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PHY2054: Chapter 21 1

Chapter 21: RLC Circuits


PHY2054: Chapter 21 2
Voltage and Current in RLC Circuits
AC emf source: driving frequency f
If circuit contains only R + emf source, current is simple
If L and/or C present, current is not in phase with emf
Z, shown later
( )
sin
m
m m
i I t I
Z

= =
sin
m
t =
2 f =
( ) ( )
sin current amplitude
m
m m
i I t I
R R

= = =
PHY2054: Chapter 21 3
AC Source and Resistor Only
Driving voltage is
Relation of current and voltage
Current is in phase with voltage ( = 0)
i

R ~
sin
m
m m
i I t I
R

= =
sin
m
t =
/ i R =
PHY2054: Chapter 21 4
AC Source and Capacitor Only
Voltage is
Differentiate to find current
Rewrite using phase (check this!)
Relation of current and voltage
Capacitive reactance:
Current leads voltage by 90
sin
m
q C t =
i
C
~
/ cos
C
i dq dt CV t = =
sin
C m
q
v t
C
= =
( )
sin 90
C
i CV t = +
( )
sin 90
m
m m
C
i I t I
X

= + =
1/
C
X C =
( )
1/
C
X C =
PHY2054: Chapter 21 5
AC Source and Inductor Only
Voltage is
Integrate di/dt to find current:
Rewrite using phase (check this!)
Relation of current and voltage
Inductive reactance:
Current lags voltage by 90
( )
/ / sin
m
di dt L t =
i
L
~
( )
/ cos
m
i L t =
/ sin
L m
v Ldi dt t = =
( ) ( )
/ sin 90
m
i L t =
( )
sin 90
m
m m
L
i I t I
X

= =
L
X L =
( )
L
X L =
PHY2054: Chapter 21 6
General Solution for RLC Circuit
We assume steady state solution of form
I
m
is current amplitude
is phase by which current lags the driving EMF
Must determine I
m
and
Plug in solution: differentiate & integrate sin(t-)
( )
sin
m
i I t =
( ) ( ) ( )
cos sin cos sin
m
m m m
I
I L t I R t t t
C

+ =
sin
m
di q
L Ri t
dt C
+ + =
( )
sin
m
i I t =
( )
cos
m
di
I t
dt
=
( )
cos
m
I
q t

=
Substitute
PHY2054: Chapter 21 7
General Solution for RLC Circuit (2)
Expand sin & cos expressions
Collect sint & cost terms separately
These equations can be solved for I
m
and (next slide)
( )
( )
1/ cos sin 0
1/ sin cos
m m m
L C R
I L C I R


=
+ =
( )
( )
sin sin cos cos sin
cos cos cos sin sin
t t t
t t t


=
= +
High school trig!
cost terms
sint terms
( ) ( ) ( )
cos sin cos sin
m
m m m
I
I L t I R t t t
C

+ =
PHY2054: Chapter 21 8
Solve for and I
m
R, X
L
, X
C
and Z have dimensions of resistance
This is where , X
L
, X
C
and Z come from!
General Solution for RLC Circuit (3)
1/
tan
L C
X X L C
R R


=
m
m
I
Z

=
( )
2
2
L C
Z R X X = +
L
X L =
1/
C
X C =
Inductive reactance
Capacitive reactance
Total impedance
PHY2054: Chapter 21 9
AC Source and RLC Circuits
tan
m
m
L C
I
Z
X X
R

=
Phase angle
Maximum current
= angle that current lags applied voltage
( )
2
1/
L
C
X L f
X C

= =
=
Inductive reactance
Capacitive reactance
( )
2
2
L C
Z R X X = +
Total impedance
PHY2054: Chapter 21 10
What is Reactance?
Think of it as a frequency-dependent resistance
Shrinks with increasing
1
C
X
C
=
L
X L =
( " " )
R
X R =
Grows with increasing
Independent of
PHY2054: Chapter 21 11
Pictorial Understanding of Reactance
tan
L C
X X
R


=
( )
2
2
L C
Z R X X = +
cos
R
Z
=
PHY2054: Chapter 21 12
Summary of Circuit Elements, Impedance, Phase Angles
( )
2
2
L C
Z R X X = +
tan
L C
X X
R


=
PHY2054: Chapter 21 13
Quiz
Three identical EMF sources are hooked to a single circuit
element, a resistor, a capacitor, or an inductor. The
current amplitude is then measured as a function of
frequency. Which one of the following curves corresponds
to an inductive circuit?
(1) a
(2) b
(3) c
(4) Cant tell without more info
f
I
max
a
c
b
( )
max max
2
/
L
L
X L f
I X

= =
=
For inductor, higher frequency gives higher
reactance, therefore lower current
PHY2054: Chapter 21 14
RLC Example 1
Below are shown the driving emf and current vs time of
an RLC circuit. We can conclude the following
Current leads the driving emf (<0)
Circuit is capacitive (X
C
> X
L
)
I
t
PHY2054: Chapter 21 15
RLC Example 2
R = 200, C = 15F, L = 230mH,
max
= 36v, f = 60 Hz

2 60 0.23 86.7
L
X = =
( )
6
1/ 2 60 15 10 177
C
X

= =
( )
2
2
200 86.7 177 219 Z = + =
max max
/ 36/ 219 0.164A I Z = = =
X
C
> X
L
Capacitive circuit
1
86.7 177
tan 24.3
200




= =


Current leads emf
(as expected)
( )
0.164sin 24.3 i t = +
PHY2054: Chapter 21 16
Resonance
Consider impedance vs frequency
Z is minimum when
This is resonance!
At resonance
Impedance = Z is minimum
Current amplitude = I
m
is maximum
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1/
L C
Z R X X R L C = + = +
1/ L C =
0
1/ LC = =
PHY2054: Chapter 21 17
I
max
vs Frequency and Resonance
Circuit parameters: C = 2.5F, L = 4mH,
max
= 10v
f
0
= 1 / 2(LC)
1/2
= 1590 Hz
Plot I
max
vs f
R = 5
R = 10
R = 20
I
max
Resonance
0
f f =
f / f
0
( )
2
2
max
10/ 1/ I R L C = +
PHY2054: Chapter 21 18
Power in AC Circuits
Instantaneous power emitted by circuit: P = i
2
R
More useful to calculate power averaged over a cycle
Use <> to indicate average over a cycle
Define RMS quantities to avoid factors in AC circuits
House current
V
rms
= 110V V
peak
= 156V
( )
2 2
sin
m d
P I R t =
( )
2 2 2
1
2
sin
m d m
P I R t I R = =
rms
2
m
I
I =
rms
2
m

=
2
ave rms
P I R =
Instantaneous power oscillates
PHY2054: Chapter 21 19
Power in AC Circuits
Power formula
Rewrite using
cos is the power factor
To maximize power delivered to circuit make close to zero
Max power delivered to load happens at resonance
E.g., too much inductive reactance (X
L
) can be cancelled by
increasing X
C
(e.g., circuits with large motors)
2
ave rms
P I R =
rms
ave rms rms rms
cos
Z
P I R I

= =
ave rms rms
cos P I = cos
R
Z
=
rms
rms
I
Z

=
rms max
/ 2 I I =
R
L C
X X
Z

PHY2054: Chapter 21 20
Power Example 1
R = 200, X
C
= 150, X
L
= 80,
rms
= 120v, f = 60 Hz

( )
2
2
200 80 150 211.9 Z = + =
1
80 150
tan 19.3
200




= =


cos 0.944 =
ave rms rms
cos 120 0.566 0.944 64.1W P I = = =
rms rms
/ 120/ 211.9 0.566A I Z = = =
2 2
ave rms
0.566 200 64.1W P I R = = =
Current leads emf
Capacitive circuit
Same
PHY2054: Chapter 21 21
Power Example 1 (cont)
R = 200, X
C
= 150, X
L
= 80,
rms
= 120v, f = 60 Hz
How much capacitance must be added to maximize the
power in the circuit (and thus bring it into resonance)?
Want X
C
= X
L
to minimize Z, so must decrease X
C

So we must add 15.5F capacitance to maximize power


150 1/ 2 17.7F
C
X fC C = = =
new new
80 33.2F
C L
X X C = = =
PHY2054: Chapter 21 22
Power vs Frequency and Resonance
Circuit parameters: C = 2.5F, L = 4mH,
max
= 10v
f
0
= 1 / 2(LC)
1/2
= 1590 Hz
Plot P
ave
vs f for different R values
R = 5
R = 10
R = 20
0
f f =
P
ave
R = 2
Resonance
f / f
0
PHY2054: Chapter 21 23
Resonance Tuner is Based on Resonance
Vary C to set resonance frequency to 103.7 (ugh!)
Circuit response Q = 500
Tune for f = 103.7 MHz
Other radio stations.
RLC response is less
PHY2054: Chapter 21 24
Quiz
A generator produces current at a frequency of 60 Hz with
peak voltage and current amplitudes of 100V and 10A,
respectively. What is the average power produced if they
are in phase?
(1) 1000 W
(2) 707 W
(3) 1414 W
(4) 500 W
(5) 250 W
1
ave peak peak rms rms
2
P I I = =
PHY2054: Chapter 21 25
Quiz
The figure shows the current and emf of a series RLC
circuit. To increase the rate at which power is delivered to
the resistive load, which option should be taken?
(1) Increase R
(2) Decrease L
(3) Increase L
(4) Increase C
Current lags applied emf ( > 0), thus circuit is inductive. Either
(1) Reduce X
L
by decreasing L or
(2) Cancel X
L
by increasing X
C
(decrease C).
tan
L C
X X
R


=
PHY2054: Chapter 21 26
Example: LR Circuit
Variable frequency EMF source with
m
=6V connected to a
resistor and inductor. R=80 and L=40mH.
At what frequency f does V
R
= V
L
?
At that frequency, what is phase angle ?
What is the current amplitude and RMS value?
2000 2000/ 2 318Hz
L
X L R f = = = = =
tan / 1 45
L
X R = = =
2 2
max max
/ 80 80 6/113 0.053A I = + = =
rms max
/ 2 0.037A I I = =
( )
0.053sin 45 i t =
PHY2054: Chapter 21 27
Transformers
Purpose: change alternating (AC) voltage to a bigger (or
smaller) value
p p
B
V N
t

B
s s
V N
t

Input AC voltage
in the primary
turns produces a flux
s
s p
p
N
V V
N
=
Changing flux in
secondary turns
induces an emf
PHY2054: Chapter 21 28
Transformers
Nothing comes for free, however!
Increase in voltage comes at the cost of current.
Output power cannot exceed input power!
power in = power out
(Losses usually account for 10-20%)
p p s s
i V i V =
p p
s
p s s
V N
i
i V N
= =
PHY2054: Chapter 21 29
Transformers: Sample Problem
A transformer has 330 primary turns and 1240 secondary
turns. The input voltage is 120 V and the output current
is 15.0 A. What is the output voltage and input current?
1240
120 451V
330
s
s p
p
N
V V
N

= = =


Step-up
transformer
p p s s
i V i V =
451
15 56.4A
120
s
p s
p
V
i i
V

= = =


PHY2054: Chapter 21 30
This is how first experiment by
Faraday was done
He only got a deflection of the
galvanometer when the switch
is opened or closed
Steady current does not make
induced emf.
Transformers
PHY2054: Chapter 21 31
Microphone
Tape recorder
Applications
PHY2054: Chapter 21 32
ConcepTest: Power lines
At large distances, the resistance of power lines becomes
significant. To transmit maximum power, is it better to
transmit (high V, low i) or (high i, low V)?
(1) high V, low i
(2) low V, high i
(3) makes no difference
Power loss is i
2
R
PHY2054: Chapter 21 33
Electric Power Transmission
i
2
R: 20x smaller current 400x smaller power loss