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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) - volume4 Issue5May 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1230



Clustering Based Energy Efficient Routing For
Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks
Dr.B. Vijaya Babu
#1
, N. Manoj Kumar
*2

#
Professor, Department Computer Science and Engineering, KLUniversity
Vaddeswaram, Guntur, AP, India

*
Student, Department Of Computer Science and Engineering, KLUniversity
Vaddeswaram, Guntur, AP, India


Abstract In This Paper we are proposing a new routing
mechanism named as Cluster based Energy Efficient
routing for WSN and also proposed a mechanism for
increasing lifetime of a Wireless Sensor Network, by
creating virtual nodes in the Network. So we can send
information through these nodes, so that we can reduce the
delay in the network.

Keywords Cluster, WSN, Delay
I. INTRODUCTION
A Wireless Sensor Network is a kind of Network and
which mainly consists of sensor nodes and with basic property
of sensing to other nodes in the Network. There are mainly
two types of WSN are there they are,
i. Homogeneous WSN
ii. Heterogeneous WSN

Homogeneous WSN:
It is one kind of wireless sensor network and there
may be more number of sensor nodes and which are of same
kind, but the sensor nodes which doesnt have longer
transmission range and also have short sensing range. Security
is a very big issue in this Homogeneous WSN. If the Intruder
is at longer distance from the sensing node then it is difficult
detect the intruder in the network. In the same manner if the
intruder is moves from one place to the other then it is also
very difficult to find the intruder to sensing nodes. It is purely
static clustering (cluster heads once detected, serve for entire
lifetime of the network). It is evident that the cluster head
nodes will be over-loaded with long range transmission to the
remote Base Station(BS), and also desirable to ensure that all
the nodes run out of their battery at about the same time.

Heterogeneous WSN:
The Heterogeneous WSN getting importance in
solving complex problems and consisting of different
environmental conditions. It mainly consists of sensor nodes
of different kind. The Heterogeneous WSN are three types
they are,
i. Computational Heterogeneity
ii. Link Heterogeneity
iii. Energy Heterogeneity

Computational Heterogeneity:
Computational Heterogeneity means that the
heterogeneous node has more powerful micro processor and
more memory than the normal node. It will work more
powerful than the normal node in the Network in Solving the
complex Problems.
Link Heterogeneity:
A Heterogeneous node that has high bandwidth and long
distance network transceiver than the normal node. So it will
sense all the nodes in the network of long distances even when
they are at the border of the Network. But it will take more
energy than the normal node. A Link heterogeneity can
provide more reliable data transmission.
Energy Heterogeneity:
A Heterogeneous node that is line powered or its
battery is replaceable, and among all the above three types of
resource heterogeneity energy heterogeneity is most important
because it consumes less energy.
The Sensor nodes in WSN are static after deployment
and communicate through mainly through broadcast instead of
point-to-point communication. A Lot of protocols designed
for sensor networks.
Ex:
SPINS (Sensor protocol for Information via
Navigations)
LEAP (Localized Encryption and Authentication
Protocol)
These are the two main protocols that are designed to provide
Security in Wireless Sensor Networks.


International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) - volume4 Issue5May 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1231

II. PROBLEM DEFINITION
In the Previous Systems of Heterogeneous WSN, we are
using some mechanisms to send information efficiently to the
destination node, but it is difficult to maintain the energy or
power of a node so the node energy will decrease
automatically, The Life Span of a WS node will undergo
automatically in the previous systems. And the routing
protocols which we are using earlier in this WSN will take
long time to pass information.
III. PROPOSED SYSTEM
To overcome the above problems in the network we
proposed an energy efficient way for increasing the life span
of wireless sensor node, by creating the virtual nodes in the
Heterogeneous WSN. So that by using the virtual nodes to
send the information to other nodes in the network in the
mean while we can send the actual nodes to sleep or idle mode,
so if we save energy or power at a single node automatically
the life span of a wireless sensor node will be increased. Here
we are also concentrating on routing among the nodes in the
heterogeneous WSN, and proposing a cluster routing
mechanism for efficient routing in the Network.
IV. RELATED WORK
Jos Ceclio, et.al, describes a Routing in sensor networks is
very challenging, due to several characteristics that distinguish
them from contemporary communication and wireless ad-hoc
networks. Many new goal and data-oriented algorithms have
been proposed for the problem of routing data in sensor
networks. Most routing protocols can be classified as data-
centric, hierarchical, location-based or QoS aware. Data-
centric protocols are query-based and depend on the naming
of desired data. Hierarchical protocols aim at clustering the
nodes so that cluster heads can do some aggregation and
reduction of data in order to save energy. Location-based
protocols utilize the position information to relay the data to
the desired regions. The QoS-aware is based on general
network-flow modelling for meeting some QoS requirements.
In this chapter, we will explore the goal and data-oriented
routing mechanisms for sensor networks developed in recent
years. Our aim is to help better understanding current routing
protocols for wireless sensor networks and point out open
issues that should be subject to further research.
Konrad Iwanicki et.al, describes a Hierarchical routing
approach for point-to-point routing with very small routing
state. While there are many theoretical analyses and high-
level simulations demonstrating its benefits, there has been
little work to evaluate it in a realistic wireless sensor network
setting. Based on numerous proposed hierarchical routing
infrastructures, we develop a framework that captures the
common characteristics of the infrastructures and identifies
design points where the infrastructures differ. We then
evaluate the implementation of the framework in TOSSIM
and on a 60-node test bed. We demonstrate that from the
practical perspective hierarchical routing is also an appealing
routing approach for sensor networks. Despite only
logarithmic routing state, it can offer low routing stretch: the
average of _1.25 and the 99-th percentile of 2. Moreover, a
hierarchical routing infrastructure can be autonomously
bootstrapped and maintained by the nodes. By exploring the
design points within our framework, the hierarchy
maintenance protocol can optimize different metrics, such as
the latency of bootstrapping and repairing the hierarchy after
failures or the traffic volume, depending on the application
requirements.
Professor Kristofer S. J. Pester et.al, describes about the
Networks of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes equipped
with sensing, computing and communication ability are
conceivable with recent technological advancement. Methods
are presented in this report to recover and visualize data from
wireless sensor networks, as well as to estimate node positions.
A communication system is assumed wherein information
from sensor nodes can be transferred to a centralized
computer for data processing, though suggestions are made
for extensions to distributed computation. Specifically, this
report presents four topics. First, the notion of using network
connectivity to reconstruct node positions via linear or semi
definite programming is explored. Random feasible node.
Placement and bounding methods are both found to increase
in precision with the individual geographical constraints.
Second, the potential effectiveness of two correlation-based
sensor data encoding schemes is reported. Blind correlation
methods are found to provide meagre compression while
semi-blind correlation can effectively reduce bandwidth
requirements by one-half. Third, trajectory reconstruction
through a sparse sensor network is used to track objects with
expectation-minimization techniques. Trajectories can be
distinguished providing that sufficient spatial or temporal
separation exists. Fourth, optical flow algorithms are used to
visualize time-varying continuous flow around the network. A
qualitative analysis of the reconstructed flow for several case
studies suggests a minimal node density as related to flow
speeds.
V. METHODOLOGY
This Paper mainly deals with the heterogeneous
WSN, and in which we discussed about the computational and
energy heterogeneity because of its long transmission range
and consumes less energy. So in every WSN efficient routing
of information and life time of the wireless sensor node is
very crucial, and there are many routing protocols designed
for routing in WSN. The diagram represents Heterogeneous
WSN.
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) - volume4 Issue5May 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1232

From the above Heterogeneous Network, it mainly consists of
three types of sensor nodes are there namely TYPE A, TYPE
B and TYPE C and each are deployed in the network. Our
study mainly deals with the Increasing life time of nodes and
Efficient Routing for transmission over the Network.
i. Increasing Life time of WS Node
ii. Creating Virtual Node
iii. Node Cluster based Routing
i. Increasing Life time of WS Node:
It is very important in any Heterogeneous WSN,
because the sensor nodes used in the network consumes more
energy. So the Life span of sensor node becomes reduced. To
overcome this we are sending some of the sensor nodes to
SLEEP mode or IDLE, by activating remaining nodes for
sensing which are having large transmission range and with
minimum Neighbours.

Figure 1: Selection of node in Heterogeneous network
Instead of activating all the sensor nodes in the
network, we are using some nodes for sensing so that we can
save energy at other nodes. If we save energy at single node
then automatically the Life Span of that node will be increased.
In the mean while we are using some Virtual nodes in the
Network for data transmission among the nodes. But those are
not used for sensing. So we can reduce the delay in
transmission over the network.
ALGORITHM
n-total number of nodes in the network.
N- Neighbor node
V- Virtual node
Ni- total no of neighbor nodes to type i node.
1. Select the total number of nodes in the network S.
Repeat
a). for i=1 to n
Select a node with min N(a)
2. Select some of the nodes with minimum neighbours
a). if Ni=0
b). select i.
repeat ;
until S=S/2;
3. Send the remaining actual nodes to idle

4. Select a virtual node v in the network for transmission.
ii. Creating Virtual Node:
A Virtual Node is a kind of node and it works as a
normal node in the Wireless Sensor Network. But it is not
useful for sensing and only used for transmission of data over
the Network, to reduce the delay in the network. These virtual
nodes dont perform any special operations but it will through
the data or information as it gets from the previous node.
iii. Node and Cluster Based Routing:
Cluster is a group or collection of similar data or
same kind of elements placed in a particular area. Here we are
using Heterogeneous WSN. So in which we have different
kind of sensor nodes are there. We can form clusters by using
these nodes present in the network. The below diagram
represents Heterogeneous WSN.

Figure 2: Heterogeneous network with cluster
From the above Heterogeneous Network there are three types
of nodes namely TYPE A, B and C. We form a single cluster
with TYPE C nodes, in the same manner we have to form all
the three clusters which belongs to TYPE A and TYPE B. All
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) - volume4 Issue5May 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1233

the cluster information and node information which belongs to
the cluster has to be stored in the Base Station. If any packet
comes from a different place to the Network, then the base
station will route the packet to destination by using the Cluster
information which has been already stored in the BS.
The Base station will consists of Cluster Name, Node
number, name, Neighbour node information by using these
information the BS will forward the packet to the destination.
If the Packet is comes from the node in the same network then
it will directly goes to the BS. Then it will check for the node
whether it belongs to which cluster and then it will directly
routed to that node. By using these clusters we can easily
identify the node in the network.
An Algorithm has been proposed for Node and Cluster based
Routing.
ALGORITHM
n- number of nodes in the network.
N- Neighbour nodes
i- Sensor node
N (i) - Number of neighbour nodes to node i
Ca, Cb, Cc- Clusters
Ip-internet packet
BS- base station
1. Create an ip packet and send it to the Network,
2. BS receives the ip packet
3. Verify all the clusters
If ci<=C
Verify from first cluster ci(i=Ca, Cb, Cc)
Select a cluster
For cj=1; c<=n; c++
cj- verify cluster node(j=1 to n)
Repeat;
Until cj=node;
4. Select the node.
Forward the data to the node cj.
This algorithm represents that the node cluster routing
mechanism provides efficient transmission of data over the
Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor networks.
CONCLUSION
By using this routing mechanism named as Cluster
based routing for WSN, we can easily identify the nodes and
send the information quickly. And also proposed a mechanism
for increasing lifetime of a Wireless Sensor Network, by
creating virtual nodes in the Network. So we can send
information through these nodes, instead of using all the nodes
every time for information sending. So that we can reduce the
delay in the network.
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