You are on page 1of 13

-Ç-C¢√®Ωç 3 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛

2

v°æ¨¡o: éÀç-C -¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ -Å®√n-©’ v°æ¨¡o: i) Corps, corpse, polyandry, polygamy,
N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. pooh-pooh, pooh, poignant. Ñ °æü∆©
1. a) I would like to act in Öî√a-®Ωù, Å®√n-©’ -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’.
that play. ii) éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ N´-Jç-îª-©®Ω’.
b) I should like to have ii) All but my uncle attended the marriage.
acted in that play. iii) The crying need of the country is food.
2. a) To help him would iv) I succeeded in neither attempts.
be a pleasure.
v) We should try to bring him round by our
b) To have helped him
argument.
would have been a
vi) Still waters run deep.
pleasure.
3. a) The tourists would like to see the ruins. vii) We should not while away our time unnec-
essarily. Polyandry= ii) uncle ûª°æp Åçü¿®Ω÷ °Rx-éÀ -´-î√a®Ω’ (Ééπ\úø but=
b) The tourists would like to have seen
§ÚL-ߪ÷çvúŒ= •£æ›¶µº®Ωh %ûªyç (äéπJ ´÷
viii) He is a square man in a round hole. except).
the ruins. éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ¶µº®Ωh©’†o (Æ‘Y) (vüˆ°æ-C™«)
ix) The globe-trotter has walked round the Polygamy (°æL-í∫N’)= •£æ›¶µ«®√uûªyç= äéπJéπçõ‰ iii) ü˨»-E-éÀ-°æ¤púø’ Åûªu-´-Ææ®ΩN≠æߪ’ç (crying need)
4. a) The mechanic was to repair the car
today. world twice. áèπ◊\´ •A-èπ◊†o ¶µ«®Ωu-©’çúøôç. ǣ慮Ωç.
b) The mechanic was to have repaired x) The roar of the lion broke the still of the Pooh-Pooh- °æ‹£ˇ«, °æ‹£ˇ« (v°æA-§ƒ-ü¿-†©÷, Æœü∆l¥ç- iv) ؈’ Ø√ È®çúø’ v°æߪ’-û√o-™ x†÷ Nïߪ’ç §Òçü¿-™‰ü¿’.
the car today. night. û√©÷, v°æù«-Réπ©÷, Ææ©-£æ…©™«çöÀ ¢√öÀE) àç v) ´’† ¢√ü¿-†-©-ûÓØË ÅûªúÕE ´’† ´÷®Ω_ç-™ éÀ BÆæ’-èπ◊
5. To have explained matters to him before -®√-¢√L/ †îªa-ñ„-§ƒpL.
ï¢√•’:
– áç.®Ωç-í∫ߪ’u, É©xçü¿ N©’´ É´y-èπ◊çú≈ îÁûªh, °æE-éÀ-®√-E-´E éÌöÀd§ƒÍ®-ߪ’úøç.
he died was my duty. vi) -E-¨¡a-©çí¬ -Ö-†o -F-öÀéÀ -™ -ûÁèπ◊\-´. (-Åç-ûª’°æ-ôd-E)
He pooh-poohed my theory - Ø√ Æœü∆l¥çûªç îÁûªh
6. To have been able to bless the couple vii) ´’†é¬™«Eo ņ-´-Ææ-®Ωçí¬ ´%ü∑∆ îËÆæ’éÓ-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
i) Corps - Pronunciation - éÓ (®˝– ÉC silent- Åçõ‰ ÅE éÌöÀd-§ƒ-Í®-¨»úø’/ ë«ûª®Ω’ îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’.
would have given him great satisfaction. (While away= waste.)
r °æ©éπç) = ÂÆjE-éπ-ü¿∞¡ç (È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ N¶µ«-í¬-©’†o Pooh= àüÁjØ√ îÁúø’-éπç°æ¤ ´Ææ’h-†o-°æ¤púø’ ÅØË ´÷ô–
viii)
ï¢√•’: NCC ™ èπÿú≈ ´Ææ’hçC. NCC =
– Èé.á-Ø˛.-È®úÕf, £j«vü∆-¶«ü˛ Åûªúø’ ûª†èπ◊ ņ’-´¤-í¬-E-îÓô/ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’™x ÖØ√oúø’.
°ü¿l-ü¿∞¡ç. ÉC '<µ— ™«í∫. Éûª-®Ω’© ideas †’ ë«ûª®Ω’ îËߪ’-èπ◊çú≈
National Cadet Corps = ñ«Bߪ’ ÂÆjEéπ ü¿∞¡ç. Åûªú≈ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’™x É´’úø-™‰úø’.
1. a) Ç Ø√ô-éπç™ †öÀçîªú≈EéÀ É≠æd°æúø’-ûª’-Ø√o†’/ Cadet - officer
ÂÆj†uç™ í¬ Péπ~ù §ÒçüË-¢√∞¡Ÿx). ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ÅØË-´÷ô– An honest man in today's politics is a square
-û˝, ,  ™«í¬. peg in a round hole =
†öÀç-î√-©E ÖçC. Corpse - 鬰ˇq = ¨¡´ç.
b) (í∫ûªç™ v°æü¿-Jzç-*†) Ç Ø√ôéπç™ †öÀç* Poignant- ÑØ√öÀ ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ÷™x Eñ«--ߪ’-B-°æ-®Ω’úø’ É´’-úø-™‰úø’.
Öçú≈-Lqç-ü¿E ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. (Å´-鬨¡ç §ƒß˝’†uç'ö¸– £æ«%ü¿- peg = ¢Ë’èπ◊. square peg= †©’-îª-ü¿-®Ωçí¬ Ö†o -¢Ë’èπ◊
®√™‰ü¿’). round hole = í∫’çvúøçí¬ Ö†o éπçûª
ߪ÷Eo éπC-La-¢ËÊÆ/
2. a) Åûª-úÕéÀ Ææ£æ…ߪ ’ç îËߪ ’úøç ÆæçûÓ≠æç ix) Ç ™éπ-Ææç-î √J (Globe = ™éπç/ v°æ°æçîªç; trotter
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 416
ÖüËy-í∫-°æ-JîË (ÆæEo-¢Ë- = Ææçî√J) È®çúø’-≤ƒ®Ω’x v°æ°æçîªç ô÷d †úÕ-î √úø’.
(É°æ¤púø’)
M.SURESAN
¨»©’/ ´÷ô™«xç-öÀN). x) Ç Æœç£æ«-í∫-®Ωb† ®√vA E¨¡z-¶«lEo (stillness) <La-¢Ë-Æ œçC.
b) (í∫ûªç™) Åûª-úÕéÀ Ææ£æ…ߪ’çîËÊÆh ÆæçûÓ≠æçí¬
ÖçúËC/ Åûª-úÕ-éπ°æ¤púø’ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËߪ’úøç/

This will be the scenario
îËÆœ Öçõ‰ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úË¢√úÕE (Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËߪ’-
™‰ü¿’).
3 a) °æ®Ωuôèπ◊©’ Ç PC∑-™«-©†’ îª÷úøö«-EéÀ É≠æd-°æ-úø’-
ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’ (É°æ¤púø’).
b) °æ®Ωuôèπ◊©’ Ç PC∑-™«-©†’ îª÷Æœ Öçõ‰
(í∫ûªç™) ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úË-¢√∞¡Ÿx (îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’).
4. a) The mechanic was to repair the car
v°æ¨¡o: 1. äéπ N≠æߪ’ç í∫’Jç* ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ®√ߪ÷-©-†’- Spectrum= à v¨ÏùÀ Å®·Ø√. v) Delegation - úÁL-Èí-ß˝’-≠ˇØ˛=
today- was to repair ... today
Éçü¿’™ èπ◊ èπ◊çõ‰ grammar mistakes Öçô’-Ø√o®·. ¶µ«≥ƒ The participants were from the ends of social 1) v°æA-ECµ•%çü¿ç.
ØÁj°æ¤ùuç °ç-éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ, ûª°æ¤p©’ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ®√ߪ’- spectrum= Indian trade delegation in the US =
Is to repair
Å®Ωnç Åçûª ÆæJí¬ ®√ü¿’. Åçõ‰
mechanic car repair
†’ Ñ®ÓV îËߪ÷L ú≈-EéÀ -àç -îË-ߪ÷-L? ´’ç* °æ¤Ææh-éπç Ææ÷*ç--îªç-úÕ. §ƒ™Ô_-†o-¢√∞¡Ÿx Ææ´÷-ïç-™E v¨ÏùÀ ¢Á·ûªhç (Ç *´-®Ω- Å¢Á’-J-鬙 Ö†o ¶µ«®Ω-ûª- ¢√-ùÀïu v°æA-ECµ•%çü¿ç.
2. éÀçC °æü∆© Å®√n©’, Öî√a®Ωù -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. †’ç* – -Hü¿, Ñ *´®Ω ´®Ωèπ◊, íÌ°æp) ÖØ√o-®ΩE.
ÅE Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. (Ñ®ÓV Å®·-§ÚßË’ 2) ´’†ç îËߪ÷-Lq-†-°æE ÉçéÌ-éπ∞¡xèπ◊ Å°æp-ñ„-°æpôç.
i) spectrum, ii) infrastructure, iii) seeking, ii) Infrastructure= ÉØ˛-v°∂æ-ÆæZ-éπa (®˝) =
™°æ© îËÆœ É¢√y-©E). The Information minister was happy about the
iv) mortality, v) delegation, vi) scenario, vii) äéπ ÆæçÆæn/ ü˨¡ç/ company †úÕ-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ 鬴-©-
b) Mechanic Ñ®ÓV car †’ repair îËÆæ’ç-ú≈- CM's delegation of some of his work=
stream, viii) dispite.
-´·êu-
LqçC (é¬F îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’). Æœ† ´’¯Léπ Ææü¿’-§ƒ-ߪ÷©’ (basic facilities)- ´’çvA ûª† °æE™ éÌçûª Ææ´÷-î √®Ω´’çvAéÀ
buildings, electricity, roads, water etc.
5. Åûªúø’ îªE-§Ú-éπ-´·çüË (Åûªúø’ îªE-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’)
ï¢√•’:
– °œ.È®úÕf¶µ«Ææ\®˝, ®√´÷-°æ¤®Ωç, éπúø°æ Å°æpñ„°æpúøç, Çߪ’†èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ-≥ƒEo éπL-Tç-*çC.
iii) Seeking– Æ‘éÀçí˚–
Åûª-úÕéà N≠æߪ’ç N´-Jç-îªúøç Ø√ üµ¿®Ωtç. vi) Scenario = ÆœØ√-JßÁ÷
1. O’®Ω’ ®√ÊÆ-ü∆çöx grammar mistakes Öçô’-Ø√o-
6. Ç Â°∞¡x-®·† ïçô†’ ÇQ-®Ωy-Cç-îªúøç (ÇQ-®Ωy-Cç- 1) üËØÁj oØ√ §Òçü¿ú≈-EéÀ v°æߪ’-Aoç-îªúøç.
îª-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’) Åûª-úÕéÀ ûª%°œh éπL-Tç* ÖçúËC. ߪ’E O’èπ◊ ûÁLÊÆh O’èπ◊ correct English ûÁL-Æœ-†-õ‰x- He is seeking a good job =
1) ûÁ®Ω-O’ü¿ éπE-°œçîË ÆœE´÷ éπü∑∆ ÆæçN-üµ∆†ç– àßË’
v°æ¨¡o: éÀçC-¢√-öÀE -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ -á-™« -Åç-ö«®Ω’?
éπü∆. O’®Ω’ ®√ÆœçC §Ò®Ω§ƒôE ûÁL-Æœ-†-°æ¤púø’, ü∆Eo §ƒvûª©’ á°æ¤púÁ°æ¤púø’ éπE-°œç-î√L, àßË’ Ææç°∂æ’-ô-†©’
correct îËÆæ’éÓ-´úøç éπ≠dç æ é¬ü¿’. O’®Ω’ àü¿-®·Ø√ Åûªúø’ ´’ç* ÖüÓuí∫ç §ÒçüË v°æߪ’-ûªoç îËÆæ’h- á°æ¤p-úÁ-°æ¤púø’ îª÷°œç-î√L ÅE ûÁL-Ê°C. É°æ¤púø’ ü∆Eo
1. Ççvüµ¿’© ÆœF Ç®√üµ¿u üÁj´ç NTR ®√Æœ†°æ¤púø’ éÌçîÁç English O’éπçõ‰ ¶«í¬ ûÁL-Æœ† Ø√oúø’. screenplay Åçö«ç.
2. If I tell once, it means telling 100 times. ¢√JéÀ îª÷°œç* correct îË®·ç--éÓçúÕ. ®√ߪ’úøç 2) ¢Áü¿éπúøç– 2) ¶µºN-≠æu-ûª’h™ N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ ᙫ ï®Ω-í∫-¶-û√ßÁ÷ ÅØË
-É-C ÆœE-´÷™ úÁj™«-í˚èπ◊ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çü∆? practice áèπ◊\-´-®·-†-éÌDl, ûª°æ¤p©’ ûªT_-§Ú-û√®·. I am seeking a good building for my ÅçîªØ√. This will be the scenario in AP- No
school = Ø√ school èπ◊ ´’ç* ¶µº´†ç éÓÆæç party will get an absolute majority in the next
3. BSNL ÖüÓu-í∫’©’ Å®Ωl¥ †í∫o v°æü¿-®Ωz† î˨»®Ω’. Living English Structure by Stannard Allen
O’èπ◊ ¶«í¬ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø-í∫© °æ¤Ææhéπç. ¢Áûª’-èπ◊-ûª’-Ø√o†’. election. AP ¶µºN-≠æuû˝ *vûªç É™« Öçô’çC- à
4. †©’-í∫’-J™ í∫öÀdí¬ ûˆaèπ◊.
Oxford iv) Mortality = 1) ´÷†´ Ææ£æ«-ï-¢Á’i† ´’®Ωùç party éÀ èπÿú≈ ´îËa áEo-éπ™ x éπ*a-ûª-¢Á’i† majori-
5. Hotel ™ ¶µï†ç îËÊÆh §Òôd ´Ææ’hçC. ÅçûËé¬èπ◊çú≈ ¶«í¬ BJéπ Ææ´’-ߪ÷™x
ty ®√ü¿’.
6. Fèπ◊ §Òôd ´*açC. áéπq-®˝-ÂÆjñ¸ îË®·. Learner's Dictionary of Current English 2) äéπ EKgûª Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ (Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç/ ØÁ©, etc)
7. O’èπ◊ Í®°æ¤ Ææ÷\™¸ Öçü∆? îª÷úøçúÕ. ´÷ô© Å®√n™‰ é¬èπ◊çú≈ ¢√öÀE ¢√úÕ† ïJÍí ´’®Ω-ù«© Ææçêu. (Mortality rate = äéπ vii) Stream = Æ‘¢Z ˛’ – 1) *†o †C 2) v°æ¢√£æ«ç. 3)
sentences èπÿú≈ îª÷úøçúÕ. O’ mistakes ûªT_-§Ú- Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ v°æA ¢Á®·u´’ç-C™ áçûª-´’çC äÍé ´ßª’Ææ’q, äÍé ®Ωéπ-¢Á’i† v°æA-¶µºí∫-© Nü∆u-®Ω’n© ´®Ω_ç.
8. ÅûªúÕ ûªçvúÕ í∫öÀdí¬ °œL-*Ø√, ®ΩN E秃-Cí¬ ä∞¡Ÿx
û√®·. ´’®Ω-ùÀç-î√-®ΩØË N´®Ωç viii) Despite = In spite of = Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÖ
N®Ω’--èπ◊E ¢Á∞«xúø’. 3) ´’®Ωùç: Hospital Mortality = ÇÆæpvA™
2. i) Spectrum- ÂÆpéπ¢ Z ˛’– Éçvü¿-üµ¿-†’-Ææ’q-™E é¬çA Despite the rain he went out = ´®Ω{çí¬ Ö†o-°æp-

ï¢√•’:
– N.á-™¸.->.- ®√-V, Xéπ%-≠æg-°æôoç ®Ωçí∫’© v¨ÏùÀ. ûÁ©x-éÀ-®Ωùç, prism ™ç* ¢ÁRx-†-°æ¤púø’ ´’®Ωùç. öÀéà Åûªúø’ -•-ߪ’-ôèπ◊ -¢Á-∞«}-úø’ (O’ spelling ÆæJ-
1. NTR is the Andhra cine idol.
2. If I say once, it is saying a hundred times.
éπE-°œçîË é¬çA ´®Ωg-î√-®Ω© v¨ÏùÀ. Pronunciation ´÷ö«-LöÀ– ö« ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç. îª÷-Ææ’-éÓçúÕ- despite correct).
3. BSNL employees staged a half-naked
protest/ demonstration (or) BSNL employ- -v°æ-¨¡o: i) He used to write with this iv) ' ؈’ Ææûªuçí¬, üµ¿®Ωt-•-ü¿’l¥-úøØÁj Çüµ∆u- ï¢√•’: Sentences 1 and 2 È®çúÕç- future forms (shall/ will) ûÓØË
ees paraded half naked. pen. Atéπ ñ«c†çûÓ @N-≤ƒh†’. ؈’ ÅGµ- öÀéÃ,question tag, 'Didn't he?'. ´≤ƒh®·.
4. Don't belch in public. ii) He used this pen to write ´%Cl¥ îÁçü¿’ûª÷, Ø√ èπ◊ô’ç-¶«Eo, Ø√ 'Usedn't he?' èπÿú≈ correct. Lets go now, shall we?
5. You gain weight/ put on weight/ you with. •úÕE, Ø√ ví¬O’-ù’-©†’, Ø√ ü˨»Eo Å®·ûË É°æ¤p-úÕC ¢√úøôç ™‰ü¿’. 4) "I pledge to abide by truth and
become fat if you eat out. iii) Come here.
2020 Ø√öÀéÀ Åví∫-í¬N’ ü˨¡çí¬ Sentence 3 - Come here èπ◊ Q. to discharge my duty aided by a
6. You have put on weight. Do exercise. îË≤ƒh†’.—— Ñ ¢√é¬u-©†’ §ƒ®∏Ω-¨»-©™ Tag: spiritual vision. While I seek my
7. Do you have/ have you school/ classes
°j ¢√öÀ™ ¢Á·ü¿-öÀ-ü∆-EéÀ usedn't v°æA-®ÓW îËÊÆ v°æA-ïc™ îË®√a®Ω’. Come here, will you? growth, I will strive to help my
he?, È®çúÓ-ü∆-EéÀ didn't he?,
tomorrow? OöÀE ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ Åçö«®Ó ûÁL- Imperative sentences (Çïc© ÷, family and village to grow, and to
8. Though his father shouted for him he was ´‚úÓ-ü∆-EéÀ don't you? ÆæÈ®j-†- make my country the foremost
ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’. Ŷµºu-®Ωn-†©’, Åúø-í∫úøç ûÁLÊ° sen-
in no hurry. Stretching his body he walked ¢ËØ√? N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. – Èé.¨¡-P-é¬ç-û˝-È®úÕf, í∫’çï-°æ-úø’í∫’ tences) èπ◊, question tags á°æ¤púø÷ country in the world".
at leisure to his father.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 5 -°∂œ-v•-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Chethan: As I was on my way home, I ran into Chethan: Go when you like. I've done my job -
your uncle. telling you of it.
(؈’ ÉçöÀÈé-∞Ïx-ü∆-J™ O’ Åçèπ◊™¸†’ éπ©-´- (F É≠ædç ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞¡Ÿx. Ø√ °æE– Fèπ◊
úøç ïJ-TçC. îÁ°æpúøç– Øˆ’ î˨»†’.)
run into = ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ á´JØÁjØ√ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç/ Chandan: By the way, did you talk to Ganesh
á´-J-ÈéjØ√ áü¿’-®Ω’-°æ-úøôç about our programme next week.
Chandan: Who? (ÅC ÆæÍ®-é¬F, ´îËa-¢√®Ωç ´’† v§Úví¬¢˛’
(á´-JF) í∫’Jç* í∫ù‰≠ˇûÓ ´÷ö«x-ú≈¢√?)
Chethan: Your uncle. Chethan: Sorry, I haven't been able to get at
(O’ Åçèπ◊™¸†’.) him. Though I tried his number three
Chandan: (It) Can't be. Unless he cancelled his to four times yesterday he was out of
b) I can't do it unless the boss gives me permis-
trip to Nellore. reach. Unless we go home to him we Spoken English active voice
™ pas-™ØÁjØ√ sion = boss
can't get him. sive voice direct and indirect speech
™ØÁjØ√, ™ ´÷ ņ’-´’-AÊÆh ûª°æp/ ņ’-´’-AÊÆh é¬F
(ÅÆæç-¶µº´ç. Çߪ’† ØÁ©÷x®Ω’ v°æߪ÷-ù«Eo boss
connectives- phrases, claus-
(Åûª-úÕE ؈’ °æô’d-éÓ-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o. E†o ØÁjØ√, È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ ؈C îËߪ’-™‰†’.(´÷ ņ’-´’-AÊÆhØË ØˆC îËߪ’-
®Ωü¿’lîËÆæ’èπ◊çõ‰ ûª°æp.) es and parts of sentences
†’ éπLÊ° ´÷ô-©†’ í∫-©†’.)
Chethan: Yea. That's what he told me indeed. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: unless à °æJ-Æœn-ûª’™x äéπ °æE ï®Ω-í∫-í∫-©ü¿’
´‚úø’ Ø√©’í∫’ ≤ƒ®Ω’x ÅûªúÕ †ç•-®˝èπ◊ §∂ÚØ˛
îËÆ œØ√, ÅûªúÕE îË®Ω’-éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’. í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-úøç î√™« Å´-Ææ®Ωç. English
™
He was supposed to have left for (present ™ í¬F, future ™ í¬E) ÅØËC ûÁL-ߪ’-°æ-®Ω’-
word order
î√™« ´·êuç 鬕öÀd, à ´÷ô áéπ\úø
Nellore yesterday morning, but some-
ÅûªúÕçöÀéÀ ¢Á∞Ïh ûª°æp Åûªúø’ ´’†èπ◊ üÌJ-Íéô’d Ææ’hçC. Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ï®Ω-í∫E N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo, Eïç-é¬E ü∆Eo
®√¢√™ ᙫ ¢√ú≈™ -ûÁ-©’Ææ’éÓ-¢√-L. äé𠧃®∏Ω-èπ◊úÕ éÓJéπ
thing came in the way and he had to
™‰úø’.) îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’-èπ◊ -É-C ¢√úøç.
Chandan: He is usually at home in the morn-
¢Ë’®Ωèπ◊ ¢√öÀE í∫’Jç* î√™« N´-®Ωçí¬ Ééπ\úø ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-
stay back. Ææ’hØ√oç. Practise îËߪ’çúÕ. c) Unless you study well, you can't pass- †’´¤y
ings. That's the best time to see him.
(Å´¤†’. Çߪ’† Ø√èπ◊ îÁ°œpçD ÅüË. E†o Therefore Look at the following sentences form the ¶«í¬ îªC-N-ûËØË ûª°æp †’´¤y §ƒÆˇ Å´-™‰´¤. (îªC-N-ûËØË
§Òü¿’l† ØÁ©÷x-®Ω’èπ◊ •ßª’-©’-üË-®√-©E ņ’-éÓ- conversation above: pass Å´-í∫-©´¤ –present/ future).
you go to
´úøç ïJ-Tç-ü¿F, Å®·ûË àüÓ ÅúÌf*a ÇT-§Ú- 1) Can't be unless he d) Unless he knows you are here, he will not
him tomor-
¢√Lq ´*aç-ü¿E ÅØ√oúø’.) cancelled his trip to come = †’Nyéπ\úø’Ø√o-´E ûÁLÊÆh ûª°æp ÅûªúÕéπ\úø-éÀ-
row morning.
Chandan: Oh. Hence my not getting the call
from him from Nellore.
(Åûªúø’ §Òü¿’l-†- -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 417 Nellore- unless ®√úø’/ ûÁL-ÊÆhØË ´≤ƒhúø’.
unless = Å®·ûË ûª°æp. if= Å®·-ûËØË.
(ÅD. Åçü¿’-´™‰x ØÁ©÷x®Ω’ unless = if not; if = unless not -ÉC Å®Ωnç
îËÆæ’èπ◊çü∆ç unless = Å®·ûË ûª°æp/ Å®·ûË

U nless he cancelled his trip
†’ç* Ø√é¬-ߪ’† §∂ÚØ˛
®√™‰ü¿’.) é¬E if = Å®·-ûËØË
Chethan: He wants to see you this a) Unless you pay you can't get the
evening. He said he certificate =
úø•’s éπúÕ-ûËØË éπúÕûË é¬F
would call you in the certificate
®√ü¿’ = if you pay you
mean time. 2) Unless we go to him in the morn- can get the certificate =
úø•’s éπúÕûË
°æ‹ô ÉçöxØË Öçö«úø’. ing, we can't get him. Fèπ◊ certificate
´Ææ’hçC.
(E-†’o -Ñ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-
ô’Ø√oú≈ߪ’†. ü∆E ´·çü¿’ Fèπ◊ §∂ÚØ˛
-Å-ûªúÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ÅC 3) That's what he told me indeed îª÷¨»®Ω’ éπü∆? unless Ö†o sentence ™ not ´ÊÆh,
´’ç* Æ洒ߪ’ç. 鬕öÀd †’´¤y
4) Hence my not getting the call from if Ö†o sentence ™ not Öçúøü¿’.
îË≤ƒh-†E îÁ§ƒpúø’.)
b) Unless I know what exactly has happened, I
-Å-ûª-úÕ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ Í®§Òp-ü¿’l† ¢Á∞¡Ÿx.) Nellore.
Chandan: Because of some work at home I Chethan: We can decide the pro-
5) He will see you meanwhile. can't comment =
couldn't go to his place. If I had gone gramme ourselves. All that
6) Because of some work at home I (only)
I would have known about it. M.SURESAN
ÅÆ晉ç ïJ-TçüÓ ûÁL-ߪ’çüË, ØËØËç îË°æp-™‰†’ =
we need to tell him about is if I know what has happened, I can comment
couldn't go to his place.
(Éçöx àüÓ °æE ´©x ¢√Rxç-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡x-™‰-éπ-§Ú- how many of his men we =
ߪ÷†’. ¢Á∞¡Ÿxçõ‰ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-Ææ’ç-úËC.) require and when we need them. As 7) By the way did you talk to Ganesh about our ïJ-Tç-üË-N’ö ûÁLÊÆh ؈´’Ø√o îÁ°æp-í∫-©†’.
programme next week. c) Unless he has the money, he can't buy a car
Chethan: He asked me to tell you to see him such there is no need to meet him
8) Though I tried his number I found him out of = if he has the money he can buy a car.
today. now.
reach. d) Unless she takes the medicines, she can't
recover =
(ûª†E É¢√y∞¡ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ--´’-E (´’†¢Ë’ v§Úví¬¢˛’ E®Ωg-®·ç-îª-´îª’a. -Å-ûª-úÕéÀ
9) As such there is no need to meet him. ´’çü¿’©’ BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-õ‰ØË ûª°æp/ BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-õ‰ØË
FûÓ îÁ°æp-´’-Ø√oúø’.) ´’†ç îÁ§ƒp-Lqç-ü¿™«x -Å-ûª-úÕ ´’†’-≠æfl©’ ´’†- If she takes the med-
1) unless: Å®·ûË ûª°æp/ Å®·-ûË-é¬E
é¬F, Ç¢Á ’ éÓ©’ éÓ™‰ü¿’ =
Chandan: I will, ofcourse provided I can get my Èéç-ûª-´’çC á°æ¤púø’ 鬢√L, ÅE. v°æÆæ’h-û√-EéÀ icines she can recover = ´’çü¿’©’ BÆæ’-èπ◊çõ‰
bike back in the evening. I've given it Ñ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’™x ´’†ç Åûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-†-´- a) Unless you start now you cannot see him =
Ç¢Á ’ éÓ©’- è π◊ç-ô ’çC.
for servicing. Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.) †’Ny-°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-©’-üË-JûË ûª°æp †’´¤y -Å-ûª-úÕ-E éπ©’-Ææ’- Ñ È®çúø’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥-™x†÷, Ç¢Á’ ´’çü¿’©’ Éçûª
Chandan: Ok. As you please.
(ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈, Ø√ ¶„jé˙ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç ´ÊÆh. ؈’ éÓ-™‰´¤. (É°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-©’-üË-J-ûËØË †’-´y-ûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ- ´®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ ’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. BÆæ’-éÓ-´îª’a/ BÆæ’-éÓ-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a. N’í∫û√
ü∆Eo ÆæKy-Æœç-í˚éÀ É*a ÖØ√o.) (F É≠ædç.) í∫-©´¤.) ¢√öÀE í∫’Jç* ´îËa-≤ƒJ.
Exercise: Match the words under A with
their meanings under B.
CØÓ-ûªq´ç ´’†ç džç-C≤ƒhç. Rejoicing àüÁjØ√ ¢Ëúø’- It is a thief infested area = Ç v°æü˨¡ç üÌçí∫-©- v°æ¨¡o:
éπí¬/ °æç-úø’í∫í¬ í∫úø’-°æ¤-éÓ-´úøç ´’ߪ’ç. 1. Paper ÅØË ü∆EéÀ plural
A B
Rejoice X Mourn (N©-°œç-îªúøç/ ü¿’”"ç-îªúøç) We Swarm = Ñí∫-©’, üÓ´’--©’ ™«çöÀ éÃô-鬩 í∫’ç°æ¤. ™‰ü¿’éπü∆? ´’J news papers
1. Rejoice A. Swarm about mourn the death of Gandhi on every Jan 30 = A swarm of files/ mosquitoes = Ñí∫-©’/ üÓ´’© Åçö«-È®ç-ü¿’èπ◊?
2. Cobbler B. Physical v°æA ï†-´J 30-†, ´’†ç í¬çDµE ûª©--èπ◊E í∫’ç°æ¤ (´·êuçí¬ ¢√öÀ´©x ¶„úøü¿.) 2. Nobody go(es) there àC
3. Infest C. Experience N©-°œ≤ƒhç. 4-B. Manual = Physical = ¨»K-®Ω-éπ-¢Á’i†. manual éπÈ®é˙d?
4. Manual D. Include 2-G. Cobbler = Maker/ Repairer of footwear = labour = ¨»K-®Ωéπ/ üÁj£œ«éπ v¨¡´’. Computer ©÷, 3. Nobody has/ have a pen.
5. Undergo E. Feel happy repair
ï¢√•’:
îÁ°æ¤p©’ ûªßª÷®Ω’ îËÊÆ/ îËÊÆ-¢√∞¡Ÿx = Ωt-é¬- Nü¿’u-îªa ¥éÀh Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ´’†’-≠æfl© îËûª’-©ûÓ – Ææ÷®Ω-ñ¸-¶«¶«, É©xçü¿’
F. Decrease ®Ω’©’. The cobbler wouldn't repair (mend) my ïJÍí.Manual X Automatic. Manual Åçõ‰ ´’®Ó
G. Maker/ Repairer of shoes for less than Rs. 20/- =
1. Paper plural ™‰EC, ®√ߪ’-ú≈-EéÃ, printing èπ◊
20 ®Ω÷. ©èπ◊ ûªèπ◊\- Å®Ωnç = ߪ’çvû√©’, ≤ƒüµ¿-Ø√©’ é̆o-°æ¤púø’, ÅN ᙫ èπ◊
footwear shoes repair ¢√ú≈™ ¢√öÀ ©éπ~-ù«-™‰¢Ó ûÁLÊ° *†o-°æ¤-Ææhéπç. (TV ©’, paper
´-®·ûË Ø√ îËߪ’-†-Ø√oúø’. (•ôd©’, ¢√úË ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púË.
Key repair
§ƒü¿-®Ωéπ~© ™«çöÀ-¢√-öÀE mend.
îËߪ’úøç = cell phones é̆o-°æ¤púø’ ¢√öÀûÓ ´îËa °æ¤Ææh-鬩’.)
Paper èπ◊ -Ö†o Éûª®Ω Å®√n©’ = 1) Document
your shoes need mending = shoes 5-C. Undergo = Experience = ņ’-¶µº-Nç-îªúøç/ ã
1-E. Rejoice = Feel happy = ÆæçûÓ-≠œç-îªúøç/ F èπ◊ (´·êu¢Á’i† °ævûªç) 2) Newspaper. Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ
repairing Mend your behaviour = ņ’-¶µº´ç îªN-îª÷-úøôç. He have to undergo a lot
Parents rejoice at the success of
džç-Cç-îªúøç. Å´-Ææ®Ωç) F ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’, paper èπ◊ plural Öçô’çC.
their children =
v°æ´-®Ωh† ¢Á’®Ω’-í∫’-°æ-®Ω-éÓ.) of trouble even to get a small thing done in a
°œ©x© Nïߪ’çûÓ ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’©’ I've lost some of my papers = Ø√ °ævû√™x éÌEo
3-A. Infest = Swarm about = á©’-éπ©’, °æçC-éÌ- govt office = v°æ¶µº’ûªy 鬮√u-©-ߪ÷™x *†o-°æE îË®·ç-
džçC≤ƒh®Ω’. §ÚíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊-Ø√o†’. (Certificates, ÇÆœhéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*†
When she got a good rank in Eamcet her par-
èπ◊\©’, Ñí∫©’ ™«çöÀ É•sç-C-éπ®Ω ïçûª’-´¤©’, üÌçí∫©’ -éÓ-¢√-©Ø√o î√™« ¶«üµ¿-°æ-ú≈Lq (ņ’-¶µº-Nç-î√Lq) °ævû√© ™«çöÀN)
ents rejoiced = Eamcet rank
üÓ°œ-úŒ-í¬∞¡Ÿx áèπ◊\-´í¬ Öçúøôç. ¢√∞¡x ¶„úøü¿. a) The ´Ææ’hçC. b) parents undergo a lot of agony
Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ™ ´’ç* His photo appeared in the papers
place is infested with rats = Ç îÓôçû√ á©’-éπ© when their children are ill = °œ©x©’ ï•’s-°æ-úÕûË ûªLx-
®√´úøç Ç¢Á’ ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’-©èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ≠æç éπL-Tç-*çC. (Newspapers) today =
Kaikayi had cause to rejoice when Rama
´‚éπ™‰. The tables in the eatery are infested ü¿ç-vúø’©’ î√™« é~Ó¶µº†’ ņ’¶µºN-≤ƒh®Ω’. Åûª-úÕ -§∂Ò-ö Ñ ®ÓV
with flies = Ç öÀ°∂œØ˛ ÂÆçô-®˝-™ E õ‰•’™¸q Åçû√ Agony = é~Ó¶µº.Undergo X Avoid/ escape.
°ævA-éπ™x °æúÕçC.
walked to the forest = ®√´·úø’ Åúø-´¤-©èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡xôç 2. Nobody- singular, Åçõ‰ he/ she 鬕öÀd, verb,
Ñí∫™‰. D. Include = îË®Ωaúøç. He is included in the
ÈéjÍé®·éÀ džçü¿ç éπL-Tç-*çC./ ÈéjÍé®· džç-ü∆-EéÀ goes correct.
The area is infested with pick pockets and team = Åûª-úÕE team ™ îË®Ω’a-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’/ Åûªúø’
3. has correct.
鬮Ωùç Å®·uçC.
cheats = team ™ ÖØ√oúø’.
°j 鬮Ω-ùç-´™‰x,
We rejoice on the Independence = ≤ƒyûªçvûªu
Ç v°æü˨¡ç ¢Á·ûªhç ñ‰•’-üÌç-í∫©÷, ¢Á÷Ææ-í¬∞Ïx.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 7 -°∂œ-v•-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Venu: How's the new house you've bought? Gopal: Don't I know it? I had hell with the work-
(†’´¤y é̆o éÌûªh É©’x ᙫ ÖçC?) ers when I was on the job.
Gopal: It's not as such a house, but a set of (Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’ü∆ àçöÀ? Ø√ É©’x éπô’d-èπ◊ç-
rooms interconnected. Just a few ameni- ô’†o°æ¤púø’ °æE-¢√∞¡Ÿx †®Ωéπç îª÷°œç-î√®Ω’.)
ties. That's all. hell= †®Ωéπç.
(ÅC É©xçõ‰ É©’x é¬ü¿’, äéπ-ü∆EûÓ äéπöÀ on the job = °æE™/ °æE-O’ü¿ Öçúøôç– Ééπ\úø
éπL-Æœ† í∫ü¿’©’. ´Ææ-ûª’-©ç-ûªí¬ ™‰´¤.) Å®Ωnç– É©’x éπôdúøç.
amenities = ´Ææ-ûª’©’ Venu: These construction workers are such
Venu: So it's going to take quite some time for callous fellows that they don't care what
you to move in then. happens to you.
(Å®·ûË Åçü¿’™ îËÍ®ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Éçé¬Ææh time (Ñ construction workers (û√°‘ ¢Ë’Æ‘Y©’,
°æöÔd-îªa-†o-´÷ô.) ´vúøç-í∫’©’, plumbers) ´’†-Íé-¢Á’iØ√ ¢√∞¡Ÿx 1) As such= ´’†ç ņ’-èπ◊-ØË™«/ ´’†ç ´÷´‚-©’í¬ Oô-Though, but, despite, in spite of, however -

Gopal: You can say that. (†’´¤y correct) It needs °æöÀdç--éÓ®Ω’.) Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-èπ◊-ØË™«– not ... as such (not ûÓ) áèπ◊\´ ¢√úË B®Ω’™ î√™«
E o-öÀéà ŮΩ nç äéπõ‰ – Å®·Ø√/ Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ. Å®·ûË
some repairs and alterations. As such it callous= feeling ™‰E. ¢√úøû√ç– ´’†ç ņ’-èπ◊-ØË-N-üµ¿çí¬/ Å™« Åçõ‰ Å™« äÍé sentence ™ ûË¢√úø ú≈-©’-Ø√o®·. OöÀ™ à È®çúÕç-öÀF
is not suitable for family to move in. Gopal: That's true. However we can't do without ÅE é¬ü¿’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. ÉC Spoken English ™ ç.
î√™« common. Practice îËߪ’çúÕ. Though (he is) tall, he is not handsome =
(ü∆EéÀ éÌEo ´’®Ω-´’t-ûª’©’, ´÷®Ω’p©’ Å´-Ææ®Ωç. them.
Ö†o-°æ-∞«† Ç ÉçöxéÀ ´÷®Ωúøç èπ◊ü¿-®Ωü¿’.) (Eï¢Ë’. é¬F ¢√∞¡Ÿx ™‰EüË °æ†-´ü¿’ éπü∆?) a) He is not as such the leader, but is regarded
Åûª ú ø’ §Òúø ’-Èí jØ√ Åçü¿ -í¬úø’ é¬ü¿’. (He is not hand-
some though he is tall ÅE èπÿú≈ ÅØÌa) = He is
Venu: When do you expect it to be ready? Venu: OK. I must be going. See you. as one= Åûª†’ Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-úøçõ‰ Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊úø’ é¬ü¿’,
tall but (he is) not handsome.
é¬F Åçü¿®Ω÷ Å™« ņ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’.
It is an express train, but it is very slow =
(á°æp-öÀéÀ ûªßª÷È®j Öçô’ç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤?) (ÆæÍ®. ؈’ ¢Á∞«}L.)
Gopal: Not before Vinayaka chavithi, any way, Spoken English ™ ´’†èπ◊ áü¿’-®ΩßË’u Ææ´’Ææu– b) The car is not as such my own, but I can use
though it is an express train, it is very slow = ÅC
though the work is going on fast. it as long as I want to =
°ü¿l N≠æ-ߪ÷-©†’ îËÊ°p °ü¿l express, Å®·Ø√ ÅC î√™« slow.
Car Ø√ ≤Òçûªü∆ Åçõ‰
é¬ü¿’, é¬F ü∆Eo ؈’ Despite = in spite of = Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéà ÅØË Å®Ωnç,
(àüË-¢Á’iØ√ NØ√-ߪ’éπ îªNA ´·çü¿’ ´÷vûªç ´÷ô©’ ᙫ ¢√ú≈™ ûÁ©’-
Ø√é¬\-´-©-Æ œ†çûª 鬩ç though, but ™«í¬. OöÀE ¢√úË-ô-°æ¤púø’ ´’S} sentence
é¬ü¿’, °æE-´÷vûªç ®Ω’í¬_ ≤ƒí∫’-ûª’-†o-°æp-öÀéÃ.) Ææ’hç-C-í¬F *†o *†o N≠æ-
Venu: How much is it going to cost you? ߪ÷-©-éÌ-ÊÆhØË *èπ◊\™x °æúø’-
ûª’çö«ç. - Ç çí∫ x - ¶ µ « - ≠ æ - ù 418 ¢√úø’-éÓ-´îª’a. ®Ω÷°æç ´÷J-§Ú-ûª’çC.
(áçûª ê®Ωa-´-¶-ûÓçC Fèπ◊?) (Despite ¢√úøéπç é¬Ææh §ƒçúÕûªuç,
Gopal: Despite all the care I am ví¬çC∑éπç. Spoken English ™ Å®Ω’ü¿’)

It's not as such a house..
taking, it is likely to exceed Observe the following.
Rs. 4 lac. Such matters as Though he has (a) good command of
these often cost more than English, he rarely uses English =
our estimates. English Åûª-úÕéÀ ¶«í¬ ûÁL-Æœ-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, Åûªúø’
(؈’ î√™« ñ«ví∫-ûªh©’ BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ô’- c) The PM as such doesn't decide English He has
Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ ¢√úø-û√úø’ =
†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, Ø√©’í∫’ ©éπ~© ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ ü∆öÀ-§Ú- Ñ lesson ™ éÌEo *†o N≠æ-ߪ÷© matters. There is the cabinet and (a) good command of English but he uses
´îª’a. É™«çöÀ N≠æ-ߪ÷-™„-°æ¤púø÷ ´’† Åçîª-Ø√- Å®Ωnç, ¢√úøéπç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. (Last les- more importantly Mrs Sonia English rarely = In spite of his good command of
©†’ ü∆öÀ-§Ú-ûª÷ØË Öçö«®·.) son ™ î√™« ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ω-ùçí¬ ¢√úË, if, English, he uses it rarely = Despite (Spoken
Gandhi = v°æüµ∆†´’çvA Çߪ’-†í¬
Venu: Provided you personally supervise what- unless ©†’ îª÷¨»ç. Å™«çöÀN ´’J-éÌEo English ™ Å®Ω’ü¿’)his command of English, he
ever the masons, the carpenters, the É°æ¤púø’ îª÷ü∆lç.)
Çߪ’ØËç E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’-éÓ®Ω’. Çߪ’†
´’çvA-´®Ω_ç, Åçûª-éπçõ‰ ´·êuçí¬ uses English rarely.
plumbers and the electricians do. Now look at the following sen- However= but. Sentence †’ but ûÓ (written
tences from the conversation
≤ÚE-ߪ÷-í¬çDµ -ÖØ√o-®Ω’-éπü∆?
(û√°‘¢√∞¡Ÿx, ´vúøç-í∫’©’, F∞¡x-°j-°æ¤©’ ´÷Í®a-¢√∞¡Ÿx, English
2) Though= although= even though=
™) v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµçîªç. Å™« v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-î√-Lq-†-°æ¤púø’
electricians îËÊÆ °æEE †’´¤y ü¿í∫_-®Ω’çúÕ above. M.SURESAN but however
•ü¿’©’ ¢√úøû√ç.
1) It's not as such a house, but ... Å®·†°æpöÀéÃ. Ñ ´‚úø÷ äéπõ‰. àC
îË®·ç--èπ◊ç-õ‰ØË.) Though the book is very useful it is priced high
Gopal: That's right. Our supervision always 2) As such it is not suitable for a family to move in. ¢√úÕØ√ Å®Ωnç äéπõ‰.
= Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i-†-°æp-öÀéà üµ¿®Ω ¶«í¬ áèπ◊\¢Ë =
3) Not before Vinayaka chavithi any way, though a) Though/ Although/ Even though he is rich, he
makes a lot of difference. The book is very useful, but it is high priced. = In
the work is going on fast. leads a simple life =
(ÅçûË. ´’†ç Åéπ\úø ÖçúÕ îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊çõ‰ î√™« spite of the book being useful/ In spite of the
ûËú≈ ´Ææ’hçC.) 4) Despite all the care I am taking it is likely to Åûªúø’ üµ¿E-èπ◊-úÁjØ√ î√™« E®√-úøç-•-®Ωçí¬ @N-≤ƒhúø’. usefulness of the book, it is high priced =
Venu: It's rather tiring and a big strain not only exceed Rs. 4 lac. b) Though he can speak Telugu, he doesn't = Despite (In spite of the book/
ûª®√yûª ™«í¬ØË)
on your pocket, but also on your mind 5) Provided you personally supervise what they do. Åûªúø’ ûÁ©’í∫’ ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-L-T-†-°æp-öÀéà ´÷ö«x-úøúø’. being useful/ usefulness of the book, it is high
and body. c) Though many do not like him, they follow him priced = The book is very useful. However, it is
6) The workers are such callous fellows that
high priced. but
they don't care what happens to you. =
(É™«çöÀ °æE é¬Ææh NÆæ’í∫’ éπL-Tç-îË-C-í¬ØË î√™«-´’ç-CéÀ Åûªúø’ É≠ædç-™‰-éπ-§Ú-®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, Åûª-úÕØË È®çúø÷ (í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. Ééπ\úø ¢√úÕûË, Ñ
sentences äéπõ‰ Å®·-§Ú-´úøç.)
7) That's true. However we can't do without them.
Öçô’çC. úø•’s êÍ®a é¬èπ◊çú≈, ´’†-Ææ’èπ◊, ņ’-Ææ-J-≤ƒh®Ω’.
¨¡K-®√-EéÀ èπÿú≈ v¨¡¢Ë’.)
EXERCISE That he always carries a gun with him is just Nothing would induce me to vote for him Japan excels all the western countries in
Match the words under A with their a bluff =ûª†ûÓ á°æ¤púø÷ ûª’§ƒéà Öçô’ç-ü¿E Åûª- again = àC èπÿú≈ ††’o ´’Sx ÅûªúÕéÀ ãô’ ¢ËÊÆ™« technology = ≤ƒçÍé-Aéπ ®Ωçí∫ç™ ï§ƒØ˛ §ƒ¨»aûªu
meanings under B úøØË ´÷ô©’ ´öÀd •÷ô-éπ¢Ë’/ •’é¬-®·çÊ°. The drug induces sleep=
îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’. Ç ´’çü¿’ ü˨»-©†’ ÅCµ-í∫-N’ç-*çC.
A B They bluffed their way past the security to the Evü¿ éπLTÆæ’hçC. Surpass/ excel X underperform (´’†ç
1. Bluff A. Basic minister = á´-J¢Á÷ ÅE îÁ°æ¤p-éÌE/ •’é¬-®·ç* Incentive X Disincentive. ÇPç-*-†-ü∆-E-éπçõ‰ ûªèπ◊\´ ≤ƒCµç-îªúøç)
2. Incentive B. Advanced ¶µºvü¿û√ Æœ•sç-C-E-ü∆öÀ ´’çvA-ü∆é¬ ¢Á∞«x®Ω’. Inducement X determent (E®Ó-üµ¿éπç) 5-A. Fundamental = Basic = ¢Ë’L-®Ω-éπ-¢Á’i†/
3. Staunch C. Trick
2-D. Incentive = Inducement = v§Úû√q-£æ«éπç/ 3-E. Staunch = Strong =
4. Surpass D. Inducement í∫öÀd/ •©-¢Á’i†– äéπ-JéÀîËa v§ƒü∑¿-N’éπ (ÅA-´·-êu-¢Á’i†)
5. Fundamental E. Strong vÊ°®Ω-ù«ç¨¡ç. ã ÆæçÆæn-™E ÖüÓu-í∫’©’ áèπ◊\´ Ææ´’- ´’ü¿lûª’/ äéπJ°æôx NüµË-ߪ’ûª (loyalty) N≠æ-ߪ’ç™. Violence is against the fundamental princi-
F. Excel ®Ωnçí¬, Öû√q-£æ«çûÓ °æE-îË-ÊÆ™« v§Úûªq£œ«ç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ He is a staunch supporter of congress party ples of Hinduism = £œ«çÆæ ÅØËC £œ«çü¿÷ v§ƒü∑¿-
G. Secretive ´Ææ’h/ üµ¿† ®Ω÷°æç™ ÉîËa •£æ›-´’-ûª’©’, commis- = Åûªúø’ Congress party éÀ •©-¢Á’i† ´’ü¿l-ûª’-ü∆- N’éπ/ ´’¯Léπ Ææ÷vû√-©èπ◊ ´uA-Í®éπç.
KEY: 1-C. Bluff = Trick - Å•-ü∆l¥©’ îÁ°œp ûª°æ¤p-ü∆J sion (@û√-EéÀ Åü¿-†çí¬), °æüÓ-†oA (promotion) ®Ω’úø’/ í∫öÀd congress ¢√C. Truth is fundamental to Gandhism = Ææûªuç
°æöÀdç-îªúøç/ ¢Á÷Ææ-Tç-îªúøç/ •’é¬-®·çîªúøç. ™«çöÀN. Nü∆u-®Ω’n-©-éÀîËa merit prizes/ scholar- Britain is staunch ally of the US = í¬çDµ-ûª-û√y-EéÀ v§ƒü∑¿-N’-éπ-¢Á’i-†C/ ÅA ´·êu-¢Á’i-†C.
He bluffed to me that he was a CBI man = ships èπÿú≈ incentives. These are the fundamentals of maths- addi-
The chance of getting bribes acts as an
vGôØ˛ Å¢Á’-Jé¬èπ◊ •©-¢Á’i† N’vûª-ü˨¡ç.
CBI (Central Bureau of Investigation) tion, subtraction, multiplication and division =
ally (Å™„j) = N’vûª-ü˨¡ç/ N’vûª-§ƒKd, etc.
ûª†’ éÀ
Ææç•çCµç*† ¢√úÕ-†E †´’t-•-L-é¬úø’/ •’é¬-®·ç- incentive in some government departments
He is a staunch believer in Mahatma's princi-
èπÿúÕéπ, BÆœ-¢Ëûª, í∫’ù-鬮Ωç, ¶µ«í∫-£æ…®Ωç– ÉN í∫ùÀ-û√-EéÀ
î√úø’. ´·êuçí¬ àüÁjØ√ °æE-îË-®·ç--èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ àüÓ = éÌEo v°æ¶µº’ûªy ¨»ê™x ©çî√©’ §ÒçüË Å´-鬨¡ç
ples =
´‚™«©’.
íÌ°æp £æ«Ùü∆™ Ö†o-¢√-∞¡Ÿxí¬/ íÌ°æp £æ«Ùü∆™x Ö†o-¢√- v§Úû√q£æ«-éπçí¬ °æE-îË-Ææ’hçC. Fundamental (v§ƒü∑¿-N’éπç)
∞¡xèπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ¢√∞¡Ÿxí¬ •’é¬-®·ç-îªúøç, bluffing. Inducement= vÊ°Í®-°æù/ °æ¤J-éÌ-©púøç.
Åûªúø’ í¬çDµ üµ¿®√t©†’ í∫öÀdí¬ †N’t-†-¢√úø’.
X Advanced (Ö†o-ûª-≤ƒn®·)
She bluffs that she is the close relative of the Staunch X wavering (E®Ωg-®·ç--éÓ-™‰éπ ÜT-Ææ-™«úË)
His taking alcohol is the result of his friend's Fundamental (´·êu-¢Á’i†)
DIG = DIG éÀ ü¿í∫_®Ω ö«d-†oE Ç¢Á’ îÁ°æ¤p-éÌç-öçC inducement = 4-F. Surpass = Excel = ÅCµ-í∫-N’ç-îªúøç.
X Secondary (ûªèπ◊\´ v§ƒ´·-êu-´·†o)
(àüÓ ¢Á÷Ææç îËÊÆçü¿’èπ◊)– Åçû√ •÷ôéπç. The sales surpassed all our estimations =
Food, clothing and shelter are fundamental.
Åûªúø’ û√í∫ôç, ÅûªúÕ ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’úÕ v§Úû√q£æ« °∂æL-ûª¢Ë’.
He says he can speak three or four lan- Induce = vÊ°Í®-°œç-îªúøç.
Å´’t-鬩’ ´÷ Åçîª-Ø√-©†’ ÅCµ-í∫-N’ç-î√®·/ ü∆öÀ-§Ú-
The rest are secondary =
guages, but I doubt he is bluffing = Åûªúø’ The old woman induce the girl to prostitution
ߪ÷®·.
Tendulkar, by scoring this century surpassed èπÿúø’, í∫’úøf, í∫÷úø’ ÉN @Nûª ´·ë«u-´-Ææ-®√©’.
´‚úø’ Ø√©’í∫’ ¶µ«≠æ©’ ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©-†ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’. = Ç ´·Ææ-™«¢Á’ Ç Å´÷t-®·E ´uGµ-î√®Ωç™éÀ
é¬F Ø√ ņ’-´÷†ç Åûªúø•ü∆l¥©’ îÁ°æ¤h-Ø√o-úøE /Åçû√ himself = Ñ ´çü¿ score îËߪ’-úøçûÓ õ„çúø÷-©\®˝ N’í∫-û√N ûª®√yûª.
G) Secretive = í∫’綵º-†çí¬ ÖçúË Ææy¶µ«´ç.
Cç°œçC.
•÷ô-éπ-´’E. ûª††’ ûªØË ÅCµ-í∫-N’ç-î√úø’.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C¢√®Ωç 10 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

-v°æ-¨¡o: éÀç-C-¢√-öÀ í∫’-Jç-* -N-´ 4) & 5) As far as = So far as = ´®Ωèπ◊
-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. As far as I know = So far as I know =
1. You are not supposed to Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-Æœ-†ç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊.
go there. 6) †’´yC îËÆæ’ç-úø-èπÿúøü¿E ņ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’= †’´yC
2. áçûª éπ≠æd-°æ-ú≈fØÓ Åçûª îËÆæ’ç-úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
®√¨»†’. 7) I have been to Vijayawada-
3. The fight have taken ؈’ Nï-ߪ’-¢√-úøèπ◊ ¢ÁRx ´î√a†’. (Åéπ\-úÕéÀ ¢ÁRx-†ç-
place between one anoth- ü¿’-´©x) Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø ûÁ©’Ææ’ ÅE.
er/ between each other. I have been to him=
4. As far as; 5. So far as ؈ûªúÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊E/ ÅûªúÕ ü¿í∫_JéÀ ¢ÁRx ´î√a†’
6. You are not supposed to have done it.
-v°æ-¨¡o: 1. a) What is poetry?, b) What is prose?, Imagination is its important quality.
ÅE. (ûÁL-ߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a).
7. I have been to Vijayawada- Vijayawada
Åçõ‰ 8) Whereas = ûËú≈ ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úË ´÷ô.
c) What is novel?, d) What is fiction? Each line, or each set of lines has a definite
I have been to him
Ø√èπ◊ ¶«í¬ ûÁ©’Ææ’. Å™«Íí He is tall whereas his brother is short = – OöÀéÀ
Ææç•ç-Cµç* simple definitions
í¬ É´yí∫-©®Ω’. pattern of syllables, stressed and unstressed.
Åçõ‰ Åûªúø’ Ø√èπ◊ ¶«í¬ ûÁ©’Ææ-ØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçü∆? Åûªúø’ §Òúø’í∫’ é¬F ÅûªúÕ ûª´·túø’ §ÒöÀd.
2. English prose substance b) Any piece of writing, long or short, on any
8. Where as; 9. Have to be taken 9) Have to be taken =
äéπ °æ-ü¿uç -™‰-ü∆ èπ◊
topic and with a logical sequence of thought.
BÆæ’-éÓ-•-ú≈L
matter
ûªßª÷-®Ω’-îË-ÊÆ-ô-°æ¤púø’ tense
Åçû√ äÍé ™,
These medicines have to be taken for a
ï¢√•’: c) Novel = A long story with a definite plot, and
– Ææ÷®Ω-ñ¸-¶«¶«, É©xçü¿’ simple present
month-
ÅC-èπÿú≈ ™ØË Öçú≈™«? Ææçü¿-
®√s¥Eo •öÀd ÅEo tenses Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-´î√a? äéπ having a logical sequence of events.
1) You are not supposed to go there = ã ØÁ©-§ƒ-ô’ Ñ ´’çü¿’©’ BÆæ’-éÓ-•ú≈L (´÷´‚©’ *†o °æü¿uç É*a ü∆E ¶µ«´ç N´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. d) Fiction = Any story- a short story or a novel.
ûÁ©’í∫’– BÆæ’éÓ-¢√L).
†’´y-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞¡xúøç èπÿúø-ü¿-†’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’/ †’´y-éπ\-úÕéÀ 3. ''The grass is always greener on the other 2. Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd Å®Ωnç îÁúø-èπ◊çú≈ à tense Å®·Ø√
¢Á∞¡x-èπÿ-úøü¿’. side is"-
Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? ¢√úø-´îª’a. Å®·ûË narrate îËÊÆ-°æ¤púø’ present
2) I wrote as much as I worked hard. tense é¬F, past tense é¬F ¢√úøû√ç.
ï¢√•’: 1. (a) Poetry= éπNûªyç / 鬴uç=
– öÀ.M-™«-í¬-ߪ’vA, û√úË-°æ-Lx-í∫÷úÁç
3) The fight has (fight have fight
é¬ü¿’, it Åçõ‰ ã English poem †’ É*a Å®Ωnç N´Jç’E
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 419
鬕öÀd,has taken place between one
®√¢√L) A piece of writing in metrical lines (mea- ÅúÕ-í¬®Ω’. ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ N´-J≤ƒhç. Å®·ûË v°æÆæ’hûªç
another- correct Éü¿l-J-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\-´-´’çC ûªí∫-¢ÁjûË; sured lines) expressing deep thought, Ææn™«-¶µ«´ç ´©x É´y-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’Ø√oç.
between each other- feeling and emotion. 3. ''-§Ò®Ω’-Tç-öÀ °æ¤©x-èπÿ®Ω ®Ω’*—— Å-E– ü∆ü∆°æ¤. ´’†-èπ◊-†oN
Éü¿lJ ´’üµ¿uØË ûªí∫-¢ÁjûË.
¶«í¬ ÖØ√o èπÿú≈, Éûª®Ω’©-èπ◊-†oN -Éçé¬ -¶«í∫’ç-ö«®·

I have had cof fee just now
ņ’-èπ◊ØË Ææy¶µ«´ç.
(The grass is always greener on the other
side of the fence = éπçîÁèπ◊ Å´-ûªL í∫úÕf Ééπ\úÕ
í∫úÕféπçõ‰ °æîªa†).

-v°æ-¨¡o: 1) Having, being, getting. -O-öÀ Å®√n-©-†’ = ¶«í¬ úø•’sç-úø-ôçûÓ/ b) To be a captain is difficult = Captain í¬ Had had - the past perfect tense of have - for
the earlier of two past actives:
-Ö-ü∆£æ«®Ω-ù-©-ûÓ -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. Ö†oç-ü¿’-´©x Åûª-úÕéÀ car Öçúøôç éπ≠d¢æ Ë’. (á°æ¤p-úø-®·Ø√)
I had had a Maruthi car before I bought this
2) Keep -ûÓ -´-îËa prepositions, keeping -Å®Ωnç ≤Úh´’ûª ÖçC. Will be Åçõ‰ future ™ Öçúøôç éπü∆? Honda =
(2) having + past partici-
-ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. a) He will be here in a few minutes = Ééπ éÌCl
Ñ £æ«Ùçú≈ 鬮Ω’ é̆éπ-´·çü¿’ Ø√éÓ
ple- Having done, having
3) Make, do éÀ -ûË-ú≈ -à-N’-öÀ? EN’-≥ƒ™x Åûª-úÕ-éπ\-úø’ç-ö«úø’ (future). ´÷®Ω’B 鬮Ω’ ÖçúËC.
gone, etc äéπ °æE-îË-ߪ’úøç 7) Take off, coming up, put out -O-ô-Eoç-öÀ-E prepo-
4) To be, will be – -ûË-ú≈ -à-N’-öÀ? b) They will be ministers if he becomes the
sitional phrases/ phrasal verbs Åçö«ç. ÉN
5) Future continuous tense -™ will be -•-ü¿’-©’ ´©x/ îËߪ’-úøçûÓ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ CM= CM
M.SURESAN ¶µ«≠æ ¢√úø’-éπ™ ´îËa-¢Ë-é¬F OöÀéÀ rules Åçô÷
Åûªúø’ Å®·ûË ¢√∞¡Ÿx ´’çvûª’-©’í¬
to be -¢√-úÌ-î√a? ¢√úøû√ç. Öçö«®Ω’(future).
a) Having seen the movie, he can tell us
Öçúø´¤. ûÁ©’-í∫’™, ''Åçûª ûËLí¬_ éÌöÀd-§ƒ-Í®-ߪ’èπ◊ Ñ
6) Have (v1), had (v2), had (v3) -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. 5) Ñ question Åçûª Ææp≠ædçí¬ ™‰ü¿’. future contin- N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo—— Åçö«ç. ûÁ©’í∫’ ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊ØË English
Have had, had had - -Ö-ü∆£æ«®Ω-ù-L-´yí∫-©®Ω’. whether it is good or bad = Ç ÆœE´÷ uous •ü¿’©’ to be ®√ü¿’. ¢√úÕéÀ, Ñ Å®Ωnç ´’†ç îÁÊ°h-é¬F Å®Ωnç-é¬ü¿’ éπü∆. Ñ
7) -N-´÷-†ç take off -Å®·ç-ü¿ç-ö«®Ω’. -É-™« verb
îª÷¨»-úø’í¬ Åûªúø’?/ îª÷Æœ-†ç-ü¿’-´©x, ÅüÁ™« ÖçüÓ 6) Have (pr.tense) - had (past tense) had (past English phrasal verbs èπÿú≈ ÅçûË. îªü¿-´-úøç-´©x
°æéπ\-† off- -®√-´-úøç, coming up.. í∫’-Jç-* Åûªúø’ îÁ°æp-í∫-©úø’. participle) -
OöÀ Å®Ωnç éπLT Öçúøôç ÅE ûÁ©’-Ææ’- É´Fo ûÁ©’-≤ƒh®·.
b) Having studied in the college for 2 years, have had, had had
-ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. éπü∆? Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úË OöÀéÀ, 8) Direct, Interrogative sentence ™ØË-é¬éπ Indirect
I know a lot about it = Ç college ™ verbs have had have had
8) Direct, Interrogative sentence ™ØË-é¬éπ ™«çöÀ ™, ™, èπÿ, speech ™†÷, other kinds of sentences ™
-É-ûª®Ω sentences ™ èπÿú≈ who ´Ææ’hç-ü∆? È®çúË∞¡Ÿx îªC-N-†ç-ü¿’-´©x ü∆Eoí∫’Jç* ؈’ î√™« had ™ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ had èπÿ, àç Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰ü¿’. èπÿú≈ who ´Ææ’hçC éπü∆?
îÁ°æp-í∫-©†’. have, had, verb form
He asked me who had done it. Ñ sentence
-á-™« -Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ-¢√-L. -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. Ééπ\úÕ îËߪ’ú≈EéÀ ûÓúøp-úø-
c) Having gone there, he saw for himself what Independent status
9) -éÀç-C -¢√é¬u-©-†’ -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. û√®·. ÅçûË. ¢√öÀéÀ ™‰ü¿’. Indirect speech ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈ statement
kind of place it is = Åéπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞¡xúøç ´©x ÅC I have had 2 cups of coffee so far = verb -
1. -á-´-J -É-≠ædç -¢√-∞¡x-C. 2. -F-´¤ -á-´-J í∫’-Jç-* îÁ°æ¤- (Interrogative é¬èπ◊çú≈) èπÿú≈. Ééπ\-úø -èπÿú≈
ûª’-Ø√-o-¢Ó -Ø√èπ◊ -Å®Ωnç é¬-´-úøç -™‰-ü¿’. 3. -F-´¤ -Ñ á™«çöÀ v°æüË-¨¡¢Á÷ ûª†èπ◊ û√ØË ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-í∫-Lí¬úø’. have had - have + had (past participle of who ´*açC éπü∆? O’ ÆæçüË£æ«ç àN’ö Ææp≠ædçí¬
°æ-E -á-´-J-ûÓ-ØÁj-Ø√ -îË®·ç-éÓ-´-a. 4. -Ç -Ø√-©’í∫’ Being = Ö†oç- ü¿’-´©x, Öçúø-ôçûÓ have) - tense present perfect- Å®Ωnç– 1) É°æp-öÀ- ûÁ©-°æçúÕ.
1) Being ill, he cannot attend college= ï•’sí¬ time
9) 1) Every one has their own likes and dislikes.
°æ¤Ææhé¬-©-™ -Ñ È®ç-úø’ °æ¤Ææhé¬-©’ -¶„-ô®˝. ´-®Ωèπ◊ éπLT Öçúøôç 2) í∫ûªç™ ûÁLߪ’-
Ö†oç- ü ¿’ -´ ©x, Åûªúø’ college éÀ ®√™‰úø’. †-°æ¤púø’, éπLT Öçúøôç 3) É°æ¤púø’ àüÁjØ√ BÆæ’-éÓ- 2) I do not understand who you are talking
ï¢√•’: Having (1) éπLT Ö†o ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ–
– -¢Áj.-áÆˇ.-T-J, é¬éÀ-Ø√-úø
2) Being tall, he can bowl well= Åûªúø’ §Òúø’í¬_ ´úøç (A†úøç/ û√í∫úøç). about.
/ Öçúø-ôçûÓ ¶«í¬ bowl îËߪ’-í∫-©úø’. a) I have had the opportunity once = äéπ\-≤ƒJ
a) Having a car, he can easily go places = Öçúø -ô ç -´ ©x 3) You can get/have this job done by any one
2) & 3) Get, Keep ûÓ ´îËa ´÷ô©÷, make, do ©èπ◊ Ø√é¬ Å´-鬨¡ç éπL-TçC (Past - time not you like OR you can get any body to/
鬮Ω’ Öçúøôç-´©x Åûªúø’ Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬ Ü∞¡Ÿx A®Ω-í∫- known). have any body do the job OR you
ûËú ≈©÷ §ƒûª lessons ™ N´-®Ωçí¬ îÁ§ƒpç. îª÷úøçúÕ.
b) They have had three chances so far=
í∫-©úø’.
4) to be = can make anybody do the job.
b) Having cancer, he is unable to move about Öçúø ô ç (á°æ¤p-úÁjØ√ 鬴a) É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ´‚úø’ Å´é¬-¨»©’ ´î√a®·. 4) Of these four books, these two are better
Åûª-úÕéÀ cancer Ö†oç-ü¿’-´©x A®Ω-í∫-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. a) To be here any longer is dangerous =
c) I have had coffee just now, I don't want any than the other two books. OR These
c) Having a lot of money, he can offered car Ééπ\úø à´÷vûªç Öçúøôç v°æ´÷-ü¿¢Ë’ (É°æ¤púË). more = coffee
É°æ¤púË BÆæ’èπ◊Ø√o. Åéπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. two are the better of the 4 books.

-v°æ-¨¡o: ' ؈’ Ç ®Ω£æ«Ææuç -•-ߪ’-ôèπ◊ îÁ°æp-ü¿-©--éÓ-™‰ü¿’— ņo ¢√é¬u-Eo -v°æ-¨¡o: Please translate the following sen- -v°æ-¨¡o: ؈’
Rapidex book, spo- O’ ï¢√•’: üµÁj®Ωuçí¬ ÆæçéÓîªç ™‰èπ◊çú≈,
ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ "I do not want to open the secret" í¬ îÁ°æp-´î√a? tence in Telugu. ken English lessons, Éûª®Ω ûª°æ¤p-©’ ´÷ö«x-úø’û√ØË¢Á÷ ÅØË
Éçé¬ better í¬ á™« îÁ§ƒpL? "A contract contingent on not happen- English books îªü¿’-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o†’. ¶„®Ω’èπ◊ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ´÷ö«x-úø’ûª÷
Å™«Íí interrogative sentence ©™ regular í¬ "why you are ing of some event in future can be í∫’®Ω’h-°-ô’d-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. é¬F Éûª- Öç-úøçúÕ. È®çúø’ -ØÁ-©™x ´÷®Ω’p
going?" éπÈ®é¬d ™‰éπ "Why are you going?" éπÈ®é¬d? N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. enforced if that event becomes impos- ®Ω’-©ûÓ ´÷ö«x-úË-ô-°æ¤púø’ reply éπE°œ-Ææ’hçC.
sible." i) Gí∫_-®Ωí¬ ´÷ö«x-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æߪ’-
ï¢√•’: 1. ®Ω£æ«Ææuç ™«çöÀ N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ -•-ߪ’-ô°ôdúøç/ Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊
– ´’ØÓ-®Ωç-ïE, Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø ûªy®Ωí¬ É´y-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o†’. àç
ï¢√•’: ''¶µºN-≠æu-û˝™ äéπ Ææç°∂æ’-ô† ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’
– >.Ç-®˝.-¢Á÷-£æ«-Ø˛-®√´¤, Å™xç°æ¤®Ωç îËߪ÷™ ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. Aoç-’. (Gí∫_-®Ωí¬ ´÷ö«x-ú≈-Lq-
ûÁL-ߪ’-îËߪ’úøç= reveal. éÀçC ¢√öÀ Å®√n©’ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’. †-°æ¤púø’ Å™« îËߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´úøç)
I don't want to reveal the secret. ņ’-èπ◊†o °æJ-Æœn-A™/ v§ƒA-°æ-Céπ O’ü¿ i) I don't try to speak loudly. ii) Gí∫_-®Ωí¬ ´÷ö«x-úø-èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúËç-
2. Question question
éπü∆? verb
™ á°æ¤púø÷subject ûª®√yûË èπ◊C-J† ä°æpçü¿ç, Ç Ææç°∂æ’-ô† -ÅÆæç-¶µº-´ç ii) I try not to speak loudly. ü¿’èπ◊ v°æߪ’-Ao-≤ƒh†’. (Gí∫_-®Ωí¬
´Ææ’hçC. So, why are you going? [(are (verb) + you (sub- Å®·Ø√ Å´’-™x-éÀ -´-Ææ’hçC.—— (English – áÆˇ.-Èé.-ñ«FN’ߪ÷, ´÷ö«x-úøôç ´’ç*C é¬éπ-§Ú-®·-
ject)] correct. ¢√éπuç Åçûª- Ææp-≠dçæ í¬ ™‰ü¿’). -Lçí∫-T-J, -†-™Ô_ç-úø ->-™«x †-°æpúø’).

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 14 -°∂œ-v•-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Gopal: I discussed the matter with him yester- Gopal: Yea. Such things do happen. Why some
day for nearly two hours. times? Quite often.
(ØËF N≠æߪ’ç E†o Åûª-úÕûÓ È®çúø’ í∫çô-©- (Å´¤†’ Å™«çöÀN ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’ç-ö«®·. éÌEo-
ÊÆ°æ¤ îªJaç-î√†’) ≤ƒ-Í®xçöÀ? ûª®Ω--í¬ØË.)
Padma: Hence you couldn't see me yesterday, Padma: You can always score high providing/
you mean? provided you know the technique of
preparation. A thorough study of previ-
(Åçü¿’-´©x E†o †’´¤y ††’o éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-™‰-éπ ous years' question papers will help
you know what areas you've to study
-§Ú-ߪ÷-†ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤ éπü∆?)
Gopal: Exactly. He was rather unwilling to well. Not always it is necessary to study
come here, but somehow I persuaded the subject from end to end.
him to finally he agreed. (ûªßª÷-®Ω-¢√-Lq† éÀô’èπ◊ ûÁLÊÆh °æK-éπ~™x áèπ◊\´ b) It's been raining heavily for the past twen- Sukumar is going to marry the girl, notwith-
(ÅçûË, Åûªúø’ Ééπ\-úÕéÀ ´îËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ é¬Ææh ´÷®Ω’\©’ ûÁa-éÓ-´îª’a. éÀçü¿-õ‰-ú≈C question
ty four hours. Hence the late arrival of a standing his parents' objection =
Å®·-≠dçæ -í¬ØË ÖØ√oúø’, é¬F ᙫíÓ Åûª-úÕE papers °æK-Q-LÊÆh àßË’ Å稻©’ ¶«í¬ îªC-NûË
number of trains =
ä°œpç-î√†’.) î√™ ûÁL-Æœ-§Ú-ûª’çC. Subject †’ ¢Á·ü¿-öÀ-†’ç* í∫ûª 24 í∫çô-©’í¬ ûª† ûªLx-ûªç-vúø’©èπ◊ Ŷµºuç-ûª-®Ω-ç -Ö†o-°æp-öÀéà Ææ’èπ◊-´÷®˝
persuade = °æÆˇ-¢Á-ß˝’ú˛ (°æÆˇ, bird ™ '•— ™«) = *´-J-´-®Ωèπÿ îªü¿-´úøç á°æ¤púø÷ Å´-Ææ®Ωç é¬ü¿’) ¶µ«K ´®Ω{ç èπ◊®Ω’-≤ÚhçC. Ç é¬®Ω-ùç-í¬ØË È®j∞¡xFo Ç Å´÷t-®·E °∞«x-úø¶-ûª’-Ø√oúø’.
Gopal: That's true. OK. Shall we start for the Notwithstanding, °æ‹Jhí¬ §ƒçúÕûªuç, ví¬çC∑éπç.
†îªa-ñ„-°æpúøç/ ä°œpç-îªúøç. Ç©-Ææuçí¬ îË®Ω’-ûª’-Ø√o®·.
I can persuade him to join our team = ´’† college now? Å®·ûË hence ví¬çC∑éπç. Conversation ™ ÉüË Å®Ωnç ´îËa nevertheless èπÿú≈ ÅçûË.
team ™ îËÍ®ô’xí¬ Øˆ-ûª-úÕE ä°œpçîª-í∫-©†’. (Eï¢Ë’. College éÀ •ßª’-©’-üË-®Ω-ü∆´÷?) ¢√úøç. So, therefore, because ™«çöÀN Spoken English™ NE-°œç-îªü¿’ (á´-È®jØ√ ¢√úÕûË
Padma: How is he preparing for the exams? Padma: OK.
áèπ◊\´í¬ ¢√úøû√ç. Å®Ωn-´’-ßË’uç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ñ ví¬çC∑éπ v°æßÁ÷-í¬©’ Ééπ\úø
(°æK-éπ~-©-È陫 ûªßª÷-®Ω-´¤-ûª’-Ø√oúø’?) c) He is lazy. Hence his unwillingness to work
= Åûªúø’ •ü¿l-éπ-Ææ’húø’. Åçü¿’Íé à °æE-îË-ÊÆç-ü¿’èπÿ
îË®√aç. ´’†ç ´÷ö«x-úË-ô-°æ¤púø’ ¢√úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ é¬ü¿’).
Gopal: Quite well, I hope. He is the hard work- OöÀéÀ •ü¿’©’ ´’†ç ¢√úø-í∫-L-T† ´÷ô©’– In spite
ing type. So he is sure to succeed.
É≠æd-°æ-úøúø’. of, though, but, although, even though -OöÀE
2) Rather = éÌçîÁç áèπ◊\¢Ë (´’†èπ◊ †îªaE
(¶«í¬ØË Å†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. Åûªúø’ é¬Ææh éπ≠d-°æ æúË
®Ωéπ¢Ë’. éπ†’éπ Nïߪ’ç éπ©’-í∫’-ûª’ç-ü¿ØË Å†’-èπ◊ç- -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 420 N≠æ-ߪ÷©’) last lesson ™ N´-Jçî√ç éπü∆?
5) Because of = Åçü¿’-´©x.
a) Because of his fever he can't
ô’Ø√o.)
Padma: You can't always be sure.

He was rather unwilling
attend class today =
Sometimes not withstand-
Because he has a fever he can't
ing one's efforts, one is not
attend class today =
sure of success. There's
that element of luck too,
Åûªúø’ ïy®Ωç ´©x/ Åûªúø’ ïy®ΩçûÓ
isn't there?
Öçúø-ôç- ´©x class èπ◊ ®√™‰úø’.
Spoken English ™ ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢√ú≈-Lq-´îËa con- a) The day is rather hot = Because of ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷ noun/ ing form
(á°æ¤púø÷ Å™« Å´¤-ûª’ç-ü¿E í∫öÀdí¬ îÁ°æp™‰ç. nectives ÅØË *†o *†o ´÷ô© ¢√úøéπç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çõ‰ É¢√∞¡ éÌçîÁç áçúø-í¬ØË ´Ææ’hçC. Because ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷ verb ´Ææ’hçC.
éÌEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x, ´’†ç áçûª í∫öÀdí¬ v°æߪ’-Aoç-*Ø√, ´’†ç ´÷ö«xúË English î√™« correct í¬, Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬
Nïߪ’ç éπ©’-í∫’-ûª’ç-ü¿E í∫öÀdí¬ †´’t™‰ç. Öçô’ç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊Ø√oç éπü∆? É°æ¤púø’ ´’J-éÌEo ´÷ô©’ ÖçC (Åçü¿’-´©x Å≤˘- b) Because of his help I passed the exam.
Åü¿%-≠d-´æ ’-ØËC èπÿú≈ ûÓúø-¢√L éπü∆?) éπ®Ωuç) [Because of + help (noun)] = ÅûªúÕ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç
b) The movie is rather dull pass = Because he
Gopal: Yea. I agree with you there. How hard
îª÷ü∆lç. ´©x ؈’ Åߪ÷u†’.
Look at the following expressions from the = helped me I passed the exam [Because +
you've worked or whether you've
Ç ÆœE´÷ éÌçîÁç NÆæ’Íí
worked hard at all doesn't matter. conversation above. (Åçûª ¶«í¬ ™‰ü¿’) helped (verb)] = Åûªúø’ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’úøç ´©x
M.SURESAN
Ultimately it is the marks that you get 1) Hence you couldn't see me, you mean ÉN îª÷úøçúÕ: pass Åߪ÷u†’.
that counts, isn't it? 2) He was rather unwilling. 1)The movie is dull = ÆœE´÷ ¶«í¬-™‰ü¿’. 6) Providing = Provided = if Å®·-ûËØË (Condition)
(Å´¤†’. †’´y-ØËC ØËØÌ-°æ¤p-éÌçö«. †’¢Áyçûª 3) Notwithstanding one's efforts, one is not sure 2) The movie is rather dull = ÅçûËç ¶«í¬-™‰ü¿’. a) Provided/ Providing you pay the money in
éπ≠d-°æ æ-ú≈f´¤, ÅÆæ©’ éπ≠d-°æ æ-ú≈f¢√ ™‰ü∆ ÅØËC é¬ü¿’ of success. 3) The movie is very dull= Ç ÆœE´÷ î√™« advance, you can get the books = †’´¤y
4) Ultimately it is the marks that you get that
´·êuç. *´-JéÀ áEo ´÷®Ω’\©’ †’´¤y ûÁa- îÁûªhí¬ ÖçC. ´·çü¿’ úø•’s-éπ-úÕ-ûËØË Fèπ◊ Ç °æ¤Ææh-é¬-™Ô-≤ƒh®·.
(rather, very éπçõ‰ ûªèπ◊\´.) b) I don't mind your coming to the movie pro-
matters.
èπ◊-Ø√o-´-ØËüË ´·êuç, éπü∆?)
Padma: That's because of the exam system we c) The modern movies are rather noisy = vided/ providing you pay for your ticket
5) That's because of the exam system we have. =F
have. We sometimes see surprize v°æÆæ’hûª ÆœE-´÷©’ íÌúø¢Ë/ íÌúø-¢Á-èπ◊\´í¬ØË ticket
6) You can always score high providing you
èπ◊ †’´¤y úø•’s °ô’d-èπ◊çõ‰ †’´¤y Ø√ûÓ
results- the not so thorough student Öçö«®·.
know the technique of preparation.
ÆœE-´÷-éÌÊÆh Ø√Íéç Ŷµºuç-ûª®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.
scoring more than the thorough one. 3) Notwithstanding = In spite of = Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ. c) Provided he is fit he can join the team =
1) Hence = for this reason =
Notwithstanding public opposition, the gov-
(ÅC ´’† °æKé~¬ Nüµ∆-†ç-´©x. éÌEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x Ǩ¡a- Ñ é¬®Ω-ùçí¬. fit
Åûªúø’ í¬ Öçõ‰ (ÇúË ÆœnA™ Öçõ‰) team ™
®Ωu-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† °∂æL-û√©’ îª÷Ææ’hçö«ç– N≠æߪ’ç a) Kumar is quite hardworking. Hence his ernment wants to postpone the elections = îË®Ìa.
Åçû√ èπ~◊ùoçí¬ ûÁL-Æœ† Nü∆uJn éπçõ‰, Åçûªí¬ success = èπ◊´÷®˝ î√™« éπ≠d-°æ æúÕ °æE-îË-≤ƒhúø’/ v°æñ«-´u-A-Í®-éπûª Ö†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, v°æ¶µº’ûªyç áEo-éπ-©†’
ûÁL-ߪ’E Nü∆uJnéÀ áèπ◊\´ ´÷®Ω’\©’ ®√´úøç.) éπ%≠œ îË≤ƒhúø’. ÅûªúÕ Nï-ߪ÷-E-éπüË é¬®Ωùç. ¢√®·ü∆ ¢Ëߪ÷-©-†’-èπ◊ç-öçC.

EXERCISE: Match the words under A with b) It's difficult to imagine the world without b) Don't hurry. Pause for a while to think
Eï¢Ë’. O’ Å´÷t®· FéÀ≠dçæ ™‰E °Rx îËÆæ’-èπ◊çC.
their meanings under B aviation = N´÷-†-ߪ÷†ç ™‰E v°æ°æç-î√Eo about it clearly = ûÌçü¿-®Ω-°æ-úøèπ◊. é¬Ææh Çí∫’ ü∆E Å®·-§Ú-®·ç-üËüÓ Å®·-§Ú-®·ç-C-éπü∆? £æ›çü∆í¬
A B Ü£œ«ç--éÓ-´úøç éπ≠dçæ . í∫’Jç* Ææp≠ædçí¬ Ç™-*ç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊. íı®Ω-´-F-ߪ’çí¬ ûª††’ ÇQ-®Ωy-Cç* °RxE Ç¢Á÷-
1 Aviation A Stop Avian = °æèπ~◊-©èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*†. Aviation- pro- c) She paused for breath as she spoke very
2 Intentional B Polite and pleasant nunciation- áß˝’-N-ßÁ’-ß˝’-≠æØ˛ – ßÁ’ß˝’ ØÌéÀ\
Cç.
angrily= î√™« éÓ°æçûÓ ´÷ö«x-úø’ûª÷ é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ c) Though very elderly, he had the grace
behaviour °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç. Avionics - N´÷-Ø√-©™ ¢√úË elec-
3 Pause C Mark tronic °æJ-éπ-®√-©èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç*† ¨»ÆæYç.
ÇTçC, Ü°œJ °‘©’a-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊. to accept his mistakes and apologize =
4 Grace D Doubtless [Electronic °æJ-éπ-®√™x, pause button Öçô’çC
2) Intentional - (G) = deliberate = ÖüËl-¨¡-°æ‹-®Ωy-éπ- °ü¿l-¢√-úÁjØ√, ûª† ûª°æ¤p-©†’ ä°æ¤p-éÌE éπ~´÷-°æù
5 Scar E Aircraft technology éπü∆? ü∆Eo ØÌéÀ\ûË ÅC ÇT-§Ú-ûª’çC] éÓÍ® £æ›çü∆/ íı®Ω-´-F-ߪ’ûª Åûªúø’ îª÷°œç-î√úø’.
F Think
¢Á’i†. àüÁjØ√ îËߪ÷-©†o ÖüËl-¨¡ç-ûÓØË îËߪ’úøç.
a) His delay in meeting her was intentional = Pause X resume (´’Sx v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îªôç) 5) Scar - (C) = Mark = ´’îªa– í¬ßª’ç-´-©x-í¬F,
G Deliberate
Key and explanation: Åûª-ú≈-¢Á’†’ 鬢√-©ØË/ ÖüËl-¨¡-°æ‹-®Ωy-éπç-í¬ØË Ç©Ææuç He resumed his walk after a half an hour's °æ¤ô’déπûÓí¬F éπLÍí Né¬-®Ω-¢Á’i† ´’îªa.
1) Aviation - (E) = Aircraft technology. N´÷- î˨»úø’/ 鬢√-©ØË Ç©-Ææuçí¬ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’. rest = Å®Ω-í∫çô Nv¨»çA ûª®√yûª ûª† †úøéπ ´’Sx a) A knife wound has left a deep scar on his
Ø√© E®√tùç, N´÷-†-ߪ÷†ç, N´÷-†-¨»ÆæYç ™«çöÀ b) He withheld the information intentionally = v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-î√úø’. face = éπAhûÓ Å®·† í¬ßª’ç, ÅûªúÕ ¢Á·£æ«ç-O’ü¿
¢√öÀéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç*† N≠æ-ߪ÷©’/ N´÷-†-ߪ÷†ç. 鬢√-©ØË/ ÖüËl-¨¡-°æ‹-®Ωy-éπç-í¬ØË Åûªúø’ Ç Ææ´÷- 4) Grace - (B) = Polite and pleasant behav- °ü¿l ´’îªa†’ N’T-LaçC.
a) You have to study aviation to become a î√®√Eo ÇÊ°-¨»úø’/ •ßª’-ôèπ◊ ®√E-´y-™‰ü¿’. iour= †úø-´-úÕ™ £æ›çü∆-ûª†ç/ íı®Ω-´-F-ߪ’ûª. b) You can recognize him by the scar on his
pilot = Pilot aviation Intentional X Unintentional (ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈) hand =
ÅßË’uç-ü¿’èπ◊ îªü¿-¢√L. a) He had the grace to accept defeat = ÅûªúÕ îËA-O’ü¿ Ö†o ´’îªa Ææ£æ…-ߪ’çûÓ
b) Aviation has advanced tremendously a) My remarks were unintentional = Ø√ †’´y-ûª-úÕE í∫’Jhç-îª-´îª’a.
ûª† ãô-N’E ÅçU-éπ-Jç-îª-úøç™ î√™« £æ›çü∆-
since the Wright brothers flew their plane = ¢√uêu©’ ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ îËÆœ-†N (ÖüËl-¨¡-°æ‹-®Ωyéπç c) The scar that the fire has cause hasn't
Wright brothers
ûª†ç îª÷°œç-î√úø’/ £æ›çü∆í¬/ íı®Ω-´-F-ߪ’çí¬
N´÷-Ø√Eo éπE-°öÀd†°æp-öÀ-†’ç* é¬ü¿’) heeled yet = 鬩úøç ´©x Å®·† ´’îªa Éçé¬
3) Pause - (A) = Stop = Çí∫úøç.
É°æ¤pöÀ´-®Ωèπÿ N´÷-†-¨»ÆæYç v•£æ…tç-úøçí¬ ÅGµ-´%Cl¥ ûª† ãô-N’E ä°æ¤p-éÌ-Ø√oúø’.
´÷Æœ-§Ú-™‰ü¿’.
Å®·çC. Civil Aviation = §˘®Ω N´÷† N≠æ- a) The speaker during his speech paused to b) True, your daughter married against your
Heel = °æ¤çúø’, ´’îªa, í¬ßª’ç ™«çöÀN †ßª’-
ߪ÷©’ (N´÷-†-ü¿∞¡ N´÷-†-ߪ÷†ç(Air force- have water = Çߪ’† ûª† Ö°æ-Ø√uÆæç ´’üµ¿u™ will. Now that it's over have the grace to
bless her and accept the marriage =
´’-´úøç.
military aviation é¬èπ◊çú≈). ǧƒúø’ F∞¡Ÿx û√Ííçü¿’èπ◊.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C¢√®Ωç 17 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Q. 1. Launch- unveil- initi-  Unveil = ÇN≠æ \-Jç-îª-úøç [Veil= ´·Ææ’í∫’. Unveil
ate- introduce - ûËú≈ = ´·Ææ’í∫’ ûÌ©-Tç-îª-úøç). üËØÁj oØ√ ¢Á·ôd-¢Á·-ü¿-ôí¬
àN’öÀ? •£œ«-®Ωç-í∫çí¬ v°æü¿-Jzç-îª-úøç– ´·êuçí¬ Nví∫£æ…©÷,
2. Sounds good! expression *ûªh-®Ω’-´¤©÷ ™«çöÀ- ¢√-öÀE. Å®·ûË É°æ¤púø’ éÌûªh
meaning? †´‚Ø√ cars, Éûª®Ω ¢√£æ«-Ø√™o market ™éÀ
3. CBFC certified rates Núø’-ü¿© îËߪ’-ú≈Eo èπÿú≈ unveil Åçô’-Ø√o®Ω’.
(abbreviation full form)  Initiate - ÉE-≠œ-ßÁ’ß˝’ö¸– E ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç.
4. It's a girlthing ÅØËC English v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îªúøç/ v§ƒ®Ω綵ºç ÅßË’uô’x îËߪ’-úøç.
expression é¬ü∆? 1) The government wants to initiate certain
5. Good bye Åçõ‰ ¨»¨¡y-ûªçí¬ economic reforms = v°æ¶µº’ûªyç éÌEo ÇJnéπ
"bye" îÁ°œp-†-õ‰xØ√?
b) The producers are introducing two new
ÆæçÆæ \-®Ω-ù-©†’ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-î√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-öçC.
6. Suomoto statement, slated, busted © Å®√n©’ 2) The chairman initiated the discussion about The judge took the case suomoto = ûª-†ç-ûª
actors in the movie. E®√t-ûª©’ ûª´’ ÆœE-´÷™
the new policies=
àN’öÀ? éÌûªh Nüµ∆-Ø√-© í∫’Jç-* Ωa†’ -û√-ØË Ç Ø√uߪ’-´‚Jh Ç ÍéÆæ’†’ BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’. (á´®Ó
case °ôd-úøç ´©x -é¬-èπ◊çú≈.)
7. English- Telugu dictionary Ææ÷*ç-îªçúÕ.
Éü¿l®Ω’ éÌûªh û√®Ω-©†’ °æJ-îªßª’ç îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
Åüµ¿u-èπ~◊úø’ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-î√®Ω’. 2. Sounds good = OK = ¶«í¬ØË ÖçC.
8. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Ñ ®ÓV school ™‰ü∆? English ™  Slated = ã 鬮Ωu-véπ-´’çí¬ Öçúøôç. The inaugu-
 Introduce= 1) °æJ-îªßª’ç îËߪ’úøç. 2) éÌûªh A: I wish to exchange my ring for your wrist
É™«çöÀ expression Öçô’çü∆? ration of the bridge is slated for next month=
ûªßª÷-K-©†’, †öÃ-†-ô’-©†’, °æü¿l¥-ûª’-©†’ v°æ¢Ë-¨¡-°-ôdúøç. watch = bridge
9. Ñ¢Á’ Ø√èπ◊ ´®Ω’Ææ Å´¤-ûª’çC ņ-ú≈-EéÀ English ™ ´îËaØÁ© v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µ-ûªq´ 鬮Ωu-véπ´’ç ÖçC.
ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL? Ø√ Öçí∫®Ωç O’éÀ*a O’ wrist watch ؈’  Busted= broken (°æí∫-©-íÌ-ôd-•-úÕ†)
Bust= °æí∫©íÌôd-úøç/ üµ¿yçÆæç îËߪ’úøç.
– G. ÆæB≠ˇ ¶«Hb, ôçí∫’-ô÷®Ω’ BÆæ’éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’.
B: Sounds good. Here you are =
A. 1. Launch = Öü¿u-´÷©’, íÌ°æp-¢√-öÀE ≤ƒCµç-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
He busted the TV = TV E °æí∫-©-íÌ-ö«dúø’.
îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ωu©’ ™«çöÀN °ü¿l áûª’h† v§ƒ®Ωç- 421 ¶«í¬ØË ÖçC (Ø√èπ◊ Ææ´’t-ûª¢Ë’). É-CíÓ BÆæ’-éÓçúÕ. 7. Sankara Narayana's English to Telugu
Gµç-îªúøç- Dictionary.
Launch AIDS eradica- 8. Don't you/ we have
tion campaign= AIDS
E®Ω÷t-©Ø√
(Campaign-
Öü¿u´’ç
é¬ç°-ß˝’Ø˛).
Launching serious mea-
The gover nment wants to initiate .. 9.
school today?
Ñ¢Á’ Ø√èπ◊ ´®ΩÆæ Å´¤-
ûª’çC. Åçõ‰ O’ Å®Ωnç,
Ç¢Á’†’ O’®Ω’ °Rx îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫©
sures against corruption = 3. Central Board of Film Censor fixed rates =
ÅN-FA ´uA-Í®éπ Ωu©’ a) The company is
ôd-Jéπç -Å-Ø√? Å™« Å®·ûË
censor rates.
ü∆EéÀ correct í¬ ÆæJ-§ÚßË’ ´÷ô English ™ ™‰ü¿’.
v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îªúøç. introducing a new ÆœE-´÷-©†’ îËÊÆ Ææç°∂æ’ç E®Ωg-®·ç-*† Å®·ûË Kindred (éÀçúø-ú˛ – -úøú˛, Bird ™ ™«í∫) ÅØË
Space ships, rockets product into the mar- 4. It's a girl thing- Ñ expression English ™ ™‰ü¿’.
†’ Åçûª-J-éπ~ç-™éÀ °æç°æ-úøç/ ´÷ôèπ◊ ü¿í∫_®Ω ü¿í∫_®Ω Ñ Å®Ωnç ®√´îª’a- Kindred = äéπJ
éÌûªh ؈éπ†’ ï©-v°æ-¢Ë¨¡ç îË®·ç-îª-úøç èπÿú≈ launch. ket = 5. Good bye/ bye - ¨»¨¡y-ûªçí¬ é¬ü¿’. AJT éπ©’-Ææ’- èπ◊ô’ç•ç, ¢√J ü¿í∫_J ö«d©’. (We are kindred and
(Launch a rocket/ spaceship/ ship). ´÷È®\-ö¸-™éÀ ûª´’ éÌûªh èπ◊-ØËçûª ´®Ωèπ◊ ´÷vûª¢Ë’. can take her to wife ņ-´îª’a.) Å®·ûË English
¢√£æ«† companies éÌûªh-®Ωéπç ¢√£æ«-Ø√-©†’ market ûªßª÷-KE v°æ¢Ë-¨¡-°--öÀdç-C 6. Suomoto Statement = äéπ-®Ω-†o-ü∆-EéÀ/ äéπJ ¢√∞¡Ÿx, ´’†™«é¬èπ◊çú≈, ´®Ω-Ææèπ◊ ņo-ü¿-´·t∞¡x èπÿûª’®Ωx†’
™éÀ v°æ¢Ë-¨¡-°-ôd-úøç èπÿú≈ launch. Ç company. M.SURESAN
éÓJéπ/ Ŷµºu-®Ωn† ¢Ë’®Ωèπ◊ é¬èπ◊çú≈ ûª´’çûª û√¢Ë’ îÌ®Ω´ °Rx îËÆæ’éÓ-´úøç not uncommon.
BÆæ’-èπ◊E îÁÊ°p-´÷-ô©’/ îËÊÆ ¢√uêu.
Q. ´÷èπ◊ get ûÓ ÖçúË ¢√é¬u©’ î√™« É•sç-Cí¬ ÖØ√o®·. äéπ-îÓô Q. 1. ''éÌEo ®Ωçí∫’© °†’o-©’- A. 1. Among the coloured pens Q. Adjective of quality, Adjective of quantity í∫’Jç* ûÁL-
I will you get you for that. You bastard! Åçõ‰ E†’o Ø√o®·. Åçü¿’™ Ø√C áv®Ω there, the red one is mine. ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’. Dictionary ™E adjectives ÅFo OöÀ-O’üË
îªçÊ°-≤ƒh†’ ÅE ÖçC. ÉC éπ®Ω-ÍédØ√? É™«çöÀ ¢√é¬u-©†’ ᙫ °†’o——. DEE ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ 2. Op-ed page = äéπ newspaper ™ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æúÕ Öçö«ßª÷? Ééπ\-úÕ-Ææ’h†o éÌEo °æü∆©’ Å™«ç-öÀ-
Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√™ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. ÅØ√L? Op-edpage Åçõ‰, editorial page ¢ËØ√ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. eg: Bankrupt, clement, clever, little,
– Æœ.£«-î˝.-X-üµ¿®˝, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛ 2. Op-ed page Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? (Ææ秃-ü¿-éÃߪ’ç ®√ÊÆ Ê°>) éÀ oppo- sorry, sound, thin, red, blue, small, large, wan, ver-
A. Correct. (F °æE/ F Åçûª’ îª÷≤ƒh†’.) 3. ' ®ÓW ÑØ√úø’ Ê°°æ®Ω’ îª÷ÊÆh site (áü¿’-®Ω’í¬ Ö†o) page - Ñ sant.
É™«çöÀ expressions ÅFo usage éÀ Ææç•çCµç*-†N. îªü¿-´úøç Fèπ◊ ÉçTx≠ˇ ´Ææ’hçC——. DEE page ™ ≤ƒ-üµ∆®Ω-ùçí¬ ¢√®Ωh©’ é¬èπ◊çú≈ – °œ.¢Áç-éπ-õ‰¨¸, û√úÕ-°ævA.
´©x OöÀE Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç Å©-¢√ô´¤ûª’çC. ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ îÁ°æp-úø-¢Á’™«? ¢√uêu©÷ (comments), ´·êu-¢Á’i† A. English îªéπ\í¬ ´÷ö«x-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ adjectives í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-
Éçé¬ É™«çöÀ expressions ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ dictionary èπÿú≈ 4. ''•ñ«-®Ω’èπ◊ §Ú®· Öûªh-®√©’ Å稡ç-O’ü¿ íÌ°æp ®Ωîª-®·-ûª© ®Ωîª-†©÷ éÓ-†-´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆? ´÷ô© Å®Ωnç, ¢√öÀ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç
Ææ£æ…-ߪ’°æúø’ûª’çC. é̆’-èπ◊\®√——. Ñ ¢√é¬uEo ÉçTx- Öçö«®·. ûÁLÊÆh ÅN à parts of speech ÅØËC ņ-´-Ææ®Ωç ÅE O’Í®
3. If you read the Eenadu every day,
≠ˇ™ ᙫ ÅØ√L? ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’.
Q. 1. No one knows when he will come or whether he will 5. She married him. She got you can learn English. í∫’ù«Eo ûÁLÊ° adjectives, adjectives of quality.
come at all. married him. Éçü¿’™ Å®Ωn- Ææçêu†’ ûÁL-Ê°N adjectives of number, few, some, etc.
4. Go out and get some cards and
DE Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’öÀ?
2. Coordinating conjunctions complex
Ö†o ¢√éπuç ™‰ü∆ ¶µ‰-ü¿-¢Ë’-¢Á’iØ√ Öçü∆? covers.
äéπ ¢Á·û√hEo ûÁL-Ê°N adjectives of quantity- little, some
compound ÅØËC ᙫ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´îª’a? 6. ' Vô’d ÖçúË éÓúÕ °æ¤çV. much, etc.
5. She married him - correct.
3. Word formation èπ◊ ´’ç* °æ¤Ææhéπç ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ éÓúÕ Â°ôd——. Ñ Dictionary adjectives, adjectives of quali-
™ ÖçúË
¢√é¬uEo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ She got married him - wrong. ty, adjectives of quantity or adjectives of number í¬
– ÅçüÁ éπ®Ω’-ù«-éπ®˝, ë«@-Ê°ô, ´®Ωç-í∫™¸ >™«x
A. 1. Åûª-úÁ-°æ¤p-úÌ-≤ƒhúÓ, ÅÆæ©’ ´≤ƒhúÓ ™‰üÓ á´-Jéà ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’. Åçö«ç? She got married to him, correct. Öçö«®·.
2. Coordinating conjunctions- and, but, yet, so, therefore, 7. ÅEo °æü∆-©èπ◊ Å®√n©’ ûÁLÊ° 6. The cock has hair whereas the O’ list ™E adjectives little
™ ûª°æp N’í∫-û√-´Fo
else, or else, or etc., sentences
Ö†o com-
á°æ¤púø÷ ûÁ©’í∫’ to English dictionary hen doesn't. adjectives of quality. Small, large Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd
pound sentences. Ææ÷*ç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. 7. Use Telugu-English Dictionary by (small no, large quantity etc) adjectives of quantity.
3. Word power by Norman Lewis îªü¿-´çúÕ. – Ç®˝. Né¬Æˇ, éÌç°Lx Sankara Narayana. Spoken English èπ◊ Ñ v°æÆæéÀh ņ-´-Ææ®Ωç.

Q. Could you kindly tell me which of the follow- b) The gods are worshipped at her hus- 2. (a) is correct. As the sentence is a statement Re. rules of the placement of the by agent, it
ing is right? band's side by her. How to determine (not a question), the verb in the second is better placed immediately after the verb.
1. a) By whom will have the mango been the placement of by agent? clause should come after its verb. So sen- He gave them a book - They were given by
eaten? 5. If you were Raju's friend, what advise tence (a) is correct. him a book is better than they were given a
b) By whom will the mango have been would you have given him? - Is this sen- 3. Answer is c. I'm afraid = I'm sorry. book by him, but both these passive forms are
eaten? tence correct? uncalled for. He gave them a book is better,
4. We usually use passive voice only when the
2. a) He asked me which my book was. - Udaya Kumar Esikela, Tadpatri. agent is not known or when we are not certain simpler, and natural.
b) He asked me which was my book. A. 1. b) is correct. When a verb has 2/ more about the agent. So the use of by is most a) Why don't you say, she worshipped the
3. What does the following sentence mean?- words in it, the subject comes after the often unnecessary. Where it is necessary, it is gods at her husband's side? Isn't this better
"I'm afraid you've to wait". a) expressing first word in the verb. Still better than b is
better to avoid passive. than the ugly pv construction in your letter?
fear b) expressing inability c) expressing who will the mangoes have been eaten
Compare: a) The steam engine was invented (a) and (b) are equally bad, and I would
apology d) ordering by? - But the use of passive here is
by James Watt (PV) advise you to use the av form here.
4. Are there any particular rules on the place- unnecessary and sounds artificial.
Don't you think active voice is natural and sim- b) James Watt invented the steam engine. 5. No. It is wrong- correction: If you were Ravi's
ment of 'by agent' in passive voice? Which
pler here? Who will have eaten the mangoes? Doesn't b) appear natural and simpler than friend what advice would you give him (not
of the following is more natural?
(Active) isn't this simpler than such cumber- a). So when you know the agent of an action, advise, not would you have given him).
a) The gods are worshipped by her at her
husband's side? some .. and ugly construction as by whom ..? av is always preferable.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 19 -°∂œ-v•-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Chitra: Hi, Saila, how about having an ice- Saila: That's not so important. What ultimately
cream? matters is affordability and taste.
(Icecream BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ü∆´÷?) (Åü¿çûª ´·êuç é¬ü¿’-í∫ü∆? *´-®Ωèπ◊ ´’†èπ◊
Saila: I'd rather have something hot than ice- †îËaC, ´·êu-¢Á’içD, ´’† û√£æ«-ûª’èπ◊ ûªTçü∆
cream. ™‰ü∆, ®Ω’*– É¢Ë éπü∆?)
(Icecream éπçõ‰ àü¿Ø√o ¢ËúÕí¬ Açü∆-´’-†’- Chitra: That's true. Let me go then.
èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o) Ñ lesson ™ èπÿú≈ Spoken English ™ ¢√úø-
Chitra: You mean you want something hot even í∫©, ûª®Ωîª÷ NE-°œçîË Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† *†o *†o
in this hot weather? ´÷ô© í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. Ææçü¿-®√s¥-EéÀ ûªí∫_ô’d
(Éçûª áçúø™ èπÿú≈ ¢ËúÕí¬ BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«-†Ø√ OöÀE ¢√úÕûË ´’† conversation î√™« simple í¬,
†’´y-†úøç?) Åçûª-éπçõ‰ ´·êuçí¬ î√™« natural í¬ Öçô’çC. c) Tarun: You know a man bit a dog?
Saila: You heard me. Now look at the following sentences from the Rather èπ◊ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç: äéπ N≠æߪ’ç Åçûª í∫öÀdí¬
(؈’ îÁ°œpçC NØ√o´¤ éπü∆?) conversation above. îÁ°æp-™‰-†-°æ¤púø’ rather ¢√úøû√ç. (´’E≠œ èπ◊éπ\†’ éπJ-î√úø’ ûÁ©’≤ƒ?)
d) I rather believe he is corrupt = Åûªúø’ ÅN- Varun: A man biting a dog indeed! I've yet
È®çúÓ-≤ƒJ àüÁjØ√ îÁ°æpôç É≠ædç-™‰-éπ-§ÚûË/ NÆæ’-í∫-®·ûË 1) I'd rather have something hot than an ice-
to see such a thing.
You heard me Åçö«ç. cream F-A-°æ-®Ω’úË ÅE-°œ-≤ÚhçC (؈çûª í∫öÀdí¬ îÁ°æp-™‰†’) (´’E≠œ èπ◊éπ\†’ éπ®Ω-´-
Chitra: Well, then. You go to the restaurant 2) Indeed it is! e) She rather suspects her husband's char- úø´÷? åØ√? Å™«çöÀ N≠æߪ’ç ØËEç-ûª-´-®Ωèπÿ
across the road and have what ever you acter= Ç¢Á’ ¶µº®ΩhO’ü¿ Ç¢Á’èπ◊ éÌçûª ņ’-´÷-†¢Ë’/ îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’. (Ǩ¡a®Ωuç)
3) ... since then I haven't stepped into it again. d) A man walking on water indeed! Come
want hot. Then you get back to the é¬Ææh ņ’-´÷-E-≤ÚhçC.
4) What ultimately matters is affordability and now, be sensible =
room. In the mean time, I'll have a good Rather èπ◊ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç: FöÀ O’ü¿ †úÕîË ´’E≥ƒ?
taste.
cup of icecream and come back to the Do you call it scarlet? Eï´÷! (Ê£«∞¡†) é¬Ææh ûÁL-Ní¬ ´÷ö«xúø’.
room. 5) In the meantime/ It's rather pale red= ÅEo-öÀ-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\-´í¬ Å´¤†’, Eïç-í¬ØË/ éπ*a-ûªçí¬
meanwhile I'll have ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ indeed ¢√úøû√ç.
(Å™«Íí. †’Oy road Å´-ûª© Ö†o £æ«Ùô-™¸-ÈéRx àçöÃ, ÅC ´·ü¿’®Ω’ á®Ω’-
a good cup of ice- Praneeth: Is he a great player?
¢ËúÕí¬ àç BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«¢Ó BÆæ’-èπ◊E room éÌîËa-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
°æç-ö«¢√? àçé¬ü¿’, ™‰ûª
ÂÆß˝’. Ñ ´’üµ¿u™ ؈’ ´’ç* icecream cream. 422 á®Ω’°æ¤. Praphul: Indeed he is! (EÆæqç-üË-£æ«çí¬/
AE room èπ◊ îË®Ω’-èπ◊çö«) éπ*a-ûªçí¬)
Saila: That restaurant is awful. I'll 3) Since =

Indeed it is!
Å°æp-öÀ-†’ç* (í∫ûªç™ ã
go to some other restau- Æ洒ߪ’ç †’ç*)
rant. a) We first met two years ago. Since
(Ñ £æ«Ùô™¸ ü∆®Ω’-ùçí¬ then we have been close friends=
Öçô’çC. ÉçÍé restaurant ¢Ë’ç ¢Á·ü¿ô È®çúË∞¡x éÀçü¿ô éπ©’-Ææ’-
ÈéjØ√ ¢Á∞¡û√.) èπ◊Ø√oç. Å°æp-öÀ-†’ç* v§ƒù ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-
1) Rather - last lesson ™ rather She is an actor, or rather, a
awful = ü∆®Ω’ùç/ ¶µºßª’ç-éπ®Ωç– ´’†èπ◊ †îªaE ©’í¬ ÖØ√oç.
(®√ü¿)èπ◊ Ö†o Å®Ωnç, Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç dancer. Ç¢Á’ †öÀ. Å™« ÅØË •ü¿’©’ b) Since/ eversince he came here, he has
N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo É™« ´Jg≤ƒhç.
Chitra: Indeed it is! I once had something to eat
îª÷¨»ç. ´’†èπ◊ †îªaEC é¬Ææh áèπ◊\¢Ë Ç¢Á’†’ †®ΩhéÀ ņ-´îª’a. been playing with us=Åûª-úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ´*a-†-°æp-öÀ
there a month ago, and since then I
ÅE-°œç-*-†-°æ¤púø’ rather Åçö«ç ÅE 2) Indeed = really = Eïçí¬. -†’ç* ´÷ûÓ Çúø’ûª÷ ÖØ√oúø’.
haven't stepped into it. What they serve
ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπü∆? The movie is rather Ñ ≤ƒ¢Á’ûª ´’†™ î√™«-´’ç-CéÀ Since èπ◊ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç, because = Åçü¿’-´©x.
lengthy- Ç ÆœE´÷ °ü¿lüË (°ü¿l-ü¿-´úøç ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπü∆? A friend in need is a (since = As = because).
is junk.
friend indeed = Å´-Ææ-®Ωç™ Çü¿’-èπ◊ØË Since he is rich he can buy a car =
M.SURESAN
¶«í¬-™‰-éπ-§Ú-´-ú≈-EéÓ é¬®Ωùç) Åûªúø’
a) The book is rather boring = Ç
(éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ÅC ü∆®Ω’-ù¢Ë’. ØÁ©-éÀçü¿ô Åéπ\úø ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’úË Eï-¢Á’i† ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’úø’. car
üµ¿Eèπ◊úø´úøç ´©x, é̆-í∫-©úø’.
àüÓ AØ√o. ÅçûË. ´’Sx Å°æp-öÀ-†’ç* ü∆E-™éÀ °æ¤Ææhéπç é¬Ææh NÆæ’Íí. The injuries are rather Spoken English ™ Eïçí¬/ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ÅçûË Since the prices are up, we are not able to
serious = Ç í¬ßª÷©’ é¬Ææh Bv´¢Á’i†¢Ë. Å®·ûË
Åúø’í∫’ °ôd-™‰ü¿’. ¢√∞¡x AçúÕ/ ¢√∞¡Ÿx ´úÕfçîË ÅE Éûª-®Ω’-©†o N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo ÅçU-éπ-Jç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ buy a number of things = üµ¿®Ω©’ °J-T-†ç-ü¿’-´©x,
rather Ñ éÀçC sentences ™ ¢√úÕ† B®Ω’ indeed ¢√úøû√ç.
öÀ°∂œ-Ø˛-™«ç-öÀN îÁûªh)
Saila: More over the prices are very high as
î√™« ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ é̆-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√oç.
îª÷úøçúÕ. a) 'Sachin is the greatest batsman in the 5) In the meanwhile/ meantime = Ñ ™°æ©.
well. world' (v°æ°æç-îªç-™ ØË Ææ*Ø˛ íÌ°æp batsman)
I'd rather have hot coffee than an ice- a) I will certainly meet him tomorrow. In the
(ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈, üµ¿®Ω©÷ áèπ◊\¢Ë.) cream - Ééπ\úø rather = prefer (äéπ-ü∆-E-éπçõ‰ 'Indeed he is' (éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ÅçûË) meantime don't tell him I am here = ؈’
Chitra: The place is, however clean and tidy, ÉçéÓöÀ áèπ◊\´ É≠æd-°æ-úøôç). É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x b) Kumar: Are you really going to help him? Åûª-úÕE Í®°æ¤ ûª°æpéπ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«†’. Ñ ™°æ©
and looks posh. I would rather èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ I'd rather ÅE (Eïçí¬ Åûª-úÕéÀ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËߪ’¶ûª’-Ø√o¢√?) ØËE-éπ\-úø’-Ø√o-úøE Åûª-úÕûÓ Å†èπ◊.
(Å®·ûË restaurant ´÷vûªç î√™« ¨¡Ÿv¶µºçí¬ ¢√úøû√ç. Kesav: Indeed I am- yes/ Yes, (I am), b) My car will be ready only tomorrow. In the
Öçô’çC, íÌ°æpí¬ éπE-°œ-Ææ’hçC.) b) She'd rather die than tell a lie = Ç¢Á’ î√´-ö«- indeed. (Å´¤†’, éπ*a-ûªçí¬.) meanwhile I have to make do with my bike
posh = î√™« -Ø√-Wèπ◊í¬, êK-üÁj†, üµ¿Eéπ ¢√û√-´-®Ωùç E-ÈéjØ√ Æœü¿l¥¢Ë’í¬F, Å•ü¿l¥ç ´÷vûªç îÁ°æpü¿’. Indeed †’ Éçé¬ Å´¤Ø√?/ Eï-¢Ë’Ø√? ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ = Ø√car ready
Í®°æ-öÀéÀ Å´¤-ûª’çC. Ñ ™°æ©
Ö†o. Banjara Hills in Hyderabad is a posh c) I'd rather starve than eat in that restaurant Ǩ¡a-®√uEo/ Ê£«∞¡-††’ (†´’t-™‰E N≠æ-ߪ’-¢Á’iûË) bike
Ø√ ûÓ Ææ®Ω’l-éÓ-¢√L ؈’.
area. The Taj Krishna is a posh hotel. = °æÆæh®·Ø√ Öçö«í¬F Ç £æ«Ùô™x ؈’ A††’. ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç.
EXERCISE b) The original Islam religion split in two - the
2) Vertical= (G) Straight up= Eö«-®Ω’í¬/ E©’-´¤í¬. Pornography éÀ short form, porn (§Úù˝).
Match the words under A with their sunny and the shia = ¢Á·ôd-¢Á·-ü¿öÀ ´·Æœxç
a) Palm and coconut trees usually have ver- Porn movie =
meanings under B ´’ûªç È®çúø’í¬ <LçC– 1) Ææ’Fo 2) ≠œßª÷. °æ*a ¨¡%çí¬®Ωç îª÷Ê° ÆœE´÷.
tical and straight growth =
û√öÀ, éÌ•sJ îÁô’x Soft porn = Å®Ωn-†í∫o ÆæEo-¢Ë-¨»©’ áèπ◊\-´í¬ ÖçúË
A B c) The nuclear pact issue with the US has
1 Affection A Divide
´÷´‚-©’í¬ E©’-´¤í¬ à°æ¤í¬ °®Ω’-í∫’-û√®·. split the ruling coalition = -Å¢Á’-J-é¬ûÓ ¶µ«®Ω-Bߪ’ ÆœE-´÷-™«xç-öÀN.
b) The rocket rose vertically = Ç rocket Pornographic X Decent
2 Vertical B Obscenity Åù’ ä°æpçü¿ç Å稡ç ÅCµ-é¬-®Ωç™ Ö†o ÆæçéîΩg
3 Split C Impolite E©’-´¤í¬ °jéÀ ™‰*çC. v°æ¶µº’-û√yEo <LaçC. 5. Discourteous = (C) impolite = ´’®√uü¿
4 Pornography D Unconditional c) A helicopter can rise vertically whereas a
Split wood = éπõ„d-©†’ Ê°∞¡Ÿxí¬ <©aúøç. Impolite = rude.
îª÷°æE/ ü¿’®Ω’Ææ’ =
5 Discourteous E Fondness plane cannot = Helicopter í¬™xéÀ E©’-´¤í¬ Split X Unite. a) The student's behaviour to the teacher
F Hatred ™‰´-í∫-©ü¿’, N´÷†ç ™‰´-™‰ü¿’.
Split The split in the was discourteous = Teacher
G Straight up Vertical X Horizontal = ¶µº÷N’éÀ Ææ´÷ç-ûª-®Ωçí¬.
Åçõ‰ <Léπ ÅE èπÿú≈ Å®Ωnç. °æôx Nü∆uJn
KEY: 1) Affection = (E) Fondness = party has weakened it = Party ™ <Léπ ü∆Eo •©- v°æ´-®Ωh† î√™« ü¿’®Ω’Ææ’/ ¢Á·®Ω-ô’í¬ ÖçC.
vÊ°´’/ Vertical expansion (of a building) = ÅçûªÆæ’h
ÇÊ°éπ~/ É≠ædç (´·êuçí¬ äéπ ´uéÀh-°æôx ÉçéÌ-éπ-JéÀ). split X union
£‘«-†-°æ-®Ω-*çC. Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ (éπ©-®·éπ). b) His answers were discourteous = ÅûªúÕ
Split verdict = áEo-éπ™ x à äéπ\ party éÀ °æ‹Jh
O’ü¿ ÅçûªÆæ’h éπô’d-èπ◊çô÷ §Ú´úøç.
a) Chandram has great affection for his sister Ææ´÷-üµ∆-Ø√©’ î√™« ü¿’®Ω’-Ææ’í¬ ÖØ√o®·.
d) In some cities there is a ban on vertical
= ¢Á’ñ«-Jöà ®√éπ§Ú´úøç. (Courtesy = éπöÃq = íı®Ω´ç/ ´’®√uü¿. Courtesy
expansion of buildings=
îªçvü¿çèπ◊ ¢√∞¡x îÁ™„x-©çõ‰ î√™« ÇÊ°éπ~/ vÊ°´’.
verdict = B®Ω’p – Ééπ\úø v°æï© B®Ω’p
éÌEo †í∫-®√-©™ ¶µº´- costs nothing = ´’®√u-ü¿èπ◊ ´’Cç°æ¤ ™‰ü¿’/ ´’®√u-ü¿-
b) In movies heroes show great affection for
level
4) Pornography= (B) Obscenity/ vulgarity
their sisters and are ready to give them
Ø√© áûª’h O’ü¿ (äéπ ûª®√yûª) EÊ≠üµ¿ç ÖçC. ´©x ´’† úø¶‰sç-§Úü¿’. courtesy = politeness)
3) Split = (A) = Divide = <©úøç, <©aúøç.
their life = heroes
ÆœE-´÷™x îÁ™„x∞¡x °æôx áçûÓ (ÅQx-©ûª). ÅQx©ûª ÅÆ涵ºu ¨¡%çí¬-®ΩçûÓ EçúÕ-´¤†o ÆœE- Discourteous X Courteous (éπöÀ-ߪ’Æˇ – éπ,
[Split (pr.tense) - split (past tense) - split ´÷©’, éπü∑¿©’, †´-©©’– ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ´’†ç blue
vÊ°´’ îª÷°œ-≤ƒh®Ω’, ¢√∞¡x-éÓÆæç v§ƒù û√uí¬-E-ÈéjØ√ bird ™ '•— ™«.)
(past participle)] films (´uèπ◊h-©†’ †í∫oçí¬ îª÷°œçîË *vû√©’) Åçö«ç.
Æœü¿l¥-°æ-úø-û√®Ω’. D) Unconditional = ¶‰≠æ-®Ω-ûª’í¬.
c) He doesn't show his wife any affection = a) The party split in two because of the dif- The government has banned the movie/
Unconditional withdrawal of strike = ¶‰≠æ-®Ω-ûª’í¬
ûª† ¶µ«®Ωu-°æôx ÅûªúËç vÊ°´’/ ÇÊ°éπ~ îª÷°œç-îªúø’. ferences between the two top leaders = novel under the anti pornography act = Ç Ææ¢Á’t Ö°æ-Ææç-£æ«-®Ωù.
Affection is always followed by for. ´·êu Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊© ´’üµ¿u ´*a† ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ’-¶µ‰-ü∆© ÆœE´÷/ †´-©†’ v°æ¶µº’ûªyç ÅQx© ´uA-Í®éπ îªôdç
Affection X Dislike ´©x §ƒKd È®çúø’í¬ <LçC. éÀçü¿ EÊ≠-Cµç-*çC.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 21 -°∂œ-v•-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Ratnasri: Just as I was coming in, I noticed you Sreekar: Even higher than what I've got? It's
watching the TV. difficult, mom.
(™°æLéÀ ´Ææ’hç-úø-í¬ØË, †’´¤y TV îª÷Ææ÷hç- (É°æ¤p-öÀéπçõ‰ Éçé¬-á-èπ◊\´ marks ®√¢√™«?
úøôç í∫´’-Eç-î√†’) éπ≠dçæ , Å´÷t)
Sreekar: No mom. I had just turned on the TV Ratnasri: Nothing is difficult. (àD éπ≠dç æ -é¬ü¿’)
and you entered. Sreekar: Even Teja who is usually first in our
(™‰ü¿´÷t. Å™« ؈’ TV °ö«d†’, Éçûª- class scored less than me last time.
™ØË †’´¤y ´î√a´¤.) (´÷´‚-©’í¬ ´÷ class ™ first Å®·†
Ratnasri: No more of TV now, get back to your ûËñ«èπ◊ èπÿú≈ éÀçü¿öÀ≤ƒJ Ø√éπçõ‰ ûªèπ◊\´
books. ´÷®Ω’\-™Ô-î√a®· ûÁ©’≤ƒ?)
(Éçéπ TV àç ™‰ü¿’. F °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ B®· Ratnasri: Stop talking and start studying.
´’Sx.) (´÷ô-™«°œ îªü¿’´¤ ¢Á·ü¿-©’-°ô’d) Just as, even- Ñ ´÷ô© Å®Ωnç, ¢√úøéπç ûÁ©’-Ææ’- 'Just as you say' =†’¢Áy™« Åçõ‰ Å™«Íí
Sreekar: Just as you say. I am going back to Sreekar: The clothes are really good. Your èπ◊çü∆ç Ñ≤ƒJ. Just as you wish = F éÓJéπ v°æé¬-®Ω¢Ë’
my books. choice is really nice. Just as = Å°æ¤púË (äéπ Ææç°∂æ’-ô† ïJ-T-†-°æ¤púË) Just as you order = F Çïc v°æé¬-®Ω¢Ë’
(†’¢Áy™« îÁGûË Å™«. îªü¿-´-ö«-E-Èé-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’Ø√o (•ôd©’ î√™« ¶«í∫’-Ø√o®·. F áç°œéπ a) Just as the train started, some one pulled 2) Even = èπÿú≈, Ñ éÀçC ¶µ«´çûÓ:
´’Sx.) Eïçí¬ ¶«í∫’çC.) the chain = a) Even a man like Gandhi made mistakes =
Ratnasri: That's a good boy. I promised to buy Ratnasri: Try them on. Train •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-í¬ØË, á´®Ó chain ™«í¬®Ω’. í¬çDµ-™«çöÀ Çߪ’† èπÿú≈ ûª°æ¤p©’ î˨»úø’.
you new clothes if you got good b) Just as the police entered the room, he
(¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊E îª÷úø’, ÆæJ-§Ú-û√ßÁ÷ ™‰¢Ó) b) Even in America we can't get things like this
score. You got good scores in last Sreekar: OK. escaped through the other door= =
week's tests. Accordingly I bought you
Å¢Á’J-鬙 èπÿú≈ É™«çöÀ ´Ææ’h´¤©’ üÌ®Ω-éπ´¤.
Police
í∫C-™éÀ v°æ¢Ë-Pç-îª-í¬ØË, Åûªúø’ ÉçéÓ ü∆y®Ωç c) Some people say that our buses are better
a shirt and a pair of pants/ trousers for
you.
†’ç* §ƒJ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. than even those in the states =
2) Just as ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç – Åîªaç Å™«Íí. Å¢Á’-J-鬙 bus © éπçõ‰ èπÿú≈ ´’† bus ™‰
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
(´’ç*-¢√-úÕN. Fèπ◊ ´÷®Ω’\©’ ¶«í¬-´ÊÆh a) Just as your mother loves you, every moth-
423
éÌûªh-•-ôd©’ ûÁ≤ƒh-†-Ø√o†’/ ´÷öÀ-î√a†’. Fèπ◊ ¶«í∫’ç-ö«-ߪ’E éÌçü¿-®Ωç-ö«®Ω’.
er loves her child = (Even though = Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ;
éÀçü¿öÀ ¢√®Ωç °æK-éπ~™ marks
even = èπÿú≈)

Just as you say
¶«í¬ ´î√a®·. ņo v°æé¬-®Ω¢Ë’
ã shirt, pants BÆæ’éÌî√a†’.) Even = Éçé¬.
(pair of pants = ûÁ©’-Ææ’-í∫ü∆ pants a) He got even higher marks than
ÅE, plural í¬ØË ¢√úøû√ç á°æ¤púø÷– what he got last time =
ûÁ©’-í∫’™™« pant ņç. äéπõ„jØ√í∫÷ú≈ éÀçü¿-öÀ-≤ƒJ éπçõ‰ Éçé¬ áèπ◊\´
pants ÅØË Åçö«ç. áEo Å®·ûË ÅEo ´÷®Ω’\©’ ûÁa-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
pairs of pants/ trousers. äéπõ‰ Å®·ûË, a pair of Look at the following b) He is not happy with the Rs.2 Crore he has.
pants/ trousers)
F ûªLx E†’o vÊ°N’-Ææ’h-†oõ‰x/ ᙫ vÊ°N’-Ææ’hçüÓ, v°æA
expressions from the ûªLx ûª† °œ©x-©-†-™«Íí vÊ°N’-Ææ’hçC. He wants an even higher amount than that
Sreekar: Oh, thank you, mom, but just one pair. conversation above. = ÅûªúÕèπ◊†o È®çúø’ éÓôx ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©ûÓ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-
b) Just as you think you are good, so does
Is that all? 1) Just as I was coming
everyone think they are good=
°æ-úø-ôç-™‰-ü¿-ûª†’. Éçé¬ áèπ◊\´ 鬢√-©ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’.
(Thanks Å´÷t. Å®·ûË äéπ ïûËØ√? in I noticed you watch-
ÉçûËØ√?) ing the TV. †’´¤y ´’ç*-¢√-úÕ-´E †’´y-†’-èπ◊-†oõ‰x/ †’¢Áy™« ņ’-
Ratnasri: Get better marks this time. I promise 2) Just as you say. èπ◊ç-ö«¢Ó v°æA-¢√∞¡⁄x Å™«Íí ņ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’.
you a surprize gift. 3) Accordingly I bought M.SURESAN ÉC èπÿú≈ îª÷úøçúÕ:
(Ñ≤ƒJ Éçé¬ ´’ç* marks ûÁaéÓ. †’´y- you clothes. Just as you say = †’¢Áy™« Åçõ‰ Å™«.
†’-éÓE •£æ›-´’A, ņ’-éÓ-†-°æ¤púø’ É≤ƒh.) 4) Even higher than what I've got.
c) 'Sit here till I come back'
surprize gift- ´’†ç ´Ææ’hç-ü¿E ņ’-éÓ-†-°æ¤púø’ 5) Even Teja who is usually first in our class,
´îËa gift. scored less than me. (؈’ AJ-íÌ-îËa-´-®Ωèπ◊ Ééπ\úË èπÿ®Óa) Q. 1) Voice, tenses í∫’Jç* ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’.
2) Marry (v) ÅØË verb èπ◊– °R} îËÆæ’-èπ◊ØË, °R}
EXERCISE 2 Wrap= (A) cover = i) éπ°æpúøç; reveal= (®Ω£æ«-≤ƒu©’/ Ææ´÷-î √®Ωç) 1) In the precious lesson too, îËÊÆ– ÅØË È®çúø-®√n-©’-Ø√oߪ÷?
Match the words under A with there was an exercise on 3) Despite, in spite of èπ◊ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫ç™ à¢Á’iØ√
ii) ´Ææ’h-´¤-©†’ paper ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀûÓ ûÁL-ߪ’-°æ-®Ω-îªúøç/ •£œ«-®Ω_ûªç
their meanings under B vocabulary =
pack îËߪ’úøç (°æ¤Ææh-é¬-©èπ◊ Åôd- îËߪ’úøç/ ¢Á©x-úÕç-îªúøç, ûËú≈ Öçü∆?
lesson
A B expose = •ßª’-ô-°-ôdúøç
Éçûª-èπ◊-´·ç-ü¿öÀ ™ èπÿú≈ – Èé.X-éπ%-≠æg- π◊-´÷®˝, ¶«°æôx.
A. 1) Lesson 1 to 30 -™  tenses, Lesson 25 -
¢Ë-ÊÆ™«). vocabulary exercise
1 Absorb A Cover
ÖçC.
1) Immediately after he brought
2) In his previous visit, he stayed 90 -™  voice Öçö«-®·- îª÷-úøçúÕ.
(®Ω£æ«-≤ƒu©’/ Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç)
2 Wrap B Terrify
the book home, he wrapped it 3 Frighten= (B) Terrify= N°æ-K-ûª- for only two days =
3 Frighten C Earlier 2) Marry = °-R} -îËÆæ’éÓ-´-ôç. He married her
4 Previous D Suck up in brown paper =
= Åûª-Ø√-¢Á’†’ °-R} -îËÆæ’ èπ◊-Ø√o-úø’.
¢Á’i† ¶µºßª’ç éπL-Tç-îªúøç/ ¶µºßª’ Åûª-úÕç-ûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’,
5 Substantial
E Shadowy °æ¤Ææhéπç ÉçöÀéÀ BÆæ’-èπ◊-®√-í¬ØË, ü∆EéÀ -v¶µ«ç-ûª’-©†’ îÁߪ’uúøç È®çvúÓ-V™‰ ÖØ√oúø’. Marry = °Rx îËߪ’-úøç; He married his
F Large brown paper ûÓ Åôd-¢Ë-¨»úø’. 1) The sight of the dog fright- Previous X Next (ûª®√yA) daughter (off) to an engineer = ¢√∞¡x
G Hot 2) He wrapped the gift article in ened the child =
5) Substantial = ¶«í¬ áèπ◊\-´í¬/ -Å-´÷t-®·E Çߪ’† ã engineer èπ◊ -É-*a °Rx
Key and Explanation: colourful paper = Ç èπ◊éπ\ éπE-°œç-îªúøç Ç Gúøfèπ◊ large î˨»úø’. È®çúø’ Nüµ∆-©’í¬ îÁ-§Òpa °Rx
1 Absorb = (D) Suck in = (ûË´’- ¶µºßª’-v¶µ«çA éπL-Tç-*çC. 1) The government has allotted îËߪ’ç-úÕ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ– He married her to an
Ç é¬†’-éπ†’ Åûªúø’ ®Ωçí∫’©
2) Your threats do not frighten substantial funds for engineer/ He married her off to an engi-
™«çöÀ ¢√öÀE) °‘©’a-éÓ-´úøç. Ê°°æ-®˝ûÓ pack î˨»úø’.
Sponge absorbs/ sucks in water me = Jalayagnam = neer.
3) As it was very cold she Å®·ûË Â°-R} îËߪ’-úøç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ
= sponge FöÀE °‘©’a-èπ◊ç-ô’çC. F ¶„C-Jç-°æ¤©’ Ø√èπ◊ ¶µºßª÷Eo éπL- marry somebody to somebody
wrapped the baby in a blanket ï©-ߪ’-ñ«c-EéÀ v°æ¶µº’ûªyç ¶«í¬ ÅE äéπJ
Some kinds of phenyl absorb Tç-¤/ F ¶„C-Jç-°æ¤-©èπ◊ ؈’ éÌúø’èπ◊-©÷/ èπÿûª’∞¡x N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ØË ¢√-úø-û√ç.
= ¶«í¬ îªLí¬ Öçúøôç ´©x Ç¢Á’
áèπ◊\-´í¬/ Ææ´’%-Cl¥í¬ Eüµ¿’©’ Íéö«-
moisture = éÌEo ®Ω鬩 °∂œØÁj©’ ¶µºßª’-°æ-úø†’. ®·ç-*çC. ¢√∞¡x- Éü¿l®Ω-´÷t®·-© °Rx∞¡⁄x îËÊÆ-¨»úø’ = He
3) We are frightened when we has married his two daughters off. Ééπ\úø
ûË´’†’ °‘™‰a-≤ƒh®·. Gúøf†’ ü¿’°æp-öÀûÓ éπ°œpçC. 2) The doctor's treatment has
A child can't absorb the type of 4) The food is wrapped in foil = imagine ghosts and spirits = off Å´-Ææ®Ωç. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ Çߪ’† ¢√-∞¡x-†’ °Rx
brought about a substantial
information it gets at school = Ç A†’-•ç-ú≈-®√Eo ûªí∫-®ΩçûÓ (foil) ¶µº÷û√©’ °œ¨»-î √-©†’ í∫’Jç* improvement in the patient's îËÆæ’èπ◊-Ø√o-úø-ØË N°æ-K-û√®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC.
§ƒ®∏Ω-¨»-©™x §ÒçüË Ææ´÷-î √-®√Eo/ packî˨»®Ω’. Ü£œ«ç--èπ◊çõ‰ ´’†èπ◊ ¶µºßª’ç éπ©’- condition = 3) Despite, in spite of í∫’-Jç-* Ñ ´’üµ¿uØË N´-
Nñ«c-Ø√Eo °œ©x©’ Çéπ-Rç°æ¤ îËÆæ’-éÓ-™‰®Ω’. 5) Every thing about the murder í∫’-ûª’çC. Ç doctor ¢Ájü¿uçûÓ Ç ®ÓT °æJ-ÆœnA Jçî√ç îª÷úøçúÕ.
These springs absorb any is wrapped in secrecy= Frighten X Reassure = üµÁj®Ωuç/ ¶«í¬ ¢Á’®Ω’-í∫’-°æ-úÕçC. Q. -O’®Ω’ Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary
amount of shock = springs Ñ Ç £æ«ûªuèπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç* ÅEo ¶µº®Ó≤ƒ éπL-Tç-îªúøç. 3) There is a substantial -Å-E, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary
äúÕ-ü¿’-úø’-èπ◊© ´©x éπLÍí áçûª üÁ•s- N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ ®Ω£æ«-ÆæuçûÓ éπ°œp The sight of the police reassured increase in the salaries of the of Current English -Å-F ®√-¨»®Ω’. È®ç-úø÷
ØÁjØ√ ûªô’d-éÓ-í∫-©´¤. ÖØ√o®· (´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™– the villagers, frightened by the employees = ¢ËÍ®y®√? American accent éÓÆæç -´’ç-* dic-
(¢Á÷ö«®˝ ¢√£æ«-Ø√-©-Eoç-öÀéà shock Maoists = ÖüÓu-í∫’© @û√©’ î√™« ¶«í¬ tionary Ææ÷-*ç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.
-
®Ω£æ«-Ææuçí¬ Öçî√®Ω’). SK Sardar, Nellore
absorbers Öçö«®·. ÅN í∫ûª’-èπ◊©
Wrap X unwrap/ reveal/ ´÷NÆˇdx éπL-Tç-*† ¶µºßª’çûÓ Ö†o (áèπ◊\-´í¬) °J-í¬®·.
ví¬´’-Ææ’h-©èπ◊ police ¢√∞¡Ÿx éπE-°œç-îªúøç Substantial (Æ涸-≤ƒdç-≠æ™ ¸) X A. È®çúø÷ äéπ\õ‰. O’èπ◊ Ñ dictionary ™ØË, v°æA
expose.
®Óúøx™ éπLÍí èπ◊ü¿’-°æ¤†’ ¢√£æ«†ç ûªô’d-
èπ◊-ØËô’x îË≤ƒh®·) Meagre = Ææy©p-¢Á’i†. °æü∆-Eéà British accent, ü∆E °æéπ\ØË NAME ÅØË
unwrap=
üµÁj®Ωuç éπL-Tç-*çC.
Absorb X emit/ discharge =
éπ°æ¤p/ ´·Ææ’í∫’ ™«çöÀN
4. Previous = (C) earlier - Éçûª-èπ◊- The rise in the salary is meagre abbreviation ûÓ American accent éπ-E°œÆæ’hçC.
•ßª’-ôèπ◊ °æç°æúøç. ûÌ©-Tç-îªúøç. ´·ç-ü¿öÀ. = @ûªç °®Ω’-í∫’-ü¿© Ææy©pç. îª÷úøçúÕ.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C¢√®Ωç 24 °∂œ-v•-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Q. 1. Think, thought © Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬- A. 1. a) I think they will come tomorrow.
©†’ ÆæN-´-®Ωçí¬ éÀçC-¢√-öÀE ņ’-´- b) I think they may/ might come tomorrow.
CÆæ÷h ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. a) Í®°æ¤ ¢√®Ω’ c) I thought they would come yesterday.
´≤ƒh-®ΩE ؈’ ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. 2. I thought they would take it correct.
ņúøç
b) Í®°æ¤ ¢√®Ω’ ´≤ƒh-Í®-¢Á÷-†E ؈’ ņ’- I thought- Ééπ\úø thought past tense
èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. c) E†o ¢√®Ω’ ´≤ƒh-®ΩE (í∫ûªç™ °æE) – ņ’-èπ◊-†o-°æ¤púø’ (í∫ûªç™) ¢√∞¡Ÿx
؈’ ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’. BÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç ÅØËC future 鬕öÀd would ¢√úøû√ç.
2. I thought that they will take it. I thought that He said that he would help me. (Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç
they would take it. – Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀ™ àC éπÈ®é˙d? îË≤ƒh-†E ÅØ√oúø’– ņoC í∫ûªç™, Å°æp-öÀoç*
- Madhu, Hyderabad future 鬕öÀd would help).

Q. 1. There is a question in a spoken A. 1. Strictly speaking the expression quality soaps is 2. As we are short of space here, we are sorry 4. Comprise is not followed by 'of'. The book
English- "Are quality soaps available wrong. It should be quality brands of soap, if the we can't explain 'story writing' now. We shall comprises ten chapters.
here?" Is it correct expression? reference is to the soap brands of the same com- do it when time and space permit. Our 5. Do you have...? = Have you got...?
pany or different companies. Only in commercial regrets. (This is a page on spoken English,
2. What are the steps to be followed in Both the forms show possession. However,
language, 'soaps' is used, as for example, and so it has the priority.)
writing a story writing because it is do/ does/ did have... is common in American
major challenge for X class students 3. Depends on the type of students you have. If
they are English medium students, English to English in statements and in questions
including in which tense is should be (meaning possession).
English is preferable. If on the other hand
explain.
3. If teaching of English attractive to the -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 424
they are Telugu medium students start with
translation method, and gradually take them
Have you got...?

students what method With the meaning of pos-
should be followed session in British English

The book comprises ten chapters
English to English or in statements and ques-
English to Telugu (ver- tions.
sion) or Translation Have you got.. is not used
method for high school in questions at all in
students (mother tongue students) on to English - English American English. Have got is used in
'Godrej Soaps Ltd,' and the use is limited only to
4. America comprises of fifty one states - business products. In ordinary conversation, method. When you American English to say that someone has
in this sentence does comprise takes however, 'soaps' is not used. use translation something rather than another. eg: I don't
of or not? Explain. method, put them a no have a car, but I've got a bike.
A TV serial is also called 'soap.' Here 'soap' (with
of questions on the
5. What is the difference between do you the meaning of a TV serial) is countable.. I was Have you is also used in British English with
lesson content and
have, have you got? watching a soap (a TV serial) yesterday. 'How many the same meaning as have you got?
encourage them to
- G.Shankar, Karimnagar soaps are telecast by the channel?' - These are OK. answer only in English. M.SURESAN

Q. 1. lesson
-O’®Ω’ -äéπ - "I went to my
™ Q. There for, there of, there to, so as 2) There-for- ÉC É°æ¤púø’ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ éπ†’- b) She hasn't used the building or
Ç ä°æpç-ü∆Fo, ü∆EéÀ îËJa† Éûª®Ω
uncle's yesterday. They were tidy- to- -O-öÀ-E -Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç--îË -N-üµ∆-†ç -N-´- any part there of =
´’-®Ω’Èíj §Ú®·çC, îªôd-°æ-J-¶µ«-≠æ-™/ ≠æ®Ω-ûª’-©†’ -Å-´’-©’ °æ®Ω-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊/
ing up their home" -Å-E -É-î√a®Ω’. é¬-F Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. ví¬ç-C∑é𠶵«≠æ™ èπÿú≈ á´®Ω÷ -¢√-úø- Ç éπôd-ú≈Eoí¬F, ûªü∆s¥-í¬Eoí¬-F Ç¢Á’ -Å-†’Ææ-Jç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ؈’ É≠æd-°æ-úø’-
tidying up their place Pos-
éπü∆? - G. Ram Mohan Rao, Alampuram. ôç ™‰ü¿’. Å®Ωnç: °j† îÁ°œp†/ Éçûªèπ◊ Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ¢√úø-™‰ü¿’. ûª’-Ø√o†’.
sessive form place
ûÓ ®√ü∆? N´- A. There-for, there-of, there-to, ´·çü¿’ ûÁL°œ† ¢√J/- ¢√öÀ éÓÆæç; 4) There upon = Åçü¿’O’ü¿ô– ¢ÁçôØË. b) He has the right to use the
Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. there-upon, there-by, so as to- ¢√öÀéÀ 鬮Ω-ù-¢Á’i†. a) Rajasekhar made some com- building and any land attached
2. -´’®Ó lesson ™- "Perhaps you are É´Fo èπÿú≈ ví¬ç-C∑-éπç-í¬ØË é¬èπ◊çú≈ a) The building was caught in a ments on Chiranjeevi. There there to =
afraid you may put on weight" ÅE îªôd -Ø√uߪ’ °æJ-¶µ«-≠æ™  ¶µ«í∫çí¬ huge fire and the causes there- upon the fans of Chiranjeevi Ç éπôd-ú≈Eo, ü∆EéÀ îËJa Ö†o
for are not known = attacked him =
Éî√a®Ω’. é¬F perhaps you are afraid áèπ◊\´ ¢√-úø-û√®Ω’. Ç éπ-ôdúøç Ææn™«Eo ¢√úø’-èπ◊ØË £æ«èπ◊\ Åûª-úÕéÀ
you will put on weight Å-ØÌa éπü∆? 1) There-by: °j† îÁ°œp-†/- Éç- °ü¿l ´’çô™ *èπ◊\-èπ◊çC, ü∆E ®√ï-¨Ï-ê®˝ *®Ωç-@-N- O’ü¿ ¢√uêu©’ ÖçC.
3. Vocabulary ditch
-™ Å®Ωnç N´-JÆæ÷h– ûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ ûÁL°œ† ¢√öÀ 鬮Ω-ùç-í¬/- (Ç ´’çôèπ◊) 鬮Ω-ù«©’ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’. îËߪ’-í¬ØË/ îËÆœ-†- O’-ü¿ô Çߪ’† 6) So as to = Åçûªí¬
"He ditched her after he found ¢√öÀ °∂æL-ûªçí¬. b) They are estimating the cost of ÅGµ-´÷-†’©’ ®√ï-¨Ï-ê-®˝- O’-ü¿ ü∆úÕ a) She is not so rich as to buy a
another girl friend" "He
ÅØ√o®Ω’. é¬F a) He does most of the work, the house and talking about î˨»®Ω’. car =
thereby reducing my part of the the repairs needed there for = b) The terrorists were seen
ditched her after he had found Car éÌØËçûª üµ¿E-èπ◊-®√©’ é¬ü∆¢Á’.
work= crossing the border.
another girl friend" é¬ü∆? áèπ◊\´ °æ†çû√ Åûª-úË ¢√∞¡Ÿx Ç ÉçöÀ üµ¿®Ω†’ ÅçîªØ√ ¢ËÆæ’h- b) We went to the stadium early
Thereupon the security forces
- P. Ratnakar, Visakhapatnam so as to get the front seats =
îË≤ƒhúø’ (ü∆E´©x/ -ü∆E °∂æL-ûªçí¬/ Ø√o®Ω’. Éçé¬ Ç -ÉçöÀéÀ/ -ÉçöÀéÓÆæç opened fire =
A. 1. Tidying up their home = Tidying up
Ç é¬®Ω-ùçí¬) Ø√ ¢√ö« °æE Å´-Ææ-®Ω-´’ßË’u repairs í∫’-Jç-* ´·çü¿’†o seats §ÒçüËç-ü¿’èπ◊/
ûªT_Ææ÷h. ÆæJ-£æ«ü¿’l ü∆ô’-ûª’†o Bv´-¢√-ü¿’-©†’ §Òçü∆-©E ¢Ë’ç stadium èπ◊
their place. home ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
b) He got elected as an MP and
É™«çöÀîÓôx ÅØ√o îª÷Æœ† ¢ÁçôØË/ O’ü¿õ‰ ¶µºvü¿û√
place 3) There-of= °j†îÁ°œp†/Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ ´·çü¿’-í¬ØË ¢Á∞«xç.
thereby gained a number of
ÅØ√o äéπõ‰. ü¿∞«©’ 鬩’p©’ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-î√®·.
2. Ééπ\úø, perhaps, 'you are afraid' ÅØË c) He is most of the time at home
5) There-to = °j† îÁ°œp† ¢√öÀéÀ/
privileges and a lot of influence
ûÁL°œ-† -¢√-J-éÀ/- ¢√-öÀéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*†.
a) He has no right to all the prop- so as to make his son study =
ü∆EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*çC éπü∆? Åçü¿’-éπE, = MP
Åûª-úø’ í¬ áEo-éπ-ߪ÷uúø’, -ü∆- Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ -ûÁ-L°œ-† -¢√-öÀéÀ.
Perhaps you are afraid, is correct. erty or any part there of= a) I am willing to follow the agree-
E -´‚-©çí¬/ ûª-ûªp¥-L-ûªçí¬ î√™« Åûª-úÕéÀ ûª† éÌúø’-èπ◊†’ îªC-Nç-îËç-ü¿’-í¬_†÷,
Perhaps you may be afraid Åçõ‰ v°æûËuéπ £æ«èπ◊\©’, °æ©’-èπ◊-•úÕ Ææ秃-- Ç ÇÆœhEí¬F, ü∆E™/ ü∆EéÀ îÁçC† ment and any other conditions
Åûª-úÁ-èπ◊\´ ÉçöxØË Öçö«úø’.
ûªÊ°p. Take the second part of the Cç-î√úø’. ¶µ«í¬-Eo-í¬F Ţ˒t £æ«èπ◊\ ™‰ü¿’. attached there to =
sentence: You are afraid you may
put on weight- I don't want to say anything over phone =
Q. 1. Whileèπ◊ ´’®Ó Å®Ωnç used to show contrast A. 1. Used to show contrast
É°æ¤p-úÕC DEéÀ ÆæJ-§Ú- Åçõ‰ È®ç-úÕçöÀ ´’üµ¿u
Of course, perhaps phone phone phone
ûª’çC éπü∆?
and may are not used in the same
ÅE äéπ °æ¤Ææh-éπç™ îª÷¨»†’. éÀçC ¢√éπuç-™ while Ö†o ¢Áj®Ω’üµ¿uç/ °æ‹Jh ´uA-Í®-éπûª. ü∆y®√/
©--éÓ-™‰ü¿’.
¢√úÕ/ ™ àD îÁ°æp-ü¿-
†’ à Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úÕ-†öx N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. The girls sang while the boys played Ééπ\úø
sentence. Here perhaps goes with 3. for = as to be =
a) The girls sang while the boys played. Girls X Boys, sang, different from played- Ñ
Ö†o-ô’xí¬ – ÉC äéπ Å®Ωnç.
are afraid. 1) a) They left him for dead =
(contrast) Nüµ¿-¢Á’i† ûËú≈/ ¢Áj®Ω’üµ¿uç (contrast) ûÁLÊ°çü¿’èπ◊ îªE-§Ú-®·† ¢√úÕ-™«í∫
3. After words like before/ after, had +
b) The bee worked while the cricket sang while ¢√úøû√ç. (îªE-§Ú-®·† ¢√úÕE ´C-™‰-Æœ-†ô’x) ÅûªúÕE ´C-™‰-¨»-®Ω-
past participle
He supports the congress while his wife is a
¢√ú≈-©ØË E•ç-üµ¿† éπ\úø.
had + past 2. 'Over' èπ◊ sense of ÅE îª÷¨»†’.
á°æ¤púø÷ §ƒöÀç-îª-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. member of the TDP congress b) I took him for a good man = Åûª-úÕE ؈’ ´’ç*-
adverbial use: The match is over.
(Åûªúø’ ´’ü¿l-ûª’-ü∆-
participle correct. Simple past
TDP
´ÊÆh ®Ω’-ú ÁjûË ÅûªúÕ ¶µ«®Ωu Æ涵º’u-®√©’) ¢√--úÕ-™«í¬-ØË Å†’-èπ◊Ø√o.
heard or said by means of or using:-
¢√úÕØ√ °∂æ®√y-™‰ü¿’. O’J-*a† È®çúÓ example
™ èπÿú≈, èπ◊ bees crick- 2) for = éÌ®Ωèπ◊/ éÓÆæç. Gopal did it for me =
He returned home after he attended I don't want to say over the telephone
èπÿ, et worked sang
èπÿ Ö†o †’ contrast while íÓ§ƒ™¸ ÅC Ø√ éÓÆæç/ Ø√ éÌ®Ωèπ◊ î˨»úø’.
class.Ééπ\úø After he had attended 3. For Å®Ωnç as to be ÅE îª÷¨»†’. ü∆E Å®Ωnç ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC. 3) for = on account of = Åçü¿’-´©x – ÉC 3´ Å®Ωnç.
after
ÅØ√o °∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰ü¿’ ÖçC 鬕öÀd. Éçü¿’™ They left him on the battle field for 2. Match Å®·-§Ú-®·çC ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ, over Ééπ\úø I don't like him for he is a bad man = Åûªúø’ îÁúøf-
I went to his college, but he had dead. ÅüË Nüµ¿çí¬ Gopal did it for me ( on adverb. They are well ™ well ™«í∫.
account of) Ééπ\úø on account of Å®Ωnç N´-Jç-îª-
¢√úø’, Åçü¿’-´©x (for/ on account of ) Åûª-úøçõ‰
already left/ left by then. É™«çöÀîÓôx Heard or said by means of or using Åçõ‰ üËE Ø√éÀ≠dçæ ™‰ü¿’.
had + pp éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ¢√ú≈-LqçüË. í∫-©®Ω’. - G. Naresh, Armour ü∆y®√-ØÁjØ√/ üˆo-®·Ø√ ¢√úÕ N†úøç/ îÁ°æpúøç ÅE.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 26 -°∂œ-v•-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Rahim: You here? Out on an evening? Rohit: (Do) You have company on your walks?
(†’Ny-éπ\ú≈? ≤ƒßª’çvûªç •ßª’-öÀ-éÀ- (Fèπ◊ ûÓúÁ-´-È®jØ√ ´Ææ’hç-ö«®√ F †úø-éπ™.)
®√-´-úø´÷?) Rahim: Barely any.
Rohit: Why the surprise? (ü∆ü∆°æ¤ -á-´®Ω÷ -™‰®Ω’.)
Rahim: Because I seldom see you moving out Rohit: Don't you feel lonely?
in the evenings. (-äç-ô-Jí¬ -Ö-†o-ô’x -Å-E°œç-îª-ü∆?)
(†’Oy Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ •ßª’-öÀéÀ ®√í¬ Øˆ’ Rahim: At no time.
îª÷úøôç Å®Ω’ü¿’ 鬕öÀd.) (-á°æ¤p-úø÷ -™‰-ü¿’.)
Rohit: You're right ofcourse. But that's not going Rohit: (Do you/ would you) mind my joining
to be the case any longer. I no longer you?
want to be at home in the evenings.
3) No longer = Not any longer.
(؈’ FûÓ ®√-´-î√a?)
(Eï¢Ë’. Å®·ûË Ééπ Å™« ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’. ≤ƒßª’çvûªç Rahim: Most welcome. =
Åçûª v°æA¶µº Ö†o Nü∆u-JnE î√™« Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬
Éçöx Öçú≈-©E Éçéπ ņ’-éÓ-´úøç ™‰ü¿’.) No longer = (Æ洒ߪ’ç) Éçé𠙉ü¿’/ Éçéπ-O’-ü¿-™‰ü¿’.
îª÷¨»†’.
a) They will sell milk no longer. They have
(ûª°æpéπ ®√.)
Rahim: Why this sudden change? b) They seldom meet each other = ¢√∞¡Ÿx äéπ-J-ØÌ-
    
changed over to sweets business = ¢√Rxç-éπ-O’ü¿
(Éçûª Çéπ-Æœtéπ ´÷®Ω’p áçü¿’-´-©xØÓ.) È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ lessons †’ç< Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™x ´îËa éπ®Ω’ Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’/ ¢√∞¡Ÿx éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç
Rohit: Because I've come to realise that éÌEo common phrases îª÷Ææ’hØ√oç éπü∆? ´’J-éÌEo Å®Ω’ü¿’. §ƒ©’ Å´’t®Ω’. Æ‘yö¸q ¢√u§ƒ-®√-EéÀ ´÷®√®Ω’.
evenings are enjoyable outdoors. c) I seldom see Kumar helping others = èπ◊´÷®˝ b) Musharaff can rule no longer = ´·≥ƒ-®Ω°∂ˇ Ééπ-
É°æ¤púø’ îª÷ü∆lç. O’ü¿-ô °æJ-§ƒ-LçîË v°æ¨Ïo ™‰ü¿’.)
(≤ƒßª’ç-vû√©’ •ßª’õ‰ Ææ®Ω-ü∆í¬ Öçö«-ߪ’E Look at the following sentences from the Éûª-®Ω’©èπ◊ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËߪ’úøç Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ îª÷≤ƒh†’/
4) Never = á°æp-öÀ-éÃ-™‰ü¿’/ é¬ü¿’.
conversation above.
ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√o†’ 鬕öÀd.) Åûªúø’ Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËÆæ’hç-úøí¬ Øˆ’ îª÷úøôç
Rahim: What did you use to do in the evenings 1) ... Because I sel- Å®Ω’ü¿’. a) He never drinks = Åûªúø’ ÅÆæ©’ û√í∫úø’.
earlier? Watching TV serials perhaps. 2) Any longer = b) We were at the same school, but we never
dom see you mov-
talked to each other = school
ing out in the
(Æ洒ߪ’ç í∫’Jç*) ¢Ë’ç äÍé ™ îªü¿’-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
(Éçûªèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ ≤ƒßª’ç-vû√-™„™« í∫úÕ-Ê°-¢√-úÕN?
evenings. 425
öÃO Æ‘J-ߪ’™¸q îª÷Ææ÷h-ØË¢Á÷.) ÉçÍé-´÷vûªç. ´¤-èπ◊Ø√oç é¬F á°æ¤púø÷ ´÷ö«x-úø’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’.
Rohit: TV serials? I never watch them. I turn on a) We are already late. c) He never talks bad of others = Åûªúø’ Éûª-®Ω’-©†’
the TV only to watch the news í∫’Jç* îÁúø’í¬ á°æp-öÀéà ´÷ö«x-úøúø’.

Scar cely ever do I miss..
channels. How do you spend 5) Scarcely (ever) = Barely = Hardly
your evenings? ever = ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ™‰ü¿’/ (àüÁjØ√ Ææç°∂æ’-
(öÃO Æ‘J-ߪ’∞«x? ØËØÁ-°æ¤púø÷ ¢√öÀE ô† ï®Ω-í∫úøç), ü∆ü∆°æ¤ Å®Ω’ü¿’.
îª÷úø†’. †÷uÆˇ îµ √ØÁ™ ¸q†’ a) She scarcely (ever)/ barely (ever)/
îª÷ÊÆçü¿’Íé öÃO °ô’d-èπ◊ç-ö«†’ hardly (ever) comes here = Ç¢Á’
2) ... That's not going to be the case
؈’. †’´¤y ᙫ í∫úø’-°æ¤-û√´¤ Ééπ\-úÕéÀ ®√´úøç î√™« Å®Ω’ü¿’/ ®√ü¿ØË
Let's not delay any longer =´’†ç É°æp-
any longer.
≤ƒßª’ç-vû√©’?) ÅØ√L.
Rahim: Like this. Out on the road taking long öÀÍé Ç©Ææuç. ÉçÍé-´÷vûªç Ç©Ææuç b) His friends hardly/ scarcely/ barely/ recog-
3) I no longer want to be at home in
walks. îËßÁ·ü¿’l. nised him. He had changed and aged so
the evenings.
(É™«. ®Óúø’f O’ü¿, î√™« ü¿÷®Ωç †úø’Ææ÷h.) b) They can't wait any longer = ¢√RxçÍé much =
4) I never watch them.
ÅûªúÕ ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’©’ ÅûªúÕE í∫’®Ω’h-°æ-ôd-™‰ü¿’.
Rohit: (Do) you do it everyday? ´÷vûªç ¢Ë* Öçúø-™‰®Ω’. Åûª-úøçûª ´÷J-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’, ¶«í¬ ´ßª’-≤Ò-îËa-ÆœçC.
5) Scarcely ever do I miss.. c) They have told him they won't help c) Laxman scarcely/ hardly/ barely fails his team
M.SURESAN
(®Ó-WØ√?)
Rahim: Scarcely ever do I miss my evening 6) Barely any. him any longer. (Éçéπ Åûª-úÕéÀ -Ééπ = -©éπ~ t-ù˝ -ûª-† -ï-ô’d-†’ -E®√-¨¡°æ®Ω-îª-úøç -î√-™« -Å®Ω’-ü¿’/
walk. 1) Seldom = rarely = Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ à´÷vûªç Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËߪ’¶´’E, ¢√-∞¡Ÿx - -E®√-¨¡°æ®Ω-îª-úø-ØË -îÁ-§ƒp-L.
(≤ƒßª’çvûªç ؈’ †úø-´-éπ-§Ú-´úøç Å®Ω’ü¿’.) a) I've seldom seen a student with such a talent ÅûªúÕûÓ îÁÊ°p-¨»®Ω’.)
Exercise: Match The words under A with
their meanings under B.
ï®Ω-í∫-¶-ûª’-†o-ô’xí¬ ¶µ«Nç-î√®Ω’. Sending shivers down the spine = (¶µºßª’çûÓ v°æ¨¡o: Ram, speed, wive
b) Kaikeyi's silence as Dasaratha entered her ´ù’èπ◊ °æ¤öÀdç-îªúøç. °æü∆-©†’ verb í¬
A B
palace was ominous = The thought of AIDS sends shivers down ¢√úÌî√a?
1 Cord A Shake
ÈéjÍé®· E¨¡z-•lçí¬ Öçúø-
our spines = Ram- Rammed -Rammed
2 Omen B Report
ö«Eo îª÷Æœ éÃúø’ ¨¡çéÀç-î√úø’ ü¿¨¡-®Ω-ü∑¿’úø’. á®·ú˛q†’ í∫’Jç-*† Ç™- ´’†èπ◊
3-F. Fulfil = Accomplish = ņ’-èπ◊-†oC ≤ƒCµç- ¶µºßª’çûÓ ü¿úø °æ¤öÀd-Ææ’hçC. Speed - Sped - Sped
3 Fulfil C Sign
Spine = ¢ÁØÁo-´·éπ = back bone. Wive - Wived - Wived
4 Shiver D Disappoint
îªúøç/ éÓJéπ ØÁ®Ω-¢Ë-®Ω’a-éÓ-´úøç
5 Hearsay E Thin rope a) Dr Kalam's urges youngsters to dream of 5-B. Hearsay = Report = Éûª-®Ω’©’ îÁ°æ¤p-éÓí¬ ´’† ÉN éπ®Ω-ÍédØ√? Öü∆-£æ«-®Ωù
F Accomplish great things and work hard to fulfil them = îÁN†°æ-úøôç/ ´’† îÁN†°æúË N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ (éπ®√g-éπ- É´yçúÕ.
ï¢√•’: Ram, speed ´÷vûª¢Ë’
G Frown íÌ°æp íÌ°æp éπ©©’ éπE ¢√öÀE ≤ƒCµç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊/ ØÁ®Ω- Jgí¬ N†úøç) – Eïç é¬éπ-§Ú-´îª’a/ Eï-´’E – áç. ®Ωçí∫ߪ’u, É©xçü¿
KEY: 1-E; 2-C; 3-F; 4-A; 5-B.
¢Ë-®Ω’a-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ éπ%≠œîËߪ÷-©E -ú≈éπd®˝ éπ™«ç éπ*aûªçí¬ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’.
a) 'Their marriage? Yea, I know about it. But verbs í¬ ¢√úø-´îª’a.
EXPLANATION
ÖüÓsüµ¿.
urge -Åñ¸ = í∫öÀdí¬ éÓ®Ωúøç/ ÖüÓs-Cµç-îªúøç it's only hearsay. ='¢√∞¡x °-∞«x? Å´¤†’, Ø√èπ◊ 1. The bus rammed the truck from behind =
1-E. Cord = Thin rope = ü∆®Ωç/ û√úø’. b) He fulfiled his father's desire that he should ûÁ©’Ææ’. Å®·ûË -Å-C á´®Ó îÁ°æpí¬ N†-úø¢Ë’. bus
™«KE, ¢Á†-éπ-†’ç* A†oí¬ úµŒéÌ-öÀdçC. ´·êuçí¬
(wire) cord = Telephone ™«çöÀ °æJ-éπ-®√-©-èπ◊çúË
becoming an engineer = ûª†’ engineer 鬢√- (áçûª Eï¢Á÷ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’). äéπ ¢√£æ«†ç ÉçéÓ ¢√£æ«-Ø√Eo •©çí¬ úµŒ é̆úøç,
wire ´·éπ\. Cordless Åçõ‰ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-í∫ü∆. Wire
©†o ûª† ûªçvúÕ éÓJ-éπ†’ Åûªúø’ ØÁ®Ω-¢Ë-®√aúø’. b) Do you know about it for certain? áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢Á†-éπ-†’ç*.
™‰èπ◊çú≈ °æE-îËÊÆ (phone ™«çöÀ) °æJ-éπ-®√©’. They fulfil dreams/ desires/ wishes, etc, ØÁ®Ω-¢Ë- 2. Speed 1) ¢Ëí∫-´çûªç îËߪ ’úøç (°æ† ’-™«xçöÀ
tightened the wire cord around her neck = Ç¢Á’
('FéπC éπ*aûªçí¬ ûÁ©’≤ƒ?—)
¢Á’úø ô÷d wire ´·éπ\†’ GTç-î√®Ω’. He con- ®Ωúøç/ ņ’-èπ◊†oC ≤ƒCµç-îªúøç. 'No. It's just hearsay.' ¢√öÀE). The work on the project has been
Accomplish = ≤ƒCµç-îªúøç. speeded up = v§ƒñ„é˙d °æ†’©’ ¢Ëí∫-´çûªç îËߪ’-•-
nected the motor to the wheel with a piece of/ '™‰ü¿’. á´®Ó Åçô’ç-úøí¬ N†oüË—.)
length of cord = wire
Ç ¢Á÷ö«-®Ω’†’ ´·éπ\ûÓ îªvé¬- Tendulkar accomplished the rare feat of D. Disappoint = E®√¨¡ éπL-Tç-îªúøç ú≈f®· (î˨»®Ω’).
EéÀ éπL-§ƒúø’. scoring 38 centuries = 38 ÂÆç-îª-K-©’ éÌöÀd - a) His marks in the exam disappointed his Speed -Sped - Sped = ¢Ëí∫çí¬ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-´úøç. The
father = car sped away on hitting the cyclist = cyclist
2-C. Omen = Sign = ¨¡èπ◊†ç.Bad omen = õ„ç-úø’-©\®˝ Å®Ω’-üÁj† °∂æ’†ûª ≤ƒCµç-î√úø’. °æK-éπ~™ ÅûªúÕ ´÷®Ω’\©’ ÅûªúÕ ûªçvúÕéÀ
Accomplish X Fail (N°∂æ-©-´’-´úøç) car
Good omen =
ü¿’¨¡z-èπ◊†ç, ¨¡Ÿ¶µº ¨¡èπ◊†ç. E®√¨¡ éπL-Tç-î√®·. †’ úµŒéÌöÀd Ç
ü¿÷Ææ’-èπ◊-§Ú-®·çC.
4-A. Shiver = Shake - ´ùÀ-éÀ-§Ú-´úøç – ´®Ω{ç/ îªL- b) The movie is really disappointing = Ç Wive, prose conversation
a) A cat crossing you on your way out is con-
™ ´÷´‚©’ ™
verb Poetic
sidered a bad omen = °œLx áü¿’®Ω’ ®√´úøç ïy®Ωç/ ¶µºßª’ç ´©x. ÆœE´÷ E®√¨¡ éπL-Tç-*çC. í¬ ¢√úø-ö«-EéÀ ™‰ü¿’. í¬ ¢√úÕØ√ î√™«
Not accepted.
v°æ¨ ¡o: 1. Hospital ™ îËJpç-*Ø√í¬F Åçûªí¬ °∂æLûªç
ü¿’¨¡z-èπ◊-†çí¬ ¶µ«N-≤ƒh®Ω’. The boy shivered at the sight of what he Disappoint X Satisfy
Å®Ω’ü¿’.
b) Seeing the picture of god as you get up is thought was a ghost = ûª†’ ¶µº÷ûªç ņ’-èπ◊-†oC G. Frown= Look angrily (éÓ°æçûÓ îª÷úøôç)
a good omen = ™‰´-í¬ØË üË´¤úÕ ¶Ô´’t éπE°œç- éπE-°œç-îª-í¬ØË Ç °œ™«xúø’ ¶µºßª’çûÓ ´ùÀ-éÀ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. (ÅØ√-¢Á÷-ü¿-éπ-®Ωçí¬) ©Gµç-îª-™‰ü¿’.
b) Gone are the days when students shivered 2. ÉC
a) In the beginning a career in the movie was
îªúøç ¨¡Ÿ¶µº ¨¡Ÿèπ◊†ç Çûªt-£æ«ûªu é¬ü¿E N¨¡y-Æœ-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’.
Ominous = ÆæçÍé-ûª-¢Á’i†/ ¶µºN-≠æu-ûª’h†’ Ææ÷*çîË, at the sight of their teachers = Ö§ƒ-üµ∆u-ߪ·- frowned at = ¢Á·ü¿öÀ ®ÓV™x ÆœE´÷ †ô†
Ñ ¢√é¬u- ©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ ®√ߪ÷-L?
ï¢√•’: 1.Though he was admitted in the hos-
´·êuçí¬ àüÓ éÃúø’ ï®Ω-í∫-¶-ûª’ç-ü¿E Ææ÷*çîË. ©†’ îª÷Æœ Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’ (¶µºßª’çûÓ) ´ùÀ-éÀ§ÚßË’ -Åç-õ‰ °ü¿l©’ éÓ°æ-Tç--èπ◊ØË ¢√-∞¡Ÿx. –°œ.-Ø√®√-ߪ’-ù-®√´¤, Nï-ߪ’-†-í∫®Ωç
a) The wicked foursome considered the ®ÓV©’ §Úߪ÷®·. b) He frowned at me when I pointed to his
c) The poor old women was shivering in the pital, there wasn't much improvement/
arrival of Lord Krishna ominous = defects =
He was admitted in the hospital but
ÅûªúÕ ™§ƒ©’ îª÷°œç-îË-Ææ-JéÀ Ø√O’ü¿
cold of rainy night = Ç ´®Ω{°æ¤ ®√vA îªLéÀ Ç
ü¿’≠æd îªûª’-≠dß
æ ª’ç (ü¿’®Óu-üµ¿-Ø√-ü¿’©’) éπ%≠æflgúø’ éÓ°æçûÓ îª÷¨»úø’. things didn't improve.
®√´-ú≈Eo (®√ߪ’-¶«-®√-EéÀ) àüÓ éÃúø’ Ê°ü¿ ´%ü¿l¥ ´’£œ«∞¡ ´ùÀ-éÀ-§Ú-ûÓçC. Frown X Smile (*®Ω’-†´¤y) 2. I am convinced that it is not a suicide.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 28 -°∂œ-v•-´-J 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Vandana: Well, this is a secret. On no account Varshita: Why such a lot of money? It's my
should tell another soul of it. cousin's shop and I can get them at
(Å®Ωn-´’-®·uçü∆? ÉC ®Ω£æ«Ææuç. à 鬮Ω-ùç- substantial concession for you. Rs.
´©x èπÿú≈ †’Oy N≠æߪ’ç ÉçéÓ v§ƒùÀéÀ 5000/- will do.
îÁ°æp-èπÿ-úøü¿’) (ÅçûÁç-ü¿’èπÿ? ÅC ´÷ cousin shop.
Varshita: You know very well that at no time Fèπ◊ ´’ç* concession É°œpç-îª-í∫-©†’.
have I leaked out a secret. Be ®Ω÷. 5000 î√©’.)
assured that it's going to be between Vandana: But still keep it. Just in case. You can
you and me. always give me back the balance.
(á°æ¤púø’ èπÿú≈ ØËØË ®Ω£æ«-Ææu´‚ •ßª’-ô-°-ôd- (áçü¿’-ÈéjØ√ ´’ç*C. Öç. N’T™‰h Ø√èπ◊
™‰-ü¿E Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. ÉC ´’E-ü¿lJ ´’üµËu AJ-T-îÁa®·u)
Varshita: I am likely to be back on Sunday, or 4) On the one hand, on the other... On the
ÖçúË N≠æ-ߪ’-´’E ¶µº®Ó-≤ƒûÓ Öçúø’.) 2) At no time = Not at anytime = à Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™
at the most on Monday. one hand = È®çúø’ ¢Áj®Ω’-üµ∆u-©†’ ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ñ
Vandana: I know it very well, of course. You èπÿú≈.
Vandana: That's OK. expression ¢√úøû√ç.
know our classmates Vachana and a) At no time during the freedom struggle did
Look at the following expressions from the a) On the one hand he wants a car, but on
Vasudha. They are by no means to Gandhi ask his followers to be violent =
dialogue above: the other he doubts his ability to bear the
be trusted with any secret.
1) On no account should you tell another soul of it.
≤ƒyûªçvûªu §Ú®√-ôç™ à Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ èπÿú≈ í¬çDµ
fuel costs =
(ÅC Ø√èπ◊ ¶«í¬ ûÁ©’Ææ’. ´’† class- 2) ... at no time have I leaked out a secret.
ûª† ņ’-îª-®Ω’-©†’ £œ«çÆæèπ◊ °æ‹†’-éÓ-´’E îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’. äéπ-¢Áj-Ê°¢Á÷ ÅûªúÕéÀ 鬮Ω’ 鬢√-©E,
petrol
mates ´îª†, ´Ææ’üµ¿ ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπü∆? ¢√∞¡xûÓ b) At no time during his stay here, did he call
´’®Ó-¢Áj-Ê°¢Á÷, üµ¿®Ω©’ ¶µºJç-îª-í∫-©Ø√ ÅØË
3) They are by no means to be trusted with any ÆæçüË£æ«ç.
´’†ç à ®Ω£æ«Ææuç †N’t îÁ°æp™‰ç.) secret. me = He did not call me at anytime during
b) on the one hand he is against doing a job
Varshita: On the one hand they are eager for 4) On the one hand his stay here = Åûª-úÕ-
information, but on the other, they but on the other he doesn't want to lose
they are eager for éπ\úø Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ à Ææ´’-
can never keep a secret. There information, but on the money he gets from the job = äéπ-°æ-éπ\-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
ߪ’ç™ èπÿú≈ Ø√èπ◊
comes the trouble. They are the first the other they can 426 phone îËߪ’™‰ü¿’. ØË¢Á÷ ÖüÓuí∫ç îËߪ’-èπÿ-úø-ü¿E, ´’®Ó°æéπ\ØË¢Á÷
people to misunderstand us if they never keep a secret. ÖüÓuí∫ç ´©x ´îËa úø•’s ´ü¿-©’-éÓ-èπÿ-úø-ü¿E.
know we have this secret 5) For heaven's sake/ for God's

He is by no means innocent
from them. sake/ for goodness's sake/ for
(äéπ-¢Áj-Ê°¢Á÷, ÅFo ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√- Christ's sake = NÆæ’-í¬_-í¬F/ éÓ°æç-í¬-
©E ûª£æ«ûª£æ«, ´’®Ó-¢Áj-Ê°¢Á÷ à í¬F, àüÁjØ√ °æE ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ ï®Ω-í¬-©-†’-
®Ω£æ«Ææuç ü∆îª-™‰®Ω’. Åéπ\úË èπ◊-†o-°æ¤p-úø’-í¬F ÅØË ´÷ô.
a) For God's/ heaven's sake, listen to me =
´Ææ’hçC *éπ\çû√. ´’†ç àüÓ
5) For heaven's sake, you aren't c) At no time was he seen without a
(
ü∆Ææ’h-Ø√o-´’E ûÁLÊÆh ´’†Lo ¢Á·ôd-¢Á·-ü¿ô going to tell them of this secret,
ŧƒ®Ωnç îËÆæ’-èπ◊-ØË-C-¢√∞Ïx) gun = ûª’§ƒéà ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ÅûªØÁ°æ¤púø÷ éπE- NÆæ’í¬_/ éÓ°æçûÓ) ØË îÁÊ°pC N†’.
are you? b) For heaven's sake, please finish the work
Vandana: For heaven's sake, you are not going
°œç-îª-™‰ü¿’.
6) But still keep it. Just in case. 3) By no means = not at all = ÅÆæ©’ by tomorrow = (éÌçîÁç •A-´÷-©’ûª÷) Í®°æ-öÀéÀ
to tell them of this, are you?
Let's now look at some of the con- é¬ØË é¬ü¿’. °æE °æ‹Jh îÁ®·u.
(
versational expressions shown c) For heaven's sake, don't disturb me =
ãJ üË´¤-úÓß˝’, †’¢√y-∞¡xéà N≠æߪ’ç îÁ°æp´¤
a) He is by no means innocent. He ††’o
above.
éπü∆?)
can't be cheated so easily. Ø√ °æE îËÆæ ’-éÓF, Åçûª-®√ߪ ’ç éπL-Tç-îªèπ◊.
M.SURESAN
Varshita: I am the last, I promise you, to part
= ÅûªúËç
with this secret to them. Be sure of it.
1) On no account/ Not on any Å´÷-ߪ’-èπ◊úø’ é¬ü¿’. Åçûª Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬ 6) Just in case = ÅüË´’Ø√o Å´-Ææ®Ωç Å®·ûË/
account = (For whatever
à 鬮Ωùç ´©x-é¬F. ¢Á÷Ææ-§Úúø’. áçü¿’-ÈéjØ√ ´’ç*C/ Å´-Ææ®Ωç Å®·ûË.
Vandana: That's fine. I believe you. Now about reason) a) Take some extra money. Just in case you
by no means= not by any means
your buying some dresses for me in a) On no account shall you leave office need it, you can have it =
b) She is not by any means a bad singer. She
úø•’s éÌçûª Åü¿-
Chennai. When are you leaving? before 5 and that too without my permis-
is famous at home as well as abroad =
†çí¬ BÆæ’-Èé∞¡Ÿx. Åçûªí¬ Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’iûË Öçô’çC.
(ÆæÍ® Å®·ûË. E†’o ؈’ †´·t-ûª’-Ø√o†’. sion =à 鬮Ω-ùç-´-©x-ØÁjØ√ ÆæÍ® †’´¤y 5 ´·çü¿’ b) Let me have your phone number. Not that
É°æ¤púø’ †’´¤y Ø√èπ◊ Chennai †’ç* office
´CL ¢Á∞¡x-ú≈-EéÀ O©’-™‰ü¿’, ÅD Ø√ ņ’-
Ǣ˒ç Åçûª °æE-éÀ-®√E í¬ßª’-èπ◊-®√©’ é¬ü¿’. ü˨¡ç-
I'm going to disturb you, but just in case =
dresses ûÁîËa N≠æߪ’ç. †’´¤y á°æ¤púø’
™ØË é¬éπ, NüË-¨»-©™ èπÿú≈ Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ¶«í¬
´’A ™‰èπ◊çú≈. Ø√èπ◊ O’phone no. É´yçúÕ. Åçõ‰ phone îËÆœ
Ê°®Ω’çC.
•ßª’-™‰l-®Ω’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤? b) The work shall not be delayed on any N’´’tLo disturb îËü∆l-´’E é¬ü¿’. Åçûªí¬ Å´-Ææ-
c) In spite of the many brands of cars on the
Varshita: The day after. By the evening train. account = à 鬮Ω-ùç-´-©x-ØÁjØ√ ÆæÍ®, °æE Ç©-Ææu- ®Ω-¢Á’iûË Öçô’çC éπü∆ ÅE.
market, they are by no means within the
(á©’xçúÕ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç) ´’-´-ú≈-EéÀ O™‰xü¿’. c) Start an hour early. Just in case ... = äéπ
reach of the common man = ´÷È®\-ö¸™
Vandana: I want you to buy 3 very good dress- c) See that the police do not come here on í∫çô ´·çü¿’ •ßª’-™‰l®Ω’. áçü¿’-ÈéjØ√ ´’ç*C.
î√™« ®Ω鬩 cars Ö†p-°æp-öÀéÃ, ≤ƒ´÷-†’u©èπ◊
es of the latest cut. Here, take this any account = police
à 鬮Ω-ùç-´©xØÁjØ√ ©’ Åçü¿’-¶«-ô’™ à癉´¤.
Rs. 6000/-. Ééπ\úÕéÀ ®√èπ◊çú≈ îª÷úø’.
EXERCISE Adequate Åçõ‰ ûªT† Å®Ω|ûª, ≤ƒ´’®Ωn uçí∫© ÅØË strategic = ´‹u£æ…-ûªtéπ¢Á’i†. ¢√û√-´-®Ωùç ¶µºJç-îª-™‰-†çûª îªLí¬ ÖçúÕ áéπ\ú≈
Match the words under A with their Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ÖçC. Strategic changes are necessary to be able ¢ÁîªaöÀ Çv¨¡ßª’ç üÌ®Ω-éπ\-§ÚûË, ÅC inhospitable
meanings under B c) He is not adequate for the task = Åûª-úÕéÀ to face aggression = climate/ inhospitable region (v§ƒçûªç).
A B Ñ °æEéÀ ûªT† ≤ƒ´’®Ωn uç ™‰ü¿’. ü∆úÕE áü¿’-®Ì\-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´‹u£æ…-ûªtéπ ´÷®Ω’p©-´-Ææ®Ωç. 5) Penalty = Punishment = Péπ~.
1 Adequate A Plan Adequate X Inadequate. 4) Hospitable = Friendly (to guests/ visitors)= a) The penalty for this offense is 6 months
2 Reform B Friendly 2) Reform= Change for improvement = ≤ƒü¿®Ωçí¬ ÇA-ü∑¿u-N’îËa/ ÅA-ü∑¿’©†’ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°õ‰d jail =
(to guests/ visitors) ÆæçÆæ \-®Ωù/ ÆæçÆæ \-Jç-îªúøç. Ææy¶µ«´´·†o. Ñ ØË®√-EéÀ (offense) Péπ~ Ç®Ω’ØÁ©©
3 Strategy C Punishment a) A lot of reforms have been made in the A hospitable person receives guests very 鬮√-í¬®Ωç.
4 Hospitable D Ill educational system = Nü∆u-N-üµ∆-†ç™ î√™« warmly and is happy when their guests are b) Follow the rules or face the penalty =
5 Penalty E Enough ÆæçÆæ \-®Ωù©’ ïJ-í¬®·. happy. E•ç-üµ¿-†© v°æ鬮Ωç †úø-éÓ ™‰ü∆ Péπ~ØÁü¿’®Ó\.
F Change b) The finance minister has promised a a) Indians by nature are very hospitable = c) He paid the penalty for harassing his wife
(for improvement) number of economic reforms = ÇJn-éπ-´’çvA ¶µ«®Ω-B-ߪ·©’ Ææyûª-£æ…í¬ ÇAü∑¿uç N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ for dowry =
G Meagre î√™« ÇJnéπ ÆæçÆæ \-®Ωù©’ ûÁ≤ƒh-†E ´÷ô ≤ƒü¿®Ωçí¬ Öçö«®Ω’. ¶µ«®Ωu†’ éπôoç éÓÆæç ¢ËCµç-*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊, Åûªúø’
KEY: 1-E, 2-F, 3-A, 4-B, 5-C. Éî√a®Ω’. b) No guest ever goes unfed at his home. ûªT† Péπ~ ņ’-¶µº-Nç-î√úø’.
Explanations: 3) Strategy = Plan = ´‹u£æ«ç. He is so hospitable =
(Pay penalty = Péπ~ ņ’-¶µº-Nç-îªúøç)
à ÅAC∑ èπÿú≈ Åûª-
1) Adequate= Enough= Sufficient= î√L†çûª. a) What is your strategy to overcome this úÕçöx ¶µï†ç îËߪ’èπ◊çú≈ ¢Á∞¡}úø’. ÇAü∑¿uç™ Penalty X Reward (•£æ›-´÷†ç).
a) We don't have adequate water supply difficulty? =Ñ Å¢√ç-ûª-®√Eo ü∆õ‰ç-ü¿’èπ◊ F Åûª-úøçûª íÌ°æp.
Penal = Péπ~èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*†.
during the summer = ¢ËÆæ-N™ î√L-†çûª/ ´‹u£æ«ç àN’öÀ? Hospitable X Cold = ÅA-ü∑¿’© °æôx E®Ωxéπ~uç.
G) Meagre = î√™« ûªèπ◊\-¢Áj†/ Ææy©p¢Á’i†
ûªT-†çûª F∞¡} Ææ®Ω-°∂æ®√ Öçúøü¿’. b) The defence ministry has worked out a He was very cold to the guests =
b) His knowledge is adequate to teach ele- strategy to deal with the border situation X adequate (î√L-†çûª), plenty (ŧƒ-®Ω-
ÅA-ü∑¿’©†çûªí¬ Çü¿-Jç-îª-™‰-ü¿-ûª†’.
mentary classes = v§ƒü∑¿-N’éπ ûª®Ω-í∫-ûª’-©èπ◊ = ÆæJ-£æ«ü¿’l N≠æߪ’ç™ ®Ωéπ~-ù-¨»ê äéπ ´‹u£æ…Eo Inhospitable = DEéÀ, hospitable èπÿ Ææç•çüµ¿ç
¢Á’i†).
¶Cµç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ î√L-†çûª ñ«c†ç ÅûªúÕèπ◊çC. ®Ω*ç-*çC. ™‰ü¿’.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C¢√®Ωç 2 -´÷-Ja 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Q. ÉçTx≠ˇ ¶µ«≠æ™ A. Sit èπÿ, Stand èπÿ î√™« Å®√n-©’-Ø√o®·. ¢√úø’éπ (usage)
imperative sentence v°æ鬮Ωç sit down Åçõ‰ E©’-†o ÆœnA (standing posi-
©™ sit down, stand tion) ™ç* èπÿ®Óa-´úøç. Å™«Íí stand up Åçõ‰ èπÿ®Ω’a†o
up
Å-E -áç-ü¿’èπ◊ -¢√-úø- position †’ç-* E-©’-îÓ-´úøç. Stand = ´÷´‚-©’í¬
û√®Ω’? Stand ÅØË °æü∆- E-©’-îÓ-´úøç; He was standing at the station the
EÍé E©-•-úøôç ÅE Å®Ωnç whole day. Stand up = èπÿ®Ω’a†o¢√∞¡Ÿx E-©’-îÓ-´úøç.
éπü∆? ´’J Å™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’ He stood up to answer the questions = v°æ¨¡oèπ◊
sit down, stand up ©èπ◊ Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ (Åçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ) èπÿ®Ω’aE Ö†o Åûªúø’
•ü¿’©’ sit, stand ņ-èπÿ- E©’--Ø√oúø’. Å™«Íí, sit Åçõ‰ ´÷´‚-©’í¬ èπÿ®Óa-´úøç –
úøü∆? ´’† ûÁ©’-í∫’™ èπÿ®Óa, E©-•úø’ We sat for three hours at the station = ¢Ë’ç ´‚úø’
Åçö«¢Ë’ é¬F éÀçü¿ èπÿ®Óa, °jéÀ E©-•úø’ ņç í∫çô-©-§ƒô’ èπÿ®Ω’aØ√oç/ èπÿ®Ω’aØË ÖØ√oç. Unable to
éπü∆? N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. stand any longer, he sat down = ÉçÍé-´÷vûªç E-©’-îÓ-™‰éπ The exclamatory sentence- a sentence row is a holiday or not, the word holiday is
– ´’ØÓ-®Ωç-ïE, Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø expressing surprize or a sudden feeling. uttered with falling intonation and 'isn't it?'
(Åçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ E©’-†o) Åûªúø’ èπÿ®Ω’a-Ø√oúø’. with rising intonation.
i) What a fool he is!
'Wh' word Noun Sb Vb a) Tomorrow is a holiday, isn't it? (The
Q. 1. Please explain me word order and its b) Question/ Interrogative sentence.
speaker is sure that tomorrow is a holi-
i) Is he here? ii) How hot the day is!
rules to be followed while using modern day)
English usage. 'Wh' word adjective sb vb
verb subject b) Tomorrow is a holiday, isn't it? (The
iii) How well she sings!
2. What is the meaning of cleft sentence? Give ii) Are they coming? speaker is not sure whether tomorrow is a
me some examples. 'Wh' word Adverb sb vb
helping verb subject main verb holiday, so holiday is said with falling into-
The word order in the exclamatory sentence is: nation and isn't with rising intonation.
3. While using question tags, if the stress is on iii) Where is he? 'Wh' word+Noun/ Adjective/ Adverb+Subject+Verb.
a particular word, it conveys different mean- 4) It is not 'enchoative' but 'inchoative'
'Wh' word vb sb Sometimes the exclamatory sentence may not
(ÉØ˛-éÓ--
ing. eg: "Tomorrow is a holiday isn't it?". verb. An inchoative verb expresses a
iv) Where is he going? have the noun/ Adj/ Adv after the 'wh' word.
Å-öÀ¢˛)
If the stress changes from word to word the change of state, that is, a change from one
'Wh' word vb subject eg: How he shouts!
meaning varies. Please explain in detail. condition to another. eg: The college will
(A 'Wh' word is a word beginning with 'Wh' like.. In any version of English including modern
4. Please explain me enchoative verbs. What close for summer vacation on the 12th April.
English, any sentence has one of the four word
are their uses in modern English? What, Where, When, Why, Who, Whose, In this sentence, 'will close' (instead of 'will be
orders shown above.
5. Seeing is believing. This is a structure in Which and how-usually used for asking ques- closed') expresses a change of state (open to
(Feel free to write again
English. eg: Whether following sentence can tions). if you find this answer closed), happening on its own, without any-
be used as an example of the above struc- not clear enough, but let body causing it. So, 'will close' (close) is an
ture. The best service you are doing to soci- your question be clear). inchoative verb. So is the verb, 'opened' an
ety is refraing from doing the bad things. 2) A cleft sentence is a inchoative verb in the sentence, The shops
6. Doubt relating to usage of between - among. sentence that begins opened as usual that day.
When we refer to more than two things -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 427 with an 'it clause' or 'that 5) In one way it is, and in another way, it isn't.
Seeing is believing- the structure of the sen-
generally we use among. If we have a defi- M.SURESAN clause' (clauses begin-
nite number in our mind tence is Subject + Verb +
Complement. In the sen-

Seeing is believing
between can also be
tence- the best service you
used. For eg:
are doing to society is
Luxemburg lies between
refraing from..., if you take
Belgium, Germany and
the whole clause 'The best
France. Pl. explain.
you are doing to society' as
– °œ.¢Áç-éπ-ô-Ø√-®√-ߪ’-ù-®√´¤, üµ¿®Ωt-´®Ωç We see there are two kinds of questions- ning with 'It' or 'that') and has another clause the subject of the sentence, its structure is
A. 1. The question is not clear. If you mean the Non 'Wh' questions- Questions without 'Wh' following it. the same as that of 'seeing is believing'.
word order in different kinds of sentences words (eg: questions (i) and (ii) above) and eg: i) It is this chapter that I found difficult to However, if you take the subject of the sen-
here is the answer. understand. tence, 'seeing is believing', as a present par-
'Wh' questions- questions beginning with 'wh'
a) The Statement/ The assertive sentence ii) That is the picture I want you to look at. ticiple (and not a clause), the sentence, 'The
words. In both kinds of questions, the subject
best service...' is not the same structure.
(A sentence saying something- eg: The comes after the verb, or after the helping verb. Sentence No.1 has an 'It clause' (It is this chap-
ter), followed by the other clause, 'That I The sentences, 'Refraining from evil is doing
book is on the table. He has not come.) When there are two/ more words in a question
found...) sentence (2) has a 'That clause' (that the best service to society/ Doing the best ser-
Word order in a statement. the first of them is the helping verb and the oth- vice to society is refraing from evil- are exactly
is the picture) followed by the other clause 'I
The book is on the table ers are main verb. the same structure as, 'seeing is believing'.
want you to look at'.
subject verb The imperative sentence: (orders, wishes, 6) Here, between is correct. We use 'between'
3) Tomorrow is a holiday, isn't it. If you are sure
We see here that the statement has the sub- etc.) In most of them the subject is 'you' but that tomorrow is a holiday, the stress on hol- (and not among) when we refer to an area or
ject (sb) + verb (vb) word order. That is, in a not stated. iday, and isn't it has a fall, that is, holiday and any geographical feature (rivers, mountain
statement the subject comes first and the i) (you) get out - Sb + Vb isn't it? are said with a falling intonation. ranges, etc.) separating two or more points.
verb, next. ii) (you) please come in - Sb + Vb. However, if you are not sure whether tomor-

Q. éÀçC-¢√-öÀE ÉçTx≠ˇ™ ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. A. 1. Right now/ At present I am job- Q. éÀçC ÆæçüË-£æ…-©†’ B®Ωaí∫-©®Ω’. Q. 1. It is two pounds heavy. b i) The tower is sixty feet tall =
less/ unemployed. (Jobless 1. A cup is in the saucer (or) on the It is two pounds in weight. ii) It is a sixty foot tall tower.
1. v°æÆæ’h-û√-EéÀ ؈’ ë«Sí¬ ÖØ√o†’.
Å´’-®√u-ü¿-éπ®Ω °æü¿ç é¬ü¿’.) saucer. Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u™x àC éπÈ®é˙d? 3) It is a 5 foot 9 inch bed ņç; It
É°æ¤púø’ ؈’ à ÖüÓu-í∫´‚ îËߪ’úøç ™‰ü¿’. 2. The teacher is sitting in the chair (or) is a 5 feet 9 inch bed
2. You and I are just instrumental. It ᙫ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√L? Åçö«ç.
2. †’´¤y, ؈’ Íé´©ç EN’-ûªh-´÷-vûª’©ç. is she that does and gets done on the chair. 2. She is five feet three inches tall. observe the following:
îËÊÆC, îË®·ç-îËC Ç¢Á’. everything. 3. Wednesday a) He bought a bed measuring
She is five foot three inches tall
E ᙫ °æ©-é¬L?
3. Interview éÀ ¢ÁRx-†-°æ¤púø’, ´’†Lo inter- 3. Good morning, sirs/ sirs and 4. Drought E éÌçü¿®Ω’ vú≈ö¸-í¬†÷, ´’J- 5 feet 9 inches = He bought
view îËߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ †©’-í∫’®Ω’ ™‰ü∆ Å®·-ü¿’- Madam (s) if both men and women
Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u™x ûËú≈ à-N’öÀ?
éÌç-ü¿®Ω’ vúˆö¸-í¬†÷ °æ©’-èπ◊-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. a 5 feet 9 inch bed.
are on the board of interview. 3. It is a 5 foot 9 inch bed. Ñ
í∫’®Ω’ Öçö«®Ω’. ¢√∞¡xE N≠ˇ îËÊÆ-ô-°æ¤púø’ ûÌN’tüÓ ûª®Ω-í∫A éÌûªh ÉçTx≠ˇ õ„é˙dq •’é˙™ inches inch, É™«çöÀîÓôx, feet (plural), inch
äéÌ\-éπ\-JE good morning (evening) 4. The degree was passed by him - drout í¬ ÖçC. ´’J àC éπÈ®é˙d?
¢√éπuç™ ¢√-úÌî√a?
pound (singular)¢√úøû√ç.
passive passive.
ÅØ√™« -™‰-ü∆ Åçü¿-Jéà éπL°œ äÍé-≤ƒJ good 5. listen E ᙫ °æ©-é¬L?
¢Á·ü¿-™„j-†N àéπ-´-îª-†ç-™ØË
Å®·ûË ÉC éÓÆæç b) He bought the estate for Rs.
passives
morning all of you ÅE ÅØ√™«? 6. Every day, daily ¶µ‰ü¿-¢Ë’-N’öÀ? -à-ßË’
¢√-ú≈-™«?
É™«çöÀ ¢√úøç – Ñ´’üµ¿u 2 crore. Rs. 2 crore
(®√ߪ’úøç
4. He passed Degree DEéÀ passive lessons passive – Ø√T-È®úÕf XE-¢√-Ææ’©’È®úÕf, éπ©’-¢√®·
= 2 crore rupees
A.
´*a† ™E ¢√úøéπç Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L?
1) It is two pounds heavy= It is
îªC-¢Ë-ô-°æ¤púø’
voice ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL? O’C Å稻©’ îª÷úøçúÕ. – ¢Áj. ¶µ«Ææ\-®Ω-®√´¤, ïí∫_-ߪ’u-Ê°ô The estate he
two pounds in weight - Both are
Åçö«ç) =
5. Åûªúø’ ÅûªúÕ ≤ƒy®Ωnç éÓÆæç (Å´-Ææ®Ωç)
5. He is very selfish. For his selfish A. 1) A cup on a saucer bought is a two crore rupee
purposes, he doesn't hesitate to correct.
2) Sit on a simple (îËûª’-™‰xE) chair/ (rupees estate.
cheat. He is upto anything if it 2) She is 5 feet three inches tall
á´-J-ØÁjØ√ ¢Á÷Ææç îËߪ’-í∫-©úø’. áçûª-ÈéjØ√ é¬ü¿’)
ûÁTç-îª-í∫-©úø’. éπFÆæç v°∂çú˛ ÅE èπÿú≈ serves his purposes. Sit in an arm chair (îËûª’-©’†o èπ◊Ka)/ ņ-úø¢Ë’ correct. She is five foot Measurements, üµ¿®Ω©÷ ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀéÀ
îª÷úøúø’. 6. Open Ééπ\úø verb é¬ü¿’. Open Ééπ\úø Sit in an easy chair. three inches tall - wrong. Look Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ´Ææ’h-´¤© ´·çü¿’, singu-
6. The shop is open at 10'o clock 3) ¢ÁØ˛-búÁß˝’– Ø˛b ™E ï ´ûª’h size ™ ñ¸™« at the following: lar number (°j† îª÷°œ-†ô’x) ´÷vûª¢Ë’
ûÁJ* Ö†o ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ adjective.
ņo-°æ¤púø’ shop á´-J-îË-ûª-ØÁjØ√ open The shop is open = Shop ûÁJ* 4) LÆˇØ˛ 5) vúˆö¸ a i) She is five feet three inches ¢√úøû√ç. Å®·ûË È®çúø’ units (foot,
îËߪ’-•-úø’-ûª’çC éπü∆? Å™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’ The tall= inches)
6) Everyday = daily. Å®·ûË daily bread
ÖçC. The shop is opened at 10 Ö†o-°æ¤púø’, È®çúÓ-ü∆Eo
shop opened at 10 ÅØË ÅØ√L éπü∆? everyday (Passive) = Shop ûÁ®Ω-´-•- (Eûªuç ǣ慮Ωç) ™«çöÀ expressions ii) She is a five feet three inch
´÷vûª¢Ë’ singular í¬ ¢√úøû√ç.
Example No. 3 (Bed) îª÷úøçúÕ.
– >.¢Áç-éπ-õ‰-¨¡y®Ω’x, éπçü¿’- πÿ®Ω’ úø’-ûª’çC ®ÓW 10 í∫çô-©èπ◊. ™ daily •ü¿’©’ everyday ®√ü¿’. girl

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 4- ´÷-Ja 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Narayana: Well, you've seen the boy. How do
Looks - appearance (Ç鬮Ωç) Åçõ‰ Åçü¿çí¬
you like him?
ÖØ√o®√ ™‰ü∆ ÅE.
He fell for her looks.
(Ŷ«s-®·E îª÷¨»´¤ éπü∆? É≠æd-°æ-ú≈f¢√?) (Ç¢Á’ Åçü∆-E-éπ-ûªúø’ ´·í∫’l¥-
Sampanna: Except that he is slightly fat, he is úø-ߪ÷uúø’.)
OK, dad.
Lakshmi: And he fits in with your requirement
(éÌClí¬ ™«´-ØË-é¬F, ¶«í¬ØË ÖØ√oúø’) of a software man. What more do
Narayana: He isn't as tall as the boy we saw you want?
last week, is he? (Åûªúø’ †’´y-†’-èπ◊†o ü∆EéÀ ÆæJ-§Ú-û√úø’,
(éÀçü¿-öÀ-¢√®Ωç ´’†ç îª÷Æœ† èπ◊v®√-úøçûª software engineer í¬. ÉçÍéç 鬢√L
§Òúø’é¬\ü¿’ éπü∆?) Fèπ◊?
Sampanna: Of course, no. But this boy is fairer. requirement= Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’içC.
1) Except that = ÅüÌ-éπ\-öÀ-ûª°æp/ ÅüË-ûª°æp 3) Ultimately = *´-JéÀ (ÅEoç-öÀ-éπçõ‰ ´·êuçí¬)
(é¬ü¿’. é¬F Ñ Å¶«s®· é¬Ææh-®Ωçí∫’, Our requirement is a good principal for our a) Except that it is hot during the summer, (ÅÆæ©’)
Åçü¿ç áèπ◊\´) college= college
´÷ Å´-Ææ®Ωç É°æ¤púø’ ´÷ èπ◊ Vijayawada is a good place to live in =
Narayana: Then is he OK for you? Shall I tell a) It isn't important how well you have studied
ã ´’ç* principal.
the boy's father of it?
¢ËÆæ-N™ áçúø áèπ◊\-´ØË ûª°æp Öçúø-ö«-EéÀ (E´-Æœç- ultimately it is your marks that count =
îËç-ü¿’èπ◊) Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø ´’ç* ÜÍ®. †’¢Áyç-ûª-¶«í¬ îªC-¢√-´-ØËC ´·êuç-é¬ü¿’. áEo
(Å®·ûË Fèπ◊ †*a-†-õ‰xØ√? Ŷ«s®· b) Except that Sri Rama was unkind to Sita,
marks FéÌ-î √a-ߪ ’-ØËüË *´-JéÀ ™„éπ\-éÌ-îËaC/
ûªçvúÕûÓ îÁ°æpØ√?) he was quite admirable =
Sampanna: But ... (é¬F ...)
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
Åçü¿®Ω÷ îª÷ÊÆC.
428
(Æ‘ûª °æôx éπJ∏-†çí¬ ÖØ√o-úøØË ûª°æp, X®√-´·úø’
Narayana: Why the 'but' again? (´’Sx é¬F ûª°æpéπ ¢Á’a-éÓ-ü¿-í∫_-¢√úË.) b) Who bother how well you know the sub-
àçöÀ?) You wanted a ject. Ultimately what marks you get
matters/ what matters ultimately is

what matters ultimately is..
software man from
Hyderabad with a the marks =
salary of more than Rs. Fèπ◊ subject ¶«í¬ ´îªa†o N≠æߪ’ç á´®Ω’
30000. Accordingly we °æöÀdç--èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’. *´-JéÀ †’¢ÁyEo marks
have brought you two ûÁa-èπ◊-Ø√o-´-ØËüË ´·êuç/ îª÷≤ƒh®Ω’.
software Engineers. What else do Sampanna: It's my opinion that counts ultimate- Admirable = ¢Á’a-éÓ-ü¿-T†/ c) Ultimately = *ôd-*-´-JéÀ ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ÖçC
you want? ly. All that I've asked for is a little ¨»x°∂œ’ç-îª-ü¿-T†. (finally).
(£j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛™ °æE-îËÆæ÷h ØÁ©èπ◊ ®Ω÷. time, say two or three days. Can't Sachin is an admirable Ultimately the world champion Australia
30¢Ë© °j† @ûªç ûÁa-èπ◊ØË software you both wait? cricketer. had to bite the dust =
¢√∞¡Ÿx 鬢√-©-Ø√o´¤. Å™«Íí Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ (*´-JéÀ Ø√ ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ’ç-éπü∆ ´·êuç? Admire = ÅGµ-´÷-Eç* ¢Á’a- *´-JéÀ v°æ°æçîª í∫ï Çô-í¬∞¡Ÿx ´’öÀd éπ®Ω-¢√Lq ´*açC.
Éü¿lJo BÆæ’-éÌ*a îª÷°œçî√ç. ÉçÍéç ؈-úÕ-Tç-ü¿™«x é¬Ææh time - È®çúø’-´‚-vúÓ- éÓ-´úøç. 4) fit in with = ÆæJí¬_ ÆæJ-§Ú-´úøç, Å´’-J-§Ú-´úøç.
鬢√L Fèπ◊?) V©’. Ç ´÷vûªç Çí∫-™‰®√ O’®Ω’?) M.SURESAN c) I didn't tell him anything a) His actions do not fit in with his words =
Lakshmi: This boy is to my liking too. Lakshmi: We can wait, but the boy and his except that you are here = ÅûªúÕ îª®Ωu©’, ÅûªúÕ ´÷ô-©èπ◊ ÆæJ-§Ú´¤ (´÷ô-
(Åûªúø’ Ø√èπÿ †î√aúø’.) people may not. OK. Take your †’Ny-éπ\-úø’-Ø√o-´ØË N≠æߪ’ç ûª°æp Åûª-úÕ-éÀçÍéç îÁ°æp- ©èπÿ, îËûª-©èπÿ §Òçûª-†-™‰ü¿’)
Sampanna: Mom, I need some time to decide. time, but don't blame us later if the ™‰ü¿’. b) This cell phone exactly fits in with my
match slips from our hands. requirements = cell phone
(Å´÷t Ø√èπ◊ éÌçîÁç time 鬢√L E®Ωg- 2) Accordingly = Ç v°æé¬-®Ω¢Ë’ Ñ Ø√ Å´-Ææ-®√-
a) We both agreed to equal share in profits
®·ç--èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊) (¢Ë’ç Çí∫’û√ç, Ç Å¶«s®·, ¢√∞¡x-¢√∞¡⁄x ©èπ◊ ÆæJí¬_ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC.
Lakshmi: How long? (áçûª Æ洒ߪ’ç?)
Çí∫-Í®¢Á÷. Time BÆæ’éÓ, é¬F Åçû√ and accordingly I got Rs.50000/- as my
c) Why should I change my habits to fit in
Narayana: Look here Sampanna. Looks are
Å®·uç-ûª-®√yûª Ñ Ææç•çüµ¿ç ñ«J-§Ú-®·ç- with their way of life? =
share of the property =
¢√∞¡x @´† Nüµ∆-Ø√-©èπ◊
important. But what matters ulti-
ü¿E ´’´’tLo ņèπ◊.) ÆæJ-§Ú-ßË’-ô’xí¬, Ø√ Å©-¢√ô’x ØËØÁç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´÷®Ω’a-éÓ-
Look at the following sentences from the ™«¶µ«™x Ææ´÷-†-¢√ö« Éü¿l®Ωç BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√-©E ä°æ¤p-
mately is how good the young man
¢√L?
conversation above: éÌØ√oç. Ç v°æé¬-®Ω¢Ë’ Ø√ ¢√ö«èπ◊ ®Ω÷.50,000 d) The furniture in their office fits in with their
is. I've heard only good reports
1) Except that he is slightly fat, he is OK. ´*açC. desire to give it a modern look =
about him.
¢√∞¡x
2) Accordingly we've brought two software engi- b) He wanted my signature on the document office furniture, office
ûª´’ èπ◊ Çüµ¿’-Eéπ Ç鬮Ωç
neers.
(Ææç°æØ√o, îª÷úø÷, Åçü¿ç ´·êu¢Ë’.
and accordingly I signed the document = É¢√y-©ØË éÓJ-éπèπ◊ ÆæJí¬_ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC.
é¬F ÅEoç-öÀ-éπØ√o ´·êu-¢Á’içC, Ŷ«s®· 3) But what matters ultimately is how good the fits in with î√™« common. O’ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™x
áçûª-´’ç*¢√úø-ØËC. ÅûªúÕ í∫’Jç* ؈’ young man is.
Åûªúø’ Ç °ævûªç™ Ø√ Ææçûªéπç 鬢√-©-Ø√oúø’. Ç
practise îËߪ’çúÕ.
4) And he fits in with your requirements.
´’çîË NØ√o.) v°æé¬-®Ω¢Ë’ ØËØ√-°ævûªç O’ü¿ Ææçûªéπç î˨».

EXERCISE Ñ class ©÷, exams Åçõ‰ NÆæ’í¬_ ÖçC. barren x fertile (≤ƒ®Ω-´ç-ûª-¢Á’i†). Q.
We had visiting us at this time
Match the words under A with their ÂÆ©´¤ ´ÊÆh ¶«í∫’çúø’. The Godavari districts are very fertile = a nervous first cousin of mine
meanings under B. named Briggs Beall.
You weary me = †’´¤y Ø√èπ◊ NÆæ’í∫’ éπL-T-Ææ’h- íÓü∆-´J >™«x©’ î√™« ≤ƒ®Ω-´ç-ûª-¢Á’i-†N. -Ñ ¢√éπuç-™-E
A B verb 'had visiting' tense
Ø√o´¤/ ††’o NÆœ-T-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤. (fertilizer= ®Ω≤ƒ-ߪ ’† á®Ω’´¤, fertile †’çîË -à -™
1. Weary A. Unplanned had verb
2) Antique = Ancient = v§ƒ<-†-¢Á’i†/ °æ¤®√-ûª-†-¢Á’i† ´Ææ’hçC. fertilize = ≤ƒ®Ω-´çûªç îËߪ’úøç). -Öç-C? -´÷-´‚-©’í¬ -ûª®√y-ûª
2. Antique B. Infertile past participle (past
4) Random = Unplanned = äéπ plan, °æü∑¿éπç,
éπ-ü∆ ®√-¢√-L
3. Barren C. Fast
(´·êuçí¬ ´Ææ’h-´¤©’, Ƕµº-®Ω-ù«©’– î√™« §ƒûª
perfect tense ) had been + verb + ing
-™ -™‰-ü∆
4. Random D. Illness
鬙«-EéÀ îÁçC, Åçü¿’-´©x î√™« N©’-¢Áj-†N). ´·çü¿Ææ’h Ç™- ™‰èπ◊çú≈, à éπ~ù«-E-ÍéC ûÓÊÆh ÅC
(past perfect continuous tense )
a) Antique tables and vessels are on dis-
-™ ®√-¢√-L éπ-ü∆.
5. Infirmity E. Ancient îËÊÆ Ææy¶µ«-´ç-í∫©.
play in the museum = a) the random killing of people by the ter-
-Ééπ\-úø -áç-ü¿’èπ◊ -É-™« ¢√-ú≈®Ó -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’.
F. Silly
museum tables, rorists has left many in deep shock = - Ch.Silar Saheb, Piduguralla
G. Tired.
A.
Ç ™ °æ¤®√-ûª† §ƒvûª©÷
KEY: 1 - G 2 - E 3 - B 4 - A 5 - D. v°æü¿-®Ωz-†™ ÖØ√o®·. Nîª-éπ~-ù«-®Ω-£œ«-ûªçí¬ Öví∫-¢√-ü¿’©’ v°æï-©†’ Ñ sentence ™ verb, had; had visiting
Explanation: b) She bought an antique piece of jewellry îªç°æúøç î√™«-´’ç-CE Cví¬s¥ç-A™ °æúË-ÆœçC. é¬ü¿’. Ñ sentence -É-™« commas ü¿í∫_®Ω ÇT
at a very high price = b) The selection of the players was done at îªü¿-´çúÕ– ûËLí¬_ Å®Ωnç Å´¤-ûª’çC: We had, vis-
1) Weary = Tired = ¶«í¬ Å©-Æœ-§Ú-®·†. iting us at this time, a nervous first cousin =
random =
A) Having walked the long distance, she is
Ç¢Á’ î√™« üµ¿®Ω°öÀd °æ¤®√-ûª† Ƕµº-®Ω-ù«Eo é̆oC. véÃú≈-é¬-®Ω’-©†’ äéπ °æü¿l¥A v°æ鬮Ωç
We had, at this time, a nervous first cousin
Antique x Modern
weary, and cannot walk any more =
é¬èπ◊çú≈/ äéπ v§ƒA-°æ-Céπ/ v°æ´÷ùç ÅØËC
visiting us. sen-
3) Barren = Infertile =
E≤ƒq-®Ω-¢Á’i† (¶µº÷N’)/ Húø’/ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ᙫ-°æ-úÕûË Å™« áç°œéπ î˨»®Ω’. É°æ¤púø’ ûÁ©’-≤ÚhçC éπü∆. Ñ
tence verb, had (Past Doing Word -
c) Because of the random parking of cars, it
î√™« ü¿÷®Ωç †úÕ-*-†ç-ü¿’-´©x Ç¢Á’ ¶«í¬ Å©-Æœ- îªNöÀ (¶µº÷´·© N≠æߪ’ç). ™
Past simple tense). pattern:
took half an hour for me to get my car out
§Ú-®·çC, ÉçÍé ´÷vûªç †úø-´-™‰ü¿’. -D-E
a) Most of Rayalaseema is barren =
B) I've just returned from office, and am subject verb object ( a phrase)
= ᙫ-°æ-úÕûË Å™« cars park îËߪ’-úøç-´©x Ø√
weary after 9 hours of work = ®√ߪ’-©-Æ‘´’ î√™« ´’ô’èπ◊ E≤ƒq-®Ω-¢Á’i-†C/ We + had + visiting us ..
car•ßª’-ôèπ◊ ûÁîËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ í∫çô °æöÀdçC.
É°æ¤púË office †’ç* ´î√a†’, 9 í∫çô©’ °æE-îËÆœ ≤ƒ®Ω-´çûªç é¬ü¿’.
Random thoughts = = We + had + a nervous cousin visiting us.
b) It's a barren land= ÅC ≤ƒí∫’èπ◊ °æE-éÀ-®√E äéπ-ü∆-E-éÌ-éπöÀ Ææç•çüµ¿ç
¶«í¬ Å©-Æœ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’. ™‰E Ç™-îª-†©’. = We + had + an uncle working as a col-
Weary Åçõ‰ NÆæ’í¬_ Öçúøôç ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈
¶µº÷N’.
5. Infirmity = Illness = ï•’s/ ÅØ√-®Óí∫u ÆœnA. lector.
c) The Nagarjuna Sagar dam has changed
O’J*a† ¢√éπuç Å®Ωnç, Ñ Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™
ÖçC. The infirmity of old age keeps him home = (Briggs Beall cousin,
a lot of barren land into arable land.
Å-ØË ´÷ Åûª-úø’
I am weary of these classes and exams.
(Arable = ´·Ææ-L-ûª†ç ´©x éπLÍí ÅØ√-®Óí∫u ÆœnA. éπçí¬-®Ω’-°æ-úË- Ææy-¶µ«´ç éπ©-¢√úø’, ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ
Wish very much for a holiday =
≤ƒí∫’èπ◊ °æE-éÌîËa). ®√´ôç ïJ-TçC.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm

Related Interests