You are on page 1of 13

í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 2 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛

2

G. Shankar, Keshavapatnam. as short as Gopal' or No other boy is as short KSR, Marteru.
Q. Could you give me the mean- as Gopal, 'short' is in positive degree. In your Q. Fused participle
ings of these phrases. For sentence (2) and (3), shorter, and shortest Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? DEE
are in comparative and superlative degrees
instance, Even while, Even á°æ¤púø’ -Ö°æ-ßÁ÷
respectively.
since, By and large, Elan and -T-≤ƒh®Ω’?
ease, Knives ad forks. A. Fused participle -
P. Suresh Varma, Palakollu.
A. For instance = for example. here, participle
Q.
refers to the present
®√®·ç-îªúøç, îªC-Nç-îªúøç, îË®·ç-îªúøç OöÀE
Every chapter of the book is interesting- for
participle, observe.
ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
instance this chapter itself- chapter v°æA Ñ A. ®√®·ç-îª-úøç, îªC-Nç--îª-úøç, îË®·ç-îª-úøç ™«çöÀN Q. N¨¡y-Ææ-Fߪ’ ´®√_© ¶µí∫ôd.
Students' coming late is not tolerated.
chapter.
°æ¤Ææh-éπç™ ÇÆæ-éÀh-éπ®Ωç. Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ùèπ◊, Ñ causative verbs Åçö«ç. OöÀéÀ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ÅEoç-öÀéà A. Information from reliable sources.
teachers
(-N-ü∆u®Ω’n-©’ Ç©-Ææuçí¬®√´--ú≈Eo Æ棜«ç-Ω’)
Even while = Even as some thing is hap- make ¢√úø-´îª’a, î√™« îÓôx 'have', 'got' èπÿú≈ Q. †’´¤y 鬕öÀd Ü®Ω’-èπ◊-Ø√o ´’È®-´-®Ω-®·Ø√ Å®·-´¤çõ‰
a) ™ Students' coming late coming late
™,
pening. Even while I was telling him not to ¢√úø’-ûª’çö«ç. I'll make him phone you = (coming- present participle- used as a
îÁç°æ îÁ∞¡Ÿx´’E-°œç-ç-úË-¢√-úÕE.
smoke, he lit a cigaratte. (Smoke îÁßÁ·u-ü¿lE Åûª-úÕûÓ Øˆ’ phone îË®·-≤ƒh†’ = I'll get him to gerund) subject- singular, so, is not tolerat-
A. It's you. It is had been someone else, I'd have
phone you = I'll have him phone you - É™« slapped them hard.
îÁ•’-ûª’ç-úø-í¬ØË Åûªúø’ Æœí∫-È®ö¸ ´·öÀdç-î√úø’) ed, correct Å´¤-ûª’çC.
Even since ™‰ü¿’, Ever since – Å°æpöÀ †’ç*;
ÅEoç-öÀéà v°æߪ’-Aoç-îªçúÕ. Q.
b) Students apostrophe
™ èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’, 鬕öÀd ¢√úÕE ûª†oúøç îª÷Æœ Ç¢Á’ ñ«ví∫ûªh °æúÕçC.
Q. Future ™ ïJ-T-§Ú-ûª’çC. (ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈) ï-Jí∫’ç- A. His being spanked alerted her/ she became
Ever since he came here he began troubling Students subject plural
Å´¤-ûª’çC. is
Å°æ¤púø’
others =
ô’ç-C ÅØË ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx≠ˇ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL? alert an seeing him spanked.
Åûªúø’ Ééπ\úÕéÀ ´*a† éπ~ùç †’ç* Éûª- tolerated (singular verb) ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’ éπü∆. É™«
A. It shall happen = Future ™ ûª°æpéπ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC. Q.
Gerund subject noun/
®Ω’©†’ É•sçC °úø’ûª÷ØË ÖØ√oúø’. í¬ ÖçúÕ, ü∆E ´·çü¿J, †’´¤y §ÚM-ÆˇN Å®·-†çûª ´÷vû√† ¢Ë’ ¶µºßª’-°æ-ú≈™«?
It shall have happened = Future ™ ´’†ç ņ’- A. Should we fear just because you are a police-
By and large = î√™« ´’ô’èπ◊. By and large he pronoun, possessive case ™ (ßÁ·éπ\ ÅØË
èπ◊†o Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ ïJT Öçô’çC. man?
was successful in his attempts = Åûªúø’ ûª† gerund, fused participle
Å®ΩnçûÓ) ™‰†-°æ¤púø’, Ç
Q. Would Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’.
v°æߪ’-û√o™x î√™«-´’-ô’èπ◊ Nïߪ’ç §Òçü∆úø’. Å´¤-ûª’çC. ÉC standard spoken/ written G. Prasanth, Godhoor.
A. Would Ö°æßÁ÷í¬©†’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµûª
By and large students are satisfied with his English ™ ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. ÅüË Students coming Q. Guide, Directory, Diary, Almanac, Calender
lessons îª÷úøçúÕ.
teaching. late are not tolerated éÌçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ OöÀ ´’üµ¿u ûËú≈ àN’öÀ?
With elan and ease = Å´-M-©í¬ ¨¡éÀh-´’ç-ûªçí¬, K.Nagadivya, Tatipaka better. A. Guide - A guide gives information about a
Q. Happy x unhappy Q. Compound gerund particular subject 1)äÍé N≠æ-ߪ’ç Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ-®Ω-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 503
Çéπ-®Ω{-ùÃ-ߪ’-¢Á’i† ¨ÎjL™ àü¿®·Ø√ îËߪ’úøç. Å®·ûË Åçõ‰
stop x nonstop - A tourist
¢Á’i† Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç É´y-í∫© °æ¤Ææhéπç
a) He performed the feat with elan and ease áçü¿’-éπ-´¤- àN’öÀ? D--ØÁo-™« Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ω’?
guide / A TV guide, etc.
= (circus) feat
Directory:
Ç -†’

By and lar ge he was successful
äÍé ´®√_-EéÀ
-Å-ûª-úø’ Å´-M-©-í¬/ -Ææ’- îÁçC† v°æï©, N≠æ-ߪ÷-
Ø√-ߪ÷-Ææçí¬ Åéπ-®Ω{-ùÃ-ߪ’- ©†’í∫÷Ja, ¢√∞¡x addresses,
¢Á’i† KA™ î˨»úø’. Éûª®Ω N´-®√-©†’ ûÁ-LÊ°
b) She sang with elan °æ¤Ææhéπç – A Telephone
and ease = Ç¢Á’ Ææ’Ø√-ߪ÷-Ææçí¬ ¨¡éÀh-´’ç-ûªçí¬ ûª’çC? Un, Non OöÀE ᙫ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷- A. I saw him coming here and talking directory/ Trade (¢√u§ƒ®Ω N´-®√©) Directory/
Çéπ-®Ω{-ùÃ-ߪ’çí¬ §ƒúÕçC. Tç-î√™ ûÁ©’-°æçúÕ. to some one. coming, talk-
Ééπ\úø, A Medical directory etc.,
Knives and forks = AØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úË spoons, A. à °æü∆-E-ÈéjØ√ ´·êuçí¬ adjectives ing ÅØË È®çúø÷ Åçûª-éπØ√o áèπ◊\´ Diary - C†-îª-®Ωu- ®√ÊÆ °æ¤Ææhéπç éπü∆?
knives (î√èπ◊©’), forks. (í∫’ù«©’ ûÁLÊ° °æü∆-©)èπ◊ ´·çü¿’ 'un- gerunds sentence
†’ äÍé ™ ¢√úÕûË Calender - D-E í∫’-Jç-* îÁ°æp-†-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’ éπü∆
Q. They produce in an audience an effect pecu- ' îËJÊÆh, ´uA-Í®-鬮Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC unhappy ÅNcompound gerund Å´¤-û√®·. Almanac - AC∑, ¢√®Ω-†-éπ~-vû√©’ ûÁ-LÊ° °æçî√í∫ç.
liar to the theatre. Here article 'an' is suitable (ÆæçûÓ-≠æç-™‰E) unjust (ÅØ√u-ߪ’-¢Á’i†), Éçé¬ îª÷úøçúÕ. Q. Module, booklet, brochure, hand book,
or not? etc. Avoiding smoking is good for manual, pamphlet - OöÀ ´’üµ¿u ûËú≈ àN’öÀ?
M.SURESAN health Avoiding, smok- A. Module list
A. Correct (Audience - collective form - count- Non èπÿú≈ ´uA-Í®-é¬-®√n-Eo-Ææ’hçC. Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø ´®Ω-Ææí¬, èπ◊ Ñ ™E N’í∫û√ ´÷ô-©èπ◊ àN-üµ¿-
able as a group) ing compound gerund. I saw him 1) Colleges, Universities
ÅC 'un-, 'in-' (in- èπÿú≈ ´uA-Í®-鬮Ωnç ÉÆæ’hçC) ¢√úøôç èπÿú≈ ¢Á’i† Ææç•ç-üµ¿ç-™‰ü¿’ –
unit module
Q. Could you suggest a good grammar book for Åçûª strong é¬ü¿’. 'Non', adjectives Íé é¬èπ◊çú≈ coming here and talking to some one. Ééπ\úø, ™ äéπ Péπ~ù« N≠æ-ߪ÷© †’ Åçö«ç.
intermediate level by native speaker. coming, talking 2) module.
Éûª®Ω parts of speech ©ûÓ èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç. ÅØË È®çúø÷ Åçûª-éπØ√o áèπ◊\´ äéπ v°æûËu-éπ-¢Á’i† ¶µ«í∫´‚,
module
3) äéπ v°æù«-
A. Raymond Murphy's Elementary Grammar. gerunds †’ äÍé sentence com-
™ ¢√úÕûË ÅN R-éπ-™E äé𠶵«í¬Eo èπÿú≈ Åçö«ç.
D.L. Rao, Suvarnapuram. pound gerund Å´¤-û√®·. Booklet = v°æûËu-éπ-¢Á’i† Åôd©’ ™‰èπ◊çú≈, °æ¤Ææhéπ
Linganna, Adilabad. Q. An elderly man An elder man booklet.
Q. ؈’ Ç¢Á’èπ◊ NE-°œç-î √-©ØË §ƒú≈†’. Åçô’ç-ö«®Ω’ éπü∆. ®Ω÷°æç™ ÖçúË *†o °æ¤Ææhéπç Éçü¿’™ äÍé
Q. My father's three brothers lived with their N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo í∫’Jç-*† Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç Öçô’çC. à *†o
A. I sang so that she would hear me/ I sang only
ÅE áçü¿ ’èπ◊ ņ-è πÿ-úøü¿’?
families in the same house, but by far, my A. Elder- °ü¿l/ elderly- °ü¿l Å®·† Åçü¿’-éπE
°æ¤Ææh-é¬-†o-®·Ø√ booklet Åçö«ç.
to be heard by her. Brochure (pron- v¶Ô≠æ– British; American -
father was the most liberal. Ééπ\úø 'by far' Ö°æ- elderly man Åçö«ç.
ßÁ÷í∫ç, Å®Ωnç N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’, -Ö-ü∆£æ«®Ω-ù-L-´yí∫-©®Ω’. Q. F´¤ Åûª-úÕéÀ NE-°œç-îËô’d §ƒú≈L. He is the elder of the two - ¢√Rx-ü¿l®Óx Åûª†’ °ü¿l.
v¶≠懮˝.) = äéπ ´Ææ’h´¤/ ÊÆ´© v°æî √®Ωç
A. By far = àü¿®·Ø√ N’í∫-û√-¢√-öÀéπçõ‰ ´’ç*í¬/ Åüµ∆y- A. Sing in such a way that he hears you. (Advertisement) EN’ûªhç, Ç ´Ææ’h´¤/ ÊÆ´-©†’
Elders of the family = èπ◊ô’ç• Â°ü¿l©’. äéπ-JE
†çí¬ Öçü¿E îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. Q. á°æ¤púø’, áéπ\úø à´’-´¤-ûª’çüÓ á´-J-ÈéjØ√ ᙫ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ °ü¿l- ÅE singular í¬ ¢√úøç. í∫’Jç* Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç, ¶Ô´’t-©ûÓ N´-JçîË *†o °æ¤Ææhéπç.
a) By far Punjab/ Punjab by far is the most Handbook = äéπ ´Ææ’h-´¤†’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î √-Lq† Nüµ∆-
ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC? Q. ¢√éπuç™ that of †’ á°æ¤púø’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ω’?Since
industrialised state in India = ¶µ«®Ω-û˝™ E A. Who knows what happens and when. Ø√Eo ûÁLÊ° *†o °æ¤Ææhéπç– Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ ÉD manual
the age of 15 the only control on me was that
ÅEo ®√≥ƒZ™x °æçñ«¶¸ §ƒJ-v¨»-N’-éπçí¬ ÅGµ-´%Cl¥ Q. Off we went through a series of left and right of my sister. Ñ ¢√éπuç™ that of Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? äéπõ‰. Å®·ûË handbook ÅØËC Éûª®Ω N≠æ-ߪ÷©’–
´çô, Ç®Óí∫uç/ ¢√uߪ÷´’ç/ ´Ææ’h-´¤© repair N≠æ-ߪ÷-
turns, traffic lights and even a short jaunt up A. O’ sentence ™ that of my sister èπ◊ ™, that =
îÁçCçC.
b) This is by far the safer than any other a one-way lane the wrong way. Ñ ¢√é¬u-EéÀ
©†’ èπÿú≈ ûÁLÊ° °æ¤Ææhéπç.
the control. Åçûªèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ ¢√úÕ† control èπ◊, Manual = ߪ’çvû√©÷, ¢√£æ«-Ø√©’, é̆o-¢√-öÀE í∫’Jç-
method = N’í∫û√ °æü¿l¥-ûª’© éπçõ‰ Ñ °æü¿l¥A
Å®Ω nç àN’öÀ ? that refer îËÆæ’hçC. *† N´-®√©’, ¢√öÀ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ Nüµ∆©’ ûÁLÊ° °æ¤Ææhéπç.
Ææ’®Ω-éÀ~ûªç.
A. èπ◊-úÕ, áúø-´’©’ A®Ω’-í∫’ûª÷, traffic lights ü∆ô’-èπ◊çô÷, eg: His car is more beautiful as his brother's = Pamphlet = DEo ´’†-üË-¨¡ç™ äéπ ´Ææ’h´¤/ ÊÆ´
Shyam Raj, Hyderabad. Éçé¬ one way Ææçü¿’-†’ç* ü¿÷Ææ’-èπ◊-§Úûª÷ ûª°æ¤p His car is more beautiful that (=the car) of v°æî√-®√®Ωnç ¢√úË éπ®Ω-°ævûªç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ áèπ◊\-´í¬
Q. Gopal is the shortest of the three. -ü∆-J™ Å™« ¢ÁRx-§Úߪ÷ç. his brother= His car is more beautiful than ¢√úøû√ç. Å®·ûË ÉC ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. Pamphlet Åçõ‰
Can we say the above superlative sentence his brother's car. v°æÆæ’hûªç v°æï©’ ¶«í¬ ÇÆæéÀh îª÷°œ-Ææ’h†o N≠æߪ’ç (topic
like this- Gopal is the shortest of them all. U.S.S. Pranav, Hyderabad. éÀç-C -¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. of current interest) E îªJaçîË ¢√uÆæç– Öü∆:
A. a) Gopal is the shortest of the three = b) Q. O’ Ø√†o îÁ°œpçC éπÈ®Íéd ÅE ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  îÁ°æp-ú≈-EéÀ Q. Ø√èπ◊ éπ®Ωt°æöÀd O’ ü¿í∫_®Ω °æE-îË-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’. Terrorism; °æôx v°æ¶µº’ûªy ¢Áj°∂æ-™«uEo -ûÁ-LÊ° ¢√uÆæç.
Gopal is the shortest of them all - (Both) (a) What your father said, is correct ™‰ü∆ What A. It's my misfortune to work under you. ´÷´‚-©’í¬ v°æéπ-ô† ÖüËl-¨¡çûÓ ÉîËa éπ®Ω-°ævûªç,
and (b) are correct. English ™ hand bill.
your father said was correct ÅØ√™«? What Q. ïJ-Íí-üËüÓ ï®Ω-í∫E.
However, note this point. An adjective is in Q. Salary, Remuneration, Honourarium– ûË-ú≈?
your father has said, is/ was correct ÅØ√™«? A. Let what happens happen.
one or the other of three degrees only if there A. Salary = ÖüÓu-TéÀ ÉîËa ØÁ©-ÆæJ @ûªç.
N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. Q. Åçü¿®Ω÷
Remuneration = äéπ °æEéÀ Éçûª ÅE ÉîËa §ƒJ-ûÓ-
v°æ¨»ç-ûªçí¬ Öçúøí¬ ØËØÁç-ü¿’èπ◊
is a comparison. If there is no comparison, A. Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd What your father said was cor-
that is, if you are not comparing two or more
´’-ü∑¿-†-°æ-ú≈L? ≠œéπç (äéπ course E®Ωy-£œ«ç--îËçü¿’èπ◊, äéπ ÊÆ´
rect/ is correct - È®çúø÷ correct. O’ Ø√†o A. When others aren't bothered at all, why
things with one another, the adjective is not in ÅçCç--îËç-ü¿’èπ◊)
any degree. The sentence, Raju is a short
îÁ°œpçC Å°æ¤púø’ (past ™) Correct = was cor- should I? Honourarium - ÉC èπÿú≈ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ §ƒJ-ûÓ-≠œ-éπ¢Ë’.
rect. (Åûª-úø-éπ\úø past ™ ÖØ√o-úøØÓ. Ñ Nüµ¿çí¬). Q. FüËç §Ú®·çC, é¬Í®ç éπ®Ωt N´÷-†-¢Á’iØ√ éÌçö«´¤. Å®·ûË Honourarium äéπ ÊÆ´ ÅçCç-*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊
boy' does not compare Raju's height with any
other persons. So here 'short' is an adjective, O’Ø√†o îÁ°œpçC É°æp-öÀéà correct ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ What A. How does it matter to you? Why just a car, ¢Á·ûªhçí¬ (rate -v°æ-ÆæéÀh ™‰èπ◊çú≈) ÉîËa íı®Ω´ ®Ω’Ææ’ç.
but has no degree. If you say, 'Raju is (is not) your father said is correct ÅE Åçö«ç. you can buy even a plane.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 5 - ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

B. Lalitha, Vijayawada. A. Krishna Geetarjuna, Nidadavolu. 2) But that you are
Q. Wren & Martin high school Q. 1. BJP was to meet in chennai on July 21. my brother, I must
grammar book Active voice
™ NDTV 24x7 head lines
¢√®Ωh© ™ V™„j 18† have killed you.
†’ Passive voice í¬ ´÷®Ωa-´’E Ñ ¢√éπuç îª÷¨»†’. V™„j 21 ¶µºN-≠æu-ûª’h†’ Ææ÷*- 3) For some reason
éÀçC ¢√é¬uEo Éî√a®Ω’. ≤ÚhçC éπü∆. Å™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’ will meet ÅE-í¬E, best known to him-
The enemy have defeated our meets ÅE-í¬E, is to meet ÅE-í¬E ™‰ü∆ is self suddenly he
army. key book
DEéÀ answer
™ - meeting ÅEí¬-F Öçú≈L. é¬F was to meet went away.
The army had been defeated by the enemy Åçõ‰ ᙫ éπÈ®èπ◊d. äéπ-¢Ë∞¡ ¢√éπuç Indirect ™ A. 1) Be but advised =
ÅE ÖçC. Ñ ¢√éπuç present perfect tense
™ ÖçúÕ ´·çü¿’ ´÷ô©’ ™°œç-î√-ߪ’-†’-éÓ-¢√™«? let (somebody) course. The present participle here (going)
has been
Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ ÅE ®√¢√L éπü∆. Had been °jí¬ ÅC indirect ™ îÁ°æp-´-©-Æœ† Ææçü¿®Ωs¥ç advise you = Ñ Ææ©£æ… BÆæ’éÓ. does the work of a noun, as it (going) acts as
ÅØËC past perfect tense
™ ´Ææ’hçC éπü∆, é¬ü¿’- éπü∆. 2) But that you are my brother = †’´¤y Ø√èπ◊ the object complement of the verb, had seen.
N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. 2. BJP decides to postpone its National brother é¬éπ-§Ú-ߪ·çõ‰. He seen me on my way .........
A. The army has been defeated ņúøç correct Executive Meet. ÉC E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’-èπ◊†o ûª®√yûª 3) For some reason best known to himself = This sentence is wrong, as 'seen' is only a
passive voice. You are right in saying that the decided
¢√Í®h. Å™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’ Ééπ\úø ÅE ®√¢√L Åûª-úÕéÀ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ûÁL-Æœ† 鬮Ω-ù«© -´-©x = ( à past participle and so, not a verb. Perhaps
verb in the passive should be, has been. The éπü∆. 鬮Ωùç îËûªØÓ/ áçü¿’-îË-ûªØÓ) there is a printer's mistake here, or you have
sentence in the key perhaps has a printer's A. 1. Was to meet - wrong - no doubt about it. copied it wrongly, please check up. It must
Laxman Goud, Joharapuram.
mistake. 2. Immediate past action †’ simple present be, He saw/ He said he had seen me on ....
Q. Eûªu @N-ûªç™ ¢√úø-í∫-LÍí idioms Ö†o ´’ç*
M. Nageswara Rao, Peda Avutapalli.
™ îÁ°æpúøç ¢√úø’-éπ™ ÖçC.eg: I come to seek dictionary Ê°®Ω’ Ææ÷*ç-îªçúÕ. the railway station.
your help. ´<a- ®√-´-úøç-ûÓØË É™« îÁ•’û√ç. F
Q. áØÓo ™‰ü∆ á†o´ ÅØË-ü∆-EéÀ ÆæJ-§ÚßË’ °æü¿ç Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç §ÒçüËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´î√a†’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. A. Oxford Advanced Learners' Dictionary of S. Shakir Ahmed, Kurnool.
ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ™‰ü¿-Ø√o®Ω’. Of which ÅØË expression Current English (Seventh Edition 2005)
come èπ◊ Ééπ\úø ´î√a†’ ÅØË Å®Ωnç– Å®·ûË ÉC
™E
Q. Transitive, Intransitive verbs
sayings and proverbs
í∫’Jç* ûÁL-ߪ’
immediate past (éπ~ù«© ´·çü¿’ ïJ-T†)èπ◊
èπ◊ Å®Ωnç áØÓo ™‰ü∆ á†o¢√ ÅØË éπü∆, ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. *´J Ê°@™x ÖçúË
verb
-ñ‰-ߪ’çúÕ. ¢√éπuç™ transi-
Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ ü∆Eo
A. á†o´ ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ÆæÈ®j† English expression ™‰ü¿E ´÷vûª¢Ë’ (I have come èπ◊ equivalent). ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊çõ‰ î√©’. ÅN O’®Ω’ éÓ®Ω’èπ◊ØË Nüµ¿çí¬ Eûªu
tive intransitive
í¬ ¢√ú≈®Ó í¬ ¢√ú≈®Ó ûÁ©’-Ææ’-
î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x Ææ÷*çî√ç.Of which Åçõ‰ 'á†o´— ÅØË @N-ûªç™ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ùèπ◊ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø-û√®·.
collect, check, pause
K.R.Aachari, éÓ-´úøç ᙫ? ™«çöÀ
Å®Ωnçé¬F ü∆EéÀ ü¿í∫_®Ω Å®Ωnçé¬F ®√ü¿’. Pavani, Sudha, Matsyapuri. verbs transitive Intransitive
Of which = ü∆E/ ü∆EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*†. Vaikuntapuram. †’ í¬, í¬ á™«
Q. She has been ill for the last ¢√ú≈™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’?
1. This is the book of which I was talking = Q. I am going to go
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 504
Ñ ¢√éπuç™ three months. for A. Transitive verb Åçõ‰ object Ö†o verb -
to go, come verbs
؈’ à °æ¤Ææhéπç í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-Ø√oØÓ ÅC ûª®√yûª Ñ ¢√éπuç™
ÉC. á´JE? üËEE? Å-ØË v°æ¨¡o

I come to seek your help
2. Of which book are
¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊çõ‰ Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç ´îËa
verb. Eg: give = É´yúøç,
these the pages?
Ñ pages à °æ¤Ææh-é¬- üËEo É´yúøç Åçõ‰ Ææ´÷-
üµ∆†ç üˆo-®·Ø√ É´yúøç ÅE
EN (üËEN)? ´Ææ’hçC. 鬕öÀd give transi-
Y. Kumar, Hyderabad. since tive. Å™«Íí see îª÷úøôç, üËEo îª÷úøôç – °∂晫Ø√
I am
¢√úø-´î√a? ü∆EéÀ •ü¿’-©’í¬ ™‰ü∆ àC ¢√ú≈™ ûÁ©’-°æçúÕ.
ready to go/ come or I am about to A. She has been ill for the last three ¢√JE ÅE Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç ÖçC. 鬕öÀd ÉN transitive
Q. He has bought the car this morning. He has
go/ come months . verbs. á´-JéÀ, üËEéÀ ņo v°æ¨¡o-©èπ◊ Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç ´îËa
gone to Agra this year. this time specify
ÅE ¢√ú≈©E †©¶µ„j à∞¡x éÀçü¿ô ´‚úø’ ØÁ©-©’í¬ – ÉC Éçûª-
îËÊÆhpresent perfect ¢√-úÌî√a? ´÷ ´÷≤ƒd®Ω’ îÁ§ƒp®Ω’. -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. é¬-© çí¬ ÅE îÁÊ°p-ô-°æ¤púø’. verbs èπÿú≈ transitive.
A. The past simple tense is used for a past A. I am going = ؈’ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’-Ø√o†’. since Åçõ‰ °∂æ-™«-Ø√ ®ÓV/ í∫çô/ Object ™‰E verbs intransitive verbs. OöÀéÀ á´-
action the time of which is clearly stated. That I am going to go = ¢Á∞¡x-¶-ûª’-Ø√o†’.
Ææ´ ’ߪ ’ç †’ç* ÅE. JE, üËEE ÅE v°æ¨¡o©’ ¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊çõ‰ Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç ®√ü¿’.
is, if the action took place at a specified time Q. v°æ¶µº’ûªyç ñ«K-îËÊÆ Öûªh-®Ω’y™x Eg: go = ¢Á∞¡xúøç; á´-JE/ üË-EE/ á´-JéÀ/ üËEéÀ
in the past, the tense to be used in past
O’Í® ÅØ√o®Ω’ éπü∆ †©¶µ„j à∞¡x éÀçü¿ô O’ M.SURESAN G.O.M.S. No. ÅE R.C. No. ÅE
simple, in spite of the use of, 'this'.
ÉçTx≠ˇ ´÷≤ƒd®Ω’ îÁ°œp† N≠æ-ߪ’-´’E, ÅC ¢Á∞¡xúøç? Ñ v°æ¨¡o-©èπ◊ Ææ´÷-üµ∆-Ø√--©’ -™‰-´¤. 鬕öÀd
Å°æpöÀ ´÷ô. É°æ¤púø’, present day English ™ ®√≤ƒh®Ω’. M.S., R.C. Åçõ‰ àN’ö go, intransitive. Å®·ûË äÍé verb èπ◊ È®çúø’,
He bought a car this morning èπÿ He has
gone to Agra this year èπÿ ûËú≈ ÖçC, È®çúø’
going to go ( ¢Á∞¡x-¶-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’) going to come
N´- Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. ´‚úø’ Å®√n©’ Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ äéπ Å®ΩnçûÓ transitive,
(®√¶-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’) ÅØËN Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ωùç Å®·-§Ú- A. G.O. = Government Order ÉçéÓ Å®ΩnçûÓ intransitive Å¢Ìya.
sentences èπÿ common í¬ this M.S. = Manuscript (
öÀéÃ. This morning ÅE á°æ¤p-úøçö«ç? Morning
Ö†o-°æp- ߪ÷®· – both in British and American ®√ûª -v°æA) Eg: collect = 1) ÊÆéπ-Jç-îªúøç – Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ ÉC
English™. Åçü¿’-éπE É°æ¤p-úøN ûª°æ¤p é¬ü¿’. R.C.No. = Reference number. transitive, áçü¿’-éπçõ‰, üËEo ÊÆéπ-Jç-îªúøç Åçõ‰
Q. There is no chair to sit on, no pen to write
Å®·-§Ú-®·-† -ûª-®√yûË éπü∆? (´’üµ∆u-£æ«o-¢Á÷/- ®√-vûÓ/-
≤ƒ-ߪ’ç-vûª¢Á÷ Åçö«ç) Åçõ‰ ´’†ç Å®·-§Ú-®·-† E.V. Sindhura, Deepak, Tadipatri. Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç/ stamps / books/ addresses ™«çöÀ
Æ洒ߪ’ç™ ïJ-T† action †’, Ç Æ洒ߪ’ç ûª®√yûª Q. O’®ÌéπîÓô They are watching the T.V. ÅE, with and no table to work at. Ñ ¢√éπuç ÆæÈ®j-†-
Sit on a chair ÅØ√™«?Sit in a chair
Ææ´÷-üµ∆-Ø√©’ ´≤ƒh®·. Ñ Å®√n-©ûÓ ÉC transitive.
Collect - 2) í∫’N’-í∫÷-úøôç, äéπîÓô îË®Ωúøç, ÅØË
´÷ö«x-úø’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√oç. 鬕öÀd Ééπ\úø past simple I think my mother is watching the T.V. ÅE ÅØ√™«? üËØ √?
´÷vûª¢Ë’ ®√¢√L (bought) é¬F this year ņ- ®√¨»®Ω’. T.V. ´·çü¿’ the ÅØË article Öçúø-èπÿ-úøü¿’ A. ÆæÈ®j-†üË. îËûÁû©ª’-©’-°’†oæ-í∫-©®Ωèπ’◊Ka. (Arm chair)/ Easy chair Å®Ωnç™ intransitive - üËEo í∫’N’-èπÿ-úøôç/ îË®Ωúøç
úøç™ Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’öÀ? Ñ year Å®·-§Ú-™‰-ü¿ØË éπü∆ éπü∆? The T.V. Åçõ‰ T.V. set †’ refer îËÆœ-†-ô’d- ™«çöÀ-´-®·ûË, sit in; îËûª’-™‰xE èπ◊Ka Å®·ûË sit on ņov°æ¨¡o-©èπ◊ Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç ®√ü¿’.
(Å®·-§ÚûË last year Åçö«ç. Å°æ¤púø’ past sim- Å-´¤ûª’çC. ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. Water collected in front of the room = í∫C
ple ¢√ú≈L éπü∆?)-
ÅØ√L.
A. T.V. set †’ T.V. programmes †÷ Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀ™  ´·çü¿’ F∞¡Ÿx îË®√®·/ ELî√®·.
This year ™ -á°æ¤p-úø’ -Å-ØË-C éπ-*a-ûªçí¬ -ûÁ-©°æ- üËEo îÁ°æp-ú≈-E-éπ-®·Ø√ T.V. ÅE-í¬F, the T.V. ÅE-í¬F Rajan k, Yadavole. A large crowd collected there - °ü¿l Ææç-êu-™ 
†°æ¤p-úø’, -Ñ Ææç-´-ûªq®Ωç-™ -Ç-ߪ’-† -Ç-ví¬èπ◊ -¢Á-Rx - ņ-´îª’a. Å®·ûË á´-®Ω-®·Ø√/ àüÁjØ√ T.V. ™ Q. Once you wrote two sentences the following ï†ç í∫’N’-èπÿ-ú≈®Ω’ (intransitive).
Ö-Ø√o-úø’ -Å-ØË -Å®Ωnç-ûÓ He has gone to Agra this éπE-°œç-îªúøç. àüÁjØ√ T.V. programme T.V. ™ ÖçC way in spoken English- Check = ≤Úü∆ îËߪ’úøç / ûªE& îËߪ’úøç/ °æK-éÀ~ç-
year, éπ®ΩÍéd(Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ He has been to Agra, ÅE îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊, on T.V./ on the T.V. Åçö«ç. Sunil told me he had seen you going some îªúøç – üËEo/á´-JE Åç-õ‰ Ææ-´÷-üµ∆†ç ´Ææ’hçC
better). ÅüË jan/ feb/ sep this year ÅE time
where. 鬕öÀd transitive Å´¤-ûª’çC.
specify îËÊÆh Åûªúø’ Ñ Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç, january ™ G. Maheswari, Secunderabad.
He seen me on my way to the station to Check Åçõ‰ vüµ¿’O-éπ-Jç-îªúøç,- ÉçéÌéπ-J-ûÓ.
Agra ¢Á∞«xúø’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.He has gone to Agra Q. If he had money, he could have paid to
in January this year ņúøç Ææ•-¶‰Ø√?(January receive my uncle. He checked with his brother- ûª† brother ûÓ
Ramu.
Å®·§Ú-®·-† -ûª-®√yûª) Observe the difference The above underline parts seem to be ÆæJ-îª÷-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
If he had money, he would have paid to
between a) and b) below. unusual. Generally we use present/ past par- Pause = Ç°æ-úøç– transitive-.
Ramu.
a) It has happened this month. ticiple forms as adjectives and nouns. If we He paused the tape recorder -
b) It happened in the first week of this month.
Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ ûËú≈ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’. use them as verbs in our sentences, they tape recorder
A. Ñ È®çúø’ sentences ÆæÈ®j-†N 鬴¤. Correct form
†’ Ç-§ƒ-úø’. -
Do you see the difference? sentence (a) should come after helping verbs ( be / have Pause = Çí∫úøç – Intransitive.
of the sentences:
talks of an action of this month at no specified forms). But you used them as verbs without
1. If he had had the money, he would have He paused in his speech - Ö°æ-Ø√uÆæç ÉÆæ’h-†o-
time- so the tense is present perfect. helping verbs. I think this is not proper way
Sentence (b) talks of an action at a speci- paid to Ramu. (ÅûªúÕ ü¿í∫_®Ω úø•’s ÖçúÕ Öçõ‰, °æ¤púø’ é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ Çí¬úø’ – intransitive.
using the participles. Please clear my doubt
fied time ( I week of this month - I week's ®√´·èπ◊ îÁLxç-îË-¢√úË.) Q. Idioms °j °æô’d ≤ƒCµç-î √-©çõ‰ ᙫçöÀ °æ¤Ææhéπç îªü¿-
and give lessons on the topic of infinitives
past), so the tense is past simple. 2. If he had had the money, he could have ¢√L? Idioms dictionary éÌçõ‰ Åçü¿’™ -¢Ë-©-
(continuous, perfect infinitives).
a) They have done it three times this century. paid Ramu. (ÅûªúÕ ü¿í∫_®Ω úø•’s ÖçúÕ Öçõ‰ idioms Öçö«®·. Eûªuç Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-TçîË Idioms
b) They did it three times in the first half of A. ....... had seen you going somewhere. Your éÓÆæç à °æ¤Ææhéπç ´’ç*C?
®√´·èπ◊ îÁLxç-îª-í∫-L-Íí-¢√úË.)
this century. point here is that 'going' being a present par-
A. Mcmordie's book of Idioms -îª-ü¿-´çúÕ. Éçü¿’™
鬕öÀd this ÅE Ö†oçûª ´÷vû√† present per- S. Rechana Arshia, Joharapuram. ticiple, should be used as a noun/ adjective
daily life ™ ¢√úË idioms í∫’Jç* î√-™« N´-®Ωçí¬
fect ¢√úøôç ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. Time specify îËÊÆh past Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u™x bold îËÆœ† °æü∆-©èπ◊ Å®√n©’ àN’öÀ? or, if it is used as a verb, it should have a
ÖçC.
simple ¢√úøû√ç. 1) Be but advised and I'll send you there. helping verb before it. You are right, of

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 7 - ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

P.L.N.Rao, Warangal
large = area
¢Áj¨»-©uç™, ™ °ü¿l.large, big éπE ü∆E ´·çü¿’ 'a'
Q. Ñ Æœ©-•Æˇ É°æp-öÀÍé °æ‹Jh 鬢√L. Åçûª conversational é¬ü¿’. ¢√úøç. So,
é¬F, 鬙‰ü¿’. -Ñ -¢√éπuç ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ Q. Put on, wear, dress Scissors are a use-
îÁ°æpçúÕ. A. i) Put on = ûÌúø’-éÓ\-´úøç/ ¢ËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç ful instrument, cor-
A.The syllabus should have been •ßª’ôèπ◊ ¢Á∞Ïx-ô-°æ¤púø’, àüÁjØ√ Ææçü¿-®√s¥-EéÀ, rect. äéπ éπûÁh®Ω
finished by now, but I haven't fin- ≤ƒo†ç ´Èíj®√ ûª®√yûª ü¿’Ææ’h©’ ¢ËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç, A pair of
ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊,
ished it. put on. scissors Åçö«ç.
Q. Wanted Marketing Executives Verb
ÉC à ii) Wear ´÷´‚-©’í¬ üµ¿Jç-îªúøç. Pair, singular, So a
Form. He wears white always/ He wears spects/ a pair of scissors is... A. äéπ word (´÷ô™) Ææyûªç-vûªçí¬ Ö-îªa ¥-Jç-îª-í∫©
Wanted ÅØËC present, past, p.p. ™ à watch, etc. Q. a) Deduct in form
verb? iii) Dress = 1) self/ selves
ûª®Ω’-¢√ûª ©™ àC ®√¢√L? ¨¡¶«lEo syllable Åçö«ç. Sentence ÅØË ´÷ô
üµ¿Jç-îªúøç – DEéÀ – A. b) Merge into, with
ûª®Ω’-¢√ûª ©™ àC ®√¢√L? sen, tense ÅØË È®çúø’ ¨¡¶«l© éπ©-®·éπ. 鬕öÀd
A. Wanted - Past Participle add îËߪ÷L. He dresses himself in lalchi a) Deduct from - correct
sentence ÅØË ´÷ô™ sen, tense ÅØË È®çúø’
Q. Instruction Booklet supplied with applica- and pyjamas = Åûªúø’ ™«Ma °jï´÷ üµ¿J- b) Merge into, merge with - correct.
syllables ÖØ√o-ߪ’†o ´÷ô.
È®çúø÷
tion form ÅE Ê°°æ®Óx Éî√a®Ω’. ÉC Future †’ ≤ƒhúø’. i) All the smaller banks in the area merged
Dress = 2) ü¿’Ææ’h©’ – Çúø-¢√J, °œ©x© Disyllabic = A word of two syllables
Ææ÷*Ææ÷h îÁ§ƒp®Ω’. ´’J Instruction Booklet sup- with the larger bank.
(eg. sentence)
(äéπ-ü∆-EûÓ äéπöÀ
plied ÅØËC Past doing Verb éπü∆. ûÁ©-°æçúÕ? ü¿’Ææ’h©’. ´’í∫-¢√J ü¿’Ææ’h©†’ dress ņç. éπLÆœ§Ú´úøç) Trisyllabic = A word of 3 syllables.
A. Instruction Booklet supplied with the applica- clothes Åçö«ç. ii) All colours merge into white
eg: construction - con struc tion.
(äéπ ü∆E™
tion form = Instruction booklet will be supplied Q. Round, around
Q. ´’†ç Æ洒ߪ’ç í∫’Jç* îÁÊ°p-ô-°æ¤púø’ A.M., P.M.
NM-†-´’-´úøç)
with ....... supplied, will be supplied
Åçõ‰, ™ A. Round = around Q. éÀçC- -¢√é¬u-EéÀ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®Ωnç ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
Q. Over, above
past participle
¶µ«í∫ç, í¬. The wicked foursome considered the arrival
©’ ¢√úøû√ç. ᙫ ¢√ú≈L? ÅÆæ©’ °æ‹Jh Å®√n©’
A. i)
äéπ-ü∆-E-°j†/ äéπ-ü∆-E-éπçõ‰ áûª’h† Ö†o ÅØË of Lord Krishna ominous.
àN’ö îÁ°æpçúÕ?
T.Siva, Nandikotkur. over = above.
A. AM - ®√vA 12.01 †’ç* ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç 12.00
Å®ΩnçûÓ, A.
Q. éÀçC-¢√öÀ Å®Ωn ¶µ‰ü∆-©†’ Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù© ü∆y®√ His office is the small room above/ over the
Ç ü¿’≠æd îªûª’-≠dß
æ ª’ç éπ%≠æflgúÕ ®√éπ†’ ü¿’¨¡z-èπ◊-†çí¬/
îÁúø’E Ææ÷*ç-îË-Cí¬ Å†’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’. ´®Ωèπ◊. PM - ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç 12.01 †’ç* ®√vA
N¨¡-ü¿-°æ-®Ω-îªçúÕ. fancy shop = Fancy éÌô’d °j† Ö†o *†o í∫C Omen = ¨¡èπ◊†ç. Ominous = ü¿’¨¡z-èπ◊†çí¬ Ö†o.
12.00 ´®Ωèπ◊.
Cool, Cold office. Spoken English™ AM, PM ¢√úøç.
ÅûªúÕ Q. Gandhi was whiter than
A. Cool = Cold = The picture hanging on the AM = Ante Meridiem
xE; îªLí¬ white which few others
Q. Go to bed, sleep wall is above/ over the PM = Post Meridiem
before and after him have
A. Go to bed = Evü¿èπ◊ Ö°ævéπ-N’ç-îªúøç, table. -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 505 been. ûÁ©’-í∫’-™ Å®Ωnç -N-´-
Q. Conditional clauses (If clauses) ÆæN´-®Ωçí¬
sleep = EvCç-îªúøç ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’çúÕ? ¢√úøôç èπÿú≈?
A. Conditional Clauses èπ◊

All colours mer ge into white
(Evü¿™ Öçúøôç)
Q. Begin, commence, lessons
§ƒûª îª÷úøçúÕ.
start î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x N´Jçî√ç.
A. Begin = commence Q.´’†ç ´’† Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™x
= start. ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ω-ùçí¬ O.K. ÅØË °æü¿ç
Begin infinitive (to + 1st RDW)/...
ûª®√yûª ¢√úøû√ç. ÅÆæ©’ O.K. Åçõ‰
Jç-îªí∫©®Ω’.
ing form/ noun ¢√úø-´îª’a; Å®·ûË äéπ-¢Áj°æ¤ †’ç* ÉçéÓ ¢Áj°æ¤-†èπ◊ A.
àN’öÀ?ü∆E °æ¤ô’d-°æ‹-®Óy-ûªh-®√-™‰-N’öÀ?
ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ over ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√úøû√ç. ™‰†çûª E®Ωt-©çí¬ í¬çDµ ÖØ√o®Ω’. ûÁA.LߪOK’Eèπ◊ N≠æÆæßÈ®ª’j†ç. éÌçûª
ûª†èπ◊ ´·çü¿÷, ûª®√yûª á´®Ω÷
Start + noun/... ing áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’; N´-®Ωù Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ Ææp≠ædçí¬
Start + infinitive The mob jumped over the wall = Ç -´’çC v°æ鬮Ωç American
Åçûª ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. Ééπ\úø whiteèπ◊ Ææçü¿-®√s¥-†’-≤ƒ®Ωç Ol (all) Korekt (correct) (All
Commence - §ƒçúÕûªuç/ ví¬çC∑éπç. ´‚éπ íÓúø ü¿÷éÀçC.
ii) Above = over = äéπ ≤ƒn®·éÀ Å®·† Å®√nEo îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-¢√-LqçüË. expressionèπ◊ abbreviation right ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ) ÅØË
Q. Ago, back, before ÅE.
•£æ›¨» Ééπ\úø white = pure = E®Ωt- ´’J-éÌç-ûª-´’çC v°æ鬮Ωç Red Indian ¶µ«≠æ-™xE
A. Ago - - Two days ago =
N’ç*†/ äéπ-≤ƒn®· éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´.
´·çü¿’/ véÀûªç È®çúø’ a) The plane is flying at 30000 ft. ©-¢Á’i† ÅØË¢Á÷. Å™« Å®·ûË sen- ´÷ô. -Å®·-ûË àO’ Ææp≠ædçí¬ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’.
back
®ÓV© véÀûªç – Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøôç above the ground = ¶µº÷N’éÀ M.SURESAN tenceèπ◊ Å®Ωnç °j -N-üµ¿çí¬ -Öç-ô’ç-C.
ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. 30000 Åúø’-í∫’© áûª’h† N´÷†ç áí∫’-®Ω’-ûÓçC. K.Manickyam, Chittoor.
He came here two days ago (correct)
He came here two days back (wrong)
É™«çöÀ îÓôx over ®√ü¿’. Over†’ ´·êuçí¬ éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ ûÁ©’í∫’ ņ’-¢√ü¿ç ûÁ©-°æç-úÕ
´ßª’Ææ’/ ´u´Cµ/ Ææçêu/ úø•’s ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀûÓ A. Sathyanarayana, Hyderabad. Q. If he came, I would help him.
He came here two days before(wrong)
A.
Q. ¶µ«®Ωû˝–§ƒéÀ-≤ƒn-Ø˛© ´’üµ¿u õ„Æˇd ´÷u’ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’-†o-
äéπ Ææç°∂æ’-ô†, Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ ´·çü¿’= Before.
¢√úøû√ç. ¢√úø’ ®√úø’, ®√´úøç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË.
i) He is over 18 and has the voting right. Q. If you worked hard, you would get good
i) He had given me the book before I asked for
ii) We waited over (for more than) two hours.
°æ¤púø’ – ü¿÷®Ω-ü¿-®Ωz-Ø˛™ v≤Ú\™¸ O’ü¿ – Who will win
marks.
it =
؈’ Åúøí∫éπ ´·çüË Ø√èπ◊ Åûªúø’ Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç the match ÅE Éî√a®Ω’. ÉC ÆæÈ®j-ç-üËØ√? ü¿í∫_J
iii) It costs over Rs.2000/- A.
Éî√aúø’. iv) There are over 30 students in the class.
¶µºN-≠æu-ûª’h™ ïJÍí N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ îÁÊ°p-ô-°æ¤púø’ Simple †’´y éπ≠d°æ æúøôç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË (ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’).
ii) That was before the Independence = Q. The horse would kick, if you went near it.
Present ™ îÁ§ƒpL éπü∆? Åçõ‰ Who win the
Q. Under, below A.
match ÅE Öçú≈L éπü∆? Ñ ÆæçüË-£æ…Eo B®ΩaçúÕ.
ÅC ≤ƒyûªç-vû√u-EéÀ ´·çü¿’. †’´¤y ü∆E ü¿í∫_®Ωèπ◊ ¢Á∞¡xúøç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË (ÅC
A. Under = below.
Q. far, long, distant A.
ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’).
under
Å®·ûË Åçõ‰ äéπ-ü∆E éÀçü¿ ÅE é¬F, ÆæÈ®j-çüË. ü¿í∫_J ¶µºN-≠æu-û˝™ ïJÍí N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ Q. I would bring a toy for you if I went to the mar-
A. far = ü¿÷®Ω-¢Á’i† á°æ¤púø’ ï®Ω’-í∫’-û√ßÁ÷ éπ*aûªçí¬ Time ûÁL-ÊÆhØË,
How far is Delhi from Agra? =
äéπ ü∆EûÓ éπ°œp ÅE-é¬F ¢√úøû√ç. ket.
simple present ¢√úøû√ç.
i) The box is under the table. A. market
úµÕMx Çví¬ †’ç* áçûª ü¿÷®Ωç? He comes here next week. Ééπ\úø next week ؈’ éπçô÷ ¢ÁRûË, (؈’ ¢Á∞Ïx °æJ-ÆœnA
ii) The book was under the files.
Agra is not far from Delhi = úµÕMx †’ç* Çví¬ ÅE time éπ*aûªçí¬ ûÁ©’≤ÚhçC 鬕öÀd, comes ™‰ü¿’).
Below Åçõ‰ äéπ ü∆EéÀ ¶«í¬ Cí∫’-´† Ö†o Ñ -¢√é¬u-™x If clauses-
ü¿÷®Ω¢Ë’ç é¬ü¿’. îª÷¨»®Ω’ éπü∆? Questions Ééπ\úø correct.
™†÷, ü¿÷®Ωç é¬ü¿’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ not ûÓ far †’ (¶«í¬ éÀçü¿í¬ Ö†o) ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøû√ç. Time ûÁL-ߪ’-†-°æ¤púø’ will/ shall ÅØËN éπÈ®èπ◊d. 1) If he came -
While he stood on the roof she stood below 2) If you worked hard -
¢√úøû√ç. Far offÅØË phrase ™†÷ ¢√úøû√ç. on the road R. Sangam Naidu, Kovvur.
ÅçûË-é¬F, Hyderabad is far from Delhi - ÅE Åûªúø’ éπ°æ¤p-°j† E©-•-úø’çõ‰, Ç¢Á’ 3) If you went near it-
Road 4) If I went to the market -
Q. °æ¤®Ω’-≠æfl© Ê°®Ωxèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ Mr. Öçîªúøç ´’†èπ◊ ûÁL-
Öûªh far †’ not ™‰èπ◊çú≈ (ü¿÷®Ωç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ) éÀçü¿ Ö†o O’ü¿ E©-•-úÕçC.
Q. What, which
¢√úøç. ü¿÷®Ωç ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ distant/ a long way A. What =
ÆœçüË. ¢√®Ω’ N¢√-£œ«-ûª’©’ 鬴a, é¬éπ-§Ú-´îª’a. é¬F, OöÀ™x îÁÊ°pN ï®Ω-í∫-´¤.-
off/ a long way from (a place) Åçö«ç.
Which =
àC/ àç/ à? Æ‘Y© N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ N¢√-£œ«-ûª’-©èπ◊ Mrs. ÅE, N¢√£æ«ç ÉC ïJ-TûË sentence È®çúÓ ¶µ«í∫ç™ îÁÊ°pC
Long = ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ (éπv®Ω-™«xç-öÀN)/ éπü∑¿©’/
Ö†o ¢√öÀ™x àC?
What book do you want? =
é¬E ¢√JéÀ Miss. ÅE ¢√úøû√ç. áçü¿’-éπE? Æ‘Y©™ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC. ÉD ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’. Åçõ‰ È®ç-úø÷ -ï®Ωí∫-´¤
*vû√©’ ™«çöÀN – §Òúø-¢Áj†. FÍé °æ¤Ææhéπç N¢√-£œ«-ûª’-©èπ◊, èπ◊´÷-J-©èπ◊ äÍé °æü¿ç Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª- (Improbable)Å-E -Å®Ωnç
´’†™ î√™«-´’çC long †’ ü¿÷®Ωç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ é¬¢√L?
Which book do you want?= (äéπ-îÓô Ö†o °æ¤Ææh- ´î√a? ûÁ©-°æçúÕ? M. Peter Chowdary, Vizag.
¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’ ÅC ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. A. °Rx ûª®√yûª ¶µº®Ωh ÉçöÀ Ê°®Ω’ ¶µ«®Ωu ÉçöÀ-Ê°-®Ω’í¬ Q. Year by year.
Q. Speak, talk
鬙x) FÍé °æ¤Ææhéπç 鬢√L?
Q. Near, near by, near to
´÷®Ωúøç Ææçv°æü∆ߪ’ç Åçü¿’´©x, N¢√-£œ«-ûª’-©èπ◊ year after year.
A. Speak, talk - ÉC Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ lesson (No Mrs, ÅN-¢√-£œ«-ûª’-©èπ◊ Miss ņúøç ¢√úø’-éπ-
Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u© ´’-üµ¿u ûËú≈
A. Near =
305-310) ™ N´-Jçî√ç, îª÷úøçúÕ. ü¿í∫_-È®j†/ ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬ Ö†o àN’öÀ? OöÀE ᙫ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√™ Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ
He lives near the College.
®·uçC. Å®·ûË Ñ ®ÓV™x °∞¡x-®·† Æ‘Y©’
Q. Also, too
N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
The College is next to the park.
èπÿú≈ ¢√J ¶µº®Ωh ÉçöÀ-Ê°-®Ω’ûÓ °œ-L°œç--éÓ-´úøç
A. A. Year by year - Ææç´-ûªq®Ω, Ææç´-ûªq-®√-EéÀ/
He lives somewhere nearby =
ÉC Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ î√™« N´-®Ωçí¬ 2, 3 ≤ƒ®Ω’x É≠ædç-™‰-éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√, °∞¡x®·çC ÅE ûÁ©’°æúøç
-ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-¨»ç. §ƒûª lessons îª÷úø-í∫-©®Ω’. É≠ædç ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√, ¢√∞¡x Ê°®Ωx ´·çü¿’ Miss ÅE àú≈-C-Íé-ú≈-CéÃ, Year after year = à∞¡x ûª®Ω-•úÕ
Park College.
°æéπ\† Åûª-ØÁ-éπ\úÓ Åéπ\-úÕéÀ His income grew year by year = àú≈-C-Íé-ú≈-CéÀ
Q. Base, basis °ô’d-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’. É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x Miss
A. Base =
ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬ Öçö«úø’.
Åúø’-í∫’- ¶µ«í∫ç; ´‚©ç. Q. ÅE °æ‹Jhí¬ ®√ߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ Ms ÅE ®√≤ƒh®Ω’. ÅûªúÕ Ææ秃-ü¿† °J-TçC.
Year after year he hoped that his son would
basis =
éÀçC-¢√-öÀ™ àC éπÈ®éÓd ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
Çüµ∆®Ωç. a) A scissors is a useful instrument Q. Æœ©-•™¸ (syllable) Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? Éçü¿’™ ´’Sx
Q. Big, large Mono syllabic, Di syllabic, Tri syllabic words return = à∞¡x ûª®Ω-•úÕ Åûªúø’ ûª† éÌúø’èπ◊ ®√éπ†’
b) A scissors are a useful instrument
A. i) Big = ÇPçî√úø’.
A. Scissors plural.
°æJ-´÷-ùç, v§ƒ´·-êuç™ °ü¿l È®çúø÷ é¬ü¿’. á°æ¤púø÷ Åçü¿’- Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? N´-Jç-îªçúÕ?

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-í∫’®Ω’¢√®Ωç 9 - ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

K.SambasivaRao, Anantapuram
¶μº®Ωhçõ‰ Ç¢Á’ ¶μºßª’-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC. Åûª-úÕE áü¿’-®Ì\ØË ÉçTx≠ˇ™ ᙫ °æ©-
Q. Co-relative conjunctions Åçõ‰ üμÁj®Ωuç Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’. é¬L?
b) Frightened= Åéπ-≤ƒt-ûª’hí¬ ¶μºßª÷-EéÃ, Cví∫s¥-´’èπ◊ í∫’J- A. I don't utter a word
àN’öÀ? ¢√öÀE ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ
against others, nor
N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. é¬-´-úøç.
A. ïûª-©’í¬ ´îËa conjunctions, do I take a word.
She was frightened at the right of the robber
correlative conjunctions ÅN: with a gun= ûª’§ƒ-éÀûÓ Ö†o Ç -üÌçí∫-†’ îª÷úø-í¬ØË Q. '°œôd éÌçîÁç, èπÿûª
a) Both... and b) Either ... or c) Just as... so Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ¶μºßª’ç °æ¤öÀdçC. (Åéπ-≤ƒt-ûª’hí¬, Cví∫s¥-´’ûÓ) °∂æ’†ç— Å®√n-EoîËa
d) Neither ... nor e) Not only... but also c) Terrify = ¶μºßª’çûÓ ´ù’èπÿ, Bv´-¢Á’i† ¶«üμ¿ ÉçTx≠ˇ ñ«Bߪ’ç
f) Whether...or àüÁjØ√ Öçõ‰ îÁ°æpçúÕ? KSR, Marture.
éπ-L-Tç-îª-úøç.
ÉN Éûª®Ω conjunctions words
™«í¬ØË †’, The memory of the maoist gunning down the vil- A. Appearances are deceptive- Q. îªü¿’´¤ ÆæçüμΔu ®√E ¢√úÕéÀ ãô’-£æ«èπ◊\ ü˨»-EéÀ °†’-
phrases (groups of words without verbs) †’ lagers terrifies her even today = ´÷¢Ó-®·Ææ’d Ç (Ç鬮Ωç -´-©x Ææy¶μ«´ç ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’) ´·°æ¤p.
clauses (groups of words with verbs) †’ éπ©’-°æ¤- ví¬´’-Ææ’n-©†’ é¬La îªç°œ† -ñ«c°æ-鬩’ ¶μºßª’çûÓ Ç¢Á’™ Q. ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  á©’xç-úÕE 'Day after day' Åçö«®√? îªü¿’´¤ ÆæçüμΔu ®√E¢√úÕéÀ -©-Gμç-îË °æü¿N ü˨»-EéÀ
û√®·. ´ù’èπÿ, ¶«üμ¿ °æ¤öÀd-Ææ’h-Ø√o®·. ™‰üΔ Tomorrow next day Åçö«®√? àC éπÈ®èπ◊d? éÌJN. Ñ ´÷ôLo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
a) Both Rama and Krishna are the avatars of A. The day after tomorrow Åçö«ç. Day after day A. Voting right for the illiterate is a disaster to
Vishnu. A. Sudhakar, Biknur. the country.
= ®ÓV© ûª®Ω-•úÕ tomorrow next day ûª°æ¤p-.
(®√--´·-úø’, éπ%-≠æflg-úø’ Éü¿l®Ω÷ èπÿú≈ -N-≠æflg-´¤ - Q. Structural word, content word Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? An office for the illiterate is the nation's ruin.
Å-´-û√®Ω-¢Ë’) A. Content Words- Ææç¶μ«-≠æ-ù™ ®Ωîª-†™ ¶μ«¢√Eo Anil, ponnur. Q. Being lost his wife.
b) Either coming here or calling him makes no -Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and
ûÁLÊ° ´÷ô©’ Ñ ´‚úø’ ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ îÁ°æp-í∫-©®Ω’. Having lost his wife.
difference = phone
Ééπ\-úÕéÀ ®√´--úøçé¬F, ¢√úÕéÀ adverbs. Q.
†’´¤y Ø√ •®˝húË §ƒKdéÀ -Ç£æ…y-Eç-îª-•-ú≈f´¤. Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ Å®Ωnç äéπ-õ‰Ø√?
îËߪ’-úøç-é¬F È®çúø÷ äéπõ‰. ÉN ™‰éπ-§ÚûË sentences ¶μ«´ç -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’ éπüΔ? A. You have been invited to... A. Being lost his wife - ûª°æ¤p.
(ÅC-é¬F, ÉC-é¬F, Åûª-úø’-é¬F, Éûªúø’ é¬F) Structural Words: ¢√éπu E®√t-ù«-EéÀ (sentence Q. †’´¤y Ø√ •®˝húË §ƒKdéÀ Ç£æ…y-Eç-îª-•-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤. Having lost his wife. correct -
c) Just as you talk back when you are offended, structure èπ◊) Å´-Ææ-®Ω-´’ßË’u ´÷ô©’ - A. You are being invited to... ¶μ«®Ωu §Ú´--úøçûÓ/ §Ú´--úøç-´-©x
so will your son when he is offended = Articles (a/an and the), Prepositions (on, in, Q. Q.
Fèπ◊ †’´¤y Ø√ •®˝húË §ƒKdéÀ Ç£æ…y-Eç-îª-•-úø-û√´¤ Ñ úø•’s ´÷ Ø√-†o-èπ◊ -É-îËa≤ƒh.
éÓ°æç ´ÊÆh †’´¤y áü¿’®Ω’ îÁ°œp-†ô’x, F éÌúø’èπ◊ èπÿú≈ into, at, etc), conjunctions A. You will be invited to... A. I'll give the money to my father.
(and, but, etc,) determines
Q.Could I leave the school a lit-
¢√úÕéÀ éÓ°æç ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ -Fèπ◊ -á-ü¿’®Ω’ îÁ•’-û√úø’.
Q
(any, each, some, etc.)
d) Neither he nor his brother is honest =
°∂‘V éπöÀd ´≤ƒh?
Å- -ûª-úø÷ Eñ«--ߪ’-B-°æ-®Ω’úø’ é¬-úø’, Å-ûª-úÕ ûª´·túø÷ é¬úø’. Q. NüΔuJn prose/ poetry üΔy®√ -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 506 tle early? A. I'll pay the fees and come
DEéÀ ûÁ©’í∫’ Å®Ωnç îÁ°æpçúÕ? Q. ´÷ Ø√†o†’ °œL-îÌ≤ƒh.
(È®çúÕç-öx àD ™‰ü¿’, Éü¿l-
A. I'll call my father and

Her eyes ar e as blue as flowers
J™ á´®Ω÷ ™‰®Ω’)
come
e) Not only but also = ÅüË-
é¬éπ, ÉC èπÿú≈. Not only Q. à ®ÓV îÁ°œp† §ƒ®∏Ωç
does he waste his Ç ®Óñ‰ îªü¿-´-´’E îÁ°æ¤h-
Ø√o†’. é¬F O’®Ω’ îªü¿-´úøç
time, but also troubles others = ¢√úÕ Æ洒ߪ’ç ví∫£œ«ç-îª-´-©-Æ œ† ´·êu-N-≠æ-ߪ÷©’ A. é¬Ææh ûªy®Ωí¬ (´÷´‚-©’-éπØ√o) ؈’ -¢Á-
™‰ü ¿’ . N’´’tLo àç îËß ª ÷™ îÁ°æpçúÕ?– DEo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™
´%ü∑Δ îËÆæ’-éÓ-´-úø¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈, Éûª-®Ω’-©†÷ É•sç-C-°-úø- àN’öÀ? ∞Ôxî√a school †’ç*? (´’®√u-ü¿í¬ per- ᙫ °æ© -鬙 îÁ°æpçúÕ ?
A. I tell you to learn a lesson the day it is taught,
mission Åúø-í∫-úøç)
û√úø’. Ö§ƒ-üμΔu-ߪ·úø’ §ƒ®∏Ωç ´·Tç-*† ûª®Ω’-
f) Whether... or = Å´¤Ø√ é¬üΔ. ¢√ûª NüΔu-®Ω’l¥-©ûÓ v§ƒéÃdÆˇ îË®·ç-î√-Lq† but you don't do it. What shall I do with you?
Q. At all, after all, by now í∫’Jç* N´-
I don't know whether he will come or not/ I °æü¿l¥-ûª’-©†’ ûÁ©-°æç-úÕ. Q. ؈’ -´-*a-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ -Å-ûª-úø’ éÓ°æp-ú≈fúø’.
A. Prose üΔy®√ Vocabulary (meaning
Jç* äéπ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ωù É´yçúÕ.
don't know whether or not he will come here. A. He was angry because I had come.
A. At all = ÅÆæ©’. He didn't like the
whether 'if' and use of words), sentence con- Q. Ç鬨¡ç ÉçûªvéÀûªç ´®Ωèπ◊ ûÁ©xí¬ ÖçC. äéπ\-≤ƒ-Jí¬
É™«çöÀ îÓôx •ü¿’©’ ¢√úø-´îª’a. M.SURESAN movie at all =
struction, expressing an idea in dif-
Åûª-úÕé¬ ÆœE´÷ ÅÆæ © ’
no/ not ûÓ ¢√-úø-û√ç) áv®Ω-•-úÕçC. é¬éÀ-™„-éπ\©’, Æœç£æ…-´-™-éπ†ç .. OöÀE
ferent ways, and writing skill (®ΩîªØ√ ØÁj°æ¤ùuç).
†îª a-™‰ü¿’. (áèπ ◊\-´í¬
After all = Éçûª-îËÆ ‘ After all the trouble I have
ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒh®Ω’?
Y.V. Srilakshmi, Bommanampadu. Poetry ´©x Ü£æ…-¨¡éÀh, ÅC ´uéπh-°æ-JîË Nüμ¿ç, A. Till a short while ago the sky has been white,
taken, I have got only one hundred rupees =
Q. Polite forms ™ suggestion èπ◊ Advise èπ◊ Ö†o Vocabulary ´®Ωg-Ø√-¨¡éÀh ™«çöÀN °ç§Òç-Cç--éÓ- and it has turned red suddenly.
ØËEçûª éπ≠d-°æ æú≈f Ø√éÌ-*açC ´çü¿ ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ÷™‰.
ûËú≈-©†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. È®çúÕçöÀ Å®Ωnç äéπõ‰ éπüΔ. ´îª’a.
After all, how much money you have is Guess/ Guess work / Unreliable figures,
Usage ™ à¢Á’iØ√ ´÷®Ω’p ÖçüΔ? Å™«Íí, fear, Q. -à-¢Áj-Ø√ éÌEo -´’ç-* Novels Ê°®Ω’x îÁ°æpçúÕ. Revision.
important, not how you got it àüË-¢Á’iØ√ Fü¿-í∫_-
frightened, terrified, afraid ©èπ◊ Ö†o ûËú≈-©†’ A. éÌEo Novels Åçõ‰ à ÖüËl-¨»-EéÀ? á´-JéÀ? NüΔu-®Ω’n-
N´-Jç-îªç-úÕ. ©é¬? ¶üμ¿-èπ◊-©é¬? General reading é¬? ÅØË È®çûª úø•’sç-ü¿-ØËC ´·êuç, †’¢Áy™« Ææ秃-Cç-î√-´-E- S. Narasimga Rao, Karimnagar.
é¬ü¿’.
A. 1) Polite forms Åçõ‰ ´’®√u-ü¿†’ ûÁLÊ° words, Q. í∫ûªç™ Having í∫’Jç* ®√¨»®Ω’. àüÁjØ√ 鬮Ω-ù«-EéÀ
By now = Ñ §ƒöÀéÀ
üΔE-E -•öÀd Öçô’çC.-
model verbs. would, could ûÓ question *†o-°œ-©x-©èπÿ, É°æ¤p-úÕ-°æ¤púË english™ v§ƒOùuç èπÿú≈ Having ´Jh-Ææ’hçC éπüΔ?
By now the programme should have started
forms ™ ´îËa sentences/ expressions Ææ秃-Cç--éÌç-ô’†o ¢√JéÀ, Short stories ûÓ ÖüΔ: having met my friend I went away. äéπ
= Ñ §ƒöÀ-éÀ/Ñ Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ 鬮Ωu-véπ´’ç v§ƒ®Ωç¶μºç
a) Could you explain this again? v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμç-îª-úøç ´’ç*C. OöÀéÀ RK Narayan, ví¬´’- ®˝èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*† °æ¤Ææh-éπç™ °j Nüμ¿çí¬
Tagore, Raja Rao, Ruskin Bond, Mulkraj
Åߪ·uç-ú≈-LqçC (Å´-™‰ü¿’).
b) Would you wait for a minute? îª÷¨»†’. N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. -Ééπ\-úø ÉçTx≠ˇ ¢√é¬u-EéÀ
Q. That's what my family won't see.
É™«ç-öÀN. Oô-Eoç-öÀE èπÿú≈ î√™« N´-®Ωçí¬ §ƒûª Anand, Anitha Das ™«çöÀ ¶μ«®Ω-Bߪ’ ®Ωîª-®·-ûª© ûªT-†-ô’xí¬ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®Ωnç ®√´-úøç-™‰ü¿’.
lessons ™ Éî√aç îª÷úøçúÕ. Ççí∫x ®Ωîª-†-©ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμç-îªúøç ´’ç*C. English DEéÀ ûÁ©’í∫’ Å®Ωnç îÁ°æpç-úÕ. - ûÁ-©°æç-úÕ.
A. ÅüË ´÷ èπ◊ô’ç•ç îª÷úø-EC/ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-EC.
2) Advise Åçõ‰ Ææ©£æ… É´yúøç. îªçü¿-´÷´’ ¶«í¬ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC. A. Å´¤†’. Having lost his wife, he felt lonely =
Q. She is a good girl. D-EéÀ simple sentence ÆæJ-§Ú- Q. Her eyes are as blue as flowers.
I advise you to buy the book and read it. ¶μ«®Ωu §Ú´--úøç-´©x Åûª-úø’ äçô-J-ûª†ç ņ’-¶μº-N-Ææ’h-
ûª’çC éπüΔ. D-Eo- She is a girl and is good A. Ç¢Á’ -éπ∞¡Ÿx °æ‹©çûª F©çí¬ Öçö«®·. (English Ø√oúø’.
(Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç éÌE îªü¿-´-´’E ؈’ Ææ©£æ… ÉÆæ’h-Ø√o†’.)
(compound), She is a girl who is good (com- ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ blue eyes É≠ædç) Having walked all the distance, I feel tired =
Suggestion - Åçõ‰ Ææ÷. suggest Åçõ‰ Ææ÷*ç-
plex) ™éÀ ´÷®√a-Lq† 鬮Ω-ù«Eo ûÁ©-°æçúÕ. ÅEo Q. Some words in the story that you may not
îªúøç– ÉC advise Åçûª •©çí¬ îÁ°æp-úøç é¬ü¿’. Ç °æE- ¢√é¬u© meaning, context äéπ\õ‰ éπüΔ? know. Ééπ\úø that Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
Åçûª-ü¿÷®Ωç †úø-´-úøç-´©x Ø√èπ◊ Å©-Ææ-ôí¬ ÖçC.
îËÊÆh ¶«í∫’ç-ô’ç-üË¢Á÷?– ÉC suggest îËߪ’-úøç. Ç °æE ÉC practice (talking practice) ´©x- ´-Ææ’hçC.
A. Å™« ´÷®√a-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’. ´’†ç áçûª Ææ’©- A. That you may not know = Ééπ\úø that èπ◊
îË®· †’´¤y, Fèπ◊ ´’ç*C– ÉN advising. Å®Ωnç, which ÅE (à ´÷ô-™„jûË Féπ®Ωnç é¬-¢Ó
I advise you to stop smoking.
¶μºçí¬ Å®Ωl¥-´’-ßË’ô’x ´÷ö«x-ú≈L, ®√ߪ÷L ÅØËC ´’†- Ch. Raghukiran, Nagavaram.
Ææ’™ Öç-èπ◊çõ‰ ´’†èπ◊ áô’-´çöÀ sentence ÅE) OöÀE ûÁ©’-í∫’-™éÀ ņ’-´-Cç-îªçúÕ.
(Æœí∫-È®ö¸ ´÷†’éÓ.) ¢√ú≈™ ÅüË ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC. O’J-*a† example, Q. This exercise can be done as many times
Q. DE°j Ææçûªéπç îËߪ’úøç ´©x ûª´’èπ◊ †≠æd-¢Ë’O’ ™‰ü¿’.
I suggest that you stop smoking. Grammar for the sake of grammar (¢√uéπ-®Ωùç as you like in a day. Ééπ\úø can be done
(†’´¤y Æœí∫-È®ö¸ ´÷†-úøç ´’ç*C.) A. You don't lose anything by signing here/
éÓÆæç ¢√uéπ-®Ωùç) Ŷμºu-Æ œç-îª-ö«-EéÀ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
You do it/ you had better do it/ you've nothing to lose if you sign here.
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç. A. Can be done = îËߪ’-•-úø-í∫-©´¤ (´÷´‚©’
why don't you do it? Q. Ééπ\úø ¢√£æ«-Ø√©’ EL-°œûË O’Íé †≠ædç.
A. Lakshmi Narayana, Yellandu.
ûÁ©’í∫’ – îËߪ’-í∫-©´¤)
advise. A. If you park your vehicle here you will have
É´Fo Q. '؈’ èπÿú≈ îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’— ÅØË ¢√é¬uEo
Q. '°æ¤vÈ®éÓ •’Cl¥ >£æ«yéÓ ®Ω’*— ÅØË ¢√é¬u-EéÀ Ææ´÷† trouble.
How about/ what about doing it? If I were I also didn't see it. ÅØ√™«?
you, I would/ wouldn't do it- sugges- Å®√n-EoîËa ÉçTx≠ˇ ñ«Bߪ’ç àüÁjØ√ ÖçüΔ? Q. Çߪ’† °æü¿-´¤© éÓÆæç úø•’s©’ ¢Áü¿-x ´uéÀh.
É´Fo I didn't also see it ÅØ√™«?
tions. A. Tastes differ as rivers differ (äéÓ\- †C äéÓ\ A. Money doesn't matter to him if only he can get
I too didn't see it ÅØ√™«?
3) Fear = -®Ω-éπçí¬ Ö†oô’d, äéÌ\-éπ\J ÅGμ-®Ω’* äéÓ\-®Ω-éπçí¬ an office.
¶μºßª’-°æ-úøôç – I didn't see it too. ÅØ√™«? îÁ°æpçúÕ.
Öçô’çC/ ™éÓ-Gμ†o ®Ω’*”) Q. Ééπ\úø Ææçûªéπç °ô’d.
Q. '؈’ Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ äéπ ´÷ô ņ†’. ´÷ô °æúø†’— A.I didn't see it too/ I didn't see it either.
´·êuçí¬ üμÁj®√uEo éÓ™p-´-úøç
a) She fears her husband = A. Sign here

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-eÇ-C¢√®Ωç 12- ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Ch.Raghukiran, Nagavaram A. Throughout - from the beginning to the
end: The hero is seen throughout the movie
Nï-ߪ’-´ç-ûª-¢Á’i†
(Nizamabad) Express Distribution
Q.éÀç-C -¢√é¬u-©-†’ Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ -ûÁ-©’°æ = Ç ÆœE´÷ Åçû√ (¢Á·ü¿©’ †’ç* *´®Ω ´®Ωèπ◊)
£‘«®Ó éπE-°œ-≤ƒhúø’. ÆæçÆæní¬ ®Ω÷§Òç-ü¿úøç.
í∫-©®Ω’. Q. MISSION èπ◊ Å®Ωnç-
 Ñ ®ÓV ≤ƒ´÷†’ é̆’-éÓ\-¢√L= - Throughout the movie my favourite place is
(throughout)... my
ûÁ-©°æç-úÕ.
I've to make some purchases = ÆœE´÷ ¢Á·ûªhç Ç ûª®√yûª A. Mission = ´’†
today. favourite place èπ◊ Å®Ωnç Ééπ\úø ÆæJ-§Ú-´úøç ™‰ü¿’.
Q. Came into being
¶µºN≠æuûª’h†’ í∫’Jç*
 Ñ ®ÓV ßÁ÷í¬ ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ îËߪ÷L = ´’†-èπ◊†o ü¿%¨»uEo
I must do yoga today. A. Came into being = ÖEéÀ™éÀ ®√´úøç/ Öçúøôç Eïç îËÆæ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊  Proboscis =
 Ø√èπ◊ ¶„jé˙ éÌØËçûª ≤ƒ´’®Ωn uç(úø•’s) ™‰ü¿’ = v§ƒ®Ω綵ºç Å´úøç ´’†ç ņ’-Ææ-Jç-î√-©-†’-èπ◊ØË ´÷®Ω_ç, Nüµ¿’©’. v°æ¶Ô-ÆœÆˇ – '¶Ô— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç
I can't afford a bike The Universe came into being several billion Q. 1) To focus on customers loyalty & make it  Superb =
 Ø√èπ◊ É©’x éÌØËçûª ≤ƒ´’®Ωn uç ™‰ü¿’ = years ago = the goal of our organization. Ææ÷u°æ®˝s – '°æ— ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç; °æ, bird ™
I can't afford a house of my own. î√™« ´çü¿© éÓôx à∞¡x éÀçü¿ô N¨¡yç ÖE-éÀ™éÀ 2) To encourage our people for adoption of '•— ™«í¬.
´*açC. new technologies, processes and system  Oblation =
Riaz Pasha, Warangal. Q. I would rather they all would (please explain for improved, reliable and speedy service. Ŷ„x-ß˝’≠æØ˛ – '¶„xß˝’— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©-é¬L.
Q. What is the different between briefly again)  Drought =
3) To relentlessly monitor to reach a mini-
'been and being'. A. I'd rather they all would = mum net service level of 98% delivery. vúˆö¸
A. Been independent use
èπ◊ Have, had,
™‰ü¿’. ¢√∞Ïx-°æE îËÊÆh/ Åçü¿’èπ◊ Ææ´’t-AÊÆh ¶«í∫’ç-ô’ç-ü¿E A. 1)
(´÷) ´’† ë«û√-ü∆-®Ω’© ÅGµ-´÷†ç §Òçü¿ôç Pigeon =
shall have, etc., 'be' forms
ûÓ éπLÆœ †’form ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. I'd rather = I prefer O’ü¿ ü¿%≠œd °ôdúøç, ü∆Eo ´’† ÆæçÆæn í∫´’uçí¬ °œ>Ø˛ – '°œ— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç
îËÆæ’hçC. (؈’ É≠æd°æ-úøû√) îËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç.  Chaos =
Being = Öçúøôç ´©x/ Öçúø-ôçûÓ - Q. Are you a coffee free? 2) ¢Á’®Ω’-Èíj†, †´’t-éπ-¢Á’i†, Ææûªy®Ω ÊÆ´-©ç-Cç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊, Èéߪ’Æˇ – 'Èé— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
Being ill he can't move = ï•’sûÓ Öçúøôç ´©x/ A. Ñ group of words sentence é¬ü¿’, Å®Ωnç ™‰ü¿’. éÌûªh ≤ƒçÍé-Aéπ °æJ-ñ«c†ç, N†÷ûªo °æü¿l¥-ûª’©’ Å´- Tyrant =
Öçúø-ôçûÓ Åûªúø’ éπü¿-©-™‰úø’. 鬕öÀd •£æ›¨» O’®Ω’ îª÷Æœ† sentence, 'Are you ©ç--Gç-îË™« ´’† Æœ•sçCE §Úûªq-£œ«ç-îªúøç. õ„j®Ωçö¸– 'õ„j— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
Q. Do you came? and Did you come? a coffee freak?' 3) 98 ¨»ûªç Eéπ®Ω ÊÆ´-©ç-CçîË  Tyrrany =
ûË-ú≈ -à-N’-öÀ? freak Åçõ‰ üËE™-ØÁjØ√ N°æ-K-ûª- ≤ƒn®·éÀ îËÍ®-N-üµ¿çí¬ ´’† ÊÆ´-©†’ öÀ®ΩE – 'öÀ— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç
A. Do you come? = †’´¤y regular í¬ Ééπ\-úÕéÀ Martyr =
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 507
¢Á’i† ÅGµ-´÷†ç, ÇÆæéÀh Ö†o- E®Ωç-ûª- ®√-ߪ’çí¬ EÍ®l-Pç-îªúøç.-
´Ææ’hç-ö«¢√? ¢√∞¡Ÿx. Are you a coffee ´÷ô(®˝) – '´÷— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
Do you came - ûª°æ¤p. Q. I turned off the light.
Did you come? =

I am cr ossing my fingers
I turned the light off.
í∫ûªç™ – (ã EKgûª Ææ´’- I turned off it.
ߪ’ç™) †’Ny-éπ\-úÕéÀ I turned it off OöÀ™ àN
´î√a¢√? ÆæÈ®j-†¢Ó ûÁ©-°æçúÕ.
Q. Login and logout ûË-ú≈ - A. I turned off it ûª°æp N’í∫-
-ûÁ©°æç-úÕ. freak? = Q. éÀç-C ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ -ûÁ-©’í∫’-™ -Å®Ωnç -îÁ°æpç-úÕ.
Coffee
û√-´Fo ÆæÈ®j-†¢Ë.
A. Login = Computer™ °æE v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îªúøç O’®Ω’ ÅGµ-´÷-†’™«? (suggestions for success) Q. Phrasal Verbs †’ á°æ¤púø’ Núø-DÆœ ®√-ߪ÷-™
Log out = Computer™ ´’†ç îËÆæ’h†o °æE Q. He has worked since 1989 (but  Marry the right person. This one
'has' shows just passed out
N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
´·Tç-îªúøç. decision will determine 90% of A. Verb, preposition it Phrasal verb
actions only) please explain.
´’üµ¿u ®√ü¿’.
Q. Sign in and Sign out ûË-ú≈ -N-´-Jç-îªç-úÕ. your happiness or misery = ™E,verb particle (preposition/ adverb)
†’
A. The sentence is correct. Has +
A. Sign in = äéπ-îÓô v°æ¢Ë-Pç-îË-ô-°æ¤púø’ Visitors reg- Fèπ◊ ûªT† ´uéÀhE °Rx îËÆæ’éÓ. -Å-üË 90 rule
á°æ¤púø’ Núø-D-ߪ÷-©-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ éπ*a-ûª-¢Á’i† Åçô÷
Past Participle indicates an action
ister ™ Visitors îËÊÆ Ææçûªéπç. M.SURESAN
¨»ûªç ´®Ωèπ◊ F ÆæçûÓ--≥ƒ-Eoí¬E, ü¿’”- àD ™‰ü¿’.
starting in the past (1989) and con-
Computer ™ e -mail °æçÊ°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Internet ™éÀ ë«-Eoí¬-E -E®Ωg®·Ææ’hç-C.
tinuing till now. You are correct in saying that  Give people more than they expect and do it
¢√úø’-éπ†’ •öÀd ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-LqçüË.
has + pp talks of an action just completed.
v°æ¢Ë-Pç-îªúøç.
cheerfully = M. Satyanarayana, Hyderabad.
Sign out; 1) äéπ v°æü˨¡ç †’ç* •ßª’-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞Ïx-ô-°æ¤púø’
This is its other use, in addition to the above.
register ™ Ææçûªéπç îËߪ’úøç. O’ †’ç* Éûª-®Ω’©’ ÇPçîË -ü∆-E éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\-´í¬ Q.Fine, well, good, fantastic, superb, wonderful
Q. She goes to her friends on sunday.
e-mail °æç°œç-*† ûª®√yûª Internet †’ç*
O’®Ω’ ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ É´y-í∫-©-í¬L. Ñ °æü∆-©†’ á°æ¤púø’, áéπ\úø, ᙫ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L?
( Ç¢Á’ ¢√∞¡x ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-© ÉçöÀéÀ ÇC-¢√®Ωç ¢Á-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’çC.)  Be forgiving of yourself and others = A. Well ûª°æp N’í∫-û√-¢√öÀ†Eoç-öÀF àüÁjØ√ î√™«
E≠æ \-N’ç-îªúøç. I have seen this in Spoken English and my
Q. Signing off
F °jØ√, Éûª-®Ω’© °jØ√ éπ~´÷-í∫’ùç Å©-´-®Ω-éÓ. ¶«í∫’ç-ü¿E îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. Well Åçõ‰ ¶«í¬
doubt is in the question house / home not  Be generous =
A. Signing off =
(N’í∫û√ ¢√öÀéÀ Å®Ωnç – ¶«í∫’†o).
mentioned.
Öûªh-®√Eo ´·Tç-îªúøç (ÉçûË Ææçí∫-
Nûª-®Ωù (ü∆†) Q©ç éπLT Öçúø’. Fantastic = î√™« ¶«í∫’†o/ Åü¿’s¥-ûª-¢Á’i†)/
A. friends ÉçöÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’çC = She goes
ûª’©’ ÅE *´®Ω ®√ߪ’úøç) Ç¢Á’ ¢√∞¡x Have a greatful heart.=
Q. Mean by ppt (V3) past participle? íÌ°æpí¬ Ö†o.
to her friends'. (s ûª®√yûª apostrophe í∫´’-Eç- (Grateful, Greatful
A. Mean -Past Participle - Meant
éπ%ûª-ïcûª éπL-T-´¤çúø’ é¬ü¿’) Excellent = Superb = î√™« íÌ°æpí¬ Ö†o
îªçúÕ. ÅC Öçõ‰ØË friends 'ÉçöÀéÀ— ÅØË Å®Ωnç  Persistence, Persistence, Persistence =
Q. Meanings and usage of below written. ´Ææ’hçC. (´·êuçí¬ ÅüË ®Ωéπ-¢Á’i† N’í∫-û√-¢√-öÀ-éπçõ‰),
Just crossing someone finger
°æô’d-ü¿©, °æô’d-ü¿©, °æô’d-ü¿© °æJ-°æ‹-®Ωg-¢Á’i† (ÉçÍéç ûª°æ¤p°æôd™‰ç)
Åç-õ‰ -à-N’-öÀ? She goes to her friends (friends èπ◊ apostro-  Discipline yourself to save money on even the Wonderful = íÌ°æp džç-ü∆Eo éπL-TçîË/
A. Crossing one's fingers = phe ™‰ü¿’) = Ç¢Á’ ûª† friends ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’çC. most modest salary =
Hoping our plans will be successful friends' - friends + ' - É™« apostrophe ¢√úÕûË,
(´’† °æü∑¿- Çéπ-®Ω{-ùÃ-ߪ’-¢Á’i†.
Well = °j¢√-öÀ-™ E well†’ ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ nouns
@ûªç áçûª ≤ƒ´÷-†u-¢Á’i-†-üÁjØ√, §Òü¿’°æ¤ îËÆæ’-èπ◊-ØË™«
(Keep one's fingers
鬩’ °∂æL-≤ƒh-ߪ’E ÇPç-îªúøç) house/ home Åéπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. É™«çöÀ îÓôx house or E†’o †’´¤y Eߪ’ç-vAç-éÓ.
crossed) home ¢√úøôç ûª°æ¤p èπÿú≈. ´·çü¿’ ¢√úøç.
 Treat every one you meet like you want to be
I've finished what I have to do. I am crossing Q. What should I do to get used to Foreign Well = (Ç®Óí∫uç) ¶«í¬-Ö†o. àüÁjØ√ °æE á´-È®jØ√
treated =
my fingers = ؈’ îÁߪ÷u-LqçC î˨»†’. English? ¶«í¬-îËÊÆh – He has done it well Åçö«ç éπü∆–
°∂æLûªç Öçô’ç-ü¿ØË ÇP-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’. - A. Read as much English as you can, listen to
E†’o Éûª-®Ω’©’ ᙫ îª÷ú≈-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ö«¢Ó, Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ Å™«Íí He played/ understood (something)
well Åçö«ç.
†’´¤y Å™«Íí îª÷úø’.
Q . Much into (I am not much into Vastu. Is it English news channels and speak english  Commit yourself to quality =
correct or not?) whenever you have a chance. Ø√ùu-ûªèπ◊ •ü¿’l¥-úÕ¢Áj Öçúø’. OöÀ-éπ-Eoç-öÀéà Ů√n©’ Éçé¬ î√™« ÖØ√o®·.
A. Be not much into = Not to be interested in or  Be loyal, Be honest =
´’ç* dictionary îª÷úøçúÕ.
G. Narsing Rao, Adilabad.
doing something. NüµË-ߪ’ûª, Eñ«-®·B éπL-T- -Öçúø’. R. Sridevi, Jammulapalem (Prakasam Dist)
Q. VISION
I am not much into vastu =  Be a self-starter =
Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ?
Q.
ÉöÃ-´© ¢√®Ωh-™xéÀ ´*a† 'CERN' °æ‹Jh Å®Ωnç
Ø√èπ◊ ¢√Ææ’h™ °ü¿l
A. Vision = î√™« Ü£æ«ûÓ ûÁL-Ní¬ ´’†ç ®Ω*ç--èπ◊†o
ÇÆæ-éÃh-™‰ü¿’, Åçûª ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’ èπÿú≈. Éûª®Ω’© O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-úø-èπ◊çú≈ îÌ®Ω´ îª÷°œç. àN’öÀ? ÉC French Acronym ÅE °ævA-éπ™x îªC-
Q. Cut to (song is not cut to one place to one  Stop blaming others. Take responsibility for
v°æù«-Réπ v°æ鬮Ωç, ´’† ¶µºN-≠æuûª’h†’ í∫’Jç* ´’†-èπ◊†o
¢√†’ DE Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ?
place, is it correct or not?)
ü¿%¨¡uç.(-Ç-™-îª-†). every area of your life =
Q. To be the most admired and successful A. CERN ÅØËC French acronym.
A. Cut to = é¬ü¿’ Cut from... to - In Movies/ TV,
express distribution company in India by
Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ EçCç-î ª-èπ◊çú≈ Fèπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† N≠æ-ߪ ÷- (Abbreviation ™E letters éπL-°œûË °æü¿ç-™«í¬
etc = to move quickly from one scene to
meeting and exceeding our customers,
©-Eoç-öÀéà F¢Ë ¶«üµ¿uûª ´£œ«ç. üµ¿yEçîË ´÷ô Acronym).
another. eg. The scene cuts from the forest
expectation of services. -D-E -Å®Ωnç -à-N’-öÀ? T. Siva, Nandikotkur. CERN èπ◊ french ¶µ«≠æ™  Å®Ωnç Council of
to the palace. (Ç ü¿%-¨¡uç î√™« ûªy®Ωí¬ ÅúøN
A. European Nuclear Research =
†’ç* ®√ï-¶µº-´-Ø√-EéÀ ´÷®Ω’-ûª’çC -) ´’† ÊÆ´©Â°j ´’† NE- ß Á ÷ - í ∫ - ü ∆- ® Ω ’ ©èπ ◊ †o Ǩ¡ © ’ ûª % °œ h - Q. éÀçC-¢√öÀ Pronunciation ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
Q. Throughout (Throughout the movie my
éπ-®Ωçí¬ B®Ωaúøç, Ç Ç¨¡-©†’ ÅCµ-í∫-N’ç-îªúøç ü∆y®√,  Menace = ߪ‚®Ó-°œ-ߪ’Ø˛ Åù’ °æJ-¨-üµ¿Ø√ ´’çúøL.
favourite place is ... is it correct?)
¶µ «®Ωû ˝ ¢Á·ûªhç ™ØË Åûª uçûª ÅGµ -´ ÷†ç §ÒçüË , ¢Á’†Æˇ – '¢Á’— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 14 ÅéÓ-d-•®Ω’ 2008- Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Ananda Rao, Guntur Q. I have some doubts with regard to Degrees of
Q. àéπ-°æ-Bo-v´-ûª’úø’.
Q. What is the difference between comparison. Generally we say...
these pairs of words. beautiful - more beautiful - most beautiful. A. Monogamist ÅØÌa.
 specially - especially But why can't we say... Å®·ûË äÍé Ææ´’-
 till - until beautiful - less beautiful - least beautiful. ߪ’ç™ äé𠶵«®Ωu éπ©-
 speak - talk eg: 1. She is the least beautiful girl in the ¢√úË English ™
 though - although class. monogamist. Åçõ‰
A.  Especially = v°æ´·-êçí¬/ ´·êuçí¬. She is less beautiful than any other girl in äé𠶵«®Ωuèπ◊ Nú≈-èπ◊-L*a
All farmers in the state, especially those the class. È®çúÓ-≤ƒJ ÉçéÓ
Blue-
growing cotton and tobacco are in trouble = ÇN-úø†’ °∞«x-úÕØ√, monogamist ÅØË Åçö«ç.
No other girl in the class is no little beautiful
FL/ F©ç
®√≠æZç-™E È®jûª’-©ç-ü¿®Ω÷, ´·êuçí¬ °æAh, §Òí¬èπ◊ as she. @N-ûª-´’çû√ äÍé ¶µ«®ΩuûÓ í∫úÕ-Ê°-¢√úø’ (àéπ-°æ-Bo- Indigo- ´·ü¿’®Ω’ F©ç
°æçúÕç-îË-¢√∞¡Ÿx É•sç-ü¿’™x ÖØ√o®Ω’. 2. She is one of the least beautiful girl in the v´-ûª’úø’) ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ English ™ ÆæÈ®j† ´÷ô ™‰ü¿’. Award= äéπ®Ω’ éπ†•-JîË v°æA-¶µºèπ◊/ éπ%≠œéÀ •£æ›-´’A/
Specially = v°æûËu-éπçí¬. class. Q. I am talking with/ to you. àC éπÈ®èπ◊d?
°æ¤®Ω-≤ƒ\®Ωç.
The train is being run specially to clear the She is less beautiful than many other girls Reward- v°æ-A-°∂æ©ç– äéπ °æE Nï-ߪ’-´ç-ûªçí¬
A. Both are correct.
festival rush = °æçúø’í∫ û√éÀúÕ-E ûªô’dèπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ in the class. °æ‹JhîËÆœ-†çü¿’èπ◊ ÉîËa •£æ›-´’A.
v°æûËu-éπçí¬ Ñ È®j©’ †úø’-°æ¤-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. Very few girls in the class are as little beau- Ch. Raghukiran, Nagaram Staff = äéπ ÆæçÆæn Æœ•sçC.
 till = until tiful as she.
Q. What is the difference between- Games and Faculty = Universities, Colleges ™ ÖçúË
 Speak - Å®Ωnç, é¬Ææh ´·êu-¢Á’i† N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ 3. Radha is less beautiful than sita.
formal =
sports, Revolt and Revolution, Report and ¶üµ¿Ø√ ¨»ê; Maths faculty, English faculty,
í¬ ´÷ö«x-úøôç – ¶µ«≠æ ´÷ö«x-úøôç Sita is not so little beautiful as Radha. etc.; Ç ¨»ê™ ÖçúË Åüµ∆u-°æéπ ´®Ω_ç.
speak a language. Speak a few words statement, Cash and Amount, Rate and
Can we write the sentences as above?
Price, Speed and Fast, Hai and Hellow,
-Ñ -
on the occasion = Ñ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥çí¬ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u-©-†’ -ûÁ-©’í∫’-™ -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. K.B. Nardas, Cheriyala
Poem and Rhyme, Details and Particulars,
´‚úø’ ´÷ô©’ ´÷ö«x-úøôç. A. Yes. We can say so. Less Q.
Whole and Total, Blue and
Talk - Åçûª ´·êuç-é¬E N≠æߪ ’ç í∫ ’Jç*
éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ûÁ-©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
beautiful and least beautiful
Indigo, Award and Reward, á´-È®-´-®Ì-î√a®Ω’?
are comparative and
´÷ö«x-úøôç. ´÷´‚©’ °œî√a-§ƒöÀ™«çöÀ Ææ綵«-≠æù
– talk.
 Though = Although
superlative respectively, too. -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
508
Staff and Faculty. A Who all have come?
.
Q. Ñ ü∆J† äéπ Ŷ«s®·
Q. Using the word 'actor'

He is supposed to do that work
¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’ç-úøí¬ îª÷¨»®√?
to the females, correct
A Have you seen a boy
.
or not? (I have seen in
going this way?
the newspaper.)
Q. àçöÀ Éçé¬ éπ•’®Ω’x,
A. Actor, author, singer,
Your sentences in eg No. 2) are A. Games
poet ™«çöÀ ´÷ô-©†’ Çú≈, ´’í¬ Éü¿l-Jéà ְæ-ßÁ÷- Åçõ‰ Éü¿l-J-´’üµ¿u, È®çúø’ ïôx N¨Ï-≥ƒ©’ îÁ°æpÍ®?
correct- grammatically, but the pos- ´’üµ¿u ïJÍí véÃúø - cricket, foot- A What more?/ What else?
.
Tç-îªúøç ¢√úø’-Èéj-§Ú-®·ç-C-°æ¤púø’. ûª°æ¤p-™‰ü¿’, ≤˘éπ-®Ωuçí¬
itive degree (as little beautiful as) is ball, chess etc. Q. Ñ Â°†’o™ Éçé˙ Å®·-§Ú-®·çC/ ÉC §ƒ®Ω-úøç
Öçô’çC èπÿú≈.
not proper usage. Isn't it more con- Sports
Q. Thank you sir, Thanking you sir. - which is Åçõ‰ Éü¿l®Ω’, È®çúø’ ïôx éπçõ‰ ™‰ü¿’/ ®√ߪ’úøç ™‰ü¿’.
venient to say, sita is not so/ as
correct? áèπ◊\´ ´’çC §ƒ™ÔxØËçü¿’èπ◊ O©’†o A The pen has run out of ink. It isn't writing any
.
beautiful as the other girls in the véÃúø©’ - Running race, Swimming more.
A. Thanking you, sir, - correct
class. etc.
Q. Ñ Â°†’o †úø’-Ææ’hçC. DEéÀ This pen is writing
K. Ramakrishna, Khammam. 2) In this example too, it is better M.SURESAN Revolt- A®Ω’í∫’-¶«ô’– ÅCµ-鬮Ωç/ ÅCµ-é¬- ņúøç ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çü∆?
Q. to avoid 'little' before the positive degree. We
A. ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC.
éÀçC-¢√-öÀE ûÁ©’-í∫’-™éÀ ᙫ ´÷®√a™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. ®Ωç™ Ö†o¢√-JéÀ ´uA-Í®-éπçí¬ ü∆úÕ.
can as well say, 'very few girls in the class are Revolution- N°æx´ç – ≤ƒ´÷->éπ (social) ®√ï-éÃߪ’,
He is certain to address the meeting. Q. I had no other object than to beat him
as beautiful as she'. Éûª®Ω ®Ωçí¬™x ´îËa °†’-´÷®Ω’p- a great change Åçõ‰
A. Åûªúø’ Æ涵º™ ´÷ö«x-úøôç éπ*aûªç.
3) Here again 'little' is better avoided in the ways of life of a people, society, coun-
àN’öÀ ?
Q. We are bound to be late. A. ¢√úÕE éÌôdúøç ûª°æp Ø√éÀçÍé üµËu-ߪ’-´‚ ™‰ü¿’.
before beautiful. Omitting 'little' before beau- try, or world- a revolution has good results
A. ´’†ç éπ*a-ûªçí¬ late Å´¤û√ç. tiful, makes the sentence sound better with- Q. Shake èπ◊ gender form Öçô’çü∆? Öçõ‰ È®çúø’
almost always.
be bound èπ◊ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç (Ñ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ é¬ü¿’)– out changing the meaning in any way. forms ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
Report- A presentation of the important details
Here are the translations: Literal transla- of a meeting or Incident- äéπ Ææ´÷-¢Ë-¨»Eo/ A. ÉC arab ´÷ô. ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’.
äéπ °æE îËߪ÷-Lq† ¶«üµ¿uûª Öçúøôç.
I am bound to take care of my old parents = tions look awkward. Q. Chameleon Åçõ‰ ÜÆæ-®Ω-¢Á-Lx ÅE Å®Ωnç, Å®·ûË
°∂æ’ô-††’ í∫’Jç* ûÁLÊ° E¢Ë-Céπ.
´%ü¿’l¥-™„j† ´÷ ûªL-ü¿ç-vúø’-©†’ îª÷Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-Lq† ¶«üµ¿uûª 1) Class ™E Åçü¿-J™ Æ‘ûª ûªèπ◊\´ Åçü¿ç Statement: ¢√uêu– äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo í∫’Jç* ´’† ¢Á·ûªhç °æü∆Eo ᙫ ÖîªaJç-î√L?
Ø√èπ◊çC. éπ©C/ ûªèπ◊\´ Åçü¿-í∫ûÁh. (Sup) ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷Eo ûÁLÊ° comment. A. éπO’LÅØ˛– 'O’— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç.
Q. She got to go there tomorrow. Comp: Class ™E à Éûª®Ω Å´÷t-®·-éπØ√o Æ‘ûª Cash- †í∫ü¿’– Money in the form of currency Q. NÆæh-®√-èπ◊-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  à´’ç-ö«®Ω’?
A. She got to go é¬ü¿’, She has got to go there Åçü¿ç ûªèπ◊\´. notes and coins. A. ÆæÈ®j† ´÷ô ™‰ü¿’– eating leaves ÅØÌa.
tomorrow = Ç¢Á’ Í®°æ¤ Åéπ\-úÕéÀ ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ ¢Á∞«xLq Positive: à Éûª®Ω Å´÷t®· Æ‘ûªçûª Åçü¿ç Amount- The amount of money (úø•’s 'Éçûª— Q. ´·çü¿’ °Rx ï®Ω-í∫-E-´yçúÕ. °∞¡x-ߪ÷uéπ ÅEo Ææçí∫-
ÖçC/ ¢Á∞¡xéπ ûª°æpü¿’.
Q. We are likely to get approval.
ûªèπ◊\´ é¬ü¿’. ÅE îÁ°æpúøç) Å®·ûË 'Éçûª— ÅØË ¶µ«´çûÓ amount ûª’©’ ÅçûË. Ñ ¢√é¬uEo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
2) Class ™ ûªèπ◊\´ Åçü¿-¢Á’i† Å´÷t-®·™x Æ‘ûª †’ üËEéπ®·Ø√ ¢√úøû√ç- Amount of money/ A. Let the marriage go on first. Once the mar-
A. äéπA (Sup) Amount (quantity) of water, etc.
Ç¢Á÷ü¿ç ´îËa Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC. riage is over, everything will settle down (ÅEo
Q. She is opt to hesitate a lot. Comp: class ™E áèπ◊\-´-´’çC Å´÷t-®·-©-éπçõ‰ Rate- äéπ éÀ™ / úøïØ˛/ litre/ meter üµ¿®Ω Ææçí∫-ûª’©’ ÅçûË Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç 鬙‰ü¿’) 'everything
A. will settle down' ÅFo Ææ®Ω’l-èπ◊ç-ö«®·.
Price- éÌ-†o Ææ®Ωèπ◊/ ´Ææ’h-´¤© ¢Á·ûªhç üµ¿®Ω.
Ç¢Á’ î√™« ÆæçüË-£œ«ç-îª-´îª’a (àüÁjØ√ îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊). Æ‘ûª Åçü¿ç ûªèπ◊\´.
Pos: Æ‘ûªçûª ûªèπ◊\´ Åçü¿-¢Á’i† Å´÷t-®·©’
Speed- The rate at which a thing moves, as 60 Q. Stomach, Abdomen È®çúÕç-öÀéÀ Å®Ωnç äéπ-õ‰Ø√?
Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ÆæçüË-£œ«çîË Ææy¶µ«´ç ÖçC.
Q. He is due to start as a courier early. class ™ Ö†o-¢√∞¡Ÿx î√™« ûªèπ◊\´.
Kms/ Hour. A. Abdomen= îµ √B éÀçC ¶µ«í∫ç – Éçü¿’™ §Òôd
A. courier 3) ®√üµ¿ Æ‘ûªéπçõ‰ ûªèπ◊\´ Åçü¿-¢Á’içC– compar-
Åûªúø’ í¬ •ßª’-©’-üË-®√Lq ÖçC. Fast- moving at great speed, very quickly. (stomach), °ü¿l Ê°í∫’, *†o Ê°í∫’ Öçö«®·.
Q. We are obliged to you. ative.
Speed is a noun, 'Fast' is an adverb. stomach = §Òôd ´÷vûª¢Ë’.
A. Fèπ◊ ¢Ë’ç ®Ω’ù-°æúÕ ÖØ√oç (éπ%ûª-ïc-ûª©’ ûÁ©-°æúøç)– Positive: ®√üµ¿ Æ‘ûªçûª Åçü¿-¢Á’i† Å´÷t®· é¬ü¿’.
Hai- Hi- More common- Informal greeting. Pavani, Sudha, Matsyapuri
é¬Ææh formal. VLG Raju, Srikrishnapatnam.
Q. Computers, key boards, adaptors, chargers
´’†èπ◊ ¶«í¬ °æJ-îª-ߪ’-´·†o ¢√∞¡x†’ °æ©-éπ-JçîË B®Ω’.
Q. He is supposed to do that work. Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ ÅØ√™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. Hello- slightly formed greeting éÌçîªç ´’®√u-ü¿ûÓ
A. ÅC Åûªúø’ îËߪ÷-Lq† °æE/ Ç °æE îËߪ÷LqçC É™« à NüËQ ´Ææ’h´¤ îª÷ÆœØ√ ¢√öÀ°j ´·vCçîË
O’èπ◊ Í®°æ¤ Ææ÷\©’ Öçü∆? °æ©-éπ-JçîË Nüµ¿ç. ûªßª÷K N´-®√-©-ûÓ-§ƒ-ô’í¬ äéπ-îÓô capital letters
A. Do you have classes/ school tomorrow? (or)
Åûªúø’. Poem= °æü¿uç, Rhyme= Åçûªu-v§ƒÆæ È®çúø’ ´÷ô©’
Q. We had rather leave this place.
™ CE ÅE éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ´·vCç* Öçô’çC. Åçõ‰
Is your school/ will your school be open äÍé ¨¡•lçûÓ Åçûª-´’-´úøç- Live and give, kiss Conformity with Environment ÅE Å®Ωn´÷?
A. Had rather ņç. We would rather leave the tomorrow? / Is tomorrow a working day for and miss, sit and hit - These pairs of words
place =
¢ËÍ® Å®Ωnç Öçü∆? N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
¢Ë’ç Ééπ\-úÕ-†’ç* ¢ÁRx§Ú´-ú≈-EÍé É≠æd-°æ-úø’- your school? rhyme with each other because they end in A. CE = Certified Ecofriendly = °æ®√u-´-®Ω-ù«-†’-èπÿ-©-
ûª’Ø√oç (Ééπ\úø ÖçúËç-ü¿’-éπçõ‰). Q. ؈’ •®˝húË îËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç ´÷ØË-¨»†’. the same sound.
Q. I had as well stay where I am.
¢Á’i-†-Cí¬ vüµ¿’Oéπ-Jç-*çC.
A. I stopped celebrating my birth day. Details = particulars = N´-®√©’
A. I had é¬ü¿’; I'd (I would) as well stay where I Q. Åûª-úÕéÀ ¢√∞¡x´’t *´J îª÷°æ¤ èπÿú≈ ü¿éπ\-™‰ü¿’. Whole refers to quantity or a group, total
am = A. He could not have even the last look at his refers to number. Whole and total are syn-
É°æ¤p-úø’ ؈’†oîÓôØË ÖçúËç-ü¿’-éÀ-≠d-°æ æ-úø’-ûª’-
mother. onyms.
Ø√o†’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 16 ÅéÓ-d-•®Ω’ 2008- Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

G. Govinda Rao, Q. The earlier producers are rich and solvent Q. The craft village
Visakhapatnam. enough to the take the failures in their stride. strikes a right
Q. Albeit
Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? äéπ ¢√é¬uEo A. §ƒûª E®√t-ûª©’ üµ¿E-èπ◊©÷, ûªT-†çûª úø•’s E©y©÷ chord.
DEE Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç* ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. Ö†o-¢√®Ω’ (solvent) Å´-úøçûÓ, ¢√®Ω’ ¢Áj°∂æ-™«u©-†’, A. Crafts village = éπ∞¡©
A. Albeit = Although/ though/ äúÕ-ü¿’-úø’-èπ◊-©†÷ ûªô’d-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’. (´·êuçí¬ îËA-°æ-†’©)
even though = Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ. Solvent = Å´-Ææ-®√-EéÀ 鬴-Lq-†çûª †í∫ü¿’ Öçúøôç. v§Úû√q£æ«ç éÓÆæç à®Ωp-®Ω-
Å®·ûË albeit ví¬çC∑éπç ´÷vûª¢Ë’ take failures in their stride = ¢Áj°∂æ-™«u-©†’ ûªô’d- *† v°æûËuéπ colony/
é¬èπ◊çú≈old fashioned. éÓ-´úøç v°æü˨¡ç.
Q. éÀçü¿ Åçúø-®˝-™„jØ˛ îËÆ œ† °æü∆-©èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ÆæJ-§ÚßË’ Q. Today, financiers diktat is the last word. The crafts village strikes the right chord = Meanwhile (meantime) = Ñ ´’üµ¿u™/
°æ®√u-ߪ’-°æ-ü∆Eo Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-TÆæ÷h ņ’-´-Cç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. A. Ñ ®ÓV† financiers üË *´J ¨»Ææ†ç. Ç crafts village v°æï™x ÆæÈ®j† ¶µ«¢√Eo/ ≤ƒ†’-èπÿ© Éçûª™.
Trend of small movies took a nosedive with Q. I have my innings for over three decades. Ææpçü¿-††’ éπL-Tç-îË-Cí¬ ÖçC. i) The meal is getting ready. Meanwhile
all and sundry jumping into the bandwagon. have some bread =
A. ´‚úø’ ü¿¨»-¶«l-©’í¬ Ø√ 鬮Ωu-éπ-™«-§ƒ©’ ≤ƒí¬®·. Strike the right chord = ÆæÈ®j† ¶µ«¢√Eo éπL-Tç- ¶µï†ç Æœü¿l¥-´’-´¤-ûÓçC.
A. Take a nosedive = bread
Q. Take objection, take exception èπ◊ ûËú≈ àN’öÀ?
üµ¿®Ω©÷, N©’-´©÷ ™«çöÀN îªúøç. Éçûª™ é¬Ææh A†’.
Q. No let-up in Olive Ridley killings. ii) I was planning to go there. In the mean-
Åéπ-≤ƒt-ûª’hí¬ N°æ-K-ûªçí¬ °æúÕ-§Ú-´úøç.
A. È®çúø÷ äéπõ‰– Ŷµºuç-ûª®Ωç ûÁ©-°æúøç/ ÇÍé ~-°œç-îªúøç.
Jump into the bandwagon = ¢Ë©ç-¢ÁvJí¬ áèπ◊\´
Q. Discussion èπ◊, Deliberation èπ◊ ûËú≈ àN’öÀ? A. Olive Ridley turtles (äéπ ®Ωéπ-¢Á’i† û√¶‰∞¡Ÿx)†’ time this happened = ؈-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞«x-©-†’-èπ◊ç-
´’çC îËÆæ’h†o °æE-E ´’†´‚ îËߪ’úøç, Å™«çöÀ Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. ¢Ëö«úÕ îªç°æ-ôç™ áúø-ûÁ-J°œ ™‰-ü¿’ (Åúøfç ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ô’Ø√o. Éçûª™ ÉC ïJ-TçC.
í∫’ç°æ¤™ äéπ-®Ω-´úøç, ¢√J-ûÓ-§ƒô’ ´’†´‚ Ê°®Ω’ Q. 'To' Preposition Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’-öÀ?
A. Discussion = Ωa. ≤ƒí∫’-ûª÷ØË ÖçC).
Q. Beware of BJP bid to polarise society.
§ÒçüËç-ü¿’-éÓÆæç.
Deliberation = ã E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’èπ◊ØË ´·çü¿’ ñ«ví∫- Let's drink to the health of our respected
AP politicians are eager to jump into the pro
A. Ææ´÷-ñ«Eo °æ®Ω-Ææp®Ω ´uA-Í®éπ ´®√_-©’í¬ <™‰a/ Núø-DÊÆ foreign guests
Telengana bandwagon =
ûªhí¬ Ç™-*ç-îªúøç. Åçõ‰?
BJP v°æߪ’-û√o© N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ ÖçúøçúÕ.
ûÁ©çí¬ù ¢Ë®√p-ô’†’
AP
Ææ´’-JnçîË ¢√J™ îËJ-§Ú-¢√-©E ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ’-¢√-ü¿’©’ If more than one person A. To èπ◊ î√-™« Å®√n-©’-Ø√o®·. Let's drink to the
ûª£æ«-ûª-£æ«-™«-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. (ãô’x/ ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ’©Gl¥ éÓÆæç). deliberate,
ã N≠æߪ’ç O’ü¿ A. Penchalaiah, Rajampet. health of - Ééπ\úø, to éÀ Å®Ωnç, 'éÓÆæç— ÅE.
Å®·ûË O’®Ω’ Öü¿£æ«Jç-*† ¢√éπuç™ jump into the E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’èπ◊ØË ´·çü¿’ Q. Please clarify the following
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 509
(Çߪ’† Ç®Óí∫uç éÓÆæç).
bandwagon ¢√úøéπç ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. Jump into the Åçü¿®Ω÷ éπLÆœ Ç™-*ç-îªúøç doubts. Q. 'According to' èπ◊ Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’öÀ?
(deliberate).
bandwagon ´·êuçí¬
A. According to Åçõ‰,

I wish I spoke per fect E nglish
´’†’-≠æfl© N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ØË
¢√úøû√ç, O’ sentence v°æ鬮Ωç ÅE. ÉC äéπ
phrase; to èπ◊ v°æûËu-éπ-
™™« *†o ûª®Ω£æ… ÆœE-´÷-
©èπ◊ é¬èπ◊çú≈. ¢Á’i† Å®Ωnç àO’-™‰ü¿’.
With the formation of PRP, a number of TDP
Q. The admirer sang paens about the C. Swetha, Railwaykodur.
leaders and members have jumped into the éÀç-C -¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®√n©’ ûÁ©’-
actor. Q.
bandwagon= PRP TDP
à®√pô’ûÓ î√™«-´’çC °æ¤ûª÷ Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-L-´yí∫-©®Ω’. Ææ÷dúÁç-ö¸qE v°æ¨¡o©’ ÅúÕ-T-†-°æ¤púø’ Ñ v°æ¨¡oèπ◊
A. §ƒô-©ûÓ §Òí∫-úøôç (sing paeans) 1. I am having tea now = džq®˝ îÁÊ°p-¢√∞¡Ÿx îËûª’©’ °jÈé-ûªhçúÕ ÅØË-ô-°æ¤púø’ rise
Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊©÷, Ææ-¶µº’u©÷, Åçü¿’™ N’í∫-û√-¢√-J-ûÓ-§ƒô’
îËJ-§Ú-ߪ÷®Ω’. Q. He exhibited all his poetical reper- 2. Neither of my sisters is married. your hands Åçö«®Ω’. îËûª’©’ CçîªçúÕ ÅØË-ô-°æ¤púø’
toire. 3. Neither of them has a car. put down hands ņúøç éπÈ®-ÍédØ√?
Q. B.J.P. not apologetic about Hindutva.
A. Repertoire (J°æö«y) = Repertory = 4. Neither of us saw it happen. A. 1. Rise your hands ņç- Raise your hands
A. £œ«çü¿÷ûªy Æœü∆l¥çûª N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ BJP ™ °æ¨»a-û√h°æ
üµÓ®ΩùÀ/ ûª°æ¤p î˨»ç, éπ~N’ç-îªçúÕ ÅØË üµÓ®ΩùÀ éπE-°œç- ã éπ∞«-é¬-®Ω’úø’/ éπ∞«-é¬-JùÀ/ éπ∞«-ÆæçÆæn v°æü¿- M.SURESAN A. 1. É°æ¤p-úø’- ؈’ öà BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’/ Åçö«ç.
îªúøç ™‰ü¿’. Jzç-îª-í∫© Ø√ôu, ÆæçUûª, Ø√ôéπ, Éûª®Ω û√í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o†’. Rise = ™‰´-úøç, E©-•-úøôç, áü¿-í∫-úøç.
Q. He debunked that astrology is a science.
éπ∞«ç-¨»-©Eo éπL°œ. Raise = (üˆo-®·Ø√) áûªh-úøç, îËûª’-™„-ûªh-úøç 鬕öÀd,
He exhibited all his poetical repertoire =
2. ´÷ Åéπ\-©’/ -îÁ-™„x-Rx-ü¿l-J™ á´-Jéà °Rx-é¬-™‰ü¿’.
A. ñuA-¨»zÆæYç, ã ¨»ÆæY-´’ØË N≠æߪ÷Eo Çߪ’† •÷ôéπç 3. Ç Éü¿ l - J ™ á´- J éà 鬮Ω ’ ™‰ ü ¿ ’ . raise your hands.
Çߪ’†èπ◊ ûÁL-Æœ† éπN-û√ç-¨»-©-Eoç-öÀE v°æü¿-Jzç-î√úø’.
-Å-E éÌöÀd-§ƒ-Í®-¨»úø’. Students rise when the teacher enters
Q. In Nair of Kerala, women reigns supreme for
4. ´÷ Éü¿ l - J ™ á´®Ω ÷ ÅC ï®Ω ’ - í ∫ ’ - û ª ’ ç- ú ø í ¬
Debunk = ÅüÓ •÷ôéπç/ Eïç-™‰-ü¿E Å´-Ê£«∞¡† class.
centuries.
îª ÷ úø -™ ‰ü¿’.
îËߪ’úøç. Q. Hardly, Scarcely, No sooner °æü∆-©†’ àßË’ Put down your hands, correct.
A. Íé®Ω-∞¡™  Ø√ߪ’®Ωx ´®Ω_ç™ ¨¡û√-¶«l-©’í¬ Æ‘Y©’ ÅCµ-é¬-
Q. The festival showcased Rajkapoor's perfor- Ææ ç ü¿ - ® √s¥ ™ x ¢√úø - û √®Ó - û Á - © ’°æ í ∫ - © ®Ω ’ . Q. N’´’tLo ™„jØ˛ v°æ鬮Ωç v°æ¨¡o-©-úø’-í∫’û√ -Å-†-ú≈-EéÀ
mance.
®√Eo «-®·ç-î√®Ω’.
O’ sentence clear í¬ ™‰ü¿’, ûª°æ¤p©’ èπÿú≈ A. Hardly/ Scarcely= 1) Å®Ω ’ - ü ¿ ’ - í ¬/ - ü ∆- ü ∆°æ ¤ ™‰ ü ¿ ’ . ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ I shall ask you questions in line
A. Ç Öûªq´ç ®√ñ¸-éπ-°æ‹®˝ †ô-††’ Çéπ-®Ω{-ùÃ-ߪ’çí¬ v°æü¿- He hardly comes here = wise ÅØ√™« ™‰ü∆ In a line wise ÅØ√™«?
ÖØ√o®·. ü∆EéÀ correct form:
Jzç-*çC. A. I will ask you questions in linewise/ in a
Among Nairs of Kerala, women have reigned Åûªúø’ Ééπ\-úÕéÀ î√™« Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ ´≤ƒhúø’.
To show case = üˆo-®·Ø√ Çéπ-®Ω{-ùÃ-ߪ’çí¬ éπ†-°æ-®Ω- linewise- É¢Ëç ņç. I shall ask you ques-
supreme for centuries He scarcely knows me =
îªúøç. tions one by one/ one after another/ by turns/
Q. 'Awara' rendered Rajkapoor a household Reign supreme = E®√-ôç-éπçí¬ §ƒLç-îªúøç. ؈-ûª-úÕéÀ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’-.
in the order of your seats, etc. Åçö«ç.
name in Soviet. äéπ ®Ωçí∫ç™ Åûªuçûª íÌ°æp-¢√-®Ω’í¬ ¢Á©’-íÌç-ü¿úøç. 2) Hardly= scarcely= No sooner... than=
By turns = ´çûª’© v°æ鬮Ωç.
A. 'Ç¢√®√— *vûªç ´‚©çí¬ Soviet Russia ™ ®√ñ¸- Balamurali Krishna reigns supreme in classi- äéπ °æE ïJU, ï®Ωí∫éπ´·çüË/ ïJ-T† ¢ÁçôØË.
In the order of - Ç ´®Ω’-Ææ™ .
éπ-°æ‹®˝ Ê°®Ω’ ÉçöÀçö« ¢√úË/ NE-°œçîË ´÷õ„j- cal music = ¨»Æ‘Yߪ’ ÆæçU-ûªç™ ¶«©´·®Ω-S-éπ%≠æg Hardly/ scarcely did he see/ had he seen the
§Ú-®·çC. Åûªuçûª íÌ°æp. police when he ran away= No sooner did he Q. E†’o °æK-éπ~™ °∂®·™¸ îË≤ƒh ņ-ú≈Eo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™
Q. Artists are run- of- the- mill type. Q. MLA has espoused the cause of Pulichintala see/ had he seen the police than he ran away ᙫ ÅØ√L?
A. Åçü¿’-™E éπ∞«-é¬-®Ω’©’ î√™« ´÷´‚©’ †ô-††’ project. = Åûªúø’ §ÚM-Ææ’†’ îª÷Æ‘/ îª÷úø-í¬ØË/ îª÷Æœ† A. I will fail you.
v°æü¿-Jzç-î√®Ω’. A. Espouse a cause = äéπ Ǩ¡-ߪ÷-EéÀ °æ‹Jh ´’ü¿l- ¢ÁçôØË, §ƒJ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. Q. 'éÌçúø-í∫’®Ω’h— DEo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  à´’ç-ö«®Ω’? Nü∆u-®Ω’n-
Run-of-the-mill = NP-≠dû æ ª àO’-™‰E î√™« ´÷´‚- A-´yúøç/ äéπ ÖüËl-¨»-EéÀ ¶«Ææ-ôí¬ Öçúøôç. Q. éÀç-C -¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ Å®√n©’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. ©èπ◊ §ƒ®∏Ωç îÁÊ°p-ô-°æ¤púø’ Ñ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo í∫’®Ω’h-°-ô’d-
™„j†. Å®·ûË ÉC ´’†’-≠æfl-©èπ◊ (Ééπ\úø éπ∞«-é¬-®Ω’©èπ◊ Q. The company is gearing up for expansion A. 1) I wish I spoke perfect English = éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ äéπ éÌçúø-í∫’®Ω’h ÖçC ÅE îÁ•’-ûª’çö«ç
™«í¬) ¢√úø®Ω’. éπ∞«-é¬-®Ω’© v°æü¿-®Ωz† éπü∑¿©÷, *vû√©’, (Éçü¿’™ 'gear' ņo °æü∆-EéÀ ¢Á÷ö«®Ω’ ¢√£æ«-Ø√™x ؈’ îªéπ\öÀ ÉçTx≠ˇ ´÷ö«x-úÕûË áçûª ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC. éπü∆.
Ø√ô-é¬-™«xç-öÀN éÌûªhü¿†ç àO’-™‰éπ á°æ¤púø÷ îª÷ÊÆ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-TçîË gear °æü∆-Eéà ¢√úø-éπç™ ≤ƒ®Ω÷°æuç 2) If only I was/ were better looking = A. éÌçúø-í∫’®Ω’h = Landmark - àüÁjØ√ îÓô’/ É©’x
™«çöÀ-Ní¬ Öçõ‰, ¢√öÀE run-of-the mill Åçö«ç. Öçü∆?) ØËEç-éÌçîÁç Åçü¿çí¬ Öçõ‰...! áéπ\-úø’çüÓ ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊, ¢√öÀéÀ ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬ ÖçúË
Q. Viswanath, the person betrays no vestige of A. Ç ÆæçÆæn ûª† ÅGµ-´%-Cl¥éÀ ÆæçÆœ-ü¿l¥-´’-´¤-ûÓçC. (gear- v°æ´·-ê-¢Á’i† v°æü˨¡ç.
sterling success. ing up) G. Naresh, Armoor. Cinema Halls, Colleges, Govt. Offices,
A. ´uéÀhí¬ N¨¡y-Ø√-ü∑˛™  Çߪ’† ≤ƒCµç-*† íÌ°æp Q. We are meandering aimlessly in lawns. Q. Whether, Meanwhile
°æü∆© Å®√n©’ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰Æœ, temples - landmarks
É´Fo í¬ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø-
Nï-ߪ÷© *£æ…o-™‰N éπE-°œç-¤ (Åçõ‰ Çߪ’† Åçûª A. à í∫´’u´‚ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ áô’-•-úÕûË Å™« A®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’Ø√oç. sentence formation
™ OöÀE à N-üµ¿çí¬ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷- û√®·.
(Lawns = °ü¿l °ü¿l ¶µº´-Ø√© ´·çü¿’ Åçü¿ç éÓÆæç
Eí∫Jy ÅE) T-≤ƒh¢Á÷ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. §ƒ®∏Ωu N≠æ-ߪ÷™x àüÁjØ√ í∫’®Ω’hç--èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊
betray = (Ééπ\úø) v°æü¿-Jzç-îªúøç, ûÁLÊ° éÌçúø-í∫’®Ω’h ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ landmark ¢√úøç.
°çîË °æ*a-í∫úÕf plots) A. Whether Åçõ‰, Å´¤Ø√, é¬ü∆ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ
vestige = Å´-¨Ï≠æç. sterling = íÌ°æp.
Q. Vizag vignettes. ¢√úøû√ç. I will tell you something to remember these
Q. The element of art and creativity in film mak- things by=
A. Vignettes (N†uö¸) = ã ´uéÀhE, Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo ûÁLÊ° I don't know whether he is here or not =
ing, with due apologies is non-existent.
ÆæçéÀ~°æh ®Ω/ Í®ë«-*vûªç. Ééπ\úø ÖØ√oúÓ, ™‰üÓ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’. É´Fo í∫’®Ω’hç--èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ O©’í¬ ã N≠æߪ’ç
A. with due apologies = Ñ ´÷ô-©-†oç-ü¿’èπ◊ éπ~N’ç-
Vizag vignettes = ¢Ájñ«í˚èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† N≠æ-ߪ÷- Whether you like it or not you have to do it = îÁ§ƒh†’.
îªúøç, é¬F ņ-èπ◊çú≈ Öçúø-™‰†’. (éπ~´÷-°æù éÓ®Ω’ûª÷
Ñ ´÷ô-©ç-ô’Ø√o). ©†’ -ûÁ-LÊ° *vû√-©’/ ®Ωîª-†©’. Fèπ◊ †*aØ√, †îªa-éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√ †’NyC îËߪ÷-LqçüË.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 19 ÅéÓ-d-•®Ω’ 2008- Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
K.S.R., Martur, Prakasam. Q. He is not a teacher,
a) äéπ °æE îËߪ’úøç ÅØË Å®Ωnç–
Q. Be ®Ω÷§ƒ©’ (is, am, are, was, isn't he?
To walk such a long distance is not easy =
were) Å®·ü¿’. ´’J, be E éπL-°œûË A. He isn't a teacher,
Åçûª ü¿÷®Ωç †úø-´úøç Ææ’©¶µºç é¬ü¿’. isn't he? -
Ç®Ω-´¤-´¤-ûª’-Ø√o-®·-í∫ü∆, been, be b) äéπ °æE îËߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ (purpose) ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.
Åûªúø’
öÃîªÍ®ç é¬ü¿’-í∫ü∆?
He came here to see me = ††’o îª÷ÊÆç-
®Ω÷°æç áçü¿’èπ◊ é¬ü¿’?
A. be ®Ω÷§ƒ©’, am, is, are, was, ņúøç.
Q. Scarcely had the
ü¿’èπ◊ Åûª-úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ´î√aúø’.
were, ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈, 'be' *´-®Ω-
c) äéπ °æE îËߪ÷-©ØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. game started when
´îËa verbs- shall be, will be, I want to go home = ØËEç-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞«x-©E ņ’-
should be, would be, can be, could be, may be, it began to rain. Ministers are bound to serve the public =
might be, must be, ought be, dare be, need be-
èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o. A. Çô ¢Á·ü¿-©®‚ Å´-í¬ØË ´®Ω{ç v§ƒ®Ω綵ºç Å®·çC. ´’çvûª’©’ v°æñ«-ÊÆ-´èπ◊ •ü¿’l¥™„j ÖØ√o®Ω’.
Éçé¬ been verbs- have been, has
*´-®Ω-´îËa È®çúÓ non-finite verb- '...ing' form- going, Q. No sooner had he heard the news than he Be liable to = ïJÍí Å´-鬨¡ç Öçúøôç, ûª°æpéπ
been, had been, shall/ should/ will/ would/ can/ coming, etc. started off. ï®Ωí∫-úøç.
could/ may/ might have been. '...ing' form èπ◊, infinitive èπ◊ ™«Íí äéπ °æE A. Ç ¢√®Ωh N†o ¢ÁçôØË Åûªúø’ •ßª’-©’-üË-®√úø’. a) He is liable to go there = -Å-ûª-úøéπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞Ïx
Been- be ®Ω÷°æ¢Ë’, é¬E ÅC verb é¬ü¿’. îËߪ’úøç ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. Q. Hardly had I finished the work when the pic- Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC.
Q. I have heard about her. I have heard of her - Walking the distance is not easy = Ç ture started. b) They are liable to be punished if they cross
OöÀ-´’üµ¿u ûËú≈ àN’öÀ? ü¿÷®Ωç †úø-´úøç ûËLÍéç é¬ü¿’ = To walk the A. Ø√ °æE °æ‹®Ωh®‚ Å´-í¬ØË/ Å®·† ¢ÁçôØË *vûªç limits =
¢√∞¡Ÿx £æ«ü¿’l-O’-JûË ûª°æpéπ Péπ~-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC.
distance is not easy.
A. I have heard about her = I have heard of her. ¢Á·ü¿-©-®·çC.  be apt to =
Å´-鬨¡ç Öçúøôç.
'...ing' form èπ◊ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç, äéπ °æE îËÆæ÷h, äéπ
Q. Absolute Phrase (Ŷ¸-Ææ-©÷uö¸ vÊ°∂ñ ¸) Åçõ‰ Q. Barely had I gone there when he went out. He is apt to come here any moment (Åûªúø’ à
àN’öÀ? á°æ¤púø’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T≤ƒhç? °æE îËÆæ’hç-úøí¬. A. ؈-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢ÁSx¢Á-∞¡x-èπ◊ç-ú≈ØË/ ¢Á∞¡x-í¬ØË Åûªúø’ ¢ÁRx-§Ú- éπ~-ù«†o®·Ø√ ®√´îª’a – ´îËa Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC)
Walking along the street, I ran into my  Be on the point of = ã °æE îËߪ’-¶ûª÷ Öçúøôç.
A. Being a holiday, I did not go to school that day ߪ÷úø’.
friend = Road ¢Áç•úÕ †úø’Ææ÷h/ †úø’-Ææ÷hç-úøí¬ He was on the point of buying the car when I
= Ñ sentence Being a holiday
™, ÅØËC Q. I can wait unless and until he come.
absolute phrase.
ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ Ø√ ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’úÕo
A. Ñ sentence èπ◊ Å®Ωnç ™‰ü¿’. stopped him = Åûªúø’ car é̆-¶ûª÷ Öçúøí¬
English ™ á°æ¤púø÷, à phrase Å®·Ø√, ü∆EéÀ
îª÷¨»†’.
3) ´‚úÓ non finite verb, (Åûªúø’ ´ÊÆh-ØË-é¬F, ´îËaç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ØË-†’ -Ç-§ƒ†’.
ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬ Ö†o-ü∆Eo í∫’Jç* îÁ°æ¤hçC. (Phrase = A ؈’ -wait í∫-©-†’ É™« ņç Q. How do we use the following modal idioms in
group of words without a verb). Ééπ\úø Being
Past Participle- seen, -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 510 éπü∆? Åûªúø’ ´ÊÆhØË é¬F ؈’ conversation. Do give telugu translations
a holiday ÅØË phrase, also. Had as well, had

I am bound to go ther e
I éÀ ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬ ÖçC. Åçü¿’- best, can't help, can't
´©x ü∆EéÀ Being a hol- bear, can't stand, must
iday, I Åçõ‰, ؈’ ÂÆ©¢Áj- needs, may as well, can't
†ç-ü¿’-´©x ÅØË N°æ-K-û√®Ωnç help but, can't make noth-
´Ææ’hçC. É™« ü¿í∫_-®Ω’†o ing of, can you beat it, will
taken, given, etc. be able to, may be able to, should be able to,
subject èπ◊ Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰E phrase †’ absolute
Å®Ωnç: îª÷úø-•-úÕ†, wait îËߪ’†’ Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç ®√ü¿’
phrase Åçö«ç. So,
BÆæ’-éÓ-•-úÕ†, É´y-•-úÕ† ÅE. éπü∆. Åûªúø’ ´îËaçûª´-®Ωèπ◊ (until would be able to, might be able to, would
The man seen at the book store have been able to
Being a holiday, I did not go to school that he comes) ؈’ wait îËߪ’-™‰†’
day- wrong. correct form,
DEéÀ is my neighbour = Book store ™ Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫©ç.) A. Had as well, had best expression
ÅØË ™‰ü¿’.
That day being a holiday, I did not go to
îª÷úø-•-úÕ† Çߪ’† (´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’– Q. We can't wipe out this evil unless had best •ü¿’©’ had better áèπ◊\´ ¢√úø’éπ.
school-Ééπ\úøthat day being a holiday = Ç Book store ™ éπE-°œç-*† Çߪ’†) ´÷ and until the individual thinks so. á´-J-ÈéjØ√ Ææ©£æ…, Ææ÷îª-†-L-îËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç.
°æéÀ\ç-ö«-ߪ’†. A. v°æA-´uéÃh ™‰ü¿’ ņ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ûª-´-®Ωèπÿ, ņ’- You had better start now = O’J-°æ¤úø’ •ßª’-©’-
M.SURESAN
®ÓV ÂÆ©¢Áj†çü¿’-´©x.
Q. Finite, non finite verbs Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? ¢√öÀE Ö°æ- The stone thrown by the boy = èπ◊ç-õ‰ØË ûª°æp, ´’†ç Ñ üÓ≥ƒEo E®Ω÷t- üË-®Ωúøç ´’ç*C.
ßÁ÷-TçîË Ææçü¿-®√s¥©’ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. Ç °œ™«xúÕ îËûª NÆæ-®Ω-•úøf ®√®·. – ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’– Lç-‰ç.  can't help = ûª°æpü¿’.
A. Finite verbs Öçõ‰ØË, complete meaning ÖçúË Åûªúø’ NÆœ-J† ®√®·. Q. They were asked to maintain sanitation fail- If you want good education, you can't help
group of words, sentence Å´¤-ûª’çC. ÉO finite and non finite verbs. ing which action would be initiated against spending money = ´’ç* îªü¿’´¤ 鬢√-©çõ‰ úø•’s
Finite verbs í∫’Jç* Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ îÁ§ƒpç, Q. I brought it for him. Indirect object èπ◊ ´·çü¿’ them. (How do we use the phrase failing ê®Ω’a °ôdéπ ûª°æpü¿’.
´’Sx ÉçéÓ-≤ƒJ N´-J-Ææ’hØ√oç. ÉN 6 ®Ω÷§ƒ™x preposition ¢√úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’. ´’J Ñ ¢√éπuç éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? which)  can't bear = ¶µºJç-îª-™‰-éπ-§Ú-´úøç = can't stand
A. Indirect object èπ◊ ´·çü¿’ preposition ®√èπÿ-úø- A. We can't bear the heat of Vijayawada in sum-
(forms) Öçö«®·. °æJ-¨¡Ÿ-v¶µºûª §ƒöÀç-î√-©E ¢√∞¡Ÿx îÁ°æp-•-ú≈f®Ω’. Åçü¿’™
mer = We
Nï-ߪ’-¢√-úø™ ¢ËÆæN áçúø ¶µºJç-‰ç =
1) Be forms (°j† ûÁL§ƒç éπü∆? ÅN.) ü¿ØËç ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆? (§ƒJ-¨¡Ÿü¿l¥ uç §ƒöÀç-îª-úøç™) ¢√∞¡Ÿx N°∂æ-©-´’-®·ûË
(failing which) éπJ∏† Ωu©’ ¢√JO’ü¿ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îª- can't stand the heat ...
2) Be form + ... ing form- am going, is tak- I sold the book to Harish - Ééπ\úø Harish,
 must needs = ûª°æpéπ – He must needs come
ing, has been doing, should have been com- Indirect object éπü∆? ü∆E-´·çü¿’ to ÅØË prep •-úø-û√®·.
Q. In 50 n.p., 60 n.p, - here n.p. stands for? here =
ing, etc. ´≤ÚhçC éπü∆? Å®·ûË, It Indirect object í¬ Ö†o- Åûª-úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ®√éπ ûª°æpü¿’.
A. np = Naye paise, É°æ¤púø’ OöÀØË Â°j≤ƒ (singular),  May as well-
3) Be form + Past Participle- am seen, is °æ¤púø’ ´÷vûªç Sub + Verb + Direct object + áç°œéπ ûÁ©-°æúøç– (ÅC îËÊÆ •ü¿’©’,
Prep + Object of the prep- pattern ®√ü¿’. paise (plural)
ÉC îÁßÁ·ua éπü∆ ÅØË Å®Ωnç.)
done, will be given, would have been com- Åçô’Ø√oç. ü˨¡ç™ Åù«©’, °jÆæ©’ Instead of going to a cinema, you may as well
pleted etc. I sold him the book- Ñ sentence ™, (Å°æpöÀ °æü¿l¥A v°æ鬮Ωç, äéπ ®Ω÷§ƒ®· = 192 watch the movie on the TV at home = Hall
éÀ
4) Have/ has/ had/ shall have/ will have, Indirect object, him †’, °jÆæ©’) BÊÆÆœ, ®Ω÷§ƒ-®·éÀ ´çü¿-°j-Ææ©’ v°æ¢Ë-¨¡-°-öÀd-†-
¢ÁRx ÆœE´÷ îª÷ÊÆ •ü¿’©’, Éçöx èπÿ®Ω’aE ™ TV
etc + Past Participle- Have seen, has done, I sold the book to him - Ééπ\úø, him †’, °æ¤úø’, éÌûªh °jÆæ-©’†’, †ßª÷ (hindi for new) paise
îª÷úÌa éπü∆?
shall have gone, etc. object of the preposition 'to' í¬ ´÷®Ω’≤ƒhç.
 Can't help but = Can't help. ´÷´‚©’í¬ can't
ÅE ´u´-£æ«-Jç-î√®Ω’. Ç ûª®√yûª, 100 °jÆæ© ™„éπ\
5) Doing words: Ist Regular Doing Word (I 'It' N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ É™« ®√ü¿’. Åçü¿’-´©x, ¶«í¬ ¢√úø-éπç-™éÀ ´î√aéπ †ßª÷ BÊÆ-¨»®Ω’.
help ÅØÓ, can't but ÅØÓ Åçö«ç, 'ûª°æpü¿’— ÅØË
RDW), IInd Regular Doing Word (IInd RDW), Q. How do we use the following semi-modals in
I brought it for him ÅØË Åçö«çé¬F, I brought
conversation. Do give telugu translations
Å®ΩnçûÓ.
Past Doing Word (PDW). him it ņç.  You can't help walking = †úø-´éπ ûª°æpü¿’ = You
also. be at a loss to, be supposed to, be
Ist RDW IInd RDW PDW Q. preposition èπ◊ ÆæÈ®j† E®Ωy-ç ûÁ©°æçúÕ. ¢√éπuç- can't but walk. ≤ƒ-üµ∆®Ω-ùçí¬ You can't help but
bound to, be liable to, be apt to, be on the
come comes came ™E Éûª®Ω °æü∆-©ûÓ Ö†o Ææç•ç-üµ∆Eo ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰ÊÆ walk ÅE, help, but éπL°œ ¢√úøç. Å®·ûË Ñ ´’üµ¿u
point of.
take takes took °æü∆Eo preposition Åçö«®Ω’. éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? íÌ°æp Ççí∫x Å¢Á’-J-éπØ˛ ®Ωîª-®·-ûª-L™« can't help but
A. In all the expressions, we can use any 'be'
I came on foot ™ on èπ◊, Éûª®Ω °æü∆-©èπ◊ à ®Ωéπ-
give gives gave
ÅE ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
form instead of 'be'.  Can't make nothing of it- ÉC ÆæÈ®j† ´÷ô é¬ü¿’.
see sees saw
¢Á’i† Ææç•çüµ¿ç ÖçC?
A. Preposition äéπ sentence ™E ´÷ô©èπ◊†o  be at a loss to (understand) = Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ- can't make anything of it ™‰ü∆ can make noth-
do does did, etc. ™‰-èπ◊ç-úøôç. ing of it ÅØ√L. Å®Ωnç– Ø√Íéç Å®Ωnç 鬴úøç ™‰ü¿’
6) Shall/ should/ will/ would/ can/ could/
Ææç•çüµ¿ç ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC.
I am at a loss to understand how he died so
may/ might/ must, etc + I RDW shall do, can
É°æ¤púø’ I came on foot- on foot ™ 'on' èπ◊ ÅE.
suddenly = Åçûª Åéπ-≤ƒt-ûª’hí¬ á™« îªE-§Ú-ߪ÷úÓ I can't make anything/ I can make nothing of
see, may talk, etc.
Å®Ωnç, †úø-éπ† ÅE. ´’† ûÁ©’-í∫’™ N¶µºéÃh
v°æûªu-ߪ÷©’, English ™ prepositions ü∆ü∆°æ¤ Ø√éπ-®Ωn-´’-´-úøç-™‰ü¿’. what he is saying = Åûª-úøç-ô’-†oC Ø√Íéç Å®Ωnç-é¬-
Ñ 6 classes of verbs ´÷vûª¢Ë’ finite verbs. äÍé Ææy¶µ«-¢√Eo éπLT Öçö«®·.  be supposed to = ņ’-éÓ-•-úøôç. ´úøç ™‰ü¿’.
Non finite verbs: ÉN Ö†o groups of words, He is supposed to be the greatest actor of  Can you beat it? DEéÀ v°æûËu-éπ-¢Á’i† Å®Ωnç àç ™‰ü¿’.
phrases ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Å´¤-û√®· ûª°æp sentences K. Ramakrishna, Ongole the day. ÑØ√öÀ ¢Ë’öÀ-†-ô’-úÕí¬ Åûªúø’ ņ’-éÓ-•-úø’- Beat Åçõ‰ ãúÕç-îªúøç ÅØË Å®Ωnç BÆæ’-èπ◊çõ‰
鬴¤. ÉN verbs éÀçü¿èπ◊ ™„éπ\èπ◊ ®√´¤. Q. What are the telugu translations to the below ûª’-Ø√oúø’ (Åûª-úÕ-E ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’) Can you beat him? Åçõ‰ †’´¤y ¢√úÕE ãúÕç-îª-
éÀçCN non-finite verbs. given sentences.  be bound to = éπ*a-ûªçí¬ àüÁjØ√ îËߪ÷Lq ®√´úøç/ í∫-©¢√ ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC.
1) The infinitive- to + Ist RDW- to go, to  Will be able to = îËߪ’-í∫-©-í∫úøç. Future ™
He is a teacher, is he? îË ÊÆ •ü¿ ’l¥-ú Õí ¬ Öçúø ô ç.
would/ should/ can/ could/ may/ might be
walk, to see, etc. A. He is a teacher, is he? - Åûªúø’ öÃîª-Í®Ø√? ÅE  I am bound to go there tomorrow = Í®°æ¤ ؈-éπ\-
Infinitive èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ´‚úø-®√n-©’-Ø√o®·. úÕé À éπ*a-û ªç í¬ ¢Á∞ «xL. able to - OöÀéÀ Lesson No. 35 - 38 îª÷úøçúÕ.
´uçí∫uçí¬ Åúø-í∫úøç.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 21 ÅéÓ-d-•®Ω’ 2008- Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Vasoo: Hi Swapna, finished your assignment?
ject O’ü¿ °æE-îË-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. Çߪ’† ü¿í∫_®Ω éÌEo 1) To be on the job =
(Ææy-§ƒo ÅÂÆj-Ø˛-¢Á’ç--ö¸ °æ‹®Ωh-®·uçü∆?) °æ¤Ææh-鬩’Ø√oߪ’E îÁ§ƒpúø’. ÅN Fèπ◊ Ö°æ äéπ-°æE îËÆæ÷h/ O’üË
Assignment = Nü∆u-®Ω’n-©èπ◊ §ƒ®∏√uç-¨»© O’ü¿/ ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úÌa.) Öçúøôç
ÖüÓu-í¬-©’, ´%ûª’h™x Ö†o-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊ Å°æp-Tç-*† °æE). Project = v°æù«Réπ v°æ鬮Ωç îËÊÆ °æE àüÁjØ√. (ÉC Phrasal verb
Swapna: (I'm) still on the job. How about lend- äéπ v°æù«-Ré¬ v°æ鬮Ωç F®Ω’ ´%-ü∑∆ §Úèπ◊çú≈ é¬ü¿’).
ing a hand? Sasi has promised to E©y-îË-ÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ †ü¿’-©èπ◊ ú≈u¢˛’-©†’ a) You wanted him to
help, but for some reason best known éπúøû√ç. 鬕öÀd ¢√öÀE v§ƒñ„-èπ◊d©’ Åçö«ç. clean and tidy up
to herself has been hanging back. I the house. He is on
Swapna: Then why don't you put me on to him?
did help her a lot when the going was- the job =
I am impatient to finish the assign- ¢√úÕE †’´¤y about you =
n't good for her.
°æJ-Æœn-ûª’-©’ -Å-†’-èπÿ-Lç-*-†çûª ´®Ωèπÿ
ment. I want to have it done and dust- É©’x ¨¡Ÿv¶µº-°æ-J* Ææ®Ωl-´’-Ø√o´¤. Åûª-úø’ -Ç °æE-O’üË ´’†Lo á´®Ω÷ à-O’ ņ®Ω’.
(Ç °æE O’üË ÖØ√o. é¬Ææh ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’- ed. ÖØ√oúø’. b) The going hasn't been very good for Ganguly
èπÿ-úøü∆? ¨¡P ≤ƒßª’ç îË≤ƒh-†E ´÷ô b) Don't worry. We have some of our best men
(Å®·ûË Ø√é¬-ߪ’-††’ °æJ-îªßª’ç îËߪ’¢√? and Dravid for sometime now = í∫çí∫÷-MéÃ, vü∆N-
É*açC, é¬F áçü¿’-éπØÓ ´·çü¿’èπ◊ ®√´-úøç Ñ assignment á°æ¤p-úÁ-°æ¤p-úÁ-°æ¤púø’ Å®· on the job. Your house will be completed in
ú˛èπÿ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’©’ éÌçûª-é¬-©çí¬ ¶«í¬-™‰´¤.
™‰ü¿’. ûª† °æ†’©’ ÆæJí¬_ ï®Ωí∫†°æ¤púø’ ؈’ time =
éÌçü¿®Ω’ O’ °æE-O’üË ÖØ√o®Ω’. O’ É©’x Ææé¬-©ç™ 5) To let down - to let somebody down =
§Úûª’çü∆ ÅE ÖçC Ø√èπ◊. °æ‹Jh îËÊÆ-ߪ÷- O’Í®ç ¶«üµ¿-°æ-úø-éπçúÕ. ´÷ ´’ç* °æE-¢√-∞¡x™
ûª†èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç î˨»†’). ©-†’çC.)
Vasoo: Sasi isn't the type. Some powerful rea-
îË≤ ƒh-´’†o Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç É≤ƒh-´’†o ´’ü¿lûª’ É´y-èπ◊çú≈
Vasoo: Make it tomorrow evening then uncle is °æ‹®Ωh-´¤-ûª’çC.
son must be holding her back.
E®√-¨¡-°æ-®Ω-îªúøç.
likely to be at our place then. c) I don't know why, but I feel like sleeping when
(Å™«ç-öÀC é¬ü¿’ ¨¡-P. àüÓ •©-¢Á’i† 鬮Ωùç (Å®·ûË Í® °æ¤ ≤ƒßª ’çvûªç -îË≤ƒh. ´÷ ¶«¶«®· on the job = áçü¿’éÓ -ûÁL-ߪ’-ü¿’. °æE™ Ö†o- a) promised
My friend let me down by denying his
help = Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îË≤ƒh-†E ´÷ô É*a†
ûª-†-†’ Ç°æ¤ûª÷ Öçú≈L.) ´÷ ÉçöÀ-éÌ-≤ƒhúø’). °æ¤púË Ø√èπ◊ Evü¿ §Ú¢√-©-E-°œÆæ’hç-C.
Swapna: I know too that she isn't one to let
Ø√ ÊÆo£œ « -û ª’úø’ (´÷ô E©-¶„-ô’d-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈) ††’o
Éçûª è π◊ ´·çü¿ ’ Phrasal verbs †’ í∫’Jç* éÌçûª 2) To hang back = (àü¿-®·Ø√ °æE-îË-ÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊) ¢Á†’-
down a friend in need. She must be
E®√- ¨ ¡ - ° æ - J - î √- ú ø’.-
ûÁ© ’-Æ æ ’-èπ◊Ø√oç . Phrasal verbs Åçõ‰ í∫’®Ω’hçC éπü∆? é¬-úøôç/ ÆæçüË-£œ«ç-îª-úøç. b) He let down his team down by his poor bat-
having some reason, I know. What I a) She is hanging back from
feel is she could let me know of it
äéπ verb - ü∆E ûª®√yûª, äéπ ting = îÁûªh ¶«u-öÀçí˚ îËÆ œ ûª†Â°j áçûÓ Ç¨¡©’ °ô’d-
Preposition(s) / adverb(s), signing the agreement =
èπ◊†o ûª† ïô’d†’ -Å-ûª-úø’ E®√-¨¡-°æ-J-î√-úø’.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 511
(¨¡P Å´-Ææ-®Ωç™ Ö†o ¢√∞¡x†’ ´C-™‰ÊÆ ®Ωéπç ´*a, ¢√öÀ™ äéÌ\-éπ\-ü∆E Å®√n-EéÃ, ä°æpçü¿ç O’ü¿ Ææçûªéπç îËÊÆç- c) Hope you will not let me down by not being
é¬ü¿E Ø√èπÿ ûÁ©’Ææ’. àüÓ é¬®Ωùç ÖçúÕ Öçú≈-©E ¢√öÀE éπL°œûË ´îËa ¢Á·ûªhç Å®√n-Eéà ü¿’èπ◊ Ç¢Á’ ¢Á†’-é¬-úø’-ûÓçC. present at the voting. I am counting on your
èπÿú≈ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. ؈’-
vote = -ã-öÀçí˚èπ◊ ®√´-úøç

I am still on the job
Å-ØËC àN’-ôçõ‰ ÅüËüÓ Ø√èπ◊
îÁ§Òp-a éπü∆ ÅE). ´÷E ††’o E®√-¨¡-°æ®Ω-îªèπ◊. F
Vasoo: I think she works
ãô’ O’ü¿ØË ØË-†’ -Çüµ∆®Ω-
for a firm that
°æ-úø’-ûª ’Ø√o.
6) To put (somebody)
keeps her busy.
on to (somebody
She moves about a lot too because of Phrasal b) The other students rushed ahead
else) =
à-O’ Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰éπ-§ÚûË ü∆Eo
her job. to see the VIP, but he hung back,
verb Åçö«ç. äéπ-J-E ÉçéÌ-éπ-JéÀ
( watching what would happen =
ûª†’ °æE îËÊÆ éπç°-F ûª-†-ØÁ°æ¤púø÷ BJéπ eg: to put out = (Lights, ´’çô©’ °æJ-îªßª’ç îËߪ’-úøç.
a) I don't have what you need, but I can put you
™‰èπ◊çú≈ Öç-ûª’çC. Ç °æE-´©x A®Ω’-í∫’úø’ ™«çöÀN) -ÇÍ®p-ߪ’-úøç îª÷úøçúÕ. Ééπ\úø put N’í∫û√ Nü∆u-®Ω’n-©çû√ Ç N.-â.°œ.E
on to one who can help you with it =
èπÿú≈ áèπ◊\¢Ë). Å®√n-E-éÀ-, out Å®√n-E-éÀ-, put out ¢Á·ûªhç Å®√n- îª÷ö«d-EéÀ áí∫-•-úÕûË, Åûªúø’ ´÷vûªç àç
firm = company. Eéà Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆. 鬕öÀd put out- ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çüÓ îª÷ÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢Á†-èπ◊ç-úÕ- F éπ´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’içC Ø√ ü¿í∫_-®Ω -™‰ü¿’, é¬F Fé¬ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç
Swapna: Well, she can tell me of it. You know Å-ØË-C phrasal verb. Ñ Lesson ™ éÌEo §Ú-ߪ÷úø’.- îËߪ’-í∫© ´uéÀhE °æJ-îªßª’ç îËߪ’-í∫-©†’.
M.SURESAN b) If you can do it, do it don't put me onto any-
very well the kind of help I need from phrasal verbs îª÷ü∆lç. 3) To hold back = Ç°æ-úøç/
one else =
her, I can have only from her. She has Look at the following sentences from the con- Çí∫-úøç (îËߪ÷-©-†’-èπ◊†o °æEE/ îÁ§ƒp-©-†’-èπ◊†o N≠æ-
the information I need. versation above. ߪ÷Eo îËߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ îÁ°æp-èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç). †’´¤y îËߪ’-í∫-L-TûËØË îË®·. ÅçûË-é¬E ÉçÈé-´J
a) I was about to tell her the secret but held back
(ÅC Ø√ûÓ îÁ§Òp-a-éπü∆? ûª†’ Ø√èπ◊ 1) I am still on the job.
ü¿í∫_®Ωéà ††’o °æç°æèπ◊.
in the last minute = Ç¢Á’èπ◊ Ø√ ®Ω£æ«Ææuç îÁÊ°p-ߪ÷- 7) Done and dusted = °æ‹Jh-îË-Æ œ† (phrasal verb
îËߪ’-í∫-L-T† Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç ûªØÌ-éπ\ûË îËߪ’-í∫-©- 2) For reasons best known to herself, she has
é¬-C-C - Idiom).
ü¿’/-ØË-Ø√¢Á’ ü¿í∫_Í® §Òçü¿-í∫-©†’. Ø√é¬\-¢√- been hanging back. ©-†’-èπ◊-Ø√o-†’-í¬F, *´J éπ~ùç™ ÇÊ°-¨»†’.
b) What's holding you back? why don't you join a) Here is my Spoken English lesson for the
Lq† Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç ûª† ü¿í∫_Í® ÖçC.) 3) ... some powerful reason must be holding her
us for the picnic = Newspaper, done and dusted =
Vasoo: You are wrong there. I forgot to tell you. back. à 鬮Ω-ùç-´©x †’¢√y-T-§Ú-ûª’- -¢√®√h°æ-vAéπèπ◊
Spoken English lesson
My uncle works on the same project. He
®√ߪ÷-Lq† ÉCíÓ,
4) I did help her a lot when the going wasn't Ø√o¢˛? ´÷ûÓ °œéÀoé˙èπ◊ -áç-ü¿’èπ◊ ®√èπÿ-úøü¿’?
told me yesterday he has some books 4) Good Going = °æJ-Æ œn-ûª’©’ ņ’-èπÿ-Lç-îª-úøç/
°æ‹®Ωh-®·§Ú-®·çC.
good for her.
on the subject. I'm sure they can be of b) They brought all the furniture, done and dust-
5) She isn't the one to let down a friend in need. äéπ °æE ¶«í¬ îËߪ’úøç. Å®·ûË Going is good ed =
help to you. ¢Á·ûªhç °∂æ-Ko-˝ °æ‹JhîËÆœ ¢√∞¡Ÿx BÆæ’-éÌ-î√a®Ω’.
6) Why don't you put me on to him. Åçõ‰ °æJ-Æ œn-ûª’©†’èπÿLç-îª-úøç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ
ÉC É°æ¤p-úÕ°æ¤p-úø’ áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√úø’-éπ-™éÀ ´Ææ’h†o ´÷ô.
7) I want to have it done and dusted.
(Åéπ\úË §Ò®Ω-•-úø’-ûª’Ø√o´¤ †’´¤y. Fèπ◊ îÁ°æpúøç ¢√úøû√ç.
´’Ja-§Úߪ÷. ´÷ ¶«¶«®· èπÿú≈ ÉüË pro- practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
a) So long as the going is good, none complains

N. Sashi, Hyderabad. sentences, please explain them in detail °æ-´®˝ -¢Ë’-ØË-ñ¸-¢Á’ç-ö¸-™ -
with examples.
°æçñ«¶¸ -N-¨¡y-N-ü∆u-©-ߪ’ç
Q. Have had / has had áç.-G.-á.
A. The first two sentence are not passive,
Ñ
°æü∆-©†’ á°æ¤púø’, áéπ\úø ᙫ though the verbs there are, be forms+pp.
´’£æ«J{ ü¿ßª÷-†çü˛ N¨¡y- îªçúŒ-í∫-úµ˛-™E °æçñ«¶¸ N¨¡y-N-ü∆u-©ßª’ç, ߪ‚E-´-JqöÃ
¢√ú≈™ Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´- In sentence 1, 'gone' talks about his state
N-ü∆u-©-ߪ÷-EéÀ ņ’-•ç-üµ¿çí¬ Ö†o £æ«®√u-Ø√-™E ØË≠æ- G>-ØÁÆˇ Ææ÷\™¸ áç.G.-á.(-â.G., £«î˝.-Ç®˝., •ßÁ÷-
Å®Ω|-ûª©’ : 1. áç.G.-á.(-•-ßÁ÷-õ„é˙) éÓ®Ω’qèπ◊: •ßÁ÷
õ„-é˙)™ v°æ¢Ë¨¡ç éÓÆæç ü¿®Ω-ë«-Ææ’h©’ Ç£æ…y-Eç-*çC.
of being 'gone'
Jç-îªçúÕ. (¢ÁRx-†-¢√úÁj ÖØ√oúø’). †™¸ °æ´®˝ wõ„jEçí˚ ÉØ˛-Æœd-ô÷uö¸ 'áç.G.á. v§Úví¬¢˛’
A. Have had/ has had = have
In prepared talks about preparedness
2) ÉØ˛ °æ´®˝ ¢Ë’ØË-ñ ¸-¢Á’ç-ö¸—- éÓ-®Ω’q™ v°æ¢Ë-¨»-EéÀ
/ has + past partici-
-ÂÆj-ØÁq-Æˇ™ úÕvU ™‰ü∆ °œ.>.-úÕvU™ éπFÆæç 50
active voice
ü¿®Ω-ë«-Ææ’h©’ Ç£æ…y-Eç-*çC.
áç°œéπ : †´ç-•®˝ 16† ïJÍí é¬uö¸–2008 °æKéπ~ -
ple of have =
(Æœü¿l¥-°æúÕ ÖØ√oúø’). OöÀ È®ç-úÕçöÀéà ¨»ûªç ´÷®Ω’\©’ ®√¢√L.
try (They prepare) him
Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ äéπ îËߪ’çúÕ, ®√´¤.
´Ææ’h´¤ ´’†-èπ◊ç-úøôç/ í∫ûªç™ á°æ¤púÓ ûÁL-ߪ’E ≤Ú\®Ω’ ü∆y®√ áç°œéπ îË≤ƒh®Ω’. 2.áç.G.á.(£«î˝.-Ç®˝, Éûª®Ω éÓ®Ω’q-©èπ◊) : éπFÆæç 50
Å®Ω|-ûª©’ : G.É. ™‰éπ ûªûªq-´÷† °æK-éπ~™ ÅEo ÂÆN’-
®√´îª’a., é¬F ÉüË Å®Ωnç ®√ü¿’.) ¨»ûªç ´÷®Ω’\-©ûÓ úÕvU ™‰éπ ûªûªq-´÷† éÓ®Ω’q îËÆœ
Æ洒ߪ’ç™ Öçúøôç.
a) I have had this car for 3 years now =
3) and 4) are passive sentences.
áç°œéπ : †´ç-•®˝ 16, 2008† ïJÍí é¬uö¸ °æKéπ~
Ææd-®˝q™ Ææí∫-ô’† éπFÆæç 60 ¨»ûªç ´÷®Ω’\- Öçú≈L.
Ñ é¬®Ω’ Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω ´‚úË-∞¡Ÿxí¬ ÖçC.- ©’ç-ú≈L.
b) He has had this fever since yesterday = Åûª- A. Penchalaiah, Rajampet ü¿®Ω-ë«Ææ’h : v§ƒÂÆp-éπdÆˇ, Å°œx-Íé-≠æØ˛ §ÚÆæ’d ü∆y®√ éÓ®Ω’- ü¿®Ω-ë«Ææ’h : v§ƒÂÆp-éπdÆˇ, ü¿®Ω-ë«Ææ’h §∂ƒ®√-©†’ ¢Á¶¸-ÂÆjö¸
≤Ú\®Ω’ Çüµ∆-®Ωçí¬ áç°œéπ îË≤ƒh®Ω’.
úÕéÀ E†oöÀ †’ç* ïy®Ωçí¬ ÖçC. Q. éÀçC¢√-öÀ-E N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. èπ◊çõ‰ ®Ω÷.1000©èπ◊ National Power
c) She has had coffee already and doesn't
 I will have none of you. Training Institute, Faridabad Ê°®Ω’°j
†’ç* úˆØ˛-™ú˛ îËÆæ’-éÓ-´îª’a. Éûª®Ω N´-®√-
want any more = Ç¢Á’ 鬰∂‘ BÆæ’-èπ◊çC, ÉçÍéO’ ©èπ◊ ¢Á¶¸-ÂÆjö¸ www.ubs.puchd.ac
I will have none of you = O’È®-´®Ω÷ Ø√éÌü¿’l. úÕ.úÕ.- BÆœ N†-A-°ævûªç ïûª-îËÆœ °æ秃L.
Åéπ\-Í®xü¿’. ¢Á¶¸-ÂÆjö¸ www.ntpi.nic.in †’ç* îª÷úÌa.
Å®·ûË, I will have none of it ÅØË ¢√éπuç, †’´¤y
Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-© í∫’-Jç-* -N-´-Jç-îªç-úÕ. -´·-êu-¢Á’i-† -ûË-D-©’-: 1. ü¿®Ω-ë«-Ææ’h© ñ«K:
He is gone.
îÁÊ°püËO’ ؈’ N†-ü¿-©’--éÓ-™‰ü¿’ ÅØË Å®√n-Eo- èπÿú≈ úˆØ˛-™ú˛ îËÆæ’-éÓ-´îª’a. ÅéÓd-•®˝ 15 †’ç* †´ç-•®˝ 15 ´®Ωèπ◊.
He is prepared.
Ææ’hçC. -´·-êu-¢Á’i-† -ûË-D-©’-: -ü¿®Ω-ë«Ææ’h-© -ñ«-K:

2) ü¿®Ω-ë«-Ææ’h© Æ‘yéπ-®Ω-ùèπ◊ *´J ûËD: †´ç-•®˝ 15.
Be off. Be off = get out.
Questions are given.
-ÅéÓd-•®˝ 1 -†’ç-* -v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº-¢Á’iç-C. *®Ω’-Ø√´÷: Chairman, University Business
 To go by to go by = to go according
The box is broken. -Å°œx-Íé-≠æ†x Æ‘yéπ-®Ω-ùèπ◊ *´JûËD : 2009 School,
to something. I go by what you say =
The above four sentences are passive sen- °∂œv•-´J 23. Panjab University,
Chandigarh-160014
tences or not? If they are not passive voice
†’´¤y îÁÊ°pü∆-Eo -Å-†’-Ææ-Jç* ؈’ îË≤ƒh. ví∫÷°ˇúÕÆæ \-≠æ-Ø˛, -Éç-ô®Ω÷yu-©’: 2009 -´÷-Ja 26, 27.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 23 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

S. Sriram, Hyderabad A. 'See' has the meaning of 'meet' too. With the P. Srinivasu,
Q. By pass road †’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ meaning of 'meet' 'see' can be used in the Tatiparthi.
à´’-Ø√L? am/ is/ are + ing form. In the sentence, 'you Q. May I request you to
A.
´’Rxç°æ¤ ü∆J/ ®Ω£æ«-ü∆J ÅØÌa. are always seeing strange things', the word clarify the following
'see' has the meaning of imagining doubts. He started
Q. (Bank) Pass book †’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™
(Ü£œ«ç--
With this meaning, am/ is/ are see-
éÓ-´-úøç). to run. He started
à´’--ØÌa?
ing is used, but it is not correct. 'You always running.
A. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ÆæÈ®j† ´÷ô-™‰ü¿’. -O-öÀ -´’-üµ¿u
see strange things' is certainly better.
Q. ®√´’-ߪ ’u†’ Ramayya ÅE ûË-ú≈ -à-N’-öÀ?
One of the meanings of 'think' is, having
é¬èπ◊çú≈ Ramaiah ÅE áçü¿’èπ◊ ®√Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. 'ߪ’u— A. He started to run = He started running ´’E/ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’ç-ü¿-E îÁ°æp-úøç.
ideas, words or pictures in your mind about
èπ◊ iah ᙫ ÆæJ- §Ú-ûª’çC? (°æ®Ω’í∫’ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-î√úø’) He is going to pay the bill tomorrow= Å-ûª-úø’
something'
bill He will pay the
A. Indian names N≠æ-ߪ÷-E-éÌÊÆh, ÆæÈ®j† ¨¡¶«lEo ûÁLÊ°
(äéπ N≠æߪ’ç í∫’-Jç-* ´’†èπ◊ éπ-LÍí
'am/ is/ Q. I like to play cricket. I like playing cricket. Í®°æ¤ îÁLxç-îª-¶-ûª’-Ø√oúø’– ÉC
bill
à spelling Å®·Ø√ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC. Standard Ç™-îª-†©’, ´÷ô©’, ü¿%¨»u©’). Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ
A. I like to play cricket = I like playing cricket
are thinking' 'What are you think-
¢√úø-´îª’a. éπçõ‰ éπ*aûªç.
spelling Åçô÷ àç Öçúøü¿’.
ing?' - üËEo í∫’-Jç-* Ç™-*-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤?/ àç îÁ§ƒp-© (cricket Çúøôç Ø√éÀ-≠dçæ ) (He shall pay the bill = Åûª-úø’ G™¸ îÁLxç-î√L-
Q. ü¿Ææ®√ ÂÆpLxçí˚ 'Dussehra' éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? Order/ rule)
-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? ü∆Eo í∫’-Jç-* N≠æߪ’ç àç Öç-C In these contexts, to play = playing;
A. British §ƒ©† Å´-¨Ï≠æç Ç spelling (Dussehra). ´’†-Ææ’™ ÅØË-é¬F, †’¢Ëyç Ç™-*-Ææ’h-Ø√o-´E é¬ü¿’. Ç to start = starting. He is to pay (be form + infinitive) the bill =
Dasara Åçõ‰ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC, Cuddapah èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ Å®ΩnçûÓ 'I was just thinking it was a good idea' Åûª-úø’ bill îÁLxç-î√L/ îÁLxç-î√Lq ÖçC (Éçé¬
Kadapa ÅE -¢√-úÌ-a. - (Ç, àç ™‰ü¿’ ÅC -´’ç* Ç™-îªØË ÅE°œç-*çC P. Simhachalam, Vijayawada îÁLxç-îª-™‰ü¿’)
Ø√èπ◊) correct. Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ-™éÀ ņ’-´-Cç-îªçúÕ. He was to pay the bill = í∫ûªç™ Åûª-úø’ bill
G. Shankar, Keshavapatnam
ÂÆ©-´¤© í∫’Jç* ÅúÕ-TûË ≤ƒ®˝ à´’-Ø√o®Ω’? îÁLxç-î√Lq ÖçúÕçC (îÁLxç-î√úø’ èπÿú≈ ÅØË Å®Ωnç,
Q. What is/ are the difference between the Nagasrinivas, Chirala
A. What did the teacher say about holidays? ≤ƒüµ¿uç)
sentences which are as follow under. Q. í∫ûªç™ †’ç* Éçé¬ îËÆæ’hç-úø- Q. Éûª-®Ω’© ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷-©†’ ´’†ç Q. ÉçTx≠ˇÂ°j °æô’d ≤ƒCµç-î √-©çõ‰ ´÷ûª%-¶µ«≠æ ûÁ©’-í∫’°j
i) I don't try to speak loudly. í∫-LÍí ¢√úÕE ņ-ú≈-EéÀ could °æô’d Öçú≈-©E Åçô’-Ø√o®Ω’. Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? ņ’-
íı®Ω-Nç-î√™‰ ûª°æp, ´’† ÅGµ-v§ƒ-
ii) I try not to speak loudly. have + p.p. + ing form ¢√úø-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 512
ߪ÷-©†’ ¢√∞¡x°j ®Ω’ü¿lèπÿúøü¿’. ¢√ü¿ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ (ÉçTx≠ˇ †’ç* ûÁ©’í∫’) îªCN Å®Ωnç
A . i) Gí∫_-®Ωí¬ ´÷ö«x-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æߪ’-Aoç-’. ´î√a? A. We should only respect îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√™«? ™‰éπ-§ÚûË ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ sentence struc-
ii) Gí∫_-®Ωí¬ ´÷ö«x-úø-èπ◊çú≈ - tures practice îËÆ œ ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-

I alone can do it
ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æߪ’-Ao- ¢√™«? Sentence struc-
≤ƒh†’– È®ç-úÕçöÀéà ŮΩnç ture èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç* éÌEo
ü∆ü∆°æ¤ -äéπ-õ‰. ņ’-¢√ü¿ °æ¤Ææh鬩 Ê°®Ω’x
Q. i) I alone can do it. îÁ°æpçúÕ.
ii) I can do it alone. A. English ´îËaç-ü¿’èπ◊
A. Could have p.p. ing form others' opinions but not
A . i) ØËØÌ-éπ\-úÕØË ÅC îËߪ’-í∫-©†’ Åçõ‰ Ééπ\úø ûÁ©’í∫’ ¶«í¬ ûÁL-ߪ÷-LqçüË. ÆæçüË-£æ«ç-™‰ü¿’. áçü¿’-éπçõ‰
p.p been
Åçõ‰ Å®·-†-ôx-®·ûË ¢√úø-´îª’a. impose our opinions on
ii) ؈C äéπ\-úÕí¬ (Éûª-®Ω’© Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç ™‰èπ◊çú≈) ´’† Ç™-îª-†©’ Ææp≠ædçí¬ Öçõ‰ ´’†-¶µ«≠æ èπÿú≈ Ææp≠ædçí¬
Been p.p.
ûª°æp ÉçÍé ¢√úø-ö«-EéÀ ™‰ü¿’. them.
îËߪ’-í∫-©†’. Öçô’çC. ûÁ©’í∫’ ¶«í¬ ûÁLÆœ Öçõ‰, ¶µ«´- Ææp≠æd-ûª °®Ω’-
He could have been (p.p.) doing Q. ؈’ Ø√ @N-ûªç™ àüÁjØ√ ≤ƒCµç-î √-
Q. i) The mother loves Amitab better than me. í∫’-ûª’çC. Å°æ¤púø’ English ™ èπÿú≈ ´’†ç Ææp≠ædçí¬
it for two days now =
ii) The mother loves Amitab better than I.
Åûª-†C È®çúø’- Lq† Æ洒ߪ’ç ´*açC. îÁ°æp-í∫©ç. Structures practise îËÆœ-†çûª ´÷vû√†
®Ó-V© véÀûªç †’ç* É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊/ Éçé¬ A. The time has come when I English °j °æô’d-®√ü¿’. Sentence ™ °æü∆© Å´’-Jéπ
A . i)
should achieve something in life.
Ç ûªLx ††’o vÊ°N’ç-îËç-ü¿’-éπçõ‰ ÅN’-û√-¶¸†’
áèπ◊\´ vÊ°N’-Ææ’hçC = Ç ûªLxéÀ Ø√°j éπçõ‰ èπÿú≈
îÁߪ’u-í∫-©’í∫’ûª’ç-úË-¢√-úË (é¬E îËߪ’-™‰-éπ-§Ú- M.SURESAN (structure) É™« Öçú≈L ņ’-èπ◊E, Ç v°æ鬮Ωç (´÷ö«x-
ߪ÷úø’) Q. Å®·Ø√ éπ≥ƒd©’ ´’†èπ◊ îÁ°œp ´≤ƒhߪ÷ úË-ô°æ¤púø’) °æü∆-©†’ Å´’-®Ωaç- éπü∆? English ´÷ö«x-úøE
ÅN’-û√¶¸ O’ü¿ vÊ°´’ áèπ◊\´
ii) ÅN’-û√-¶¸†’ ؈’ vÊ°N’ç-îËçü¿’ éπØ√o Ç¢Á’ áèπ◊\´
Å®·ûË, îËߪ’-í∫-Lí¬úø’ (î˨»úø’ èπÿú≈) ÅØË Å®Ωnç àçöÀ? 鬙«-EéÀ ûªí∫_-ô’dí¬ Ææ®Ω’l-èπ◊-§Ú- ¢√∞¡x-´’üµ¿uí∫ü∆ ´’†ç Öçô’Ø√oç. Åçü¿’-éπE next best
鬢√-©çõ‰ He has been able to do it Å-Ø√-L. ´-úø¢Ë’. áçûª O©’çõ‰ Åçûª English îªü¿-´-úøç ´©x ™«¶µº-°æ-úø-
Q. í∫ûªç™ †’ç* Éçé¬ ï®Ω’-í∫’ûª÷ ÖçúËC ņ-ú≈-EéÀ A. We can't anticipate/ No knowing when we
vÊ°N’-Ææ’hçC = ÅN’-û√¶¸ °æôx Ø√èπ◊†o vÊ°´’-éπØ√o
û√ç. Grammar knowledge, structures Åçûªí¬
Ç¢Á’ vÊ°´’ áèπ◊\´.
would have + P.P. + ing form ¢√úÌî√a? face troubles. We've to get adjusted with ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úø´¤. Å´-鬨¡ç *éÀ\-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x, ûª§Úp, ä§Úp
A. Sudhakar,Peddamallareddy (Nizamabad) A. It would have been going on for sometime = them/ take them in their stride. ´÷ö«x-úË-ߪ’-úøç, O©-®·-†çûªÊÆ°æ¤ English N-†-úøç (TV
Q. newscasts) O©-®·-†çûª English îªü¿-´-úøç Öûªh-´’-
Q. You told us in the previous lessons about 'if ï®Ω’-í∫’ûª÷ ÖçúËüË é¬E ï®Ω-í∫-™‰ü¿’. ®Ω°∂æ·èπ◊ F ÂÆ™¸-§∂ÚØ˛ í∫’Jç* îÁ°æp-èπ◊çú≈ ´’ç* °æE
conditions' have no shall, will, should and It has been going on for sometime past =
î˨»´¤. ™‰éπ-§ÚûË ¶«u™„Ø˛q §∂ÚØ˛™ ¢Ëߪ’-´’E ´’† ´÷®Ω_ç.
would in them. But I have seen some sen- í∫ûªç™ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº-¢Á’i Éçé¬ ï®Ω’-í∫’ûª÷ ÖçC.
ñ‰•’©’ *©’x©’ îËÊÆ-¢√úø’. Q. ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  standard grammar books Ê°®Ω’x
tences like (a) If you will wait a moment I'll A. You did a good thing, not telling Raghu about -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’.
Q.
the cell phone. Otherwise he'd have made a
fetch a chair (b) I should be very grateful if
í∫ûªç †’ç* Éçé¬ îËߪ÷Lq ÖçúËC É™«çöÀ
expressions †’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  ᙫ ûÁ©’-°æ-´îª’a? OöÀ- A. O’èπ◊ ´’ç* Grammar books: 1) Essential
you would do that for me. Please clarify. hole in our pockets by ... (Balance phone ™ English Grammar 2) Advanced English
A. In sentences like a) If you will wait a
Íé-¢Á’iØ√ structure Öçü∆? ¢Ëߪ’-úø-´’çõ‰ Å®Ωnç 鬙‰ü¿’) Grammar by Reymond Murphy.
moment... the 'if' clause is not a conditional A. Somebody- he/ she/ they, etc, should have Q. ¶µºN-≠æuû˝ 鬙«-EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† will/ shall + infini-
Q.
been doing it-
éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ņ’-´-Cç-îªçúÕ.
clause. It is a request, and so the rule that ¢√-∞¡xC îËÆæ÷h Öçú≈-LqçC, é¬F îËߪ’- tive, be form + going to, Be about to, simple
Let me sleep over it.
will/ shall/ would/ should should not be used úøç ™‰ü¿’. present tense, present continuous tense,
in it does not apply here. In your sentences, If They must have been doing it for sometime (am, is was) be + to í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. OöÀE A. é¬ÊÆ-§ƒí∫’. ††’o é¬Ææh time BÆæ’éÓF, ü∆Eo í∫’-Jç-*
you will wait = Just wait a moment, and... if now = ¢√∞¡xC éÌçûª-é¬-©çí¬ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ îËÆæ÷h ¢√úË Ææçü¿-®√s¥-©†’ Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. E®Ωg-®·ç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊.
you would do that = please do that. So you ÖØ√o®Ω’. A. ûÁ©’-Ææ’-í∫ü∆? I/ We + shall, he/ she/ it/ they + Q. Stop kidding, and don't even joke about it.
see that not all clauses beginning with 'if' are à ´’ç* Grammar book Å®·Ø√ OöÀE N´-Jç-îª- will- Åçûª éπ*a-ûªç-é¬E ¶µºN-≠æûª’h†’ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰≤ƒh®·. A. F jokes Ç°æ¤. kidding = joke îËߪ’-úøç
conditional clauses. A conditional clause í∫-©ü¿’. I shall be here again- ØËE-éπ\úø ´’Sx Öçö« Q. Wake up, sleep head. You were no.1 not any
expresses a condition. That is, what the main (éπ*aûªç é¬ü¿’) He will go tomorrow- Í®°æ¤ ¢√úø’- more, I suppose.
Q. Éûªúø’ ™‰éπ-§ÚûË, ؈’ ÉEo ®ÓV© †’ç* Ééπ\úø Öçúø-
clause states will happen only if what the
¢Á-∞«húø’ (éπ*a-ûªç-é¬ü¿’) ÅüË I/ we + will- ´÷ö«xúË A. Sleepy head, sleep head - Sleepy head
subordinate clause (beginning with 'if' some
í∫-©’-í∫’-ûª’çõ‰ ¢√úÕE é¬ü¿’– -D-E-E -É-™« Å-ØÌî√a? é¬ü¿’
If he is no, I couldn't have been living here for
¢√∞¡x E®Ωg-ߪ÷Eo, ÖüËl-¨»Eo, ¢√∞¡Ÿx- ´÷ô É´y--ú≈Eo =
times) states happens.
Evü¿-¢Á·£æ«ç (°æ‹Jhí¬ Evü¿-´’ûª’h -†’ç* éÓ©’-éÓ-E-
such this time.
ûÁ©’°æ¤-ûª’çC. Wake up, sleepy head. You were no.1.
¢√∞¡Ÿx).
eg: If he gets the job, his mother will feel
He/ she/ it/ they + shall- orders (Çïc©’), Not any more =
happy. Here his mother will feel happy on A. ÉC ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. É™« ÅØ√L. ¢Ë’™\, Evü¿ ¢Á·£æ«´÷. äéπ-°æ¤púø’
condition that he gets the job. If you pay
E•ç-üµ¿-†©’, ´÷ô É´y--ú≈Eéà -¢√úø-û√ç. Å®·ûË, †’´¤y ØÁç.1. É°æ¤púø’ é¬ü¿’.
If he had not been here
Modern English ™ ´·êuçí¬ spoken form ™,
(Åûª-úø’ ™‰éπ-§Ú-ߪ·çõ‰), Q. Stop yapping and get the hat out of my
more, you can travel A/C = on condition that I could not have been here for such a long will ÅEoç-öÀéà ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. äéπ E•ç-üµ¿-†©’ house.
you pay more, you can travel A/C. time.
Q. Present continuous some verbs see,
™
(-ØËEç-ûª-鬩-N’éπ\úø Öçúø-í∫-LÍí¢√--úÕ-E-鬆’– ûÁ-LÊ°ç-ü¿’Íé he/ she/ it/ they shall ¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç. A. °œ*a-°œ-*aí¬ éÓ°æç ûÁ°œpç-îËô’d ¢√í∫èπ◊. §Ú, Ééπ\-úÕoç*.
shall be/ will be doing- ¶µºN-≠æu-ûª’h™  ņ’-èπ◊†o
Öçúø-í∫-L-í¬†’)
think, know, understand etc., am + is + are + (Get out)
Q. Åûª-úø’çõ‰ ؈’ îËÆæ’hçúË¢√úÕE ņ-ú≈-EéÀ If he is, I
ing form Q. Are you no nuts? This is Vijayawada.
™ ®√´¤ éπü∆. Ñ ¢√é¬u-©†’ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. would have been doing it ņ-´î√a? ã Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ, ï®Ω’-í∫’ûª÷ ÖçúË °æEéÀ -îÁ-•’-û√ç.
1. I'm seeing her tomorrow. I shall/ will be discussing this matter with
A. FÍé-´’Ø√o °œîÁa-éÀ\çü∆? ÉC Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø.
Åûªúø’ ™‰éπ-§ÚûË Øˆ’ îËߪ÷Lq ´îËaC ÅE ņ-ú≈-EéÀ him tomorrow-
2. You're always seeing something
Í®°‘ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo Åûª-úÕûÓ
ᙫ Åçö«ç? Q. If you speak another word you're fired.
strange.
îªJa-Ææ’hç-ö«†’.
A. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈, If he had been here, I would to A.
Be (am/ is/ are/ was/ were) going to do
ÉçéÓ-´÷ô ´÷ö«x-ú≈-´çõ‰ F ÖüÓuí∫ç Üúø’-ûª’çC.
3. I was just thinking it might be a good (fire = ÖüÓuí∫ç †’ç* ûÌ©-Tç-îª-úøç).
idea. have been doing it Åçö«ç. (something)= ¶µºN-≠æu-û˝™ àüÁjØ√ îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o-

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 26 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

D. Umapathi, Adilabad
A. Feminist = Æ‘Y© £æ«èπ◊\-©èπ◊ ´’ü¿lA*a, §Ú®√-úË-¢√®Ω’.  Add up = °®Ω-í∫úøç.
Q. Let me know the difference
Ghost Writer = ÉçéÌ-éπ-JéÀ àü¿-®·Ø√ ®√Æœ °õ‰d-¢√®Ω’ The amount he
between 'Surety' and 'Guarantor',
(¢√u≤ƒ©’, ví∫çü∑∆©’ ™«çöÀN) saved added upto
which words being used various
Q. O’ ņo-ü¿-´·t™x †’´¤y áØÓo-¢√-úÕN? ÅE ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  Rs. 10,000/- = ûª†’
places in finance and banking ü∆-èπ◊†o ¢Á·ûªhç 10
ᙫ Åúø-í¬L?
sectors. Is there any legal termi-
A. DEéÀ English ™ ÆæÈ®j† ´÷ô-™‰x´¤. ¢Ë©-ü∆é¬ Â°J-TçC.
nology demands to write like
Q. 'É™«í∫®·ûË á™«?—, 'éπ©-é¬©ç ´Jn©’x—. Ñ ¢√é¬u-©-†’  Add up to = ÆæÈ®j†
'Guarantor' instead of 'surety'. Please give some
鬮Ω-ù-´’-´úøç. He has- I worked in the company for a year. I can
examples with usage.
ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
A. 'If this is so, how can we get on?' n't attended classes for a week. What does it answer for the quality of their products =
A. 'Guarantor' is a general term (a non legal add up to?. He doesn't like studies=
'May you live long with all prosperity.'
¢√®Ωçí¬ Ç company ™ ؈’ äéπ àú≈C °æE-îË-¨»†’.
word) which means a person who agrees to Åûª ú ø’ classes èπ ◊ ®√´úø ç ™‰ü¿’ . 鬮Ωù ç ûÁ© ’-Ææ÷hØË
be responsible for somebody's behaviour in Q. That's why wife treats husband like toxic ¢√∞¡x ûªßª÷-K© Ø√ùu-ûªèπ◊ ؈’ °æ‹< É´y-í∫-©†’.
waste - Å®Ωnç ûÁ©’-í∫’™ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
ÖçC éπü∆? Åûª-ú Õé À îªü¿’´¤ É≠æ dç ™‰ü ¿’. 2) Ææçñ«®·≠‘ Éa-éÓ-´úøç= I am doing it on your
general or accepts the responsibility to see  Agree with = àéÃ-¶µº-Nç-îªúøç. He doesn't agree
A. Åçü¿’-éπØË ¶µ«®Ωu ¶µº®Ωh†’, N≠æ-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† ´u®Ωn °æü∆-®Ωnçí¬ advice. You have to answer for the conse-
something happens. with his father in the matter of dowry = éπôoç quences = F Ææ©£æ… ¢Ë’®Ωèπ◊ ØËF °æE-îË-Ææ’hØ√o. °∂æL-
'A 'Surety' is a legal word. It means 1) an îª÷Ææ’hçC. N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ Åûªúø’ ûª† ûªçvúÕûÓ àéÃ-¶µº-Nç-îª-úøç ™‰ü¿’.
Q. All that you can afford ..
û√-©èπ◊ FüË ¶«üµ¿uûª/ †’¢Ëy Ææçñ«-®·≠‘ Éa-éÓ-¢√L.
amount of money offered as a promise that  Aim at = ©éπ~uçí¬ Â°ô’d-éÓ-´úøç. Both Lalu and  Answer to = ï¢√-•’-ü∆-Kí¬ Öçúøôç. He answers
you will repay a debt (on your/ someone A. †’´¤y é̆-í∫-L-Tç-ü¿™«x- All that you can afford is Mayavathi are aiming at PM's office = ™«©÷, only to the Managing Director of the company
else's behalf), appear in court, etc., 2) a per- just a cycle = †’-´¤y é̆-í∫-L-Tç-ü¿™«x äéπ ÂÆjéÀ-™ ¸- ´÷ߪ÷-´B Éü¿l®Ω÷ PM °æü¿-NE ©éπ~uçí¬ Â°ô’d-èπ◊- = Ç ÆæçÆæn M.D. Íé Åûªúø’ ï¢√-•’-ü∆K.
son who takes the responsibility to repay a
 Ante up =
´÷-vûª¢Ë’. Ø√o®Ω’. If you want a good
îÁLxç-îªúøç.
debt if the debtor fails to repay the debt, Q. áØ˛-ÂÆj-éÓx-°‘-úÕߪ÷ Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ?  Allow for = °æJ-í∫-ù-†-™ éÀ BÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç. It shouldn't Engineering degree you have to ante up at
appear in court on their behalf. A. Encyclopedia = cost more than Rs.20000/- least 60 to 70 thousand rupees =
Nñ«c† ´’ç* Éç>-F-
Ææ®ΩyÆæyç. ´’†èπ◊ 鬢√Lq† à even after allowing for the
V Madhulalitha, Tadipatri recent rise in prices = üµ¿®Ω©
Jçí˚ Nü¿u 鬢√-©çõ‰, éπFÆæç 60 ¢Ë© †’ç* 70 ¢Ë©
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 513 °®Ω’-í∫’-ü¿© °æJ-í∫ù†™éÀ BÆæ’èπ◊Ø√o ´®Ωèπÿ îÁLxç-î√Lq Öçô’çC. (up the ante =
N≠æߪ’ç í∫’Jç-îª-®·Ø√ ûÁLߪ’-
Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©-†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ N´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. ñ‰ßª’í∫© °æ¤Ææhéπç. üˆo®·Ø√ °çîªúøç, ´·êuçí¬ üµ¿®Ω-©†’)
Opposition leaders
 Arrive at = äéπ îÓöÀéÀ/

I've asked them over for Deepavali
ûª´’ §ƒKd 鬮Ωu-éπ-®Ωh© îËûª äéπ Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ îË®Ωúøç.
The train arrived at
üµ¿®√o îË®·ç-î√®Ω’.
A. The opposition leaders Hyderabad at 12
had a dharna staged
noon.
by their party men.
Naga Srinivasa, Chirala. ü∆E üµ¿®Ω 20000 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©èπ◊ N’ç-îªü¿’.  Arse about = (ÉC-é¬Ææh •÷ûª’ ´÷ô) = °ü¿l©,
Q.
 Allow of = Ææ’≤ƒüµ¿uç îËߪ’úøç. The
î√™«-´’çC v°æï©’ ®√≠æçZ ™ ´’ü∆uEo EÊ≠-Cµçî√-©E
Q. éÀçC Phrasal verbs èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ÆæÈ®j† íı®Ω-´-F-ߪ·-© Ææ´’-éπ~ç™ ¢√úø-èπÿ-úø-EC – v§ƒ´·-êuç-
delay in the release of books
éÓ®Ω’-ûª’Ø√o®Ω’. ™‰E N≠æ-ߪ÷-©ûÓ Æ洒ߪ’ç ´%-ü∑∆ îËߪ’úøç.
A. A large number of people want a ban on
Å®√n-©†’ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
allows of only one reason- the He arses about talking about films.
Accord with, Account for, Account,
liquor in the state. government wants to help black
Ace out, Ache for, Act out, Act up,  Ascribe to =
äéπ-JéÀ äéπ í∫’ùç (´·êuçí¬ îÁúø’
Q. O’®Ω’ úø•’s©’ É≤ƒh-´’çõ‰ ؈’ ´≤ƒh†’. ™‰ü¿çõ‰ marketeers. = §ƒ®∏Ωu°æ¤Ææh-鬩 Núø’-ü¿-
Add up, Add upto, Agree with, Aim í∫’ùç) Öçü¿E îÁ°æpúøç/ ™‰E í∫’ù«©’ Åçô-í∫-ôdúøç.
Don't ascribe selfishness to me = Ø√èπ◊ ≤ƒy®Ωnç
®√†’. at, Allow of, Allude to, Amount to,
©™ ñ«§ƒu-EéÀ äéπ 鬮Ω-ù¢Ë’ ≤ƒüµ¿uç–
M.SURESAN black market
A. I won't come unless you pay. v°æ¶µº’ûªyç ¢√∞¡xèπ◊
Angle for, Announce against, Announce for, Åçô-í∫-ôdèπ◊.
Q. ≤ƒ-ߪ’°æ-ú≈-©-†’éÓ-´-úøç.
Answer for, Answer to, Ante up, Arrive at,  Ask after = äéπJ ßÁ÷í∫-Íé ~-´÷©’ Nî√-Jç-îªúøç. He
Åûªúø’ ûª† ûªLxE ÇÆæ’-°æ-vA™ îª÷°œ-≤ƒh-†E îÁ°œp,
 Allude to = The minister
°æ®Ó-éπ~çí¬ v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-îªúøç.
îª÷°œç-îª-™‰ü¿’. Arse about/ around, Ascribe to, Ask after, Ask asked after you = F èπ◊¨¡©ç í∫’Jç* ÅúÕ-í¬úø’
A. He said he would take his mother to hospital in his speech alluded to the past govern-
around, Ask for, Ask in, Ask out, Ask over/
ment's failures =
Åûª úø’.
but didn't.
ûª† v°æÆæç-í∫ç™ ´’çvA
round, Aspire to.
Q.
í∫ûª v°æ¶µº’ûªy ¢Áj°∂æ-™«u-©†’ í∫’Jç* v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-î√®Ω’  Ask around = üËEo í∫’Jç-îª-®·Ø√ ¢√éπ-•’-îË-ߪ’úøç/
O’®Ω’ Ø√èπ◊ ÉçTx≠ˇ ØËJp-≤ƒh-†E îÁ°œp ØËJpç-îª-™‰ü¿’.  Accord with = The government's
ÆæJ-§Ú-´úøç. (°æ®Ó-éπ~çí¬). Nî√-Jç-îªúøç.
A. You said you would teach me English, but actions are not in accord with their policies =
 Amount to = 1) éÌçûª ¢Á·ûªhç Å´úøç. The fares I asked around at office if anybody could help
you didn't. v°æ¶µº’ûªy Ωu©’ ü∆E Nüµ∆-Ø√-©èπ◊ ÆæJ-§Ú-´úøç ™‰ü¿’/ to the place and back amount to a thousand me/ I asked around for any vacant house =
Q.
rupees =
°Rx-èπÿ-ûª’®Ω’ ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’-©†’ éπ†’-èπ◊\E ´÷èπ◊ §∂ÚØ˛ ¢√J Nüµ∆-Ø√-©èπ◊, Ωu-©èπ◊ §Òçûª-†-™‰ü¿’. §Òçûª-†-™‰ü¿’ Åéπ\-úÕéÀ ¢ÁRx AJ-íÌ-îËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ 1000 á´®Ω®·Ø√ Ø√èπ◊ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËߪ’-í∫-©-Í®-¢Á÷-†E Nî√-Jç-
îËߪ’-´’E ®√VûÓ îÁ§ƒp†’. ÅØË-ü∆-Eo áèπ◊\´í¬- not ûÓ ¢√úøû√ç. ®Ω÷§ƒßª’©’ Å´¤ûª’çC. î√†’/ àü¿-®·Ø√ É©’x ë«Sí¬ ÖçüË-¢Á÷-†E ¢√éπ•’
A. I told Raju to find out from the brides parents  Account for = 1) 鬮Ωù-´’´úøç/ N´-Jç-îªúøç. î˨»†’.
2) äéπü∆EéÀçü¿ ™„éπ\-´úøç/ äéπü∆EûÓ
and phone us. The traffic jam accounts for the delay of my  Ask for = á´-J-éÓ-Ææ-¢Á’iØ√ Åúø-í∫úøç. The boss was
Ææ´÷†´’´úøç your behaviour amounts to
Q. á´®Ω’, á´-JE éÌö«d®Ω’? arrival = Traffic jam鬮Ωùç´©x Ø√ ®√éπ Ç©Ææuç violation of duty = F v°æ´-®Ωh† NCµ Ö©xç°∂æ’† asking for you after you had left office = †’´¤y
A. Who beat who? Å®·çC. éÀçCéÀ ´Ææ’hçC/ ûÓ Ææ´÷†ç. Ç°∂‘Æˇ ´CL ¢ÁRx† ûª®√yûª boss E†’o í∫’Jç*/ F
Q. á´®Ω’ Fèπ◊ §∂ÚØ˛ îË≤ƒh-´’E îÁ§ƒp®Ω’? 2) äéπ ¢Á·ûªhç/ Ææçêu Å´úøç: Andhras account  Angle for = äéπ-ü∆Eo éÓ®Ω’éÓ´úøç (•ßª’-öÀéÀ îÁ°æp- éÓÆæç ÅúÕ-í¬úø’.
A. Who told you they would phone you? for 50% of the pilgrims to Sabarimala = ¨¡•-J- èπ◊çú≈). He is angling for Prime ministership =  Ask in = Ç£æ…y-Eç-îªúøç ´’† ÉçöxéÀ. When I saw
Q. ñ«Ø˛ Ø√èπ◊ §∂ÚØ˛ îË≤ƒh-†E îÁ§ƒp®Ω’. ´’© ߪ÷vA-èπ◊™x 50 ¨»ûªç Ççvüµ¿’™‰. ÅûªúÕ ü¿%≠œd v°æüµ∆E °æü¿N O’ü¿ ÖçC. him standing in the sun, I asked him in =
A. John told me he would call me.  Ace out = defeat = ãúÕç-îªúøç. The Indian team  Announce against = (®√ï-éÃ-ߪ÷™x) äéπ ®√ï-éÃߪ’ Åûªúø’ áçúø™ E©--•úÕ Öçúøôç îª÷Æœ, ÅûªúÕE ؈’
aced out Australia in the last test match = í∫ûª
Q. á´®Ω’, á´-JE éÌöÀdç-î√®Ω’? Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-úÕ-éÀ-í¬F, §ƒKdéÀí¬F •£œ«-®Ωç-í∫çí¬ ´uA-Í®-éπûª ÉçöxéÀ °œ-L-î√†’/ Ç£æ…y-Eç-î√†’.
test match ™ ¶µ«®Ωûª -ïô’d ÇÊÆZ-L-ߪ÷†’ ãúÕç-*çC.  Ask out = ´’†ç ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’†o/ ¢Á∞«l-´’-†’-èπ◊†o îÓöÀéÀ
A. Who got whom beaten? ûÁ©-°æúøç.
 Ache for= áèπ◊\-´í¬ éÓ®Ω’-éÓ-´úøç/ ûª°œçîªúøç. The very people who announced against the Éûª®Ω’©†’ Ç£æ…yEç-îªúøç.
J. Krishna, Rajapuram The child is aching for a mother's love = party are getting ready to join it now =
•£œ«-®Ωç- He asked his girl freind out to a movie. = -ûª-†
Q. åö¸ ≤ÚJqç-í˚èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? ûªLx vÊ°´’-éÓÆæç ûª°œç-*-§Ú-ûÓçC. í∫çí¬ Ç §ƒKdéÀ ´uA-Í®-éπûª ûÁL-°œ-†-¢√∞¡Ÿx, É°æ¤pú≈ girl freind -†’ Æœ-E-´÷èπ◊ Ç£æ…yEç--î √-úø’.
A. àü¿-®·Ø√ ã °ü¿l ÆæçÆæn ü∆E-éπ-´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’i† *†o-°æ-†’-©†’  Act out = ã Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo, éπü∑¿†’ †ô-†™ îª÷°æúøç- §ƒKd™ îËÍ®ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Æœü¿l¥-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.  Ask over = á´J†-®·Ø√ ÉçöÀéÀ Ç£æ…yEç-îªúøç.
The teacher made the students act out the  Announce for x Announce against = äéπ
ûª´’ ÖüÓu-í∫’©èπ◊ é¬èπ◊çú≈, •ßª’-öÀ¢√-JéÀ Å°æp-Tç-îªúøç, I've asked them over for Deepavali = ¢√∞¡x†’
BPO = Business Process Outsourcing = lesson on Ekalavya- àéπ-©-´u O’-C §ƒ®∏√Eo Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-úÕéÀ/ §ƒKdéÀ •£œ«-®Ωç-í∫çí¬ ´’ü¿lûª’ ûÁ©-°æúøç = D§ƒ-´-RéÀ ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ Ç£æ…yEç-î√†’= ask around.
teacher °œ©x©ûÓ †öÀç-°æ-ñ‰-Æ œçC. A number of TDP members have announced
 Aspire to = ≤ƒCµç-î √-©ØË Çé¬çéπ~ Öçúøôç. He is
¢√u§ƒ-®Ωç™ éÌEo v°ævéÀ-ߪ’-©†’, •ßª’-öÀ¢√-J-ûÓ
îË®·ç--éÓ-´úøç. î√™« telephone éπç°-F©’, ¢√∞¡x  Act up = 1) (ߪ’çvû√©’/ Å´-ߪ’-¢√©’) °æE-îË-ߪ’-éπ- for PRP = TDP Æ涵º’u©’ î√™«´’çC PRP èπ◊ •£œ«-
aspiring to be the next CM- ûª®√yA CM í¬
G©’x© ûªßª÷-KE, ûªßª÷-È®j† G©’x-©†’, customers §Ú-´úøç. As Kumble's shoulders acted up, he ®Ωç-í∫çí¬ ´’ü¿lûª’ ûÁL-§ƒ®Ω’. Öçú≈-©E Åûªúø’ Çé¬çéÀ~-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’.
èπ◊ °æç°æ-ú≈Eo, éÌEoéÌEo-îÓôx ¢√öÀE ´Ææ÷©’ îËߪ’- missed the last test = èπ◊綉x ¶µº’ïç ÆæJí¬ °æE-  Answer back = (´·êuçí¬ °œ©x©’) °ü¿l-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊
Gandhi never aspired to any position or
ú≈Eo Éûª®Ω ÆæçÆæn©èπ◊ Å°æpT-Ææ’hç-ö«®·– ÉC BPO. îË-ߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´úøçûÓ í∫ûª test Çúø-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’.
power =
•ü¿’©’/ áü¿’®Ω’ îÁ°æpúøç. à °æü¿-´¤-©†’, ÅCµ-é¬-®√Eo í¬çDµ á†oúø÷
Å™«Íí °ü¿l, °ü¿l 鬮Ω’x ûªßª÷-®Ω’-îËÊÆ ÆæçÆæn©’, ¢√öÀ- 2) °œ©x-™«xçöÀ¢√∞¡Ÿx ÅAí¬ v°æ´-Jhç-îªúøç. The The mother told the child not to answer back
é¬\-¢√-Lq† horns, screws, nuts, head lamps teacher made the boy stand as he acted up = ûª†èπ◊ áü¿’®Ω’-îÁ-§Òp-ü¿lE Gúøf†’ ûªLx í∫ü¿-´÷-®·ç-
Çé¬ç-éÀ~ç-îª-™‰ü¿’.
™«çöÀ ¢√öÀE *†o •ßª’öÀ company ©ûÓ = ÅAí¬ v°æ´-Jhç-îª-úøç ´©x teacher ÅûªúÕE E©-¶„- *çC.
îË®·ç--éÓ-´úøç èπÿú≈ BPO. ö«dúø’. Don't act up. you may face trouble =  Answer for = 1) Éûª-®Ω’©èπ◊ †´’téπç, Ø√ùuûª
Q. °∂N’-EÆˇd, °∂æ’Æˇd È®jô®˝– OöÀéÀ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®Ωnç ÅAí¬ v°æ´-Jhç-îªèπ◊. *èπ◊\™x °æúø-í∫-©´¤. (´Ææ’h-´¤© N≠æߪ’ç èπÿú≈) í∫’Jç* -¶µº®Ó≤ƒ É´yúøç.
àN’öÀ?
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 28 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

K. Rama Rao, Poluru. M. Aakamsha, Hyderabad. A. They should have
Q. Your brother who rides a Q. Should have been, Could have been É™«çöÀ done it =¢√∞¡xC îËÆœ
motor-cycle does not use a be forms Question tags
èπ◊ ᙫ BÆæ’-èπ◊E Öçú≈LqçC (é¬E îËߪ’-
helmet. Advise him to use a should or have).
®√ߪ÷L? ( ™‰ü¿’)
helmet. DEéÀ Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç It A. Should have been, could have been èπ◊ Q. They will have done
would be better for you, using Question tags, should, could form ûÓØË îË≤ƒhç. it; they would have
a helmet. ÉC éπÈ®é˙d Å´¤-ûª’çü∆? He should have been here by now, shouldn’t done it.
™‰ü∆ Éçé¬ à´’-®·Ø√ Öçõ‰ he? A. They will have done
She could have been a collector, couldn’t You don’t need to go (need - main verb)
it = Future time
îÁ°æpçúÕ. ™ äéπ
A. It'll be better for you to wear a helmet/ she? èπ◊ îËÊÆÆœ Öçö«®Ω’. b) British English: Need they go now?
It's better for you to wear a helmet/ Q. Split infinitives (need - helping verb) =
èπ◊ Å®Ωnç ᙫ ´Ææ’hçüÓ Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù- They would have done it = ¢√∞¡xC îËÊÆ ¢√∞Ïx
You had better wear a helmet (ÉC ÅEoç-öÀ™ ©ûÓ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. American English:
best).
(é¬F îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’)
A. Infinitive
Åçõ‰, to + 1st RDW (Regular Doing Q. They can have done it; they could have done Do they need to go now?
Q. How do you do? DEéÀ Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç How do you Word) - to go, to come, to sing, etc. Need N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ British Englishèπ◊, American
it.
do? Å´¤-ûª’çü∆? ¢ËÍ® à´’-®·Ø√ Öçü∆? infinitive to 1st RDW English
Ñ ¢√úË-ô-°æ¤púø’, èπ◊, -©èπÿ - A. They can have done it = (É°æ¤púø’) îËߪ’í∫LT èπ◊ Å®Ωnç™ èπÿú≈ ûËú≈ ÖçC.
A. ÅçûË, How do you do? ņúø¢Ë’ rule.
´’üµ¿u à ´÷ö« ¢√úø-èπÿ-úø-ü¿E British English™ needèπ◊ Å®Ωnç, have to/ must
Öçö«®Ω’/ Å®·-§Ú-ߪ·ç-úÌa – ÉC áèπ◊\´ ¢√úøç.
How do you do ´·çü¿’, thank you îË®Ωa-´îª’a. I request you to kindly help me. ÅE ´Ææ’hçC. Å®·ûË áèπ◊\-´í¬ question™/
They could have done it = ¢√∞¡xC îËߪ’-í∫-L-Íí-¢√∞Ïx
Q. How are you? ÅØË-ü∆-EéÀ I am fine Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç Ñ sentence ™ to help infinitive. To, help- ©èπ◊ é¬F îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’. notûÓ ´Ææ’hçC.
Å´¤-ûª’çü∆? é¬ü∆? ´’üµ¿u kindly ®√´úøç ´©x- -- - Q. They may have done it; they might have Need I see the officer now?
A. Thank You, I am fine. How are you, ÆæÈ®j† to kindly help, split infinitive. (Infinitive †’ Núø- done it. a) British English:
response. D-ߪ’úøç). I request you to officer (must/ have I
A. They may have done it = ØËE-°æ¤púø’ †’ îª÷ú≈™«?
Q. Return these books to the library ÅØËC éÀçC help me kindly ņ™‰ç. áçü¿’- They might
îËÊÆÆœ ÖçúÌa. to see the officer?)
¢√öÀ™ à´’-´¤-ûª’çC? éπçõ‰ (kindly (ü¿ßª’ûÓ) me have done it = Do I need to see the officer now?
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 514
¢√∞¡xC îËÆœ
a) Making a request ûª®√yûª ´Ææ’hçC 鬕öÀd. Å™« ÖçúÌa. American English: officer
ØËE-°æ¤púø’ †’ îª÷ÊÆ
b) Offering a suggestion ®√´úøç ´©x help ÅØË-ü∆-EéÀ Å´-Ææ®Ωç Öçü∆?
c) Giving an order b) He need not have

How dare you do that?
d) Making a statement gone there - British
A. Return the books to the English: ¢√úø-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞«x-Lq†
library - ÉCrequest/ N≠æߪ’ç é¬ü¿’.
suggestion/ order Å´¤- (é¬F ¢Á∞«xúø’) – ¢Á∞¡x-èπ◊çú≈
ûª’çü∆ ÅØËC ÅC îÁÊ°p-¢√∞¡x éπç®∏Ω-üµ¿y-EE •öÀd Kindly ü¿÷®Ω¢Á’i Å®Ωnç ÆæJí¬ ®√éπ-§Ú-´-îªaE. Q. They must have done it; Öçú≈LqçC.
Öçô’çC. é¬Ææh í∫öÀdí¬ îÁGûË order. éÌçîÁç *´J Åçü¿’-éπE éÌçü¿®Ω’ to kindly help ņúøç A. They must have done it = îËÆ œ He didn’t need to go there - American English
´÷ô†’ áèπ◊\´ üµ¿yEûÓ Åçõ‰ suggestion. É≠æd-°æ-úø-û√®Ω’. Öçú≈L ¢√∞¡Ÿx, Å®·-§Ú®· Öçô’ç-ü¿ØË ¢Á∞Ïx Å´-Ææ-®Ωç-™‰ü¿’ (¢Á∞¡Ÿxç-úÌa/ ¢Á∞¡x-éπ-§Ú-ߪ·ç-úÌa)
Please îË®Ωa-éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√ Ç üµ¿yEûÓ Åçõ‰ request, Å®ΩnçûÓ. í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓ-¢√-LqçC– American English™ need
Grammar v°æ鬮Ωç É™« ®√ߪ’úøç ûª°æ¤p.
statement ´÷vûªç é¬ü¿’. They must have passed the áèπ◊\-´í¬ main verb; DE ûª®√yûª °j† ûÁL-°œ-†ô’x
Å®·ûË É°æ¤púø’ É™« Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îªúøç ¢√úø’Èéj exam = Exam pass ÅßË’u Öçú≈L.
§Ú®·çC. ‘to’ ´Ææ÷hç-ô’çC.
Otherwise they wouldn’t have got Seem Åçõ‰ Å™« éπE-°œ-≤ÚhçC/ éπ†-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’
Irfan, Nandyal. ÉçéÓ N≠æߪ’ç request ņ-úøç-™ØË M.SURESAN the job = ™‰éπ§ÚûË ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ job ´îËaC
Q. á´-J-ûÓ-ØÁjØ√ ®√vA 9.00 í∫çô-©èπ◊ éπLÊÆh à´’E N≠ˇ ü¿ßª’ûÓ ÅØË ¶µ«´ç ´Ææ’hçC 鬕öÀd request
ÅE éπü∆: seems ûª®√yûª to be/ to + 1st RDW
é¬ü¿ ’ (´*açC) (do, go, take etc.,)/ to have + past participle
îËߪ÷L?either good evening, or good night. ¢√úÕûË Kindly ¢√úø†´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’. Q. They need have done it; they ought have (pp)
A. Good evening Åçö«ç. ®√vA-°æ‹ô Åçû√ ´÷ö«xúÕ I request you to help me î√©’. He told me ´≤ƒh®·.
done it; they seem have done it. a) He seems to be a good fellow =
NúÕ-§Ú-ßË’-ô-°æ¤púø’, Evü¿-§ÚßË’ ´·çü¿’ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ good to slowly drive the car. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ to slowly drive, Åûªúø’
split infinitive- ûªÊ°p. He told me to drive the car
Ééπ \úø dare, need, seem, ought © ûª®√yûª to
night ÅØ√L.
´’ç*-¢√-úø’í¬ éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’.
slowly, better. Split infintive Å®·Ø√ split îËߪ’E
´Ææ ’hç C éπü∆. Åçü¿’-´©x OöÀE to ûÓ á™« Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç- b) He seems to like it = ü∆EE Åûªúø’ É≠æd-°æ-úø’-ûª’-
Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
infinitive Å®·Ø√ Å®Ωnç ´÷®Ωü¿’.
î√™ îÁ°æpçúÕ. †oô’x éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’.
؈’ Í®°æ¤ É©’x ë«S îËÆæ’hØ√o†’. They ought to have done it = ¢√∞¡xC (ûª´’
Q. Vocabulary °ç-éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ à¢ÁjØ√ °æü¿l¥-ûª’-©’çõ‰ c) He seems to have gone home = Åûªúø’
A. I am vacating tomorrow. üµ¿®Ωtçí¬ / ØÁjAé𠶫üµ¿u-ûªí¬) îËߪ÷-LqçC, é¬F îËߪ’-
ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’? ÉçöÀéÀ ¢ÁRx§Ú-®·-†-ô’dçC.
Q. ؈’ F∞¡Ÿx °æö«dL. GçüÁ áéπ\úø ÖçC? ™‰ü¿’.
A. áçûª English îªC-NûË, Åçûª Vocabulary °ç- Ought to - äéπ °æEE ØÁjAé𠶫üµ¿u-ûªí¬ îËߪ’úøç
A. I have to draw/ collect water where’s the ves- Q. They dare have done it. -N-´-Jç-îªç-úÕ.
éÓ-´îª’a. Vocabulary O’ü¿ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ èπÿú≈ î√™« (must - Çïc/ Å´-Ææ®Ωç)
sel? (GçüÁèπ◊ ÆæÈ®j† ´÷ô english™ ™‰ü¿’.) A. Dare èπ◊ È®çúø®√n-©’-Ø√o®·–
ÖØ√o®·. He ought to take care of his children = ûª† °œ©x-
Q. Vote of thanks Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
Q. ÅçûË-éπü∆?-Å-†-ú≈-EéÀ -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™  -à-´’-Ø√-L? 1) Ææ¢√©’ îËߪ’úøç 2) áçûª üµÁj®Ωuç? ÅØË ¶µ«´ç. ©†’ í∫’Jç* Åûªúø’ v¨¡ü¿l¥ BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√L (üµ¿®Ωtç, ØÁjAéπ
A. Vote of thanks Åçõ‰ Ææ-¶µº -*-´®Óx ´·êu ÅA-ü∑¿’-©èπ◊,
A. Isn’t it so?
Ææ¢√©’ îËߪ’úøç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓØË dare to ´Ææ’hçC. ¶«üµ¿uûª)
Éûª®Ω Ç£æ›-ûª’-©èπ◊, Æ涵º ≤ƒ°∂‘í¬ †úÕ-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ææ£æ«-éπ- Q. 'Å™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’— -†’ -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ -à-´’ç-ö«®Ω’? He dared me to a fight = †-†’o -Å-ûª-úø’ §Úö«x-ôèπ◊ You ought to have given him some respect;
Jç-*† Åçü¿-JéÃ, éπ%ûª-ïc-ûª©’ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’úøç. A. Then/ in such a case
Ææ¢√©’ î˨»úø’. after all he is much older than you =Åûª-úÕéÀ
¢Á·ü¿ô, Chief guest (´·êu ÅAC∑)/ President/ Q. 'ᙫíÓ™«— -Å-E -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ -á-™« -îÁ-§ƒp-L? Dare = ≤ƒ£æ«-Æ œç-îªúøç/ áçûª üµÁj®Ωuç ÅE ques- †’´¤y ´’®√uü¿ É¢√y-LqçC; àüË-´’-®·Ø√ Åûªúø’
Chairman (Åüµ¿u-èπ~◊©’)/ Guests of honour tion™ Ç üµÁj®Ωuç-™‰ü¿’, ÅE negative™ ¢√úøû√ç.
A. Somehow or the other.
Féπçõ‰ î√™« °ü¿l éπü∆?
(íı®Ω´ ÅA-ü∑¿’-©èπ◊) Thanks îÁ•’û√ç. Ééπ\úø to ®√ü¿’.
Q. Can èπ◊ able to èπ◊ ¶µ‰ü¿ç èπ◊x°æhçí¬ îÁ°æpçúÕ. How dare you do that? = ÅC îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ áçûª
It’s my privilege now/ I have the privilege K. Krishnaiah, Rajampeta.
now to propose a/ the vote of thanks. A. Can = îËߪ’-í∫-LT Öçúøôç – ÉC ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’ ´’†ç
Q. is not he who came
üµÁj®Ωuç Fèπ◊? -Å-ûª-úË éπü∆ E†o ´*açC?
First of all, on behalf of (ûª®Ω-°æ¤†) The
îË Æ æ ÷h ÖçúÌîª ’a, ™‰éπ-§ Ú-´ îª ’a. He dare not face her = Ç¢Á’†’ áü¿’-®Ì\ØË üµÁj®Ωuç
yesterday? ÉC éπÈ®-ÍédØ√?
Association (Æ涵º†’ E®Ωy-£œ«ç-îË-¢√®Ω’), and on Able to = îËߪ’-í∫-LT, îËÆæ’h-Ø√o†’.
A. Is he not the one/ Isn’t he the one who came
ÅûªúÕéÀ ™‰ü¿’.
my (own) behalf, I’d like to thank Sri/ Smt... I can play cricket = ؈’ cricket Çúø-í∫-©†’. Need †’ È®çúø’ ®Ωé¬-©’í¬ ¢√úøû√ç –
yesterday?
for her presence here on this occasion. (Ñ ¢√éπuç™ Çúøôç ïJ-Tçü∆ ™‰ü∆ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’) 1) Main verb í¬ I need your help = F Q. He is a man who came yesterday.
Inspite of his/ her busy schedule, but she I am able to cricket = É°æ¤púø’ ؈’ cricket Çúø- Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç Ø√éπ-´-Ææ®Ωç she doesn’t need any
has accepted our invitation and be here, This is he (man) who came yesterday.
í∫-©’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o†’. Çúø’-ûª’-Ø√o†’ èπÿú≈. Å®·ûË È®çúÕç- more money = Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ÉçÍéO’ úø•’s Å´Ææ®Ωç
and thanks to him/ her once again for his/ öÀéà Åçûª ûËú≈ ™‰ü¿’. ™‰ü¿’. OöÀ™ àC éπÈ®èπ◊d? ™‰ü∆ ÆæÈ®j† -¢√éπuç -ûÁ-©’°æç-úÕ.
her valuable message (Ææçü˨¡ç). A. This is the man (one) who came yesterday.
2) Need as a helping verb - ÉC áèπ◊\-´í¬
Next, our thanks go to Sri/ Smt.... for... question ûÓ†÷, ™‰ü∆ not ûÓ†÷ ¢√úøû√ç. Q. éÀçC¢√öÀE ÉçTx-≠ˇ-™éÀ ´÷®ΩaçúÕ.
K. Chandu, Sirisilla.
We like to thank also Sri.../ Smt... You need not pay now = †’Ny-°æ¤púø’ îÁLxç-îª- – F ®Ω’ùç ؈’ B®Ω’a-èπ◊ç-ö«†’.
Smt/ Sri... next deserve our thanks for... Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. – °Rx™ ¢√úË ÅéÀ~ç-ûª©’
†-´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.
We thank also those who decorates the They shall have done it; A. I am ever indebted to you/ I can’t repay your
Need ¢√úø-éπç™ British, American English-
stage, etc., A. They shall have done it = ¶µºN≠æuûª’h™ äéπ © -´’-üµ¿u ûËú≈ ÖçC. debt.
Finally we thank all those who are present time Termeric coated rice English
American English ™ need †’ helping
™°æ © ¢√∞¡ xC îËÆ œ Öçú≈L. ÅØÌa, é¬F, ™
here for their valuable presence. They shall have finished the work by the time verb í¬ ¢√úøôç î√™« Å®Ω’ü¿’. ÆæÈ®j† ´÷ô-™‰ü¿’.
ÉC †´‚Ø√ ´÷vûª¢Ë’. ´’† Ü£æ«, ¶µ«≥ƒ ñ«cØ√Eo I return = ؈’ AJ-íÌîËa ÆæJéÀ ¢√∞¡Ÿx °æE °æ‹Jh-îËÆœ a) British English™ You need not go
(need - helping verb) =
•öÀd Éçé¬ ¶«í¬ îÁ°æp-´îª’a. Öçú≈L.
Q. They should have done it.
American English:

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 30 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

K. Krishnaiah, Rajampeta. N.V.Krishna Rao, Hyderabad. A. A phrase is a group
Q. ᙫ §Ú¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? of words without a
Q.
éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ îÁ°æpçúÕ.
verb. eg: In case of
How do you planning to go.
doubt; on the occa-
؈’ E†o Ü®Ω’ ¢Á∞«x†’.
How do you thinking to go. A. I was out of town yesterday. (à Ü®Ω’ ¢ÁRxçD sion of his mar-
È®çúø÷ éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? îÁ°æp-†-°æ¤púø’) riage, etc.
A. È®çúÕç-öÀ-™  àD correct é¬ü¿’. à ÜÈ®jØ√ ¢ÁRx AJT ´*a† ûª®√yûª, Ç Ü®Ω’ An idiom is also a
How do you planning...? Ñ O’ (Hyerabad ņ’-èπ◊çü∆ç) ¢Á∞«x†’ / ¢ÁRx-´-î √a†’ group of words, but
sentence ™, verb ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆? O’®Ω’ How are you in the case of an idiom, the meaning of the
ÅE îÁ°æpúøç. continuous tense ™ ¢√úø-éπ-§Ú-´úøç ¢√úø’-éπ-®·-
planning to go? ÅØ√L, ™‰ü∆ How do you plan to idiom as a whole has no connection with that
I had been to Hyderabad (yesterday). †ç-ü¿’-´©x -Å-C ¶µ«≠æ üµ¿®Ωt-¢Á’içC.
go? ÅØ√L. Do... planning, ¢Ë’ç ûÁL-°œ† Ç®Ω’ of any word in the idiom.
Q. ؈’ Ü®Ω’ ¢Á∞«x†’. Q. Deal in ÅØË °æü∆Eo '¢√u§ƒ®Ωç îËߪ’úøç— ÅØË
forms of verbs ™ ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆: Ç six forms of verbs
eg: The long and short of. This is an idiom. Å®Ωnç™, Deal with ÅØË °æü∆Eo 'E®Ωy-£œ«ç— ÅØË
A. I went to (ÜJ Ê°®Ω’)
The expression means the most important
ÉN:
1) Be forms (am, is, are, was, were, 'be', 'been' Q. ؈’ Ü®Ω’ ¢Á∞¡-û√†’ Í®°æ¤.
Å®Ωnç™ áçü¿’èπ◊ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L?
facts about a situation (without all the A. Deal ûª®√yûª ´îËa preposition †’ •öÀd Å®Ωnç
A. I am leaving for/ going to/ I will leave for/ will
*´®Ω ´îËaN.) details)/ the summary of a writing/ a speech. ´÷®Ωúøç èπÿú≈ usage N≠æ-ߪ’¢Ë’ éπü∆.
2) Be forms + .. ing form (am going, has been go to (ÜJ Ê°®Ω’) – ÜJ-Ê°®Ω’ îÁ°æp-†-°æ¤púø’ – I will
The long and short of his speech is that he is É™«çöÀ expressions †’, deal in, deal with
singing, etc) be out of town/ I won't be in town tomorrow.
correct and that the others are wrong = The phrasal verbs Åçö«ç. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ äéπ-J-O’ü¿ éÓ°æç
3) Be form + past participle (Passive voice) (am Q.
summary of his speech is he is right and
؈’ Ü®Ω’ ¢Á∞¡x-í∫-©Ø√? ´*aç-ü¿çö«ç éπü∆? Ééπ\úø äéπ-J-O’ü¿ ÅØË áçü¿’-éπ-
seen, was done, should be taken, etc.) A. Can I go? others are wrong. So you see that the words Ø√L? äéπ-JûÓ éÓ°æç ´*aç-ü¿E áçü¿’-éπ-†-èπÿ-úøü¿÷?
4) Have, has, had, shall have, should have ... Q. ؈’ Ü®Ω’ ¢ÁRx ®√í∫-©Ø√? 'long' and 'short' have no connection with the Åçõ‰ àç Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç îÁ•’û√ç? Ç ¶µ«≠æ B®Ω’ ÅçûË
etc + past participle (Have seen, has gone, A. Can I go to ... and return? most important details/ sum- ÅE îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-¢√-LqçüË. English ™†÷ ÅçûË.
should have known, etc.) mary. Such an expression is
Q. °æ†’© ´AhúÕ ´©x ؈’ Ü®Ω’ M. Ravichandra Reddy, Hyderabad
5) Doing words: 1) Ist regular doing words (go,
come, sing, walk, etc.)
(Åéπ\-úøèπ◊) ¢Á∞¡x-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’. -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
515
an idiom.
Q.
éÀçC °æü∆-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ à´’ç-ö«®Ó ûÁ©’-°æçúÕ.
2) IInd Regular doing

You don't measur e upto that
®Ó©’, ®Óéπ-L-•çúø, §Òvûªç,
words (goes, comes, °æîªaúÕ, °æ°æ¤p-í∫’Ah, ®Ω’•súøç
sings, walks, etc) and A. ®Ó©’ = Mortor- Å®·ûË
3) went, gave, sang ÉC ´’†ç ¢√-úË ®Ó©çûª
etc.,.) and °ü¿lC é¬ü¿’.
6) Shall/ should/ will/ would/ can/ could etc + Ist A. Because of pressure of work I G. Shankar, ®Óéπ -L -• çúø = Pestle (Â°Æˇ ™¸)
RDW (shall take, will give, can take, should couldn't / I am unable to leave town/ Shankarapatnam. §Òvûªç = Grinder, °æîªaúÕ = Chutney
give, etc). 6 forms
Ñ ™ àüÓ äéπöÀ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ go to (ÜJ Ê°®Ω’) Q. O’®Ω’ äéπ-îÓô The student admit- °æ°æ¤p-í∫’Ah = Pestle, ®Ω’•súøç = Grind
sentence sentence How do you ted to having taken drugs ÅE Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  ņ’-´-Cç-îªçúÕ.
Q. ÇJnéπ É•sç-ü¿’© ´©x ؈’ éπ©-¢√-Lq†
Öçúøü¿’. O’
planning to go? group of words
Ñ ™, °j† ûÁL- ®√-¨»®Ω’. Éçü¿’™ having ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC,
´uéÀhE éπ©-´-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’. ؈’ ´÷ Å´’tèπ◊ °æîªaúÕ ü¿çîª-úøç™ Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-
°œ†6 forms ™ àD ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆? Åçü¿’-éπE O’®Ω’ taken Åü¿†ç éπü∆. ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-
sentence How do you plan/ How A. Money problems kept me from °æ-úø-û√†’.
®√ÆœçC é¬ü¿’. M.SURESAN ©®Ω’. û√í∫-ú≈-EéÀ, A†-ú≈-EéÀ having A. I help mother in making/ grinding chutney.
are you planning? How do you
Öçú≈L. Å™«Íí meeting the person I had to meet / I
¢√úøû√ç éπü∆ Å™«Íí Ñ ¢√éπuç™ Q. ؈’ ´çô© ®Ω’*E Éõ‰d °æÆœ-í∫-ôd-í∫-©†’.
thinking to go? verb How couldn't meet the person I had to meet,
Éçü¿’™ èπÿú≈, ™‰ü¿’. having î√©’ éπü∆.
do you think of going? because of money problems. A. I can easily sense the flavour of cooking
ÅØ√L. A. Admitted to having drugs = Drugs éπLT Ö†oô’x
G. Viajayakumar, Anantapur. S.Ramulu, Hyderabad.
ä°æ¤p-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’. Admitted to having taken drugs = Q. ´çô™ àN’ ûªèπ◊\-¢ÁjçüÓ Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬ ví∫£œ«ç-îª-í∫-©†’.
A. I can easily grasp what is wrong in the cook-
Drugs BÆæ’-èπ◊-†oô’x (°æ¤îª’a-èπ◊-†oô’x) ä°æ¤p-èπ◊-†oô’x.
Q. Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL? ing of an item.
Having taken ™ having, helping verb éπü∆
éÀçC ¢√é¬u©’ éπÈ®-ÍédØ√ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
The box is very heavy for me to lift Q. ®Ó©’, ®Ω’•’s-®Ó©’ äéπ-õ‰Ø√? ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  ¢ËÍ®y®Ω’ °æü∆-
. ''Fèπ◊ Åçûª Æ‘Ø˛ ™‰ü¿’.—— having done, having seen ™-™«, have °æ¤îª’a-éÓ-
A. The box is too heavy for me to lift ņúøç ´úøç Å-ØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√ú≈-©çõ‰ The student admit- ©’-Ø√oߪ÷?
''؈’ Fèπ◊ †î√aØ√?—— A. 'Mortor' is the only word, nearest in meaning
Very heavy for me to lift
éπÈ®é˙d. ņç. Very ted to having had drugs Åçö«ç.
A. You don't measure up to that. to all of them.
heavy and I can't lift it
Q. äéπ úÕéπ{-†-K™ I am having a one rupee note
ņ-´îª’a.
Do you like me?
Q. The film is too good. ÅE ÖçC. Having †’ (possession) ™ ¢√úø-èπÿ- Q. ví¬´’ç™ Åçü¿-J-éà -éπ-L°œ äéπ °ü¿l ®Ó©’ Öçô’çC,
A. DEéÀ N´-®Ωçí¬ ÉçÍé-ü¿Ø√o îËJÊÆh correct í¬ úøü¿’ éπü∆. I have a one rupee note ûª§ƒp? ü∆E- Í é - ¢ Á ’ i Ø √ Ê°®Ω’çü∆?
P.Siva Rao, Yellandu. A.The village mortor ÅØÌa.
Öçô’çC. The film is good èπÿú≈ correct, Having à Ææçü¿-®√s¥™ x ¢√ú≈™ ûÁ©’-°æçúÕ.
Q. Kindly explain the difference between bath
A. I am having a one rupee note ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’, I have A.Sudhakar, Peddamallareddy
Å®·ûË Å™« ņo Ææçü¿®Ωs¥ç ûÁL-ߪ÷L.
The film is too good; I don't want to miss it. and bathe
a one rupee note ņ-úø¢Ë’ correct. (Nizamabad)
The film Can I say... I am bathing. Please wait.
Q. 'In order of' à Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ ¢√úø-û√®Ó N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. Q. Why choose I (we) shall and you, (he, she,it)
(؈’ ´ü¿’-©’-éÓ-™‰-†çûª ¶«í∫’çü∆ ÆœE´÷)/
is too good for me to miss A. Both has two meanings in British English -
will for the future tense?
؈’ ´ü¿’-©’-éÓ-™‰-†çûª
A. In the order of: Ç ´®ΩÆæ véπ´’ç™
¶«í∫’ç-ü¿E Åçö«ç. 1) As a noun, and
a) In the order of numbers = Ææçêu© ´®Ω’Ææ A. Shall and will are natural aspects of the
Q. It was too hot yesterday. 2) As a verb. English language. Can we explain why
A. Correct. I have a bath every morning = I bath every
véπ´’ç™ Students are sitting in the order of
´’†ç à°æF îËߪ’-™‰-†çûª áçúøí¬ ÖçC
their roll nos. = Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’ ¢√J roll number
¢Á∞¡û√ç is used with ¢Ë’´·, and, ¢Á∞¡-û√†’ is
ÅØË ¶µ«´çûÓ. Too á°æ¤púø÷ é¬Ææh negative sense morning. I am bathing is correct. used with ؈’? They are just parts of the lan-
guage.
véπ´’ç™ èπÿ®Ω’aE ÖØ√o®Ω’.
ÉÆæ’hçC. I bath every morning (British English)
Q. He is bad dressed. b) The officers were seated in the order of
I bathe every morning (American English) Present simple (go, come, see, sees, goes,
their importance =
A. He is badly dressed correct. etc) is used sometimes to denote immediate
Ç ÅCµ-é¬-®Ω’©’ ûª´’
ņúøç In any case I have a bath/ I take a bath is
Q. He married lately in life. more common than I bath / I bathe.
v§ƒ´·êuç véπ´’ç™ ÇÆ‘-†’-©-ߪ÷u®Ω’. future, especially when we are definite about
Q. Let's sum up Åçõ‰ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®Ωnç ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’ the time, it's not a new practice.
A. Lately Åçõ‰ Ñ ´’üµ¿u ÅE Å®Ωnç, Ç©-Ææuçí¬ ÅE Q. What is the difference between a sentence
Late Åçõ‰ Ç©-Ææuçí¬ ÅE. He married late -í∫-©®Ω’. a) I go there tomorrow.
é¬ü¿’. and a clause.
in his life ņúøç correct. A. Let us sum up = ´’†ç îÁ°æ¤p-èπ◊†o îªJaç-*† N≠æ- b) She comes here next week.
A. A sentence is a group of words with a com-
Q. He is very stronger than I. plete meaning. (To have the complete mean-
ߪ÷©’, ÆæçéÀ~-°æhçí¬ Ææp≠ædçí¬ ´’®Ó≤ƒJ îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-´úøç. Shall/ will is used for future in general
A. He is much stronger than I - correct. Very ing, the group should have a verb in it.) compare:
B. Vijaya Raju, Sangareddy. a) She comes here next week.
stronger ûª°æ¤p-é¬ü¿’, é¬-F ¢√úø’éπ é¬ü¿’. A clause is a group of words with a verb. eg:
Q. The three sisters quarrelling with each other. If he comes here; Because he sang well; Q. Love, appear, owe, own, think ™«çöÀ °æü∆-©†’ b) She will come here next week.
Whenever I go there. continuous tense In a) her coming is definite, and
A. The three sisters quarrelling with each other
™ áçü¿’èπ◊ ®√ߪ’-èπÿ-úøü¿’?
- sentence
ÉC verb é¬ü¿’, Are/
™‰ü¿’ 鬕öÀd. Even a sentence is a clause because it is A. Love, appear, owe, own, think ™«çöÀ verbs b) her coming is not so certain.
were/ will be etc. quarrelling verb (be
Åç-õ‰ also a group of words with a verb. continuous tense ™ ®√éπ-§Ú-´úøç English That's the difference between the use of shall/
form + ing form) sentence cor-
Ö†oô’x; Å°æ¤púø’ Q. What is the difference between a phrase and
¶µ«≥ƒüµ¿®Ωtç/ ¢√úø’éπ (usage). English ´÷ûª%- will for future and the present simple for
rect Å´¤-ûª’çC.- an idiom. ¶µ«-≠æí¬ Ö†o¢√∞¡Ÿx ¢Á·ü¿öÀ †’ç* Ñ verbs †’ future.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm