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PHY2054: Chapter 21 2

Voltage and Current in RLC Circuits

AC emf source: driving frequency f

If circuit contains only R + emf source, current is simple

If L and/or C present, current is not in phase with emf

Z, shown later

( )

sin

m

m m

i I t I

Z

= =

sin

m

t =

2 f =

( ) ( )

sin current amplitude

m

m m

i I t I

R R

= = =

PHY2054: Chapter 21 3

AC Source and Resistor Only

Driving voltage is

Relation of current and voltage

Current is in phase with voltage ( = 0)

i

R ~

sin

m

m m

i I t I

R

= =

sin

m

t =

/ i R =

PHY2054: Chapter 21 4

AC Source and Capacitor Only

Voltage is

Differentiate to find current

Rewrite using phase (check this!)

Relation of current and voltage

Capacitive reactance:

Current leads voltage by 90

sin

m

q C t =

i

C

~

/ cos

C

i dq dt CV t = =

sin

C m

q

v t

C

= =

( )

sin 90

C

i CV t = +

( )

sin 90

m

m m

C

i I t I

X

= + =

1/

C

X C =

( )

1/

C

X C =

PHY2054: Chapter 21 5

AC Source and Inductor Only

Voltage is

Integrate di/dt to find current:

Rewrite using phase (check this!)

Relation of current and voltage

Inductive reactance:

Current lags voltage by 90

( )

/ / sin

m

di dt L t =

i

L

~

( )

/ cos

m

i L t =

/ sin

L m

v Ldi dt t = =

( ) ( )

/ sin 90

m

i L t =

( )

sin 90

m

m m

L

i I t I

X

= =

L

X L =

( )

L

X L =

PHY2054: Chapter 21 6

General Solution for RLC Circuit

We assume steady state solution of form

I

m

is current amplitude

is phase by which current lags the driving EMF

Must determine I

m

and

Plug in solution: differentiate & integrate sin(t-)

( )

sin

m

i I t =

( ) ( ) ( )

cos sin cos sin

m

m m m

I

I L t I R t t t

C

+ =

sin

m

di q

L Ri t

dt C

+ + =

( )

sin

m

i I t =

( )

cos

m

di

I t

dt

=

( )

cos

m

I

q t

=

Substitute

PHY2054: Chapter 21 7

General Solution for RLC Circuit (2)

Expand sin & cos expressions

Collect sint & cost terms separately

These equations can be solved for I

m

and (next slide)

( )

( )

1/ cos sin 0

1/ sin cos

m m m

L C R

I L C I R

=

+ =

( )

( )

sin sin cos cos sin

cos cos cos sin sin

t t t

t t t

=

= +

High school trig!

cost terms

sint terms

( ) ( ) ( )

cos sin cos sin

m

m m m

I

I L t I R t t t

C

+ =

PHY2054: Chapter 21 8

Solve for and I

m

R, X

L

, X

C

and Z have dimensions of resistance

This is where , X

L

, X

C

and Z come from!

General Solution for RLC Circuit (3)

1/

tan

L C

X X L C

R R

=

m

m

I

Z

=

( )

2

2

L C

Z R X X = +

L

X L =

1/

C

X C =

Inductive reactance

Capacitive reactance

Total impedance

PHY2054: Chapter 21 9

AC Source and RLC Circuits

tan

m

m

L C

I

Z

X X

R

=

Phase angle

Maximum current

= angle that current lags applied voltage

( )

2

1/

L

C

X L f

X C

= =

=

Inductive reactance

Capacitive reactance

( )

2

2

L C

Z R X X = +

Total impedance

PHY2054: Chapter 21 10

What is Reactance?

Think of it as a frequency-dependent resistance

Shrinks with increasing

1

C

X

C

=

L

X L =

( " " )

R

X R =

Grows with increasing

Independent of

PHY2054: Chapter 21 11

Pictorial Understanding of Reactance

tan

L C

X X

R

=

( )

2

2

L C

Z R X X = +

cos

R

Z

=

PHY2054: Chapter 21 12

Summary of Circuit Elements, Impedance, Phase Angles

( )

2

2

L C

Z R X X = +

tan

L C

X X

R

=

PHY2054: Chapter 21 13

Quiz

Three identical EMF sources are hooked to a single circuit

element, a resistor, a capacitor, or an inductor. The

current amplitude is then measured as a function of

frequency. Which one of the following curves corresponds

to an inductive circuit?

(1) a

(2) b

(3) c

(4) Cant tell without more info

f

I

max

a

c

b

( )

max max

2

/

L

L

X L f

I X

= =

=

For inductor, higher frequency gives higher

reactance, therefore lower current

PHY2054: Chapter 21 14

RLC Example 1

Below are shown the driving emf and current vs time of

an RLC circuit. We can conclude the following

Current leads the driving emf (<0)

Circuit is capacitive (X

C

> X

L

)

I

t

PHY2054: Chapter 21 15

RLC Example 2

R = 200, C = 15F, L = 230mH,

max

= 36v, f = 60 Hz

2 60 0.23 86.7

L

X = =

( )

6

1/ 2 60 15 10 177

C

X

= =

( )

2

2

200 86.7 177 219 Z = + =

max max

/ 36/ 219 0.164A I Z = = =

X

C

> X

L

Capacitive circuit

1

86.7 177

tan 24.3

200

= =

Current leads emf

(as expected)

( )

0.164sin 24.3 i t = +

PHY2054: Chapter 21 16

Resonance

Consider impedance vs frequency

Z is minimum when

This is resonance!

At resonance

Impedance = Z is minimum

Current amplitude = I

m

is maximum

( ) ( )

2 2

2 2

1/

L C

Z R X X R L C = + = +

1/ L C =

0

1/ LC = =

PHY2054: Chapter 21 17

I

max

vs Frequency and Resonance

Circuit parameters: C = 2.5F, L = 4mH,

max

= 10v

f

0

= 1 / 2(LC)

1/2

= 1590 Hz

Plot I

max

vs f

R = 5

R = 10

R = 20

I

max

Resonance

0

f f =

f / f

0

( )

2

2

max

10/ 1/ I R L C = +

PHY2054: Chapter 21 18

Power in AC Circuits

Instantaneous power emitted by circuit: P = i

2

R

More useful to calculate power averaged over a cycle

Use <> to indicate average over a cycle

Define RMS quantities to avoid factors in AC circuits

House current

V

rms

= 110V V

peak

= 156V

( )

2 2

sin

m d

P I R t =

( )

2 2 2

1

2

sin

m d m

P I R t I R = =

rms

2

m

I

I =

rms

2

m

=

2

ave rms

P I R =

Instantaneous power oscillates

PHY2054: Chapter 21 19

Power in AC Circuits

Power formula

Rewrite using

cos is the power factor

To maximize power delivered to circuit make close to zero

Max power delivered to load happens at resonance

E.g., too much inductive reactance (X

L

) can be cancelled by

increasing X

C

(e.g., circuits with large motors)

2

ave rms

P I R =

rms

ave rms rms rms

cos

Z

P I R I

= =

ave rms rms

cos P I = cos

R

Z

=

rms

rms

I

Z

=

rms max

/ 2 I I =

R

L C

X X

Z

PHY2054: Chapter 21 20

Power Example 1

R = 200, X

C

= 150, X

L

= 80,

rms

= 120v, f = 60 Hz

( )

2

2

200 80 150 211.9 Z = + =

1

80 150

tan 19.3

200

= =

cos 0.944 =

ave rms rms

cos 120 0.566 0.944 64.1W P I = = =

rms rms

/ 120/ 211.9 0.566A I Z = = =

2 2

ave rms

0.566 200 64.1W P I R = = =

Current leads emf

Capacitive circuit

Same

PHY2054: Chapter 21 21

Power Example 1 (cont)

R = 200, X

C

= 150, X

L

= 80,

rms

= 120v, f = 60 Hz

How much capacitance must be added to maximize the

power in the circuit (and thus bring it into resonance)?

Want X

C

= X

L

to minimize Z, so must decrease X

C

150 1/ 2 17.7F

C

X fC C = = =

new new

80 33.2F

C L

X X C = = =

PHY2054: Chapter 21 22

Power vs Frequency and Resonance

Circuit parameters: C = 2.5F, L = 4mH,

max

= 10v

f

0

= 1 / 2(LC)

1/2

= 1590 Hz

Plot P

ave

vs f for different R values

R = 5

R = 10

R = 20

0

f f =

P

ave

R = 2

Resonance

f / f

0

PHY2054: Chapter 21 23

Resonance Tuner is Based on Resonance

Vary C to set resonance frequency to 103.7 (ugh!)

Circuit response Q = 500

Tune for f = 103.7 MHz

Other radio stations.

RLC response is less

PHY2054: Chapter 21 24

Quiz

A generator produces current at a frequency of 60 Hz with

peak voltage and current amplitudes of 100V and 10A,

respectively. What is the average power produced if they

are in phase?

(1) 1000 W

(2) 707 W

(3) 1414 W

(4) 500 W

(5) 250 W

1

ave peak peak rms rms

2

P I I = =

PHY2054: Chapter 21 25

Quiz

The figure shows the current and emf of a series RLC

circuit. To increase the rate at which power is delivered to

the resistive load, which option should be taken?

(1) Increase R

(2) Decrease L

(3) Increase L

(4) Increase C

Current lags applied emf ( > 0), thus circuit is inductive. Either

(1) Reduce X

L

by decreasing L or

(2) Cancel X

L

by increasing X

C

(decrease C).

tan

L C

X X

R

=

PHY2054: Chapter 21 26

Example: LR Circuit

Variable frequency EMF source with

m

=6V connected to a

resistor and inductor. R=80 and L=40mH.

At what frequency f does V

R

= V

L

?

At that frequency, what is phase angle ?

What is the current amplitude and RMS value?

2000 2000/ 2 318Hz

L

X L R f = = = = =

tan / 1 45

L

X R = = =

2 2

max max

/ 80 80 6/113 0.053A I = + = =

rms max

/ 2 0.037A I I = =

( )

0.053sin 45 i t =

PHY2054: Chapter 21 27

Transformers

Purpose: change alternating (AC) voltage to a bigger (or

smaller) value

p p

B

V N

t

B

s s

V N

t

Input AC voltage

in the primary

turns produces a flux

s

s p

p

N

V V

N

=

Changing flux in

secondary turns

induces an emf

PHY2054: Chapter 21 28

Transformers

Nothing comes for free, however!

Increase in voltage comes at the cost of current.

Output power cannot exceed input power!

power in = power out

(Losses usually account for 10-20%)

p p s s

i V i V =

p p

s

p s s

V N

i

i V N

= =

PHY2054: Chapter 21 29

Transformers: Sample Problem

A transformer has 330 primary turns and 1240 secondary

turns. The input voltage is 120 V and the output current

is 15.0 A. What is the output voltage and input current?

1240

120 451V

330

s

s p

p

N

V V

N

= = =

Step-up

transformer

p p s s

i V i V =

451

15 56.4A

120

s

p s

p

V

i i

V

= = =

PHY2054: Chapter 21 30

This is how first experiment by

Faraday was done

He only got a deflection of the

galvanometer when the switch

is opened or closed

Steady current does not make

induced emf.

Transformers

PHY2054: Chapter 21 31

Microphone

Tape recorder

Applications

PHY2054: Chapter 21 32

ConcepTest: Power lines

At large distances, the resistance of power lines becomes

significant. To transmit maximum power, is it better to

transmit (high V, low i) or (high i, low V)?

(1) high V, low i

(2) low V, high i

(3) makes no difference

Power loss is i

2

R

PHY2054: Chapter 21 33

Electric Power Transmission

i

2

R: 20x smaller current 400x smaller power loss

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