Facilitating your process journey …

The CMMI: It’s So Much More Than Merely Improving Software Processes
Presented to ASQ Section 1405 by Henry Schneider Process and Product Quality Consulting, LLC January 17, 2008

Facilitating your process journey …

Setting Expectations/Caveat
 This presentation provides an extremely high overview  To adequately cover the topic will take more than one hour  For more information consider attending specific classes

that cover the topics introduced in this presentation
 Introduction to the CMMI  CMMI Appraisals

 Identifying, collecting, and presenting objective evidence
 Specific Process Area topics (e.g. Requirements, Configuration

Management, Quality Assurance, Project Management, etc.)

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Agenda

Need for a Model CMMI Overview
Process Area Overview Appraisal Results Status
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Need for a Model

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Do You Have These Symptoms?
 Missed commitments  Spiraling costs  Late delivery to the market  Last-minute crunches  Inadequate management visibility  Too many surprises  Quality problems  Customer complaints  Too much rework  Functions not working correctly  Poor morale  Burned-out people  Inadequate control of project results
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Why Focus on Process?
 It complements your focus on technology:  Technology, by itself, will most likely not be used effectively  Technology, in the context of an appropriate process roadmap, can provide the most benefit  It complements your focus on people  The experience and training of your work force is not always enough  Working harder is not the answer  A well-defined process can provide the means to work smarter  It shifts the “blame” for problems from people to the process
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The Importance of Process
 The quality of the system is highly

influenced by the quality of the process used to acquire, develop, and maintain it
 A long-established premise in

manufacturing  Visible worldwide in quality movements in manufacturing and service industries (e.g., ISO standards)

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Common Fallacies
 I don’t need process, I have …  really good people  advanced technology  an experienced manager  Process …  interferes with creativity  introduces bureaucracy and regimentation  isn’t needed when building prototypes  is only useful on large projects  hinders agility in fast-moving markets  costs too much
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CMMI Overview

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Caveat Emptor
 A CMMI model is not a process.

 A CMMI model describes the

characteristics of effective processes.
“All models are wrong, but some are useful.”
George Box (Quality and Statistics Engineer)

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What is the CMMI?
 The Capability Maturity Model® Integration (CMMI) is

a suite of products used for improving processes
 Models  Appraisal Methods  Training Courses

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CMMI Model - 1
 A framework that describes key elements of effective

processes  A guide to evolutionary improvement from ad hoc, immature activities to mature, disciplined processes  A description of practices for planning, engineering, and managing business processes that can help you achieve business goals related to things such as:
 cost  schedule  functionality

 product/service quality
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CMMI Model - 2
 A yardstick against which the

maturity of an organization’s product development, acquisition, and/or servicerelated processes can be measured and compared with industry state of the practice  A basis for planning improvements to your business processes  CMMI best practices tell you WHAT to do, not HOW to do nor WHO should do it
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CMMI Model Features
 Supports process integration and product improvement  Enables the integration of multiple disciplines into one

process-improvement effort that helps to eliminate inconsistencies and reduces duplication  Provides a framework for introducing new disciplines as needs arise and therefore reduces the cost of expanding or implementing model-based process improvement  Builds on legacy process improvement efforts and investments
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CMMI Best Practices Are Used for …
 The development, acquisition, and

maintenance of products and services  Software-intensive products and services  Product and service life cycles from conception through delivery and maintenance  Benchmarking your organization against others in a variety of industries
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CMMI Architecture: Model View
Model Portion of the CMMI Framework

Model Foundation

Shared CMMI Material

Development Specific Material

Acquisition Specific Material

Service Specific Material

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CMMI Model Foundation
 Provides an internally consistent set of core

components that apply to every constellation or model  All models use the foundation without deleting or changing any of the content

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CMMI Model Foundation Core Process Areas

   


       


Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) Configuration Management (CM) Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) Integrated Project Management (IPM) Measurement and Analysis (MA) Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID) Organizational Process Definition (OPD) Organizational Process Focus (OPF) Organizational Process Performance (OPP) Organizational Training (OT) Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) Project Planning (PP) Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) Quantitative Project Management (QPM) Requirements Management (REQM) Risk Management (RSKM)
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Constellations
 The components of the CMMI Framework are

organized into groupings called constellations that facilitate construction of approved models
 CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI-ACQ) Nov 2007  CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV) Dec 2000  CMMI for Services (CMMI-SVC) 2008??

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CMMI for Acquisition
 Acquisition is the process of obtaining products (goods

and services) through contract
 Some call these processes “procurement” or “outsourcing”

 Includes acquisition practices that are useful, but not

covered in the CMMI for Development model

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CMMI for Development
 Has been available to the community for many years  Consists of two models
 CMMI for Development  CMMI for Development + IPPD

 Includes the development and maintenance practices

useful for Systems Engineering, Hardware Engineering, and Software Engineering

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CMMI for Services
 Products may be delivered in a variety of forms,

including artifacts (e.g. hardware, software, or user documentation), services (e.g. training, maintenance, or operational support), and combinations of these  A service is a product that is intangible and nonstorable  Currently in work

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CMMI Process Area Architecture
Process Area (PA) Purpose Statement Specific Goals (SG) Generic Goals (GG) Introductory Notes Related Process Areas

Specific Practices (SP)
Typical Work Products Sub-practices Sub-practices Legend
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Generic Practices (GP) Generic Practice Elaborations

Required

Expected

Informative
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CMMI for Development Organization of Work
“Organizing & Managing the Work”

Managing the Project

“Adding Communication and Collaboration Capability to Address Complex Work Environments”

Doing the Work of the Organization Project and Organizational Support
“Providing Infrastructure for Projects & Organizations”

Product Development 1
“Understanding the Work”

Product Development 2
“Performing the Work”

Managing Quantitatively
“Adding Quantitative Management Capability to Other Management Approaches”

Improvement Infrastructure
“Enabling Improvement of the Work”
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Process Area Overview

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CMMI Staged Representation

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Characteristics of Maturity Level 2
 Processes are planned and executed in accordance

with organizational policies  Existing practices are retained during times of stress  Projects are performed and managed according to their documented plans  Commitments are established among relevant stakeholders and are revised as needed

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Requirements Management (REQM)
The purpose of Requirements Management is to manage the requirements of the project's products and product components and to identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the project's plans and work products.

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Project Planning (PP)
The purpose of Project Planning is to establish and maintain plans that define project activities.

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Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)
The purpose of Project Monitoring and Control is to provide an understanding of the project’s progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the project’s performance deviates significantly from the plan.

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Supplier Agreement Management (SAM)
The purpose of Supplier Agreement Management is to manage the acquisition of products from suppliers.

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Measurement and Analysis (MA)
The purpose of Measurement and Analysis is to develop and sustain a measurement capability that is used to support management information needs.

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Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA)

The purpose of Process and Product Quality Assurance is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products.

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Configuration Management (CM)
The purpose of Configuration Management is to establish and maintain the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits.

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Characteristics of Maturity Level 3
 Processes are well characterized and understood  Organization’s set of standard processes is established

and improved over time  Projects establish their defined processes by tailoring the standard processes  Project Management is proactive

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Requirements Development (RD)
The purpose of Requirements Development is to produce and analyze customer, product, and product-component requirements.

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Technical Solution (TS)
The purpose of Technical Solution is to design, develop, and implement solutions to requirements. Solutions, designs, and implementations encompass products, product components, and productrelated life-cycle processes either singly or in combinations as appropriate.

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Product Integration (PI)
The purpose of Product Integration is to assemble the product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the product.

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Verification (VER)
The purpose of Verification is to ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements.

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Validation (VAL)
The purpose of Validation is to demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment.

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Organizational Process Focus (OPF)
The purpose of Organizational Process Focus is to plan and implement organizational process improvement based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s processes and process assets.

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Organizational Process Definition (OPD)

The purpose of Organizational Process Definition is to establish and maintain a usable set of organizational process assets and work environment standards.

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Organizational Training (OT)
The purpose of Organizational Training is to develop the skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently.

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Integrated Project Management (IPM)
The purpose of Integrated Project Management is to establish and manage the project and the involvement of the relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization's set of standard processes.

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Risk Management (RSKM)
The purpose of Risk Management is to identify potential problems before they occur, so that riskhandling activities may be planned and invoked as needed across the life of the product or project to mitigate adverse impacts on achieving objectives.

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Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)

The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria.

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Characteristics of Maturity Level 4
 The organization and projects establish quantitative

objectives for quality and process performance  Quality and process performance is understood in statistical terms and managed throughout the life of the processes  Special causes of variation are identified and corrected to prevent future occurrences  Process performance is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques
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Organizational Process Performance (OPP)
The purpose of Organizational Process Performance is to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization’s set of standard processes in support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the process performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization’s projects.
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Quantitative Project Management (QPM)
The purpose of the Quantitative Project Management process area is to quantitatively manage the project’s defined process to achieve the project’s established quality and processperformance objectives.

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Characteristics of Maturity Level 5
 Continuous process improvement is based on a

quantitative understanding of the common causes of process variation  Effects of deployed process improvements are measured and evaluated against the quantitative process improvement objectives

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Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID)
The purpose of Organizational Innovation and Deployment is to select and deploy incremental and innovative improvements that measurably improve the organization's processes and technologies. The improvements support the organization's quality and process-performance objectives as derived from the organization's business objectives.
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Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR)

The purpose of Causal Analysis and Resolution is to identify causes of defects and other problems and take action to prevent them from occurring in the future.

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Appraisal Results Status

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Status as of September 2007

273 reappraised organizations 1,417 participating companies 2,464 appraisals conducted

10,338 projects appraised

67.1% NonUSA organizations

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Process Maturity Profile by All Reporting Organizations

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Reporting Organization Categories

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Organization Type

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Organization Size

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Countries Where Appraisals Have Been Performed and Reported to the SEI

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Number of Appraisals and Maturity Levels Reported to the SEI by Country

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Questions

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PPQC Services
Consulting
• • • • CMMI Software Engineering Systems Engineering Process Improvement

Appraising
• SCAMPI A, B, C • Gap Analysis

Training
• • • •
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CMMI/Process Improvement Action Planning Workshops Measurement and Analysis Process Area Specific Training
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Contact Information
Address: Henry Schneider President/Senior Principal Consultant Process and Product Quality Consulting, LLC 2111 Heather Green Houston, TX USA 77062
281-218-6682 henry@ppqc.net www.ppqc.net

Phone: E-mail: Web Site:

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