÀ™ èπÿú≈subject, 4. Beautify (verb) = Subject Verb Object
iii) Part of speech ™ verb, adjectives Åçü¿çí¬ îËߪ’ôç/ Å©ç-éπ-
who, what, which. He beautified the place by growing He + beautified + the place
í¬†’, adverb í¬†’ noun í¬†’ ´÷®Ω’p ii) Who do you want to play with?
Jç-îªôç.
iv) 6 forms of the verb
a garden in it = Åéπ\úø ã ûÓô†’ °ç* Ç
îÁçü¿’-û√®·. ¢√öÀ Å®√n©’, ¢√öÀE à Nüµ¿çí¬ who, present day English
Ééπ\úø 1. Be forms
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ω’? Å®√nEo ᙫ BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√™ v°æüË-¨»Eo Åçü¿çí¬ î˨»úø’. 2. Be form + ing form
whom
äÍé ´÷ô†’ BÆæ’-èπ◊E, sentence pattern ™ èπ◊ •ü¿’©’
sub-
3. Be form + past participle (PP) (Passive Voice)
4. Have/ has/ had/ will have/ shall have etc + PP
°æü¿l¥-A™ -N-´®Ωçí¬ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’. ¢√úË ´÷ô. Ééπ\úø
ject you. áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ 5. Doing words I RDW II RDW PDW
iv) Verb forms 6 ®Ω鬩’ ÅØ√o®Ω’. ÅN
come, comes, came
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 396
†’´¤y á´-JûÓ Çú≈-©-†’-
àN’öÀ? N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? ņo-°æ¤púø’, 6. Shall/ should/ will/ would/ can/ could
– >.Èé.-®√´¤, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛ subject is you. may/ might/ must etc. + 1st RDW.

v°æ¨¡o: i) Would, Should, Could à Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x Ö°æ-
ßÁ÷-Tç-î√™ Ææp≠ædçí¬ ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’.
ii) sine qua non Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
iii) Simple past, past perfect á°æ¤púø’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-
sine qua non Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
v°æ¨¡o:
Tç-î√L?
iv) ûÁ©’-í∫’™ äéπ ´uéÀhE íı®Ω-´çí¬ Ææç¶-Cµç-îË-ô- à íÌ°æp 鬮Ωuç/ -¢√u-§ƒ®Ωç Nï-ߪ÷-E- Ø√èπ◊ car ã Ææç´-ûªq®Ωçí¬ ÖçC =
°æ¤púø’, ' O’®Ω’— , ' ûª´’®Ω’— , ' ¢√®Ω’— ÅE ´u´-£æ«- ÈéjØ√ ´’ç* °æü∑¿éπç Å´-Ææ-®Ωç/ Have °æéπ\† had Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç- I have had a car for the past one year Åçö«ç éπü∆?
J≤ƒhç. Åçõ‰ àéπ-´- íı®Ω-´-Ææ÷-îªéπç ņo- ´·êuç. îª-´î√a ÅØË v°æ¨¡oèπ◊ she has Å™«Íí Ç¢Á’èπ◊ Ç ÖüÓuí∫ç Ææç´-ûªq®Ωçí¬ ÖçC ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊,
iii) Simple past - for past actions, had this job for the last
´÷ô. Å™«Íí ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ äéπ ´uéÀhE íı®Ω-NÆæ÷h
time known; past perfect for
°j sentence ™ car èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ job ¢√úøçúÕ.
one year ÅE example
Ææç¶-Cµç-îª-úø-¢Á’™«?
past actions, time not stated. Éî√a®Ω’. DEo She has
Å°æ¤p-úÌîËa sentence:
ï¢√•’: i) Would, should, could Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ She has had this job for the last one year.
– °œ.-á-Ø˛.-N. ®Ω-´’-ù-¶«-•’, -A®Ω’°æ-A a) I have seen the movie = ØË-†’ - been this job for the last
M.SURESAN She has been this job for the last one year =
Ç -Æœ-E´÷ îª÷¨»†’– á°æ¤púø’ one year ņúøç ûª§ƒp?
î√™« N´-®Ωçí¬ Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ Éî√aç. îª÷úøçúÕ. îª÷ÆœçD îÁ°æp-ôç-™‰ü¿’– tense, Ñ sentence ™ verb has been. ÉC be form (Åçõ‰
ii) sine qua non - ÂÆjØ˛-é¬y-Ø√Ø˛= àüÁjØ√ ≤ƒCµç-î √-
ï¢√•’:
– -P-K-≠æ, -ØÁ-©÷x®Ω’
past perfect. í∫ûªç™ äéπ Æ洒ߪ’ç †’ç* É°æp-öÀ-´®Ωèπÿ/ Éçé¬ Öçúøôç
©-†’-èπ◊-†o-°æ¤púø’ ´’†èπ◊ Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç/ b) I saw it last night= ؈’ ü∆EE E†o ®√vA (state of being) îÁ°æ¤ hçC).
i) Have + past participle/ has +
í∫’ùç. ÅC ™‰EüË ´’†ç ≤ƒCµç-‰ç. time - last night
a) Industry is the sine qua non for success
îª÷¨»†’– Ééπ\úø
鬕öÀd,saw - past simple
Åçô’Ø√oç
¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç. past participleí∫ûªç™ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº¢Á’i 鬕öÀd She has been this job for the last one year=
Ç¢Á’ í∫ûª Ææç´-ûªq-®Ωçí¬ Ñ ÖüÓu-í∫çí¬ ÖçC. Ç¢Á’
iv) You = †’´¤y/- O’®Ω’. íı®Ω´ Ææ÷îªéπçí¬ O’®Ω’
= Nï-ߪ÷-EéÀ éπ%≠œ Å´-Ææ-®Ωç/- ´·êuç (éπ%≠œ-
Éçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ ïJ-T† °æEE ûÁ©’-°æ¤-
ÖüÓuí∫çí¬ Öçúøü¿’ éπü∆? ÖüÓu-í∫ç™ Öçô’çC. Å™« ÅØËç-
™‰-EüË Nïߪ’ç §Òçü¿™‰ç). ÅØ√-©Ø√o, you ÅØË Åçö«ç. You please û√®·.
ü¿’èπ◊ She has been on this job for the last one year.
b) Careful planning is the sine qua non of Åçö«ç. Åçûª-éπçõ‰ ¢ËÍ® àO’ expressions Ø√èπ◊ car ÖçC = I have a car
(É°æ¤púø’). Åçõ‰, Å°æ¤púø’ Ç¢Á’ Ñ ÖüÓu-í∫ç™ ÖçC ÅE ´Ææ’hçC.
success in any venture = ™‰´¤.
v°æ¨¡o: English spelling games í∫’Jç* éÌEo v°æ¨¡o: i) Kindly clarify that, the ï¢√•’: v°æ¨¡o: i) I am writing this letter with ï¢√•’:
ÆæçüË-£æ…©’: ‘c, s’ – ÉN á°æ¤púø’ àN main clause should be i) O’®Ω’ îÁ°œp†™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x, should a good intention. inten-
Ééπ\úø i) Intention
(ÖüËl¨¡ç) ÅØËC count-
´≤ƒhßÁ÷ Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç--îªí∫-ûª®Ω’. ‘would’ or ‘should’ or accord- ¢√úøéπç -î√-™« §ƒçúÕ-ûªuçí¬ ÅE°œ-Ææ’hçC. tion ÅØËC countable noun or able.
î√-™« Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ uncountable.
- C.Madhu, Warangal ing to its subject (I, II or III Modern English usages ™, should éÀ uncountable noun like informa- Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéà information, furniture
ï¢√•’: á°æ¤púø’ c, á°æ¤púø’ s ´Ææ’hçC ÅE persons) in the sentences of would éÀ É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™ x ûËú≈ tion and furniture? ™«çöÀ uncountable ´÷vûªç é¬ü¿’.
îÁ°æp-úøç î√-™« éπ≠dçæ . English ™ c E imaginary condition. Åçûª-Jç-*-§Ú-®·çC. Direct, Indirect ii) What about his letter? ii) ÉC ¢√úø’éπ ´©x ´*a† ´÷ô©’.
s ™« á°æ¤púø’, k ™« á°æ¤púø’, ÅØËC Ç The text book of VIII (EM) pre- speech ™, conditionals ™ requests How about his programme? Mostly spoken form. Åçü¿’-éπE
°æü¿ç à ¶µ«≠æ-™ç* English ™éÀ scribed by the Govt. of A.P., ™ Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ should ¢√úË îÓôx-Eoç- °j È®çúø’- ¢√-é¬u™x verb à¢Á’içC? Ç verbs ®√´¤. É™«ç-öÀN ´’J-éÌEo–
´*aç-ü¿ØË N≠æߪ’ç O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æúÕ says that the main clause nor- öÀ™  should èπ◊ -•-ü¿’-©’ British, È®çúÕ-çöÀF affirmative sentence Why trouble me now? (Why do
Öçô’çC. ÅC ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-úøç -Éçé¬ mally uses ‘should’, not American English ©™ would ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ™, passive voice ™ ᙫ you trouble me now •ü¿’©’)/
éπ≠dçæ . Åçü¿’-éπE c ûÓ àü¿-®·Ø√ éÌûªh- ‘would’. Here normally ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. If I were you, I should ®√ߪ÷™ ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. Why not? (áçü¿’èπ◊ é¬èπÿ-úøü¿’/
´÷ô ´ÊÆh, ü∆E pronunciation dic- means....? like to do it - ÉC old usage. If I were áçü¿’èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’?) etc.
iii) He is suffering from joint pain.
tionary ™ îª÷Æœ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-LqçüË. ii) How ro pronunce the word you, I’d (would) like to do it - ÉC (I don’t like to go ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊
She is my dream girl- Ééπ\úø joint,
v°æ¨¡o: Question tag ™ I am a doctor, ‘dais’? modern usage. Present day English
™ should- äéπ®Ω’ îËߪ÷-Lq† (¶«üµ¿u-ûªí¬) dream à ®Ωéπ-¢Á’i† adjectives? response í¬ Å-ØË -´÷-ô?)
aren’t I? ÅE ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ I am not a iii) v°æA¶µ«§ƒöÀ™¸ áØÓo ®√≠æ-Z°æA? iii) Joint, dream Ñ È®çúø÷-èπÿú≈
doctor, am I? ÅE ´Ææ’hçü∆? are I?
EE -ûÁ-LÊ°ç-ü¿’èπ◊, Ææ©£æ… ÉîËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ iv) She came here to read the
A¢√J Ççvüµ¿-v°æ-üË-¨¸éÀ áØÓo í∫´-®Ωo®Ω’? °æ´÷vûª nouns used as adjectives,
books.
ÅE ´Ææ’hçü∆? Ñ È®çúø÷ É™« question college student ™ college -™«.
- What are the question forms
¢Ë’ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
ii) Dias - úÁ®·Æˇ She came here for reading the
tag áçü¿’-éÌ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®·? ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. in English for such type of books - Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀéà ֆo ûËú≈†’ iv) È®çúø÷ äéπõ‰ – Å®Ωnç™ ûËú≈ ™‰ü¿’.
questions? iii) DEéÀ English ™ ÆæÈ®j-† ¢√éπuç-™‰ü¿’. ÉC
- M.Moses, Vijayawada
ï¢√•’: I am not a doctor, am I? ÅØË Åçö«ç.
N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
- I.V.Ramaswamy, Karimnagar
-Éç-ûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ N´-Jç-î√ç.
- Dr.P.Anjaneyulu, Srikakulam

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 18 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Jayanth: (It’s) days since met you. Whatever to meet all the expenses. So
has happened to you? nobody need put their hand in their
(E†’o îª÷Æœ î√™« ®ÓV-©-®·uçC. àN’öÀ pocket. Do take some money now.
N≠æߪ’ç?) (´’† Å≤Ú-Æœ-ßË’-≠æ-Ø˛èπ◊ î√™« úø•’sçC.
éÌçîÁç Ǩ¡a®Ωuç ûÁ©-°æ-ú≈-EéÀ What •ü¿’©’ 鬕öÀd á´®Ω÷ èπÿú≈ ¢√∞¡x úø•’s ê®Ω’a
Whatever Åçö«ç. °ôd-†-´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.)
Sumanth: What do you think? I have my Jayanth: That I know. Let me first of all have
hands full. The President of our the list and the invitations.
association has given me the (ÅC Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. ¢Á·ü¿ô Ç£æ…y-E-ûª’©
responsibility of making all the ñ«Gû√, Ç Ç£æ…y-Ø√©’ Ø√éÀ´¤y.)
arrangements for the conference Sumanth: They are all at the printer’s who is
next week. near at hand. Come, let’s go. à ´Ææ’h-¢ÁjØ√/ N≠æ-ߪ’-¢Á’iØ√, ´’†’-≠æfl-™„jØ√, ´’†ç Çüµ∆- Åûªúø’ supervisor Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ/ ÅûªúÕ °æE Åï-
(à´’-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? ÅÆæq©’ BJéπ (ÅFo v°œçô®˝ ü¿í∫_Í® ÖØ√o®·. Åûªúø’ ®Ω-°æúøü¿T† ´uéÀh îª÷Ææ’h-†o-°æ¤úø’. ´÷-®·≠‘ Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’iûË üÁj£œ«éπ v¨¡´’èπ◊
a) If Dr. Vaidya is treating you, you are in safe
™‰èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o†’. ´’† Ææç°∂æ’ç Åüµ¿u-èπ~◊úø’ èπÿú≈ Ééπ\-úøèπ◊ ü¿í∫_Í®, ¢Á∞¡ü∆ç °æü¿.) èπÿú≈ Åûªúø’ Æœü¿l¥¢Ë’.
´îËa ¢√®Ωç ïJÍí Ææ´÷-¢Ë-¨»-EéÀ 鬢√-Lq†     hands b) This job is only for these who are willing to
à®√pôxFo – Ç ¶«üµ¿u-ûª†’ °æ‹Jhí¬ Ø√èπ◊ Spoken English daily real life situations
™ = ú≈II ¢Ájü¿u Fèπ◊ ¢Ájü¿uç îËÆæ’h-†o-ôx-®·ûË, †’´¤y Íé~´’- get their hands dirty =
Å°æpTç-î√®Ω’.) ™ hand expressions
ûÓ ¢√úË èπ◊ î√™« v§ƒüµ∆†uç éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† îËûª’™x Ö†oõ‰x (Çߪ’† ¢Ájü¿uç™ †’´¤y üÁj£œ«éπ v¨¡´’†’ É≠æd-°æúË ¢√∞¡}ØË/ é¬ßª’-éπ≠dçæ îËÊÆç-
conference = Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ç ÖçC. î√™« ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’ èπÿú≈. É´Fo Íé~´’ç-í¬ØË Öçö«´¤). ü¿’èπ◊ É≠æd-°æ-úË-¢√-∞¡xÍé Ñ ÖüÓuí∫ç.
Jayanth: He can be sure he has placed the job î√™« simple expressions. ´’† Ææ綵«-≠æù î√™« b) With Kumble as captain, the team is in capa- c) As he is educated, he doesn’t want to get his
in capable hands. He can be rest Ææ®Ω-∞¡çí¬, Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬ ÖçúËô’x îË≤ƒh®·. ´’†´‚ prac- ble hands hands dirty =
assured that nothing can go wrong. tice îËü∆lç.
= èπ◊綉x ≤ƒ®Ω-ü∑¿uç™ (captain í¬ Öçõ‰) ¶µ«®Ω-ûª-
Now look at the following expressions from
(Çߪ’† Ñ °æEE Ææ´’-®Ω’n-©Íé Å°æp-Tç-î√-†ØË îªü¿’-´¤-èπ◊†o ¢√úø’ 鬕öÀd é¬ßª’-éπ≠dçæ îËߪ’úøç ÅûªúÕéÀ
the dialogue above.
†´’t-éπçûÓ Öçúø-´îª’a. à §Ò®Ω-§ƒô÷ ï®Ω-í∫- ïô’d Ææ´’-®Ω’núÕ îËA™ Ö†oõ‰d (èπ◊綉x Ææ´’-®Ω’n-úøE). É≠ædç ™‰ü¿’.
1) I have my hands full. 3) Something in hand/ 5) To have enough on one’s hands =
ü¿E EPaç-ûªí¬ Öçúø-´îª’a. to have something in
be rest assured = EPaç-ûªí¬ Öçúøôç 2) He can be sure that (äéπ-JéÀ) î√L-†çûª °æE Öçúøôç.
he has placed the job hand/ have time/ a) She has enough on her hands with her new
Sumanth: Fortunately I have the time and money in hand =
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
in capable hands. born child and so cannot do any job =
money in hand. That does make
things easy. But at times I have to
3) I have the time and 397 àüÁjØ√ ´’†ç ¢√úø’-èπ◊-ØËç- É°æ¤púË °æ¤öÀd† GúøfûÓ Ç¢Á’èπ◊ î√L-†çûª °æE. Åçü¿’-
money in hand.
get my hands éπE Ç¢Á’ à ÖüÓuí∫ç îËߪ’-

I have my hands full
dirty too, as ™‰ü¿’.
the workers b) He doesn’t have
are a bit lazy enough on his hands,
and irregular. so he gets all sorts of
(Åü¿%-≠d-´æ -¨»ûª÷h silly ideas =
ÅûªúÕéÀ î√L-†çûª °æE-™‰-éπ-§Ú-
4) ... I have to get my hands dirty.
ü∆EéÀ 鬢√Lq†
úø•÷s, Æ洒ߪ’ç ¶«í¬ØË ÖØ√o®·. Åçü¿’- ´-úøçûÓ Åûª-úÕéÀ °æEéÀ´÷-L†
5) You have enough on your hands. ü¿’èπ◊ ´’† ü¿í∫_®Ω Ç™-©Fo ´Ææ’hç-ö«®·.
´©x °æE Ææ’©-¶µºç-í¬ØË ÖçC. é¬F Å°æ¤p-úø-
6) Am I clear then that the matter is Öçúøôç. 6) Something in somebody’s hands =
a) He has plenty of money in hand
°æ¤p-úø÷ °æE-¢√∞¡x •ü¿l¥éπç ´™«x, ÆæJí¬ Öçúø-
éπ-§Ú-´úøç ´™«x ¢√∞¡Ÿx îËÊÆ °æ†’©’ èπÿú≈ entirely in your hands.
àü¿-®·Ø√ äéπJ ÅDµ-†ç™ Öçúøôç.
1) Have (somebody’s) hands full- I/ = Åûªúø’ ¢√úø’èπ◊ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ÅûªúÕ ü¿í∫_®Ω
éÌEo ؈’ îËߪ÷Lq ´≤ÚhçC). a) The matter is no longer in my hands. It is
Jayanth: Are you handling the invitations too? we/ you/ they have my/ our/ your/ ¶«í¬ úø•’sçC.
now entirely in my lawyer’s hands =
their hands full. He/ she has his/ b) We still have a week in hand
M.SURESAN before the exams =
(Ç£æ…y-Ø√©’ °æç°æúøç èπÿú≈ F °æØËØ√?) her hands full = àüÁjØ√ °æE ´©x Ç N≠æߪ’ç É°æ¤púø’ Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω ™‰ü¿’ (ØËØËç îËߪ’-
Sumanth: Yes, I am. ™‰†’). Åü¿çû√ ´÷ ™«ßª’®˝ îËA™ ÖçC/ Çߪ’ØË
ÅÆæq-©’ BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç. °æK-éπ~-©-éÀçé¬ ´’†èπ◊ ¢√®Ωç ®ÓV©
a) He has his hands full with the arrangements
(Å´¤†’.) Æ洒ߪ’ç ÖçC. Åçû√ îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’.
Jayanth: Why don’t you let me take care of the for his daughter’s marriage = c) I haven’t much time in hand = b) The whole affair is in your hands. You can do
invitations? You have enough on as you like =
your hands already with the arrange-
¢√∞¡x Å´÷t®· °Rx à®√p-ôxûÓ Çߪ’† ÅÆæq©’ BJéπ Ø√éπçûª áèπ◊\´ õ„j¢˛’ ™‰ü¿’.
™‰èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√oúø’. d) Though he has the amount in hand, he is Åçû√ F îËûª’™x ÖçC. †’¢Ëy´’†’-èπ◊çõ‰ ÅC îËߪ’-
ments.
b) I have my hands already full with repairs to unwilling to spend = í∫-©´¤.
my house. I can’t attend to any other work Affair - Å°∂-Å – N≠æߪ’ç/ Ææç•çüµ¿ç
(Ç£æ…y-Ø√© N≠æߪ’ç Ø√èπ◊ ´C™‰-ߪ’-èπÿ- 鬢√-Lq† úø•’s ûª† ü¿í∫_®Ω Ö†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, ê®Ω’a °ôdúøç
now =
úøü¿÷? Ñ à®√p-ôx-ûÓØË †’´¤y BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ Åûª-úÕéÀ É≠ædç-™‰ü¿’. a) I don’t know anything about the affair =
ÖØ√o´¤.) Ø√ ÉçöÀ ´’®Ω´’tûª’©ûÓ Ø√ îËûª’© Eçú≈ °æEûÓ 4) To get my hands dirty = üÁj£œ«éπ v¨¡´’ îËߪ’úøç/
Sumanth: Thank you. That’s a big relief.
Ø√èπ◊ Ç N≠æߪ’ç àO’ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’.
BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o, ÉçÍé°æ-F îª÷úø-™‰-E-°æ¤púø’. é¬ßª’-éπ≠dçæ îËߪ’úøç b) People suspect an affair between the two =
2) In somebody’s good/ safe/ capable, etc
(ü∑∆uçé˙q. ÅC Ø√èπ◊ °ü¿l N´·éÀh.) a) Though he is a supervisor, he is ready to get
Jayanth: Let me have the list of invitees. I will hands =
v°æï©’ ¢√Rx-ü¿l-Jéà àüÓ Ææç•çüµ¿ç Öçü¿-†’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’.
his hands dirty if there is a need =
have some of them delivered by
hand, and the rest through courier
EXERCISE An engineer’s qualification is irrel-
service or by post. äéπJ ûª-Lx-ü¿ç-vúø’©’ ûª°œpç-èπ◊ A®Ω’-í∫’- mild Åçõ‰ ÉçéÌEo Å®√n©’ ≤ƒüµ¿’
Match the words under A with evant to a bank job =
(Ç£æ…y-E-ûª’© ñ«Gû√ Ø√éÀ´¤y, éÌEoç-öÀE ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’ (§ÚM-Ææ’-©èπÿ, îªö«d-Eéà üÌ®Ω-éπ- -Ææy-¶µ«´ç Ö†o/ °∂æ÷ô’-™‰E/ Bv´-ûª-™‰E/
؈’ îËAûÓ -Åç-Cç-îË-™« -îª÷≤ƒh†’, N’í∫-û√N their meanings under B. èπ◊çú≈). Éç>-F®˝ Nü∆u-®Ω|-ûª©’ bank ÖüÓu-í¬-EéÀ Åçûª ÖvC-éπh-ûª-™‰E X severe (Bv´-
A B The cashier of the bank is
ÅÆæç-•ü¿l¥ç X Relevant.
éÌJ-ߪ’®˝ ü∆y®√ í¬F, §ÚÆˇd ü∆y®√ í¬F ¢Á ’i† )/ harsh (éπJ∏-†-¢Á’i†)/ violent
1. Abscond A Stop absconding = 3. (F) covetous = ü¿’®√¨¡ Ö†o/
°æç°æ¤-û√†’.) (£œ «ç≤ƒ-û ªt-éπ-¢Á’i†).
2. Irrelevant B Escape
Sumanth: Am I clear then that the matter is Bank cashier §ƒJ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’ X Åû√u¨¡/ Ê°®√¨¡ Ö†o
3. Greedy C Gentle Most politicians are greedy. They 5. (A) Stop = üˆo-®·Ø√ ÇÊ°-ߪ’úøç.
entirely in your hands? Surrender
He withheld important informa-
= ™ÔçT-§Ú-´úøç.
4. Mild D Surrender enter politics only because of
2. (E) unconnected = ÅÆæç-ü¿-®Ωs¥-¢Á’i†/
(Å®·ûË Ç N≠æߪ’ç Åçû√ F îËûª’™x 5. Withhold E Unconnected their greed = tion =
Ö†oõ‰x éπü∆?) F Covetous
Ææçü¿®Ωs¥ ¨¡ŸCl¥-™‰E (out of place)/ ´·êu-¢Á’i† Ææ´÷-î√-®√Eo Åûªúø’ Éûª-®Ω’-
Jayanth: They are certainly out of your hands. ÅÆæç-•-ü¿l¥-¢Á’i†. äéπ N≠æߪ’ç í∫’Jç* ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ’ -Ø√-ߪ’èπ◊-™x áèπ◊\-´-´’çC
G Generous ©èπ◊ Åçü¿-èπ◊çú≈ ÇÊ°-¨»úø’.
Don’t you worry, any more about ´÷ö«xúø’ûª÷ Ö†o°æ¤púø’ ´’®Ó ü¿’®√-¨»-°æ-®Ω’™‰. ÅÆæ©’ ¢√∞¡Ÿ} ®√ï-éÃ-
them. ANSWERS N≠æߪ’ç v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-îªúøç, irrelevant. ߪ÷™x v°æ¢ËPçîªú≈-EéÀ 鬮Ωùç ¢√∞¡x Kunthi withheld the secret of
(ÅN F îËûª’™x ™‰N-°æ¤púø’. ü∆Eo í∫’Jç* 1. (B) escape = ûª°œpç--éÓ-´úøç/ §ƒJ- While talking of the ability of a
ü¿’®√¨Ï. Karna’s birth till the end =
player, remarks about his covetous = °æ®Ω’© ÇÆœh°j éÓJéπ éπ®Ω’gúÕ ï†t ®Ω£æ«-≤ƒuEo èπ◊çA ü∆*
ÉçÍéç ÇçüÓ-∞¡† °æúøèπ◊.) §Ú-´úøç, ´·êuçí¬ §ÚM-Ææ’©’ °æô’d-éÓ-
Sumanth: I can speed up this work now. èπ◊çú≈, îªö«d-EéÀ üÌ®Ω-éπ-èπ◊çú≈. appearance, or to his girl friend èπÿú≈. °öÀdçC/ Éûª-®Ω’©èπ◊ îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’.
are irrelevant = 4. (C) Gentle = Eü∆†ç/ ü¿’úø’-èπ◊-é¬E
(Å®·ûË ØËF °æE ûªy®Ωí¬ °æ‹Jh îËߪ’- The parents of one of the stu- Results of certain candidates
dents who killed their classmate Unlike the father who is rude
´îª’a.) ã véÃú≈-é¬-®Ω’úÕ ¨¡éÀh í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«xúø’ûª’- have been withheld =
have been absconding since the (¢Á·®Ωô’)the son is mild =
Jayanth: So you can. †o-°æ¤púø’ ÅûªúÕ Çéπ%-AE í∫’Jç* é¬F, éÌçü¿®Ω’ Ŷµºu-®Ω’n© °∂æL-û√©’ Ç°œ-¢Ë-ߪ’-
shooting incident = ÅûªúÕ ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-®√-LE í∫’Jç* é¬F îËÊÆ ¢Á·®Ωô’¢√-úÁj† ûªçvúÕ™« é¬èπ◊çú≈,
(Å´¤†’.) •-ú≈f®· (´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’ ÇÊ°-¨»®Ω’.)
classmate ¢√uêu©’ ÅÆæç-ü¿®Ωs¥ç/ ÅÆæç-•ü¿l¥ç. éÌúø’èπ◊ Eü∆-†-Ææ’húø’.
Sumanth: Our association has enough money
†’ é¬La îªç°œ† Nü∆u®Ω’n™x

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 20 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Vasanth: Could you get back your money? Vasanth: So certainly are most criminals.
(F úø•’s Fèπ◊ AJT ´*açü∆?) Cleverness and crime go hand in
Bharath: You know better than to expect that. hand. Suppose a thief is caught and
This is India. Once you lose some jailed once he won't stop stealing. He
thing it is lost forever. would only think of how to steal next
(Å™« ÇPç-îªúøç ûÁL-N-ûª-èπ◊\´. ÉC ¶µ«®Ω-ûª- time without being caught. That
üË-¨¡ç-éπü∆? äéπ-≤ƒJ †’¢Ëyü¿®·Ø√ §ÚíÌ-ô’d- sharpens his cleverness.
èπ◊çõ‰ ÅC AJT ®√†õ‰x.) (î√™«-´’çC ØË®Ω-í¬∞¡Ÿx ûÁL-N-í∫-©-¢√∞Ïx.
Vasanth: Did you report to the police? ØË®√©÷ ûÁL-N-ûË-ô©÷ á°æ¤púø÷ éπLÊÆ
(Police report
©èπ◊ î˨»¢√?) Öçö«®·. äéπ-≤ƒJ üÌçí∫-ûª†ç îËÆœ†
Bharath: What'll be the use? In most cases
üÌçí∫ ñ„j©’Èé∞«xúø-†’éÓ ¢√úø’ üÌçí∫-ûª†ç
you have to grease their palms. It's
´÷†úø’. ÆæJ-éπü∆, Ñ≤ƒJ °æô’d-•-úø-èπ◊çú≈ b) I don't have the information at hand now.
irregularities= Åvéπ-´÷©’/ E•ç-üµ¿-†© Ö©xç-°∂æ’†;
hundred to one that they catch the
üÌçí∫-ûª†ç ᙫ îËߪ÷™« ÅØË Ç™-*- Wait for an hour and I can get it for you.=
≤ƒhúø’. Å™« Ç™-*Ææ÷h ûÁL-N-O’-J-§Ú-û√®Ω’ execution = E®Ωy-£æ«ù;
thief and if at all they do, you don't execute = E®Ωy-£œ«ç-îªúøç;
Ç Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç/ N´-®√©’ v°æÆæ’hûªç Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω
get all your money back. Sometimes
¢√∞¡Ÿx) ™‰´¤. í∫çô-ÊÆ-§ƒí∫’. Fé¬ N´-®√©’ ÅçC≤ƒh.
Bharath: OK. I will give a report for what it is Executive = °ü¿l °ü¿l ÆæçÆæn™ x ¢√öÀ Nüµ∆-Ø√-
they are hand in glove with thieves. c) The exams are close at hand and you
worth. Let's see what happens.
haven't even started preparation =
(àç Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç? î√™« Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ©†’ Å´’-©’-°æ-JîË/ E®Ωy-£œ«çîË ÅCµ-é¬J.
¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ©çî√-L-¢√yLq ´Ææ’hçC. ¢√∞¡Ÿx (ÆæÍ®. ü∆E N©’´ ü∆EüË Å†ô’d report b) The poling staff in one of the booths were
°æK-éπ~©’ ü¿í∫_®Ω °æúø’-ûª’-Ø√o®·. †’Nyçé¬
üÌçí∫†’ °æô’d-éÓ-´úøç †÷Jçô äéπöÀ. °æô’d- É*a îª÷≤ƒh†’. àç ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çüÓ acting hand in glove with one of the can- ÆæØ√o-£æ…™‰ ¢Á·ü¿©’ °ôd-™‰ü¿’.
îª÷ü∆lç.) didates =
éÓ-´úøç Åçô÷ ïJ-TØ√ ´’† úø•sçû√ d) The doctor is close at hand. Consult him=
Vasanth: Good luck. äéπ polling Íéçvü¿ç-™E Æœ•sçC, äéπ Ŷµºu-JnûÓ
´’†èπ◊ AJ-T-®√ü¿’. éÌEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x üÌçí∫©÷ Doctor
☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
ü¿í∫_Í® ÖØ√oúø’ éπü∆. Çߪ’-†o-úø’í∫’.
3) Go hand in hand =
§ÚM-Ææ’©’ ™«©÷* °æúøôç èπÿú≈ èπ◊´’t-éπ\-ߪ÷u®Ω’. È®çúø’ N≠æ-ߪ÷©’/ Éü¿l®Ω’
Öçô’çC.) Spoken English daily
™ c) Some times the ´uèπ◊h©’ éπLÆœ Öçúøôç/ äéπ-ü∆-E-éÌ-éπöÀ ÅN-Ø√-¶µ«´
grease the palm= îËûª’©’ ûªúø-°æôç; palm= real life situations ™ police are hand in Ææç•çüµ¿ç Öçúøôç.
Å®Ω-îË®·; grease ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆ – ߪ’çvû√©’, î√™« ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ω-ùçí¬ NE-°œçîË glove with criminals a) Over eating and illness go hand in hand=
îªv鬩’ ÆæJí¬ éπC-™‰ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ê°ÊÆ °æü∆®Ωnç. hand ûÓ ´îËa ´’J-éÌEo =
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
éÌEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x §ÚMÆæ’©’ ÅAí¬ A†úøç ï•’s©÷ éπLÊÆ Öçö«®·.
Vasanth: Not all policemen or police officials
398
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† ´÷ô©’ ØË®Ω-í¬-∞¡xûÓ ™«©÷* °æúø’-
are corrupt. The amount you've lost Ñ≤ƒJ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’. (ÅAí¬ A†úøç ´©x ï•’s©’ ´≤ƒh®·
is not small
éπ*a-ûªçí¬)
b) Industry and success

Industr y and success go hand in hand
either. The
Inspector of go hand in hand =
your area is éπ%≠œ, Nïߪ’ç á°æ¤púø÷
supposed to äéπ-ü∆-EûÓ äéπöÀ
be honest. Öçö«®·. (éπ%≠œ Öçõ‰
Just give it a Nïߪ’ç ûª°æpü¿’)
try. The police station is close at Look at the following expressions 2) close/ near at hand = îË®Ω’´/ c) Communication abilities and career
hand to your place too. from the conversation above: ÆæO’°æç/ ü¿í∫_®Ω/ ÅA-ü¿-í∫_®Ω (Ææn©ç/ prospects go hand in hand =
(Åçü¿®Ω’ §ÚM-Ææ’©’, ÅCµ-é¬-®Ω’©’ ÅN-F-A- 1) Sometimes they are hand in glove Ææçü¿®Ωs¥ç/ ´uéÀh) Öçúøôç. career ™ ®√ùÀç-îªôç, communication
with thieves. ØÁj°æ¤ùuç È®çúø÷ éπLÊÆ Öçö«®·. (communi-
°æ-®Ω’-©’-鬮Ω’. ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈ †’´¤y §ÚíÌ-ô’d- a) We don't have any shops close/
èπ◊†o úø•’s ûªèπ◊\-¢Ëç-é¬ü¿’. v°æߪ’-Aoç. 2) The police station is close at hand near at hand. For everything we cation ØÁj°æ¤ùuç Öçõ‰ØË career ™ ®√ùÀç-îª-
Police station O’ ÉçöÀ-ü¿-í∫_Í® èπÿú≈†’.) to your place. have to go long distances. = í∫©ç.)
Bharath: The thief that has stolen my money 3) Cleverness and crime go hand in Ééπ\-úÕéÀ ü¿í∫_-®Ω™ shops àO’-™‰´¤. àC
seems to be an old hand at it. He left hand. M.SURESAN
鬢√-©Ø√o î√™« ü¿÷®Ωç ¢Á∞«x-LqçüË.
no traces whatever of his crime. 1) Hand in glove = îÁúø’ N≠æ-ߪ÷™x/ ØË®√™x/
Thieves must be clever fellows, as I ®Ω£æ«Ææu N≠æ-ߪ÷™x éÌçü¿®Ω’ èπ◊´’t-éπ\-´úøç. Match the words under A
can see now.
(Ø√ úø•’s üÌçT-Lç-*† üÌçí∫ î√™« ņ’-
a) We see daily reports in news papers that
engineers and contractors are hand in glove
with their meanings under B EXERCISE There is fierce competition
between the two parties.
A B (concern = worry; Grave fierce X mild/ gentle.
¶µº-´-VcúÕ™« ÖØ√oúø’. áéπ\ú≈ ûª† ØË®√-EéÀ in the irregularities in the execution of pro-
Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† í∫’®Ω’h©’ ´ü¿-©-™‰ü¿’. üÌçí∫©’ jects = ¢√®√h °ævA-éπ™x ®ÓW éπü∑¿-Ø√©’ îª÷Ææ÷hØË 1. Feeble A. oppose Åçõ‰ ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç Ææ´÷Cµ; 5-B. Desert = abandon =
î√™« ûÁL-¢Áj† ¢√∞¡Ÿxí¬ Öçö«®ΩE Ø√éÀ-°æ¤púø’ Öçö«ç– projects E®Ωy-£æ«ù™ ïJÍí Åvéπ-´÷-©™ 2. Grave B. abandon grave X light.) (á´-J-ØÁjØ√/ üˆo-®·Ø√)
ûÁ©’-≤ÚhçC.) Éç>-F®Ω’x é¬çvö«-éπd®Ω’x ᙫ èπ◊´’t-éπ\-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o®Ó. 3. Object C. accept 3-A. Object = oppose= (Ééπ\úø) °æöÀdç--éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ EÆæq-£æ…-
4. Fierce D. weak
v°æ¨¡o: -O’®Ω’
Ŷµºuç-ûª®Ωç ûÁ©-°æúøç/ ÇÍé~-°œç- ߪ’çí¬ ´C-™‰-ߪ’úøç.
a) Loving the poor is the quality of great 5. Desert E. violent The man deserted his wife
is + ing form®√E¢√öÀ™ îªúøç.
people= and children =
belong F. serious
Ê°ü¿-¢√-∞¡x†’ vÊ°N’ç-îªôç íÌ°æp-
äéπöÀ ÅE îÁ§ƒp®Ω’. They objected to my pres-
Regular Doing Actions G. confront
¢√∞¡x ©éπ~ùç.
ence at the meeting =
ÅÆæ©’ ûª† ¶µ«®Ωu†’, °œ©xLo ´C-™‰-¨»-úø-
simple present b) Hoping to get a high rank he studied well.
E ™ îÁ§ƒpL Key and explanation: ûª†’ (Cèπ◊\-™‰-E-¢√-∞¡Ÿxí¬ î˨»úø’).
c) Needing my help he came to me.
؈-éπ\úø Öçúø-ö«-EéÀ ¢√∞¡Ÿx Ŷµºuç- A deserted place = ã v°æüË-
éπü∆? Ç Nüµ¿çí¬ ‘This land 1-D. Feeble= weak =
d) Belonging to this group is an honour.
belongs to him’ - correct.
ûª®Ωç ûÁL-§ƒ®Ω’.
v°æ¨¡o:
¨»Eo Åéπ\úÕ ¢√∞¡xç-ü¿®Ω÷ ë«S-îËÆœ
•©£‘«†¢Á’i†/ F®Ω-Ææçí¬ Ö†o. They object to the way she ¢ÁRx-§ÚûË ÅC deserted place
Regular milk ‘I
She was too feeble to walk=
í¬ BÆæ’-èπ◊-ØË-¢√∞¡Ÿx
am drinking milk’ dresses =
i)
ņ-éπ\-Í®xü¿’ - ¢Ë’-´· ®Ó-W °œ-©x-©-†’ -îª-C-NÆæ’hç-ö«-´·. Ç¢Á’ •ôd©’ üµ¿JçîË Å´¤-ûª’çC.
‘ I drink milk’ The police found the room
†úø-´-™‰-†çûª •©-£‘«-†çí¬ ÖçC.
ii) -¢Ë’-´· -Ç-ô-©’ -Ç-úÕ≤ƒh-´·.
éπü∆! Åçõ‰ ÆæJ-§Ú- B®Ω’†’ ¢√∞¡Ÿx ÇÍé~-°œ-≤ƒh®Ω’.
He was old and spoke in a Object ûª®√yûª to ´Ææ’hçC. ü∆E deserted =
ûª’çC. ÉD Åô’-´ç-öÀüË éπü∆! iii) ؈’ Nü∆u-®Ω’n-©†’ Çô©’ ÇúÕç-î√†’.
Belong °æéπ\† èπÿú≈ ing form feeble voice = ûª®√yûª noun é¬F, ... ing form
iv) ؈’ Nü∆u-®Ω’n-©†’ îªC-Nç-î√†’. ÅØË
Ç í∫C E®√t-†’-≠æuçí¬ Öçúøôç
´Ææ’hçC é¬F ‘is’ ûÓ éπL-°œ-®√ü¿’. ‘check your ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
Åûª†’ ´%ü¿’l¥úø’, •©-£‘«-†-¢Á’i† é¬F ´Ææ’hçC. îª÷¨»®Ω’ §ÚM-Ææ’©’.
belongings before you leave’ Åçö«ç éπü∆! íÌçûª’ûÓ ´÷ö«x-ú≈úø’. I object to noise (noun)= Desert Åçõ‰ NCµ-E-®Ωy-£æ«ù
ï¢√•’: X strong/ robust (•©çí∫©)
– Èé.®√-´’-éπ%≠æg, §Ú≤ƒ-E-Ê°ô, ÅçüÓ©’
- O.V.Laxmi, Kanuru
ï¢√•’:
íÌúø-´çõ‰ Ø√éπ-¶µºuç-ûª®Ωç. †’ç* §ƒJ-§Ú-´úøç èπÿú≈.
2-F. Grave = serious = The policeman deserted his
1. We make the students study (everyday) I object to wasting (... ing
post of duty =
form) money =
Bv´-¢Á’i†/ í∫çHµ-®Ω-¢Á’i†.
2. We make them play
O’®Ω’ îÁ§ƒp-©-†’-èπ◊-†o-üËçö Ææp≠ædçí¬ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-úøç úø•’s ´%ü∑∆
™‰ü¿’. Belong am/ is/ are + ing form ™ ¢√úøç The consequences of your
X allow.
á´J ņ’-´’A ™‰èπ◊çú≈/ á´-
3. I have made the students play action will be very grave. =
îËߪ’úøç Ø√éπ-¶µºuç-ûª®Ωç.
ÅØË N≠æ-ߪ’-¢Ë’í¬ O’®Ωç-ô’-†oC. That certainly is 4-E. Fierce = violent =
JûÓ îÁ°æp-èπ◊çú≈ Ç §ÚMÆæ’ ¢ÁRx-
4. I made the students study.
v°æ¨¡o: ؈’ Ç °æE îË®·-≤ƒh†’ ÅØË ¢√é¬uEo English
right. Belong †’ am/ is/ are + ing form ™ F Ωu °∂æL-û√©’ î√™« Bv´çí¬ §Ú-ߪ÷úø’/ §ƒJ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’.
¢√úøç -Å-E -îÁ°æp-úøç-™ ÖüËl¨¡ç §ƒ®∏Ωèπ◊-©-†’ ÅC- Öçö«®·. üˆ®Ωb-†u-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i†/ £œ«ç≤ƒ-ߪ·-ûª-¢Á’i†. desert (´C-L-¢Ë-ߪ’ôç)x support
¢√-úø-èπ◊çú≈ îËÊÆç-ü¿’Íé. ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL? It is a matter of grave con- The Tiger is a fierce animal= desert (§ƒJ-§Ú-´úøç) x stay
 äéπ belong ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈ am/ is/ are + cern, the missing of the child desert (NCµ-E-®Ωy-£æ«ù †’ç* ¢ÁRx-
ï¢√•’:
– ñ„.Èé.-v°æ-≤ƒü˛, ïí∫_-†o-Ê°ô °æ¤L £œ«çÆœçîË ïçûª’´¤ (vèπÿ®Ω-
ing form ™ ¢√úøE verbs †’ üˆo-®·Ø√, Öûªh I will get/ have it done. á´-J-îËûª îË®·ç- = Ç Gúøf ûª°œp-§Ú-´úøç î√™« ´’%í∫ç). §Ú-´úøç) x attend.
... ing form í¬ (ü∆EéÀ ´·çü¿’, am/ is/ are îËC ûÁLÊÆh/ I will make him/ her/ Bv´-¢Á’i† ÇçüÓ-∞¡† éπL-Tç-îË- Bv´-¢Á’i† §ÚöÃE èπÿú≈ fierce desert - áú≈J ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈
™‰èπ◊çú≈) ¢√--úÌa- éπü∆? somebody do it. Cí¬ ÖçC. competition Åçö«ç. Öçü¿E ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 23 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
v°æ¨¡o: Åçö«ç. ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ written language ™ØË
1. Big, large, great – É™«çöÀ îÓôx big Å®ΩnçûÓ large ¢√-úø-û√ç.
Ñ ´‚úÕçöÀ Å®Ωnç Big, ´’†’-≠æfl-©èπ◊ ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’, ´’J-éÌEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥™ x,
äéπõ‰ éπü∆! àßË’ Ææçü¿- °ü¿l (´ßª’-Ææ’™) ¢√∞¡Ÿx, ´·êu-¢Á’i† ¢√∞¡Ÿx ÅØË Å®Ωnç
®√s¥™x Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√™ ´Ææ’hçC. He is a big man / is in a big position
ûÁ©-°æçúÕ. Åçö«ç, Åûª-úø’ î√™« v°æ´·-ê’úø’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.
2. éÀçC-¢√-é¬u-©†’ Large É™«çöÀ îÓôx ¢√úøç. A large man Åçõ‰
Ççí∫xç™ ᙫ £æ…≤ƒu-EéÀ ¶«í¬ ™«´¤í¬ Ö†o ´’E≠œ ÅØË Å®Ωnç
®√ߪ÷™ N´-Jç- ´Ææ’hçC. Big èπ◊ ´·êu-¢Á’i-†/ -ÅA ´·êu-¢Á’i† ÅØË
îªçúÕ. Å®Ωnç ÖçC. Today is the big day of her life/
Sancranthi is a big festival for the hindus. 2. i) It is the officers that ruined me/ the officers ditched
i) Ç°∂‘-ÆæÍ®x Ø√ éÌç°æ
large Large
Ééπ\úø ¢√-úøç. éÀ äÍé Å®Ωnç: °ü¿l-üÁj†. me.
-v°æ-¨¡o:
´·ç*çvúø’.
Great = Oxford advanced learner's
ii) Ææçï-ß˝’-ü¿-û˝èπ◊ ´’üµ¿uç-ûª®Ω ¶„®·™¸ üÌJ-éÀçC.
íÌ°æp. Ñ ´÷ô ã í∫’ùç™ íÌ°æp-ü¿-Ø√Eo ii) Sanjaydutt got interim bail.
A great city - size dictionary ''proverbs
™ *´-®Ω†
iii) Land struggle intensified (for that)
Ææ÷*-Ææ’hçC. Ééπ\úø †í∫®Ωç
iii) ¶µº÷§Ú®Ω’ ´’Jçûª ñ®Ω’. and sayings'' Éî√a®Ω’. Åçü¿’™
éπç-õ‰, †í∫®Ωç v§ƒ´·-êu-ûªèπ◊ v§ƒüµ∆†uç. ÅçûË-é¬- iv) What is wrong in naming projects after people of sacri-
iv) v§ƒñ„-èπ◊d-©èπ◊ û√uí∫-üµ¿-†’© Ê°®Ω’x °úÕûË ûªÊ°pçöÀ. èπ◊çú≈ ´’†ç îª÷úø-™‰E/ û√éπ-™‰E ´Ææ’h-´¤© °æJ-´÷- Íé´©ç ¢√öÀ Å®√n©’ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ûÁL-
v) ü¿’èπ◊\©’ ü¿’Ø√o®Ω’. Cèπ◊\©’ îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. fice?/ after people who have made sacrifices?
ù«EéÀ (size), great ¢√úøû√ç. She showed §ƒ®Ω’. é¬F ¢√öÀE ¢√é¬u™x ᙫ
3. ü˨¡-¶µ«-≠æèπ◊ ™‰E v§ƒüµ∆†uç Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-Èéç-ü¿’éÓ ûÁ©- v) = They have ploughed the field and
great courage = Ç¢Á’ íÌ°æp/ áèπ◊\´ ≤ƒ£æ«-≤ƒEo
ü¿’èπ◊\©’ ü¿’Ø√o®Ω’... Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√™ ûÁ©-°æ-™‰ü¿’. Ææçü¿-
are waiting for rain.
°æçúÕ. îª÷°œçC. Sita had great patience - íÌ°æp ®√s¥Eo •öÀd ¢√öÀE ¢√úø-ö«-EéÀ, °æô’d
– ߪ’ç.®Ωç-í∫ߪ’u, É©xçü¿ Ææ£æ«†ç. – É™«çöÀ îÓôx big/ large ®√´¤. 3.
î√J-vûªéπ 鬮Ω-ù«-© -´-™‰x Ççí∫x-¶µ«≠æèπ◊ v§ƒüµ∆-†uç. ü∆ü∆°æ¤ 200 à∞¡x- ≤ƒCµç-îª-ú≈-EéÀ àüÁjØ√ °æ¤Ææhéπç
ï¢√•’: í∫´’-Eç-îªç-úÕ: A large number/ a large amount §ƒô’, v°æ°æçîª Ææí∫-¶µ«-í¬Eo English -¢√-∞¡Ÿx §ƒLç-îªúøç ÅA ´·êu- Ææ÷*ç-îªçúÕ.-
1. Big, large- Ñ È®çúø÷ èπÿú≈ ´Ææ’h-´¤© °æJ-´÷- / a large quantity, etc.
é¬-®Ωùç. È®çúÓC English ¢√∞¡Ÿx America êçú≈™x (Canada ûÓ – á-™¸.-v¨»-´u, -†ç-ü∆u-©
ù«Eo (size †’) ûÁ©’-°æ¤-û√®·. °ü¿l-üÁj† ÅØË (a large amount = àüÁjØ√ °ü¿l ¢Á·ûªhç™ A big Ææ£æ…), Australia ™ ´©Ææ ¢ÁRx Æœn®Ω-°æ-úÕ-§Ú-´úøç. ´‚úÓC, Éûª®Ω ï¢√•’:
Å®ΩnçûÓ spoken English ™ large éπØ√o big amount = úø•’s ¶µ«≠æ© ´÷ô©†’ -ûª-†-Cí¬ -îËÆæ’éÓí∫-© O’®Ω’ Oxford Advanced
áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√úøû√ç. Large éÌClí¬ ví¬çC∑éπç. °ü¿l ¢Á·ûªhç™) -¨¡éÀh English ¶µ«≠æèπ◊ -Öç-úø-ôç. Ø√©’- Learner's Dictionary ™ØË Ç
íÓC science and Technology éÀ proverbs
He needs a big sized shirt./ This shirt is °j expressions Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ÅGµ-´%-Cl¥éÀ Åçû√
èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ´÷ô©
too big for him Ready made ü¿í∫_®Ω îª÷ÊÆh, ¢√öÀÀ Å®Ωnç éπE°œ-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 399 鬮Ωùç Å´-úøç.
English ´÷ö«xúË ¢√∞¡Ÿx áèπ◊\-´í¬
(Å®·ûË -ü¿’Ææ’h- ™ N’í∫-û√-¢√-öÀ™x
© companies, commercial Ads big ™ èπ◊ ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ big Ææ’hçC. A stitch in time saves
•ü¿’©’ large large size/ extra
¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’: ¢√úøç. nine - ÉC proverb éπü∆?
large size etc. É™« spoken Oxford Advanced Learner's
Dictionary stitch

He wanted to go too
English ™ Å®Ω’ü¿’.) A big ™, ´÷ôèπ◊
group/ a big company/ a big É*a† Å®√n-™x Ñ proverb èπ◊
car, etc ÅE ´Ææ’h-´¤-©èπ◊ îÁ•’û√ç. Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ÖçC, îª÷úøçúÕ. ÉçÍé
/ a big city/ country ÅE èπÿú≈ book îª÷ú≈-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.

v°æ¨¡o: 9. What about your parents? - What is about your
-v°æ-¨¡o: îËÆœ Öçö«†’ (ņ’-èπ◊†o Ææ´’-
Sir, I have some doubts of telugu ߪ’ç-™°æ¤). éÀçC-¢√-é¬u™x ¢Á·ü¿-öÀC O’ lessons ™-C. È®çúÓ parents?
translations relating to modal b) °æE- °æ‹Jh îËÆæ’ç-úË¢√úÕE é¬F ¢√éπuç -ØË-†’ 'to' †’ 'use' îËÆœ ®√¨»†’. Åéπ\úø to 10. I will send it through Ramu - I will send it by
auxiliaries. îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’. use îËߪ’-´î√a? É™«çöÀ ¢√é¬u™x to ᙫ, Ramu.
1. a) I shall have completed the work. 3. a) °æE °æ‹Jh îËߪ’-í∫-L-Íí-¢√-úÕE – ÅÆæ © ’ áéπ \ úø ¢√ú≈™ N´- J ç- î ª - í ∫ - © ®Ω ’ . – -ñ„-GÆœ, -ê-´’tç
Does she think of going home - Does
b) I should have completed the work. ÉC ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ¢√úø-éπç™ ™‰ü¿’ – 1. ï¢√•’:
M.SURESAN she think of going to home.
2. a) I will have completed the work. ÉC ¢√úøç. 1, 2, 4, 5 & 6. Home, there, here - OöÀ-´·çü¿’ to
2. I go there every sunday - I go to there
b) I would have completed the work. b) îËߪ’-í∫-LÍí ¢√úÕE é¬F îËߪ’- ®√ü¿’. Go home, go there, come here etc.
every sunday.
3. a) I can have completed the work. ™‰ü¿’. 3. He wants to talk you - He wants to talk to you - He 3. Talk to you = Talk with you (Both correct).
b) I could have completed the work. 4. a) °æE °æ‹Jh îËÊÆ-¢√-úÕ-ØË¢Á÷?(doubt) (pre- wants to talk with you (with ¢√úø-´î√a?) Without somebody / something = äéπ®Ω’ / äéπ
sent) N≠æߪ’ç ™‰èπ◊çú≈ – without ûª®√yûª of á°æ¤púø÷ ¢√úøç.
4. a) I may have completed the work. 4. He wishes to go home - He wishes to go to home.
b) °æE-°æ‹Jh îËÆæ’ç-úË-¢√-úÕ-ØË¢Á÷ (doubt-
b) I might have completed the work. 5. He is coming here tomorrow- He is coming to here 8. Grateful (éπ%-ûª-Vc-©’í¬ Öçúøôç)
past)
5. I need have completed the work. tomorrow. I am grateful to you ( ´uéÀh ´·çü¿’ to) for this
5. a) É™«çöÀ îÓôx need have + pp ¢√úøç–
6. I ought to have completed the work. 6. I am going there next week- I am going to there help (à N≠æ-ߪ÷-EéÀ Å-ØË ü∆E ´·çü¿’, for)
need not have + pp (not ûÓØË)
7. I must have completed the work - next week. I am grateful to your help ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. O’ Ææ£æ…-ߪ÷-EéÀ
¢√úøû√ç = îËÆæ’çúË Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’. é¬F
Explain the difference in Telugu. Å™«Íí éÀçC-¢√-é¬u©’ èπÿú≈ îª÷úøçúÕ. (N≠æߪ’ç) 鬕öÀd ü∆E ´·çü¿’, for ®√¢√L.
î˨»†’.
 Suggest me a good book for colloca- 7. Without him the picnic can't be fun - Without of 9. What about something? / somebody? - Ééπ\úø
6. °æE îËÆæ’çú≈LqçC (ÅC Ø√ üµ¿®Ωtç) é¬F
tions & some informal English dictionar- him the picnic can't be fun. What ûª®√yûª is ™«çöÀ verbs àO ®√´¤.
îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’.
ies & informal spoken English books. 8. I am grateful to you for your help - I am grateful to
7. °æE îËÊÆ Öçö«†’ éπ*a-ûªçí¬. 10. Send it through, correct. By - wrong.
–Èé.®√-´’-éπ%≠æg, ê´’tç your help.
(He must have forgotten it = -Å-ûªúø’
ï¢√•’: ü∆Eo ´’Ja-§ÚßË’ Öçö«úø’.)
1. a) ؈’ (future ™ äéπ Ææ´’-ߪ’ç-™°æ¤) v°æ¨¡o:
Cambridge Dictionary of collocations
Å-ûª-úø’ èπÿú≈ ¢Á∞«l-´’-†’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
1. To éÀ, Too éÀ ´’üµ¿u Ææç•çüµ¿ç, ¢√öÀE á°æ¤p-úÁ-°æ¤púø’ ★ Too = ÅA. It is too costly = ÅC Åûªuçûª üµ¿®Ω (؈’
°æE °æ‹Jh îËÆœ Öçö«†’. Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ®Ωç Ñ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™. Read novels to
b) ؈’ °æE °æ‹Jh îËߪ÷-LqçC (í∫ûªç™) improve your spoken English skills. Read
Ö°æ - ß Á ÷ - T - ≤ ƒh ® Ω ’ ? N´- J ç- î ª ç úÕ . é̆-™‰-†’/- éÌ-††’).
é¬F îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’. India Today and such other English 2. °æô ’d-ü ¿-© ûÓ é¬¢√- ©E, îËß ª ÷ -© E ÅØË °æ ü ∆- © †’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  Too... to È®çúø÷ éπL°œ É™« ¢√-úø-û√ç.
2. a) = 1 a) = ؈’ future ™ äéπ °æE-°æ‹Jh magazines. ûÁL°œ, éÌEo Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù©’ É´yçúÕ. He is too selfish to help others =
– áç.Çç-ï-ØË-ߪ·©’, Èé.Ø√-Íí-¨¡y-®Ω-®√´¤, ¢Á·©-í∫-´Lx Åûªúø’ Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-°æ-úø-†çûª ≤ƒy®Ωn-°æ-®Ω’úø’.
You are all rounder what we call
-v°æ-¨¡o: ï¢√•’: 2. °æô’d-ü¿-©ûÓ= with perseverance/ tenacity.
you Å-†-úøç éπ®Ω-ÍédØ√? 1. To èπ◊, too èπ◊ Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰-ü¿’-éπü∆? To Åçõ‰ ¢√∞¡x-èπ◊/
i) Please make them sit down- ü¿ßª’- She showed a lot of perseverance/ tenacity and
îËÆœ ¢√∞¡x†’ èπÿ®Óa-¶„-ôdçúÕ. iv) ´÷ éÓî˝ ´™‰x ÉC (prize) Ø√èπ◊ ´*açC -ä-éπ-JéÀ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ, to them, to him, to her, to finally won = Ç-¢Á’ íÌ°æp °æô’d-ü¿© éπ†-•-®Ω* ≤ƒCµç-*çC.
ņo ¢√é¬u-EéÀ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ By my coach. Ram, to Lakshman ÅE ¢√-úø-û√ç. I gave it to
ii) Ask them to sit down- ¢√∞¡x†’ èπÿ®Óa- 鬢√-©-F/- îË-ߪ÷-©F (ÖüËl-¨¡u-°æ‹-®Ωy-éπçí¬)= Intentionally/
I got it Åçõ‰ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çü∆?- Ram = ®√çèπ◊ Éî√a†’. äéπ îÓöÀéÀ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√-úø-
´’E îÁ°æpçúÕ. – °j ûÁ©’í∫’ ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ deliberately.
ÉçTx≠ˇ ¢√é¬u©’ correct Å´¤ØÓ é¬üÓ û√ç. To Hyderabad, To Nellore = £j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛èπ◊,
a) He intentionally delayed starting so that he would
– îªç-öÀ, -N-¨»-ê°æ-ôoç
ØÁ©÷x-®Ω’èπ◊ ÅE. °∂晫E time ´®Ωèπ◊ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ from
ï¢√•’: miss the train and stay at home = Train ûª°œp-§Ú®·
10 to 4 (10 †’ç* 4 ´®Ωèπ◊) ÅE Åçö«ç.
ûÁ©-°æçúÕ. ûª°æp-®·ûË ÆæÈ®j† Ææ´÷-üµ∆-Ø√©’
i) Correct. ÉçöxØË Öçú≈-©E, ÖüËl-¨¡-°æ‹-®Ωy-éπç-í¬-ØË/- é¬-¢√-©E -Å-ûª-úø’
To go, to come, to see ™«çöÀ infinitives ™, to
N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
iii) ii) You are an all rounder. What shall Ç©-Ææuçí¬ •ßª’-©’-üË-®√úø’.
äéπ Nü∆uJn î√™« ûÁL-¢Áj-†-¢√úø’. v°æB go = ¢Á∞¡x-ö«-E-éÀ/ -¢Á-∞¡xôç/ ¢Á∞¡x-ôç/ -¢Á-∞«l-´’E, – É™«
N≠æ-ߪ’ç-™†÷. Åçõ‰ all rounder ņo- we call you? b) She deliberately appeared in ordinary clothes so
¢√-úø-û√ç.
´÷ô.'†’´¤y all rounder N ¢Ë’´· iii) I got it because of my coach (by my that people might not know she was rich = Ç-¢Á’ -
★ Too = Also = èπÿú≈.
à´’E °œ©-¢√L— ņ-ú≈-EéÀ English ™ coach Ééπ\úø ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’). He wanted to go too =
Éûª -®Ω’©’ ûª†’ üµ¿E-èπ◊-®√-L-†E ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ -ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊,
鬢√-©ØË, ´÷´‚©’ -ü¿’Ææ’h-©’ ¢ËÆæ’èπ◊çC.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 25 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
you can speak English with

4 ease. (≤˘©-¶μºuçûÓ. v°æߪ’-ûªoç-
îËÆœ ´÷ö«x-úÕ-†-ô’x-é¬-èπ◊çú≈).
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 400
 î√™« lessons ™ É*a†

June 12, 2005 † v§ƒ®Ωç-¶μº-´’-®·uçC ´’† spo- 0 vocabulary (°æü¿-Ææ-´·-üΔߪ’ç/
´÷ô©’) ´’† Eûªu @N-ûªç™
ûª®Ωîª÷ ¢√úË¢Ë English ™.
0
ken English course. ÉC 400th lesson. E®Ωç- ¢√öÀE èπÿú≈ ´’®Ó-≤ƒJ îª÷úøçúÕ.
lessons
ûª-®√-ߪ’çí¬ ÉEo °æ‹Jh îËߪ’-í∫-L-T-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊  Voice (Active & Passive),
áç-ûÓ ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ÖçC. Ñ achievement èπ◊ Degrees of comparison,
´·êu-é¬-®Ωùç, §ƒ®∏Ω-èπ◊© Å°æ‹®Ωy Ææpçü¿†. Ñ Direct and Indirect speech-
course î√™« Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úÕç-ü¿F, English üμÁj®Ωuçí¬ ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o- OöÀEgrammar exercises í¬
´’E ®√Æœ† §ƒ®∏Ω-èπ◊-™„ç-ü¿®Ó! °æôdù, English medium ™ îªC-N†-¢√-∞¡⁄x, lessons ™ English pronunciation, public speak-
practise îËߪ’-éπçúÕ. Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’i-†-°æ¤púø’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥-EéÀ ûªT-†-ô’dí¬ ¢√öÀE ´·çü¿’ ´·çü¿’
°æ‹Jhí¬ ví¬O’ù ØË°æ-ü∑¿u ûÁ©’í∫’ medium ¢√--∞¡⁄x -v°æ-AÆæpç-CÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. Ñ ing
ᙫ ¢√ú≈™ ûÁL-ߪ’-°æ-Jî√ç. ¢√öÀE Å™«Íí practise îËߪ’çúÕ. O’®Ω’ èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*† N¨Ï-≥ƒ©’ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰≤ƒhç. ¢√öÀE ≤ƒüμ¿† îËߪ’çúÕ.
lessons -†’ -Éçé¬ áèπ◊\´ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æúË-™« -Åç-C≤ƒhç. Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ´*a† äéπ ®Ωéπç sentence ¢√úÕ ¢√öÀE ÉçéÓ ®Ωéπç sentence (voice,  Most important: à ¶μ«≠æ-®·Ø√ ÆæJí¬ ´÷ö«x-ú≈-©çõ‰ clarity of think-
lessons èπ◊ Ææç-•ç-Cμç-* éÌEo ´·êu-¢Á’i† Ææ÷îª-†©’: degrees, direct & indirect speech) ™éÀ ´÷Í®aç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æߪ’-Aoç-îª- ing (Ç™-îª-†™x Ææp≠ædûª) Öçõ‰,clarity of speech (´÷ô™x Ææp≠ædûª)
 v°æA lesson Ææç¶μ«-≠æù (ã conversation) ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶μº-´’-´¤-ûª’çC éπüΔ? ´ü¿’l. Situation †’•öÀd à type of sentence suitable Å´¤-ûª’çüÓ Öçô’çC. Åçü¿’-éπE Ææp≠ædçí¬ Ç™-*ç-îªúøç ØË®Ω’a-éÓçúÕ.
Ñ Ææç¶μ«-≠æ-ù†’ O’®Ω’ ´÷´‚-©’í¬ îªü¿-´ôç é¬èπ◊çú≈ spoken English üΔEo ¢√úøçúÕ.  Ñ´’üμ¿u ´Ææ’h†o vocabulary items ÅFo èπÿú≈ î√™« ≤ƒüμΔ-®Ω-ù-¢Á’i†
™ ÇÆæéÀh Ö†o ´’®Ó ´uéÀhûÓ îÁ®Ó §ƒvûªí¬ lesson ™E Ææç¶μ«-≠æ-ù†’  Get, give, take, see, put, do, talk, walk, sleep, make, hand, go, ´÷ô©’, éÌCladvanced level spoken English ´÷ô©’. ¢√öÀ Å®√n-©-
practise îËߪ’çúÕ. Ç ûª®√yûª §ƒvûª ´÷Ja ´’Sx practise îËߪ’çúÕ. find, look, come, stand, buy, bring, know, pay, mind, hot, learn, ûÓ-§ƒô’, N´-®Ωù, ¢√öÀE ¢√úÕ† sentences, ¢√öÀ pronunciation,
 Ñ 400 lessons ™E Ææç¶μ«-≠æ-ù©’ (at the beginning of each les- want, mean expressions
™«çöÀ ÅA ≤ƒüμΔ-®Ω-ù-¢Á’i† ´÷ô-©ûÓ ´îËa ´uA-Í®-鬩’ (Antonyms) ÉÆæ’hØ√oç. OöÀûÓ O’ °æü¿-Ææç-°æü¿ °ç-éÓçúÕ.
son) Eûªu @N-ûªç-™E üΔüΔ°æ¤ ÅEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥© í∫’Jç* ÖØ√o®·. Ñ spoken English lessons
î√™«-¢√-öÀE Ñ ™ ≤ÚüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ùçí¬ àßË’ (Increase your word power).
dialogues O’®Ω’ Åüμ¿u-ߪ’†ç îËߪ’úøç ´©x, °æ©-éπ-Jç°æ¤/ èπ◊¨¡-©-´’-úÕÍí practise
Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ¢√úÌîÓa ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰¨»ç éπüΔ? ¢√ô-Eoç-öÀE îËÆœ O’ É-O Ææ÷-îª-†-©’. á°æp-öÀ-™«Íí O’ ÆæçüË-£æ…©’ ®√ߪ’çúÕ. Ææ´÷-üμΔ-Ø√©’ ´≤ƒh®·,
´÷ô© ü¿í∫_-®Ω’oç*, î√™« ÆæçéÀx≠æd Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x (complex situations) conversation language simple
™ ¶μ«í∫çí¬ îËÆæ’-éÓçúÕ. Å°æ¤púË O’ v°æ¨¡o© Ææçêu ´©x é¬Ææh Ç©Ææuç 鬴a. We wish all our readers a fur-
üΔé¬ ¢√úË simple (Ææ®Ω-∞¡-¢Á’i†), natural (Ææ£æ«-ï-¢Á’i†) spoken conversational
í¬ í¬ Öçô’çC. (ví¬çC∑-éπçí¬, éπ%ûª-éπçí¬ é¬èπ◊çú≈). ther period of purposeful spoken English course.
English forms O’ English conversation ™ ¶μ«í∫-´’-´¤-û√®·. Then ´·êuçí¬ NNüμ¿ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ¢√úËexpressions practise îËߪ’çúÕ.
Chakora: Chakita is the girl who told me about a) Gandhi was the leader. He preached I met a man yesterday. He was my school-
it. (Ø√éÃ-N-≠æߪ’ç îÁ°œp† Å´÷t®· îªéÀûª) (Å´¤†’. 15000 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’© †í∫ü¿’ •£æ›- peace and non violence (Ç Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊úø’ mate. (E†o ØËØÌ-éπ-ûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’. Åûªúø’
´’A ´*açC. ûªE-°æ¤púø’ ¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ô’†o schoolmate)
Champa: She is the girl who saw it all happen. necklace Ç úø•’sûÓ é̆oüË.)
í¬çCμ. Çߪ’† ¨»çA Å£œ«çÆæ©’ ¶Cμç-î√úø’.) Ø√
So what she told you must be cor-
Chakora: (She) must be a brilliant girl. (ûÁL-¢Áj†
Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀF 'Who' ûÓ É™« éπ©-°æ-´îª’a. 2) She is a girl who you can always trust.
rect. (ïJ-TçC îª÷ÆœçC ûªØË. 鬕öÀd Ç¢Á’ Gandhi was the leader who preached (= She is a girl + you can always trust her-
peace and non violence.
correct
îÁ°œpçC í¬ØË Öçú≈L.) °œ™‰x Å®· Öçú≈L.)
Champa: Of course. She is. b) Sachin is the cricketer. He has the record
Ç Å´÷t®· †’¢Áy-°æ¤púø÷ †´’t-ü¿-T† Å´÷t®·).
Chakora: The information I had had earlier
was different.     for most runs. Å®·ûË É™«çöÀ sentences ™ who ´C-™‰-ÆœØ√
So you say
ûª°æ¤p™‰ü¿’, simpler èπÿú≈.

She is a girl who you can always tr ust
Chakita's She is a girl who you can
information is trust = She is a girl you
more reliable. can trust.
(Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ He is the leader (who)
Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-Æ œ† everyone admires.
Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç Åçü¿’èπ◊ Gμ†oçí¬ ÖçC. advanced level
é¬Ææh (Ö†o-ûª-≤ƒn®·)spo- = Sachin is the cricketer who has (admire = ÅGμ-´÷-Eç-îªúøç/ ¢Á’a-éÓ-´úøç)
ken English forms éÌEo Ñ lesson ™ the record for most runs.
3) Isn't she the girl? + Her essay got the first
Å®·ûË †’´¤y îªéÀûª É*a† Ææ´÷-î√-®Ω¢Ë’
†´’t-ü¿-Tç-ü¿ç-ö«´¤.) îª÷üΔlç. (Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ lessons ™ Ñ Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ ´’†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç prize = Isn't she the girl whose essay got the
reliable = J©-ߪ’-•’™¸ = ÇüμΔ-®Ω-°æ-úø-ü¿-T†/ †´’t-ü¿-T† forms †’ éÌçûª ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç.) È®çúø’ éπüΔ? Present day English prize? á´J (whose) ¢√u≤ƒ-E-ÈéjûË 1st prize
Champa: Yea. It is. (Do) you know she is a girl sentences †’ who, which, whose, (ÑØ√öÀ English) ™ whom
who you can always trust. (Å´¤†’. where ™«çöÀ ´÷ô-©ûÓ á™« éπ©-°æ-´îÓa üΔüΔ°æ¤ Åçûª-Jç-*-§Ú-®·ç-ü¿E, üΔE ´*açüÓ, Ç¢Á’ Ѣ˒ éπüΔ? ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’- 1st
prize ´*açC Ñ¢Á’ ¢√u≤ƒ-EÍé éπüΔ?
ÅçûË. ûª†’ †´’t-ü¿-T† Å´÷t®· ÅE Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’èπ◊çüΔç.
M.SURESAN
•ü¿’©’ èπÿú≈ Who ØË ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o-
ûÁ©’≤ƒ?) Look at the following sentences a) He is the student whose books were
´’E. îª÷úøçúÕ:
Chakora: I do, of course. But isn't she the girl from the conversation above. stolen.
The man who I met yesterday was my
whose essay got the best prize in 1) Chakita is the girl who told me about it.
schoolmate. (E†o á´-J-ØÁjûË éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√oØÓ,
Ñ Å¶«s®· °æ¤Ææh-鬙‰ á´®Ó üÌçT-Lç-î√®Ω’.
the last month's competition? (ÅC 2) She is a girl who you can always trust. b) The man whose car was lost is my friend
Åûªúø’ Ø√ schoolmate- ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’– E†o-
ûÁL-ߪ’Íéç? Ç Å´÷t®· ¢√u≤ƒ-E-Íé-í∫üΔ 3) Isn't she the girl whose essay got the best = friend =
prize in the essay competition.
؈’ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†o-ûª†’ Ø√ schoolmate. §ƒûª á´J é¬È®jûË §Ú®·çüÓ Åûªúø’ Ø√
í∫ûª ØÁ© ¢√uÆæ-®Ω- §ÚöÙx Öûªh´’ •£æ›- friend
English ™ Å®·ûË The man whom I met ...
§Ú®·† é¬®Ω’ Ø√ üË.
´’A ´*açC?) 1) Chakita is the girl. She told me about it- É™« ´’†ç who, whose, which ¢√úÕ sen-
Champa: That's right. She got a cash prize Ñ È®çúø’ sentences †÷ 'Who' ¢√úÕ Â°j† É*a† ÅE ´Ææ’hçC. ´·êuçí¬ spoken English ™
tences éπ©’-°æ-´îª’a. ÉçéÌEo NüμΔ©’ ´îËa les-
of Rs.15000/-. With it she bought sentence (1) ™™« éπ©’-°æ¤û√ç. Whom É°æ¤púø’ ™‰ü¿’.) °j sentence Ñ éÀçC
son ™.
the necklace she wears now. Chakita is the girl who told me about it. sentences †’ éπ©-°æôç ´©x ´Ææ’hçC éπüΔ?

EXERCISE Duties should accompany rights = 3-A. Dilemma = fix; (Dilemma- úÕ™„´’ Fix ÅØ√o ÅüË Å®Ωnç. ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç – 5-F. Spin = turn = T®Ω-T®Ω A®Ω-í∫úøç (ûª†
Match the words A with their £æ«èπ◊\-©-ûÓ-§ƒô’ Nüμ¿’©÷ Öçú≈L. – ™„ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç) = ÆæçCí∫l¥/ Åö í∫’îªaôç, GTç-îªôç, etc. ô÷d û√†’ A®Ω-í∫úøç. A top (¶Ôçí∫®Ωç)
meanings under B Pronunciation: Åéπç-°æE – éπç ØÌéÀ\ Éö ûÓîªE °æJ-ÆœnA. Dilemma x resolution (E®Ωgߪ’ç) spins = ¶Ôçí∫®Ωç T®Ω-T®Ω A®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC.
A B °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. We all know about Lakshmana's 4-E. Vice = wickedness = ü¿’®√t®Ω_ç/ The Earth spins around its axis =
1. Accompany A. fix Accompany x avoid (´C-™‰-ߪ’úøç) dilemma = ©éπ~ t-ù’úÕ ÆæçCí∫l¥ °æJ-Æ œnA îÁúø’/ ü¿’®Ωy u-Ææ†ç. Vices †’ áèπ◊\-´í¬ axis)
¶μº÷N’ ûª† ô÷d û√†’ (Åéπ~ç =
2. Burden B. agitate 2-C. Burden = load = •®Ω’´¤/ ¶μ«®Ωç. ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’– Whether to stay with ´uÆæ-Ø√©’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. A®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC.
3. Dilemma C. load Sita to protect her or obey her com- A man of many vices = î√™« ´uÆæ-Ø√- Spin bowling = •çA T®Ω-T®√ ûª†-ô÷d
The burden of the school bag is too
4. Vice D. go with mand to go in search of SriRama- û√†’ AJ-Ííô’x bowl îËߪ’úøç. Spin Åçõ‰
heavy for the children to carry = ©’†o ´uéÀh.
5. Spin E. wickedness Ææ÷\©’ Ææç* °œ©x©’ ¢Á÷ߪ’-™‰-†çûª Æ‘ûª-ûÓØË ÖçúÕ ÇN-úø†’ ®ΩéÀ~ç-îª-úø´÷, Drinking, gambling (Wü¿ç), sex A°æpôç èπÿú≈. Kumble spins.
F. turn •®Ω’´¤. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ÇNúø Çïc v°æ鬮Ωç ®√´·úÕ éÓÆæç ™«çöÀ-´Fo vices. Drugs èπÿú≈ vice. B. Agitate = ÇçüÓ-∞¡† îËߪ’úøç.
ANSWERS Å®·ûË burden áèπ◊\-´í¬ •®Ω’´¤, ¶«üμ¿u- ¢Á∞¡x-úø´÷? ÅE. Indulge in vice = ´uÆæ-Ø√-EéÀ ™†-´úøç/ BCs are agitating for more reserva-
The left parties are in a dilemma tions = BC reservations
1-D. Accompany= go with = ûª© ’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøû √ç. whether to support the nuclear deal
´uÆæ-Ø√© §ƒ©p-úøôç. ´®√_©’ áèπ◊\´
(äéπ-JûÓ) éπLÆœ ¢Á∞¡xúøç. He has the burden of educating his or to get out of the coalition and face He indulges in all vices = Åûª-E-éπEo éÓÆæç ÇçüÓ-∞¡† îËÆæ’h-Ø√o®·.
son and marrying off his daughter. a mid term poll = Agitate = shake.
Sita accompanied SriRama to the ´uÆæ-Ø√©÷ ÖØ√o®·.
forests = Å®Ωùu¢√≤ƒ-EéÀ Æ‘ûª X®√-´·-úÕûÓ ûª† éÌúø’èπ◊ îªü¿’´¤, èπÿûª’®Ω’ °Rx ¶«üμ¿u- ¢√´’-°æ-é¬~ © ÆæçCí∫l¥ÆœnA– Åù’ ä°æpçü¿ç N≠æ- Vice x virtue (Ææ’í∫’ùç). Be agitated = We
ÇçüÓ-∞¡† îÁçü¿úøç.
(éπLÆœ) ¢ÁRxçC. Wherever he goes she ûª© •®Ω’´¤ Çߪ’-†-éÀçé¬ ÖçC. ߪ’ç™ Congress †’ Ææ´’-Jnç-îªúø-´÷ ™‰üΔ Sita (Lord Rama's wife) was a are agitated about the increasing
accompanies him = Åûª-ØÁ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢ÁRûË He has a huge debt burden = ÆæçéîΩg熒ç* ¢ÁjüÌ-©T ´’üμ¿uç-ûª®Ω áEo-éπ-©èπ◊ woman of great virtue (Ææ’í∫’-ù-´A). number of kidnaps = Kidnaps áèπ◊\-´-
Ç¢Á’ èπÿú≈ ÅûªEûÓ (éπLÆœ) ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’çC. Çߪ’-†èπ◊ °ü¿l ®Ω’ù¶μ«®Ωç ÖçC. Æœü¿l¥-´’-´-úø´÷? ÅØË ÆæçC-í∫l¥ç™ ÖØ√o®·. Truth, honesty - É´Fo virtues. ´úøç ´©x ´’†ç ÇçüÓ-∞¡† îÁçü¿’-ûª’Ø√oç.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 27 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Pradhan: What are you reading? Pradhan: How do you find the book that you
(àç îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?) are reading now?
Pramukh: (I am reading) the book (that) you (†’Ny-°æ¤púø’ îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’†o °æ¤Ææhéπç ᙫ
gave me yesterday ÖçC?)
(E†o †’Ny*a† °æ¤Ææhéπç) Pramukh: Quite interesting.
Pradhan: Here is another book on the same (¶«í¬ØË ÖçC/ °æ‹Jhí¬ ÇÆæéÀh éπL-TçîËCí¬
subject. Read this too. ÖçC/ °æ‹Jhí¬ ÇÆæéÀh éπL-T-≤ÚhçC)
(ÅüË N≠æ-ߪ’ç-O’ü¿ ÉC ÉçéÓ °æ¤Ææhéπç. ÉC Pradhan: But our friends Prakash and Prasad
èπÿú≈ îªü¿’´¤) who read a lot of such books find it
Pramukh: Let me finish the one I am reading now. not so good.
(É°æ¤púø’ ؈’ îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’†o °æ¤Ææhéπç °æ‹Jh- (é¬F É™«çöÀ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ î√™« îªC¢Ë ´’†
îË-ߪ’F.) N’vûª’©’ v°æé¬≠ˇ, v°æ≤ƒ-ü˛©èπ◊ Åçûªí¬ †îªa- Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ ´’†ç îª÷¨»ç. É™«çöÀ *†o-*†o Å®·ûË that/ which- È®çúÕç-öÀE èπÿú≈
Pradhan: Pranav, whose book you are read- ™‰ü¿’) sentences who, which,
†’ éπL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´’†ç ´C™‰ßÁ·îª’a. ÅC best/ simple.
ing now, wants it back tomorrow. Pramukh: Yea. That reminds me. I met them that, whose, where and when ¢√úÌa. ÉC ´’†ç I have seen the movie (which/ that) you
(†’´¤y îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-†oC, v°æù¢˛ °æ¤Ææhéπç ÅC yesterday at the book shop where practise conversation
îËÆœ ¢√úø-í∫-L-TûË ´’† èπ◊ wanted me to see (that/ which omit îËߪ’ôç
Åûª†’ Í®°æ¤ 鬢√-©ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’) good second hand books are sold. les-
Éçé¬ Eçúø’-ü¿†ç ´Ææ’hçC. Å™«çöÀN ´’†ç Ñ best)= I've seen the movie you wanted me
Pramukh: I'm afraid I can't finish it so soon. (Ç. í∫’®Ìh-*açC. ´’ç* second hand son ™ îª÷ü∆lç: to see.
Couldn't you ask him to let me have books Ţ˒t Ç shop ™ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’.)
it for a few more days? Look at the following sentences from the 3) You are reading Pranav's book. He wants
Pradhan: When exactly did you meet them? conversation above: it back- OöÀE éπ©’-°æ¤ü∆ç–
Pramukh: Just at the time when you left me for
(Åçûª ûªy®Ωí¬ ØˆC °æ‹Jh-îË-ߪ’-™‰ØË¢Á÷.
1) I am reading the book that you gave me yes- †’´¤y v°æù¢˛ °æ¤Ææhéπç îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o´¤. ü∆†o-ûª†’
home
ÉçéÌEo ®ÓV©’ Ç °æ¤Ææhé¬Eo Öç-éÓ-E-
´’tE Åúø-í∫¢√?) terday. 鬢√-©ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’- whose ¢√úøü∆ç.
(Correct 2) Let me finish the one I am reading now. Pranav whose book you are reading wants
Pradhan: The time for which he would let me
í¬ †’´¤y Ø√ ü¿í∫_-®Ω-†’ç* ÉçöÀéÀ
have it was four days. The days that ¢ÁRx-§Ú-®·-†-°æ¤púø’.) 3) Pranav whose book it back.
have passed are already six. It Pradhan: I see. you are reading now a) Parasurama's guru was Siva.
won't look nice to ask him for some ( Å™«í¬) wants it back. Parasurama could not bear Rama break-
more time. Any way I'll try. He may 4) The time for which ing Siva's bow.
not mind it. 




-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 401 he lent me this book whose (á´-J-üÁjûË) ûÓ éπ©’-°æ¤ü∆ç:
(Åûª†’ ††’oç--éÓ-´’-†oC Ø√©’í∫’ was four days. Parasurama whose
®ÓV™‰. Å°æ¤púË guru was Siva could

I studied at that college ..
Ç®Ω’-®Ó-V-™„j-§Ú- not bear Rama break-
ߪ÷®·. ´’Sx ing his bow.
Éçé¬Ææh time
bow= üµ¿†’Ææ’q– ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆?
Åúø-í∫úøç Åçûª
¶«í∫’ç-úøü¿’. 4) The time for which
he lent me this book
5) The days that have passed are
Å®·Ø√ v°æߪ’- éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ È®çúø’ sentences was four days= He lent me this book + The
six.
Ao≤ƒh. Åûª-ØË-´’-†’-éÓ-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a.) éπL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Who, whose, which, that, time was four days.
Pramukh: Is the book that you have better
™«çöÀ ´÷ô©’ ᙫ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø-û√ßÁ÷ 6) It is for the person who reads it to 5) The days that have passed are six= Days
than this?
îª÷¨»ç. ÉC é¬Ææh advanced stage of decide. have passed. They are six.
conversational aspect. Åçõ‰ éÌçîÁç
(F ü¿í∫_-®Ω’†o °æ¤Ææhéπç DE-éπçõ‰ ¶«í∫’çü∆?) 7) I met them at the book where 6) It is for the person who reads it to decide
Pradhan: It is for the person who reads it to
°j≤ƒn-®·éÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*çC. ´’†ç Ææ綵«-≠œç- good second hand books are it= It is for the person to decide it. Which per-
decide. In these matters everyone
has their opinions.
îË-ô-°æ¤púø’ spoken English ™ á°æ¤púø÷ sold. son- the one who reads it.
*†o-*†o sentences ¢√úø’ûª÷ äéπ M.SURESAN 1) I am reading the book= 7) I met them at the book shop + Good sec-
(îªC-¢Ë-¢√∞¡Ÿx E®Ωg-®·ç--éÓ-¢√-Lq† N≠æߪ’ç N≠æߪ’ç îÁ°æp™‰ç éπü∆? Å™« îÁ°œpØ√ àüÓ ØËØ√ °æ¤Ææhéπç îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’Ø√o. ond hand books are sold= I met them at
ÅC. É™«çöÀ N≠æ-ߪ÷™x á´J ÅGµ-v§ƒ- *†o °œ©x©’ ´÷ö«x-úÕ-†-ô’xç-ô’ç-üË-é¬E, Åçûª °æJ-°æ-éπyûª à °æ¤Ææhéπç? - That you gave me yesterday. the book shop where good second hand
ߪ÷©’ ¢√∞¡x¢Ë.) Ö†o-ô’dç-úøü¿’. †’´¤y E†o É*a† °æ¤Ææhéπç. Ééπ\úø That èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ books are sold.
Pramukh: I do agree with you there. Tastes dif-
Sunil was here yesterday. He is my class- which ¢√úÌa. 8) I studied at that college + You are talking
fer as rivers differ.
mate. É™« ņúøç™ ûª°æ¤p-™‰ü¿’. Å®·ûËspoken lan- 2) Let me finish the book (that) you gave me about it= You are talking about the college
(†’´¤y îÁ°œpçC ؈’ ä°æ¤p-éÌç-ö«†’. guage ™ É™«çöÀ *†o sentences †’ äéπ-öÀí¬ where (in which) I studied =
†ü¿’© F∞¡x™«Íí ´’†’-≠æfl© ÅGµ-®Ω’-©÷ yesterday– ÉC-èπÿú≈ °j sentence ™«Íí È®çúø’ †’´¤y ´÷ö«x-úø’-
college
sentences éπLÊ° Nüµ¿ç.
ûËú≈í¬ Öçö«®·.) éπL°œ ´÷ö«x-úÕûË Éçé¬ ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC, É™«... ûª’-†oC ؈’ îªü¿’-´¤-èπ◊†o í∫’JçîË.
tastes differ as rivers differ- (≤ƒ¢Á’ûª) =
Sunil who was here yesterday is my classmate. É™«çöÀ sentences ™ that é¬F which é¬F É™« È®çúø’ sentences †’ éπ©-°æôç ¶«í¬ practise
™éÓ-Gµ-†o-®Ω’*”/ °æ¤vÈ®-éÓ-•’Cl¥, >£æ«y-éÓ-®Ω’*. (E†o Ééπ\úø Ö†o sunil Ø√ classmate) ¢√úÌa. ®√†’-®√†’ that áèπ◊\´ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. îËߪ’çúÕ.

EXERCISE ≤ÚE-ߪ÷-í¬çDµ Ææ£æ… congress ÅCµ- Congress ™ YSR î√™« ÅCµ-é¬- 5-B. Lease= Rent. D®Ω`-é¬-Léπ ÅüÁl v°æ¨¡o: 1. Your invitation has
≥ƒe-†-´-®√_Eo v°æ¶µ«-Nûªç îËߪ’-í∫© Ææû√h ®√Eo «-®·-≤ƒhúø’. (¶µº÷´·©’, ¶µº´-Ø√-™«xçöÀ ¢√öÀE been rather at a short
Match the words under A with YSR èπ◊ ÖçC. unwieldy X manageable áèπ◊\´ 鬙«-EéÀ ÅüÁl-éÀ-´yúøç/ notice.
their meanings under B 2-D. Wield= Handle (verb)= (1) 2. I would rather they all
3-A. Hardware= Metal ware= Åçü¿’´©x ´îËa ÅüÁl/ ¶«úø’í∫/ éÀ®√®·)
A B (àüÁjØ√ ´Ææ’h-´¤†’) ´’† Åü¿’-°æ¤™ a) He leased out his site to the would.
Ééπ\úø rather èπ◊
Ɇ’-´·-™«çöÀ ™£æ…-©ûÓ ûªßª÷-®Ω-®·†
1. Clout A Metal ware Öç-éÓ-í∫-©-í∫úøç. ´Ææ’h-´¤©’, °æE-´·ô’x, °æJ-éπ-®√©’– factory= factory
ûª† Ææn™«Eo éÀ Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ?
2. Wield B Rent A Boy of ten years cannot wield ´·êuçí¬ í∫%£æ«-E-®√t-ù«-EéÀ, ߪ’çvûª-≤ƒ- ÅüÁl-éÀ-î√aúø’. 3. Presume ᙫ Öîªa-Jç-î√L?
3. Hardware C Slow a motor cycle= °æüË∞¡x èπ◊v®√úø’ b) The lease is for a period of ten

ï¢√•’: 1) Rather= é¬Ææh/- éÌçîÁç áèπ◊\-´/
´’-vTéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ´Ææ’h-´¤©’. – G.¨»-®Ωü¿, à©÷®Ω’
4. Reign D Handle motor cycle †’ Åü¿’-°æ¤™ Öç- ware= ´Ææ’h´¤/ ´Ææ’h-´¤©’. years= ÅüÁl-é¬©ç °æüË∞¡Ÿx.
handle c) He gets a lease of Rs. 10000 a
5. Lease E Rule éÓ™‰úø’/ îËߪ’-™‰úø’ (Ç (2) Computer ™E ߪ’çvûª elec-
month= (-´’-†èπ◊ É•sçC éπ-L-Tç-îËç-ûª/ -´’-†-éÀ-≠dçæ -™‰-†çûª)
tronic ¶µ«í¬©’. (X software =
F Power ¶µ«®√Eo ¢Á÷Æœ, ü∆Eo Åü¿’-°æ¤™éÀ ØÁ©èπ◊ °æC¢Ë© ÅüÁl.
ûÁa-èπ◊ØË ¨¡éÀh Åûª-EéÀ Öçúøü¿’)= A lease= Your invitation has been rather at a short
Computer †’ ¢√úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-
éı©’ (§Ò™«Eo éı©’-éÀ-´yúøç).
G split notice=
bike is unwieldy for a ten year- lease holder=
KEY: 1-F. Clout= Power= TçîË programs, etc.) tenant.
ÅüÁl-èπ◊-†o-¢√®Ω’/ O’ °œ©’-°æ¤-†èπ◊ ¢Ë’ç ÆæpçCç-îª-ö«-EéÀ ´u´Cµ
old boy.
Ææû√h éı©’-ü∆®Ω’= é¬Ææh ûªèπ◊\´= ´’´’tLo O’®Ω’ °œL-*† Ææçü¿-®√s¥-EéÀ,
4-E. Reign= Rule.
(¨¡éÀh, °æ©’-èπ◊-•úÕ– ´·êuçí¬ ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ÷- The teacher found the class A second lease of life= ¢Ë’ç ûª-ߪ÷È®j ®√´-ú≈-EéÀ time ÆæJ-§Ú-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a.
™x†÷, ¶«í¬ úø•’sç-úøôç ´©x ´îËa Reign- (pronunciation- È®®·Ø˛)=
unwieldy because it had about a ´’®Ω-ù«ç-ûªéπ v°æ´÷ü¿ç †’ç* •ßª’-ô-°æ- 2) I would rather= I'd rather- Ééπ\úø rather
¨¡éÃh, °æ©’-èπ◊-•úŒ). hundred students= ´çü¿´’çC §ƒ©†/ §ƒ©-Ø√-鬩ç. úøôç/ éÓ©’-éÓ-´úøç.
Kumar has the clout to get the
Åçõ‰ éÓ®Ω’-éÓ--´-úøç= äéπ-ü∆-E-éπç-õ‰ ÉçéÓ-ü∆Eo
class
Nü∆u-®Ω’n-©’†o Ç con-
Çߪ’† Srikrishnadevaraya's reign is He narrowly escaped death=
contract= contract
áèπ◊\´ É≠æd-°æ-úøôç.
§Òçü¿-í∫© ¨¡éÀh trol known for its peace and pros- vûª’öÀ™ î√´¤ ûª°œpç--èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
(influence)
îËߪ’-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. I'd rather have coffee than tea=
(Ææû√h), °æ©’-èπ◊-•úÕ perity= He has a second lease of life=
(2) YSR wields a lot of clout in
Xéπ%-≠æg-üË-´-®√-ߪ’© §ƒ©†
èπ◊´÷-®˝-èπ◊-Ø√o®·. ؈’ tea éπç-õ‰ coffee
E áèπ◊\´ É≠æd°æ-úø-û√-†’.
congress ¨»çA, ≤˘¶µ«-í¬u-©èπ◊ Ê°®Ìç-CçC. ´’Sx ï†t áAh-†õ‰x.
YSR's opinions carry a lot of During the reign of Congress = G. Split= <©úøç. 3) Presume- pronunciation- v°œ'Wu¢˛’– 'Wu—
clout with congress high com-
(Ééπ\úø wield= ÅCµ-é¬-®Ωç-™«çöÀN The party split in two= Party size
Congress §ƒ©-†™. ™ ï ™«. 'Wu— ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç.
mand including Sonia Gandhi= (split- split- split).
«-®·ç-îªúøç)= È®çúø’í¬ <LçC.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 30 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Q: Kindly clarify about the idiomatic agree + infinitive (Agree to go; Agree
usage of the verb 'agree'. We to pay, etc)
say, a) We agree with you, b) 3) Agree= (Éûª-®Ω’-©ûÓ) äéπ ÅçU-é¬-®√-EéÀ
We agree to your proposal, c)
We agree on the dates fixed.
®√´úøç (éÌçûª Ωa ûª®√yûª).
We do not have a clear idea We agreed on the 29th as the date
about the context in which these of the meeting =
form of the idiom should be used. Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ç 29´ ûËCí¬ E®Ωg-®·ç--èπ◊Ø√oç/
- S. Sivaprasad, Machilipatnam
A:
äéπ ÅçU-é¬-®√-EéÀ ´î√aç.
Agree ûª®√yûª ´îËa preposition,
4) If two or more reports about an incident are
ü∆E Å®√n© ûËú≈†’ •öÀd Öçô’çC.
1) Agree= àéÃ-¶µº-Nç-îªúøç/ àé¬-Gµ-v§ƒßª’ç Öçúøôç.
the same, they agree with each/ one another Q: 1) Dictionary - Thesaurus ûËú≈ àN’öÀ? Naxals/ Maoists conduct recce (reconnais-
Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ Å®·ûË Agree with somebody. = äéπ-ü∆-EûÓ äéπöÀ ÆæJ-§Ú-´úøç 2) I came to read ' Ææ*-¢√-©-ߪ’ç™ †éπq™¸q È®éÃ\— . sance) about their targets (¢√∞¡Ÿx ©éπ~uçí¬ áç-
He agreed with me about the need to hold a) The information I received does not agree What is È®éÃ\? ü∆E spelling àN’öÀ? èπ◊†o ´’†’-≠æfl© í∫’Jç*)
a meeting = Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ç Å´-Ææ-®Ω-´’ØË N≠æߪ’ç™ with your report of it = 3) 'I take privilege' - privilege usage ûÁ©’-°æ- 3) 'Privilege' in sentences like, "I feel it a privi-
Åûªúø’ Ø√ûÓ àéÃ-¶µº-Nç- Ø√èπ◊ ´*a† Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç, †’Ny- í∫-©®Ω’. lege .../ I have the privilege .../ I
î√úø’/ ÅûªúÕ, Ø√ ÅGµ- idiomatic usage Ææ’h†o report äéπöÀí¬ ™‰ü¿’. 4) I have read in the funeral & cremation take it (as) a privilege ...". (we
b) His story agrees with what don't say, I take the privilege ...)
v§ƒßª’ç äéπõ‰. Hindu "36 foot
(Agree + with people) the police have said = something of which you feel
Ganesh idol". We have to use feet. But
2) Agree = ÅûªúÕ éπü∑¿, police ©’ É*a† Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç äéπ- proud and lucky (´’†ç í∫®Ωyçí¬, Åü¿%-≠dçæ í¬ ¶µ«Nç-
ä°æ¤p-éÓ-´úøç/ ÅçU-éπ-Jç-îªúøç, ´·êuçí¬ here foot is used, why? privilege)
îË-üË-üÁjØ√
öÀí¬ØË ÖçC.
5) Difference between funeral & cremation.
äéπ N≠æߪ’ç ´’†-éÀ-≠dçæ -™‰-†-°æ¤púø’, ÅC ´’†èπ◊
¢Á·ü¿ô †îªa-†-°æ¤púø’, Agree to something. 5) Agree with something = äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo Ç¢Á÷- 4) 36 foot Ganesa idol is correct. We say, "The
6) Difference between cool & cold. idol is 36 feet tall" or "It is a 36 foot tall idol".
a) The management agreed to the post- Cç-îªúøç/ Ææ´’tAç-îªúøç.
a) Do you agree 7) Difference He is six feet tall= He is a six foot tall man.
ponement of its decision = ûª† E®Ωg-ߪ÷Eo
with death pun- between That is the accepted usage.
¢√®·ü∆ ¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ߪ÷ï-´÷†uç ÅçU-éπ-
Jç-*çC. (Agree to + an idea/ proposal) ishment = †’´¤y marriage & 5) A funeral is the religious ceremony or cere-
wedding. monies performed at the death of a person.
b) The management may not agree to a
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 402
´’®Ω-ù-P-éπ~†’ Ç¢Á÷-
Cremation is the burning of a dead body as
reduction in the hours of work = °æE C-≤ƒh¢√? - P. Sreenivasarao,
different from burial which means laying the
í∫çô©’ ûªT_ç-îª-ú≈-EéÀ ߪ÷ï-´÷†uç Pithapuram
body underground.
ÅçU-éπ-Jçîªéπ§Ú-´îª’a.

He agr eed with me
6) Cool- comfortable- anything cool gives
c) After some argument, he agreed
us comfort and is pleasant. 'Cold'
to pay what I had wanted =
makes us feel uncomfortable. Cool
éÌçûª ¢√ü¿ç ûª®√yûª ؈-úÕ-T-†çûª îÁLxç- water is what we like to drink, where
îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ÅçU-éπ-Jç-î√úø’. as cold water is not pleasant to drink.
A: 1) A dictionary gives the definitions, mean- Cool = cold =
Q:
xE, îªLí¬ Ö†o/ x-•-úÕ-
1. Principal verb í¬ be forms (am, is, are, îª÷≤ƒhúø’/ éπ©’-≤ƒhúø’, (The coffee has gone cold, I
ings, and explanations of words. A the- §Ú-®·†.
was, were) á´-JE? Ans: me. can't drink it)
saurus gives lists of synonyms without
©†’ áEo Nüµ∆-©’í¬ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-
´îª’a? 鬕öÀd see transitive detailed explanation. 7) Marriage is the union of a man and a woman
2. Transitive, Intransitive verbs (object Ö†o) verb.
í∫’Jç* N´- 2) ÉC ´’ç* question. British English, Recce resulting in their living together as a husband
JçîªçúÕ. and wife. Wedding is the religious ceremony
intransitive verbs
(JÈé) ûÁ©’-í∫’™ È®éÀ\ ÅE ¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’.
3. Ø√èπ◊ ÉçTx≠ˇ ÆæJí¬ ®√ü¿’– Ñ Reconnaissance (Jé¬EÆˇØ˛Æˇ– é¬ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’- at which a man and a woman marry each
¢√é¬uEo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ M.SURESAN èπ◊û√ç) èπ◊ British short form Recce, other. Marriage is also their legal relationship.
Intransitive verb- He married her is more common than he wed-
îÁ§ƒpL? American English, Recon. OöÀéÀ Å®Ωnç ¨¡vûª’´¤
- P. Sivanagaraju, Musunuru object verb.
™‰E Åçõ‰ á´-JE? üËEE ÅE v°æ¨¡o ded her. Wedded the meaning of married is
answer verb.
≤ƒn´-®√©’, ¨¡éÀh ≤ƒ´’-®√n u©’, éπü¿-L-éπ-©èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-
A: 1) Principal verb †’ Å®√nEo •öÀd, time of ¢ËÊÆh ®√E *† Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç ÊÆéπ-Jç-îªúøç, ü∆úÕ-îËÊÆ ÖüËl-¨¡çûÓ. out dated.
action (Tense) †’•öÀd áEo®Ωé¬-©’-í¬-ØÁjØ√ ¢√úÌa) go there every day. Verb- go = ¢Á∞¡xúøç– á´®Ω’
2) Transitive verb Åçõ‰, object Ö†o verb. ¢Á∞¡xúøç?/ üËEéÀ ¢Á∞¡xúøç?Answer ®√ü¿’ éπü∆? Q: 1) Ææçߪ·-éπhçí¬, §ƒúÕ-°æ-J-v¨¡´’, ÅA-¨¡-ßÁ÷éÀh– Ñ Invention- àüÁjØ√ éÌûªhí¬ Ææ%≠œdç-îªúøç.
á´-JE? üËEE? ÅØË v°æ¨¡oèπ◊ Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç ´îËa Åçü¿’-éπE go, intransitive verb. °æü∆-©èπ◊ ÉçTx≠ˇ ´÷ô-™‰-N’öÀ? Computer, TV, cell phone- É´Fo Inventions
verb. He sees me every day. Verb- sees= 3) I don't know English well./ I am not good at
2) éÀçC ´÷ô-©èπ◊ ûËú≈©’ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. -
™‰E ¢√öÀE Ææ%≠œdç-îªúøç.
English/ poor at English.
Climate - Weather Test- Examination Discovery- Ö†o ü∆EE éπ†’éÓ\´úøç, ¢Á·ü¿-öÀ-≤ƒ-
Q: éÀçC simple, complex and compound sen- A: O’®Ω’7 sets of simple, complex and com- Invention - Discovery Anthem - Song Jí¬ îª÷úøôç, Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç.
tences ûÁ©’í∫’ Å®√n©’ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’çúÕ. pound sentences set
®√¨»®Ω’. v°æA ™†÷ Elementary - Primary Anthem- Uûªç– äéπ ü˨»-EéÃ, ñ«AéÃ, ã ÆæçÆæ \%-AéÀ
1. In spite of his poverty, he is honest. (simple) Åçü¿’™ ÖçúË simple, compound, complex 3) Date of birth †’ îÁçC† v°æï-©èπÿ
Though he is poor, he is honest. (complex)
He is poor, but he is honest. (compound)
sentences
´îËaphrase
© Å®√n©’ äéπõ‰ éπü∆. Å®·ûË ¢√öÀ™x
conjunctions
©’, ©÷ ûËú≈ Ŵa.
Christian era ™ ᙫ
®√ߪ÷L?
Jointly/ together v°æ û Ë u éπ v§ƒ´·êuç
Ö†o §ƒô, v°æûËuéπ
2. Owing to illness, he was absent. 4) W.e.f. °æ‹Jh ®Ω÷°æç àN’öÀ?
é¬E Å®Ωnç äéπõ‰. Ææçü¿-®√s¥™ x ´÷vûªç
As he was ill, he was absent. 5) °Rx ®ÓV†, JÂÆ-°æ{Ø˛ ®ÓV† ´üµ¿÷-´-®Ω’-©†’
§ƒúËC. 'ï†-í∫-ù-´’†— ´’† ñ«Bߪ’ Uûªç–
national anthem (National song ņç).
He was ill and so he was absent.
3. Incase of working hard, you will pass.
simple, complex, compound ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ à´’E ÅGµ-†ç-Cç-î√L?
- Challa Devadas, Vemulapadu
Song Åçõ‰ à §ƒõ„jØ√.
Elementary- v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº-ü¿-¨¡™  ÖØ√o (´·êuçí¬
If you work hard, you will pass. A: 1) Ææçߪ·-éπhçí¬ = Jointly/ together
You must work hard, and then you will pass. Set 1: 1) In spite of = Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéà = 2) though = Nü¿u)elementary questions - ´’¯L-éπ-¢Á’i† –
= 3) but =
§ƒúÕ-°æ-J-v¨¡´’ =Dairy industry
4. Incase of not working hard, you will fail. Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéà Ů·ûË/ é¬F. ¢Á·ôd-¢Á·-ü¿öÀ.
ÅA-¨¡-ßÁ÷éÀh= Exaggeration Primary- v§ƒü∑¿-N’-éπ-¢Á’i†/ ´·êu-¢Á’i† Nü¿u N≠æ-
Unless you work hard, you will fail. Set 2: 4) Owing to = Åçü¿’-´©x = 5) As = áçü¿’-´-©x-
2) Climate = äéπ v°æüË-¨¡°æ¤ Ææç´-ûªq-®Ω°æ¤ Ææí∫ô’ QûÓ- ߪ’ç™ Elementary education (American) =
You must work hard otherwise you will fail. †çõ‰ = 6) and so.
5. He came in order to talk to me.
≠æg-ÆœnA (áçúø, ¢√†, îªL, ûË´’, °æJ-ÆœnA– Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç Primary education (British) = education for
Set 3: 7) In case of = Ç °æJ-Æ œn-A™ = 8) If =Å™« §Òúø-´¤Ø√) people from 5 years to 11 years old.
He came, so that he could talk to me. Å®·ûË = 9) and then = Å®·-†-°æ¤púø’ Weather- v°æüË-¨¡°æ¤ äéπ-®ÓV QûÓ-≠æg-Æ œnA. This is of primary importance = ÅA ´·êu-
He came and talked to me. Set 4: 10) In case of = 11) unless = Å®·ûË ûª°æp Test, Exam Åçûª °ü¿lD, ´·êu-¢Á’içD é¬ü¿’.
6. Soon after his arrival we left.
¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç.
= 12) Otherwise = ™‰éπ-§ÚûË Test äéÓ\-≤ƒJ exam èπ◊ •ü¿’-©’í¬ í¬F, exam 3) ´’†ç É°æ¤púø’ ®√Ææ’h-†oüË Christian Era. äéπJ
As soon as he come, we left.
Set 5: 13) in order to = Åçü¿’èπ◊ = 14) so that = èπ◊ Åü¿-†çí¬ í¬F E®Ωy-£œ«çîË °æKéπ~. Åçûª-éπçõ‰ date 12'3'1987 Å®·ûË ÅC Christian Era.
He came and at once we left.
Åçü¿’-éÓÆæç = 15) and = Åçü¿’èπ◊ ûÓúø’. ´·êu-¢Á’i† ûËú≈. äéπ Nü∆u-®Ω|ûª qualification É°æ¤úø’ ´’†ç Ö†oC 2007 Christian Era™ØË.
7. On seeing/ having seen the police, the thief
ran away.
Set 6: 16) soon after = ¢ÁçôØË Ç ûª®√yûª = 17) as §Òçü¿-ú≈-EéÀ ®√ߪ÷LqçC, exam ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬F, 4) With effect from- àüÁjØ√ Å´’™xéÀ ´îËa û√Kê’/
soon as = 18) at once = ¢ÁçôØË test é¬ü¿’. Modern English ™ examination èπ◊
When the thief saw the police, he ran ØÁ©/ Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç
away. Set 7: 19) on seeing = having seen = îª÷úøôç •ü¿’©’ exam ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. examination î√™« 5) i) Wish you a long and happy married life.
The thief saw the police and he ran away. ´©x = 20) when = Å°æ¤púø’ = 21) and = ´’Sx. ví¬çC∑éπç. É°æ¤púø’ Åçûª ¢√úø’-éπ™ ™‰ü¿’, India ™ ii) May yours be a long and happy married
- A. Sudhakar, Bhiknoor
ûª°æp. life.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 1 -ï-†-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Sugandhi: (Do) you remember Sunayana? Look at the following pairs of sentences
She brought me a dress from from the conversation above.
Singapore. (°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù-™E éÀçC ¢√é¬u© ïûª-©†’ îª÷úøçúÕ.)
(Ææ’†-ߪ’† í∫’®Ω’hçü∆? ûª†’ Ø√èπ◊ Æœçí∫- 1) (Do) you remember sunayana? She brought
°æ‹®˝ †’ç* dress ûÁ*açC.) me a dress from Singapore.
Supushpa: (Do) you mean your childhood 2) (DO) you mean your childhood friend? She
friend? She lives in Kolkota. Isn't lives in Kolkota.
that the one? 3) The lecturer has given me an assignment. I
(†’´y-ØËC F *†o-Ø√öÀ ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’®√LE have to complete it tomorrow.
í∫’Jç* éπü∆? ûª†’ éÓ™¸-éπ-û√™ 4) You are a lucky girl. Your lecturer gives easy
Öçô’çC Ǣ˒ éπü∆?) assignments.
Sugandhi: Yes. That she is. She is coming 5) Last night you went to a movie. How was it? assignments ÉÆæ’hçüÓ, ¢√∞¡Ÿ} O’Í®/ ÅC †’¢Ëy – Å™«Íí The grocery from which we buy our pro-
home to tea with me. How about 6) He has directed four movies so far. They ÉC ÅÆæ-£æ«-ï-¢Á’i† ûÁ©’í∫’– ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ´’†ç visions is shut = The grocery which we buy our
joining us? have all been crowd pullers. ÅØËC Ææ’©-¶µº-¢Á’i† assignments ÉîËa lecturer provisions from is shut = The grocery we buy
(Å´¤†’. ûªØË ÅC. ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ öÃéÀ 7) You are giving tea to Sunayana. You have to Ö†o Åü¿%-≠d-´æ ç-ûª’-®√-LN †’´¤y) our provisions from is shut.
´≤ÚhçC. †’´¤y èπÿú≈ ®√èπÿ-úøü∆?) make arrangements for it. a) He is the lucky guy. His essay got the first grocery = éÀ®√ù« éÌô’d ; provisions = éÀ®√ù« Ææ®Ω-
Supushpa: I'm afraid I can't. The lecturer has Ñ sentence pairs (¢√é¬u© ïûª©) †’ äéπ-öÀí¬ prize=
given me an assignment. I have to
Åûªúø’ Åü¿%-≠d-´æ ç-ûª’úø’. ÅûªúÕ ¢√u≤ƒ-EéÀ
he is the lucky guy
èπ◊©’, °æ°æ¤p©’, *çûª-°æçúø’ etc.
éπ©°æ-ú≈-EéÀ v°æߪ’-Aoü∆lç: îª÷úøçúÕ: ¢Á·ü¿öÀ •£æ›-´’A ´*açC =
complete it by tomorrow. 1) (Do) you remember Sunayana. She brought whose essay got the first prize = á´J ¢√u≤ƒ- Ééπ\úø ´’†ç îª÷ú≈-LqçC, buy ûª®√yûª shop ´·çü¿’
(؈’ ®√™‰†’, sorry. ´’† lecturer Ø√éÓ me a dress from Singapore = (D0) you E-ÈéjûË ¢Á·ü¿öÀ •£æ›-´’A ´*açüÓ ÅûªúË Éûªúø’. ´îËa preposition 'from' áéπ\ú≈ ´ü¿©ç ÅE (DEo
assignment É*açC. ؈’ ü∆Eo Í®°æ-öÀ- remember Sunayana Who brought me a ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’ – ûª† ¢√u≤ƒ-EéÀ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ •£æ›- í∫’Jç*) next lesson ™ áèπ◊\-´í¬ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç.)
™-°æ© °æ‹Jh îËߪ÷L.) dress from Singapore. ´’A §ÒçC†ûªúø’ Éûªúø’. 6) He has directed four movies so far. They
Sugandhi: My lecturer gave me an assign- (Who ¢√úÕ È®çúÕç-öÀF b) He is a great actor. His films are all popular have all been crowd pullers
ment as well. But I finished it yes- éπL§ƒç éπü∆?) = Åûªúø’ íÌ°æp †ô’úø’, Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀF É™« éπ©-§Òa éπü∆?
terday itself. 2) (Do) you mean your ÅûªúÕ ÆœE-´÷-©Fo v°æñ«-ü¿- He has directed four movies so far all of which
lecturer
Ø√èπÿ É*açC assign- childhood friend? ®Ωù éπ©N. Whose ûÓ have been crowd pullers.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
(´÷ ÉüË Å®Ωnç ´îËaô’d, É™«
ment. Å®·ûË ØˆC E†oØË îËÊÆ-¨»†’.) join îËü∆lç.
She lives in Kolkota = 403 which
èπÿú≈ éπ©-°æ-´îª’a, ¢√úø-èπ◊çú≈
Supushpa: You are a lucky girl. Your lecturer Do you mean your He is a great actor
The four movies he has
gives easy
directed so far have all
assign-

A doctor who specialises in hear t diseases
been crowd pullers. [The
ments.
four movies (which) he
(†’´¤y Åü¿%-≠d-æ has directed so far have
´ç-ûª’-®√-LN.
all been crowd pullers.]
O’ lecturer
childhood friend who lives in whose films are all a) He has copied his answer from a book. It is
ÅFo Ææ’©-¶µº-¢Á’i† assignments
Kolkota? popular. here = answer
Åûªúø’ ûª† †’ Ñ °æ¤Ææhéπç †’ç*
ÉÆæ’hçC.)
5) Last night you went to a movie. copy join
Sugandhi: Last night you went to a movie. (éÓ™¸-éπ-û√™ Ö†o F *†o-Ø√öÀ ØË≤ƒhEo î˨»úø’. ÅC-éπ\-úø’çC. Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀF
How was it? =
How was it? (E†o ®√vA ÆœE-´÷-Èé-∞«x´¤. í∫’Jç-îËØ√ †’´y-ØËC?) E†o ®√vA ÆœE-´÷-Èé- îËÊÆh,
This is how we use 'Who' to join ∞«}´¤. ᙫ ÖçC? Let's join these The book from which he has copied his
ᙫ ÖçC?)
two sentences. Some more two sentences. sentences
Ñ †’ answer is here = The book he has copied his
Supushpa: You certainly missed it. It was real-
examples. È®çúø’ Nüµ∆-©’í¬ éπ©-§Òa. answer from is here (Which
ly interesting. I went with two of my
™‰èπ◊çú≈).
a) My friend took me to a doctor. He M.SURESAN i) How was the movie to which you b) He kept his books in this bag. It is lying here
cousins. They really liked it.
specialises in heart diseases = My friend went last night? (Åûªúø’ ûª† °æ¤Ææh鬩’ Ñ bag ™ °ö«dúø’. ÅC-
(†’´¤y Eïçí¬ §ÚíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊-Ø√o´¤. ´’ç* The bag in which he kept
ÆœE-´÷†’. ÅC î√™« ÇÆæ-éÀh-éπ-®Ωçí¬ took me to a doctor who specialises in heart OR éπ\úø °æúÕ ÖçC) =
diseases. ii) How was the movie which you went to, last his books is lying here = The bag he kept his
ÖçC. ´÷ cousins Éü¿l-JûÓ ¢Á∞«x†’. books in is lying here (which
¢√∞¡x-éπC †*açC.) b) She is our classmate Surekha. She gets the night? ™‰èπ◊çú≈).
top score in every subject = class- (i) to which you went, (ii) 7) You are giving tea to Sunayana. You have to
Sugandhi: The director is Nirdesac. So it must Ç¢Á’ ´÷ ûËú≈ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ ™ ™
mate subject top which you went to make arrangements for it,
have been good.
Ææ’Í®ê. v°æA ™†÷ Ç¢Á’ ÅE ´≤ÚhçC.
score sentence
ûÁa-èπ◊ç-ô’çC – OöÀE äÍé í¬: Sentence (i) ....to which you went Åçûª Ç¢Á÷-ü¿- Which ûÓ Â°j È®çúø÷ éπ©’-°æ¤ü∆ç.
She is our classmate Surekha who gets the
(ü∆E ü¿®Ωz-èπ◊úø’ EÍ®l-¨¡é˙ éπü∆. Åçü¿’-éπE You have to make arrangements for the tea
Modern English
ßÁ÷í∫uç é¬ü¿’. ™ ÉC îµ√çü¿Ææç.
top score in every subject.
¶«í∫’çúË Öçô’çC.) (which) you are giving to sunayana.
Which you went to last night? correct.
Supushpa: He has directed 4 movies so far.
ņúøç
3) The lecturer has given me an assignment. I He bought the House. His brother wanted
They have all been crowd pullers. sentences
Å®·ûË È®çúø’ which
™†÷ ņ-´-Ææ®Ωç.
have to complete it by tomorrow. (Lecturer to buy it too = He bought the house (which)
Which best.
BÊÆÆœ éÀçCNüµ¿çí¬ Å†úøç
(Éçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ Ø√©’í∫’ *vû√-©èπ◊ ü¿®Ωz-éπûªyç Ø√éÓ assignment É*açC. Í®°æ-öÀéÀ ؈C °æ‹Jh his brother wanted to buy too.
How was the movie you went to last night?
Åûªúø’ éÌØ√-©-
sentences which
´£œ«ç-î√-ú≈-ߪ’†. ÅFo ïØ√-éπ-®Ω{-鬙‰.) îËߪ÷L.) Ñ È®çúø’ †÷ É™« ÉC
simplest
†’-èπ◊†o ÉçöÀE ¢√∞¡} ņo/ ûª´·túø’ éÌØ√o®Ω’.
Sugandhi: Well, I must be going. I've to make ¢√úÕ éπ©-°æ-´îª’a. èπÿú≈.
arrangements. The lecturer has given em an assignment
(ÆæÍ®. ؈’ ¢Á∞«x-Léπ. à®√pô’x îËߪ÷L.) which I have to complete by tomorrow. (´’†- v°æ¨¡o: V3- Past participle - e.g.: gone, taken
verbs V1, V2
who V verb. V1 = (verb1) = pre-
™«çöÀN. ÉN 鬴¤, ™«í∫.
Supushpa: What arrangements?
≠æfl© N≠æ-ߪ’-¢Á’iûË ¢√úøû√ç. ´Ææ’h´¤©éπ-®·ûË Åçõ‰
which Past participle ´·çü¿’ àüÁjØ√ 'be' form
¢√úøû√ç) ÉC éÌClí¬ Ç™-*ÊÆh ÉçéÓ sent tense. V2 = (verb2) = past
(àç à®√pô’x?) second sentence
Nüµ¿çí¬ èπÿú≈ éπ©-°æ-´îª’a– ûÓ tense. V3 = (verb3) = past partici-
´ÊÆh Å°æ¤púø’, be form + participle, verb
Sugandhi: I told you. begin ple. V4 = (verb4) = present partici-
îËÆœ. Å´¤-ûª’çC.
(îÁ§ƒp†’ éπü∆?) I have to complete by tomorrow the assign- ple.
°j† ®√Æœ-†-´Fo éπ®Ω-ÍédØ√? OöÀE e.g.: The shop is closed (verb - is - be
Supushpa: Oh now I remember. You are giv- ment which the lecturer has given me. í∫’Jç* èπ◊x°æhçí¬ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. form + closed - past participle)- É™«çöÀ
ing tea to Sunayana. You have to É™«çöÀ sentences which
™ BÊÆ-ßÁ·îª’a. BÊÆ- verbs passive voice ™ Öçö«®·.™‰èπ◊çõ‰
ï¢√•’: O’®Ω’ ®√Æœ-†N correct. V Åçõ‰ verb
– Èé. π◊-ô’ç-•-®√´¤, ¢Áj®√, ê´’tç Have/ has/ had/ shall have/ would have
make arrangements for it. ߪ’úøçbetter. îª÷úøçúÕ –
(Ç í∫’®Ìh-*açC. Ææ’†-ߪ’†èπ◊ tea ÉÆæ’h- The lecturer has given me an assignment I + past participle- É™«ç-öÀNverbs
Ææy®Ω÷°æç, to go, to see etc. ÉN infini-
Ø√o´¤ éπü∆. Åçü¿’èπ◊ †’´¤y à®√pô’x have to complete by tomorrow/ I have to tives. OöÀ í∫’-Jç-* Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ lessons
Å´¤-û√®·.
îÁߪ÷uL.) complete by tomorrow the assignment the e.g.: He would have gone [verb-would have +
™ î√-™« -N-´-®Ωçí¬ -ûÁ-L-§ƒç. îª÷úøçúÕ. gone (pp) ]
Sugandhi: Bye. lecturer has given me.
V1= Present simple tense.
îª÷Ææ’hØ√oç éπü∆ °j È®çúø’ sentences ™ which V4= Present participle- going, coming
☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ e.g.: go, goes, take, takes etc.
™«çöÀ
™‰ü¿’. Which ¢√úË-îÓô that èπÿú≈ ¢√úø-´îª’a. ÉC 'ing' forms. Past participle 'ing' forms
™«í∫ ÉN–
éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ sentences †’ a) I go to the part once a week (go-v.) (present participles) verbs
éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ í∫´’-Eçî√ç. èπÿú≈ 鬴¤. OöÀ-
äÍé sentence í¬ éπ©°æúøç îª÷¨»ç éπü∆– Who, 4) You are a lucky girl. You lecturer gives easy
b) She takes coffee in the mornings. (takes- ´·çü¿’ 'be' form be form + ing
Öçõ‰ØË Å°æ¤púø’,
which, that, whose, where, etc. ¢√úÕ. ´’J- V1) form verbs
assignments - Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀF éπL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ éπL°œ Å´¤-û√®·.
c) I went to the doctor yesterday (went-V2) He is going [verb-is(be)+ ing]
whose
éÌEoçöÀE É°æ¤púø’ îª÷ü∆lç. ÉC éÌClí¬ éπ≠dçæ 鬕öÀd ¢√úøû√ç (á´J ™„éπa-®Ω®˝ Ææ’©-¶µº-¢Á’i†
´’Jç-ûªí¬ practise îËߪ’úøç Å´-Ææ®Ωç. d) She took milk this morning (took-V2) She is coming [verb-is(be)+ing]

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm