CHAPTER I I. PROBLEMATIC SITUATION Nowadays, there is a clear prevalence of the quantitative research over the qualitative research but both of them present advantages and disadvantages. When applying the quantitative method, there is a tendency aimed to be served from the subject of study. In second place, the qualitative approach is aiming to ask and the quantitative approach is aiming to respond. Thirdly, the qualitative approach allows a more horizontal communication among the investigator and those being investigated, a major naturalness and ability of studying the social factors in a natural setting. Finally, the qualitative research questions to the quantitative research: Are generalizable those discoveries? The quantitative research questions to the qualitative : Are generalizable those discoveries? Therefore, it is concluded that the use of both procedures in an investigation could probably help to correct the biases of each method. Therefore, the quantitative and the qualitative are seen in a contradictory way, but like two cohesive and supplementary devices. The selection of the method to follow during the development of thesis in most cases is due to the lack of knowledge of the existent research methodology, commonly opting for a quantitative approach in which is used the collecting and the analysis of data to answer research questions, and to prove previously established hypotheses. This method relies on the numerical measurement, the use of statistical procedures (Sampieri 2002), but this is insufficient to assume to the perspective of the subjects implied in the research and the positivist formalization of this approach ignores the multiple facets of the social processes. On the other hand, a qualitative research practice allows the knowledge of reality from a holistic perspective that integrates subject and object, making possible the understanding of their links and their interactions. That is why, through the qualitative research you can extend deeply the knowledge in the progress of the acquisition of a foreign language. Besides, a qualitative research proposes the solution of sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic problems that can be analyzed exhaustively. The qualitative research uses different technical methods that are applied to areas related to the process of learning English as a second language. The qualitative research supposes a critical vision toward the traditional sciences and its knowledge built from formative bases that can pursue social changes. This position emphasizes the purposes of the investigation, its epistemological foundations, as well as a wide definition of the concept. According to Denzin and Lincoln, the qualitative research is a group of interpretative practices. These have no bound with a certain theory or paradigm in particular, it is not exclusive of one or another area of knowledge, neither it processes its own methods. But it is worth of the approaches, the methods and techniques of diverse disciplines and theoretical perspectives as ethnometodology, phenometodology, psychoanalysis, cultural studies, the critical theory, the positivism, and the post-positivism among others. At present, there is no method that guarantees that the generalization of a hypothesis can be refused with single evidence against it. Consequently, scientifics like K. Koppler looks for better explanations all the time. Some authors say that in terms of internal validity a Quantitative method is weak ,It is hardly ever known if they measure what they want to measure; but the Quantitative method is strong in external validity. The method findings can be generalizable to the population but the qualitative method is considered opposite. II. JUSTIFICATION The study to be developed is “A Qualitative research approach as a proposal for researching projects developed by undergraduate students majoring in Licenciatura en Idioma Ingles at Universidad de Oriente”. Through this research project is developed a research directed to the qualitative approach which methodological foundation stood out, as well as, its performing in the Humanistic Sciences and others where they can be applied. This research project took as a development context the students majoring in Licenciatura del Idioma Ingles at Universidad de Oriente San Miguel. The Qualitative research is appropriate to the development of research projects in the English Language because it is through the observation and interaction with people that the necessary data is gathered to establish the Qualitative research method. The curriculum for the English major does not have numerical subjects, and that it is why students should apply the Qualitative research instead of the Quantitative method. The investigation is relevant because it offers an innovation to the development of this kind of research project. The investigations through qualitative methods rely on techniques to gather the meaning of facts and phenomena that can happen in the economic, social, political or cultural educational setting. Beside it is proved that most of the theses developed at Universidad de Oriente by the School of Arts and Sciences have a quantitative approach. To support this assertion some indexes thesis have been included .(See annex #1). It is important to point out that the qualitatitive method carries out a theoretical systematization of the information referred to the quantitative paradigm, starting from the suppositions that hold it. The results would come to solve problems in this kind of investigation. The data presented in a contextualized way will respond to the question, how can the methods be understood? How can they be applied to research the Salvadorean reality?. On the other hand, this research project pretends to benefit Universidad de Oriente by a systematization of data that would be a source to support researching activities. III. OBJECTIVES GENERAL OBJECTIVE To provide theoretical and methodological foundations to develop qualitative research projects by the students majoring in Licenciatura en Idioma Inglés. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. To describe the theoretical foundation of the process of the qualitative research. 2. To establish the methods and techniques of the qualitative research. 3. To provide guidelines to do qualitative research projects applied to foreing language learning issuses.
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