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Introduction:

Over the years, engineers have found many ways to utilize the force that can be imparted

by a jet of fluid on a surface diverting the flow.

For example, the pelt on wheel has been used to make flour. Further more, the impulse

turbine is still used in the first and sometimes in the second stages of steam turbine.

Firemen make use of the kinetic energy stored in a jet to deliver water above the level in the

nozzle to extinguish fires in high-rise buildings. Fluid jets are also used in industry for cutting

metals and debarring.

Many other applications of fluid jets can be cited which reveals their technological

importance.

This experiment aims at assessing the different forces exerted by the same water jet on a

variety of geometrical different plates. The results obtained experimentally are to be

compared with the ones inferred from theory through utilizing the applicable versions of the

Bernoulli and momentum equations.

Objectives:

1. To determine the force produced by a water jet when it strikes a flat vane and

a hemispherical cup.

2. To compare the results measured with the theoretical values calculated from

the momentum flux in the jet.

Theory:

For the general case shown in figure (1) the momentum flux in the jet is (muo)

Where:

- m is the mass flow rate

- Uo is the jet velocity just upstream of the vane.

) in the x-direction. Thus the force F in the x-direction on the vane is:-mu|) in the x-

direction. The force on the fluid is therefore (mu1cos|, the momentum flux is (mu1cos|After

being deflected through the angle

F = m (uo-u1cos) (1)

=0 and equation (1) reduces to:| so cos=90|Now in the case of the plate figure 3a

F=muo

= -1 and equation (1) reduces to:| so cos=180|For a hemispherical cup, figure 2b

F=m (uo-u1)

Furthermore if there is a negligible reduction of a speed so that (u0=u1) then

F=2muo

In the experiment it is not possible to measure directly just upstream of the vane. However

the velocity u at the exit of the nozzle can be determined. The velocity uo is somewhat less

this due to declamation caused by gravity and can be calculated from the Bernoulli equation

that is:

g)g) = (u0^2/2g)+(Zo)+(Po/(U^2/2g)+(Z)+(P/

Now from figure 2a Z=0 Po=P Zo=s and this yields to:

u^2= uo-2gs

which can be written as:

uo^2=u^2-2gs

where s is the distance between the nozzle exit and the surface of the valve. In order to

calculate the force on the valve due to the jet we take the moment about the pivot of the

weighing beam figure 3 and substitute known values into the equation we get:

XAF*0.1525 = 0.610*g*

Or

XAF = 4g

Apparatus:

Hydraulic bench, water jet apparatus, stopwatch.

The water is supplied to the jet apparatus in a closed loop by a pump. The flow rate is

determined with the use of a weighing tank, and a stopwatch. The water issues vertically

upwards into the air, through a nozzle. Two objects are available:

1. A flat plate

2. Hemispherical cup

Each object can be mounted on a horizontal lever above the water jet and receive its

impact. The force on the object can be determined with the use of weights that can be hung

at different positions on the lever, see figure 4.

Procedure:

1. Stand the apparatus on the hydraulic bench, with the drainpipe immediately

above the hole leading to the weighing tank, see figure 4. Connect the bench supply

hose to the inlet pipe on the apparatus, using a hose-clip to secure the connection.

2. Fit the flat plate to the apparatus. If the cup is fitted, remove it by undoing the

retaining screw and lifting it out, complete with the loose cover plate. Take care not

to drop the cup in the plastic cylinder.

3. Fit the cover plate over the stem of the flat plate and hold it in position below

the beam. Screw in the retaining screw and tighten it.

4. Set the weigh-beam to its datum position. First set the jockey weight on the

beam so that the datum groove is at zero on the scale, figure 5. Turn the adjusting

nut, above the spring, until the grooves on the tally are in line with the top plate as

shown in figure 6. This indicates the datum position to which the beam must be

returned, during the experiment, to measure the force produced by the jet.

5. Switch on the bench pump and open the bench supply valve to admit water to

the apparatus. Check that the drainpipe is over the hole leading to the weighing tank.

6. Fully open the supply valve and slide the jockey weight along the beam until

the tally returns to record the reading on the scale corresponding to the groove on

the jockey weight.

7. Measure the flow rate by limiting the collection of 30Kg of water in the bench-

weighing bank.

8. Move the jockey weight inwards by 10 to 15mm and reduce the flow rate until

the beam is approximately level. Set the beam to exactly the correct position (as

indicated by the tally) by moving the jockey weight, and record the scale reading.

Measure the flow rate.

9. Repeat step 8 until you have about 6 sets of readings over the range flow.

For the last set, the jockey should be set at about 10mm from the zero position. At

the lower flow rates you can reduce the mass of water collected in the weighing tank

to 15Kg.

10. Switch off the bench pump and fit the hemispherical cup to the apparatus

using the method in steps 2 and 3. Repeat step 4 to check the datum setting.

11. Repeat steps 5 to 9, but this time move the jockey in steps of about 25mm

and take the last set of readings at about 20mm.

12. Switch of the bench pump and record the mass m of the jockey weight, the

diameter d of the nozzle, and the distance s of the vanes from the outlet of the

nozzle.

Sample Of Calculations:

1. m = mw/T [ in table 1: 7.5/16.52=0.454 Kg/S]

[ in table 2: 7.5/17.29=0.434 Kg/S]

/4*0.001=0.0785 [in table 1: 0.454/0.0785=5.78m/s] [in table 2: 0.434/0.0785=5.53m/s]t2.

m = uA u= m/A A= 1000*

3. From Bernoullis equation: (u^2/2g)+(Z1)+(P1/g)= (uo^2/2g)+(Z2)+(P2/g) Z1=0 Po=P

Z2=s=40mm uo^2= u^2-2gs [in table 1: (5.78^2)-(2*9.81*.04)]^2=5.71m/s [in table 2:

(5.53^2)-(2*9.81*.04)]^2=5.46m/s

4. By summing the moment around the pivot in figure (3) we obtain:

XAX=0 Fw=4gAFw*0.1525-m1g

5. For flat plate:

)|F = m (uo-u1cos

=90|Where

X = 0.06m = 2.59N]A F = muo [so F for

6. For the hemispherical vane:

)|F = m (uo- u1 cos

=180|Where

X = 0.012mA F = m (uo+ u1) F = 2muo [so F for

= 2*2.37=4.74N]

Source of Errors:

1. Turning the adjusting nut above the spring until the grooves on the tally are in

the line with the top plate as shown in figure 6.

2. Recording the reading on the scale corresponding to the groove on the jockey

weight.

3. Starting timer and adding weights when beam moves to horizontal.

4. Stopping timer when beam moves to horizontal again.

x) are close to those found experimentally. So we connect these points with a straight

line.AThe values of F theoretical (calculated from 4g

2mux) is equal to the double of mu AAlso from this graph we see that the calculated F

(4g

Conclusions:

The results obtained theoretically are close to those obtained experimentally.

Accuracy = (muo-4gX /4gX) *100%

For flat plate:

(2.59-2.35/2.35)=10.2%

(2.10-1.96/1.96)=7.14%

(1.73-1.57/1.57)=10.2%

(1.35-1.18/1.18)=14.4%

(0.9-0.78/0.78)=15.4%

For hemispherical cup:

(4.74-4.71/4.71)=0.64%

(4.08-3.92/3.92)=4.08%

(3.6-3.14/3.14)=14.6%

(2.7-2.35/2.35)=14.9%

(1.90-1.57/1.57)=21.0%

(0.94-0.78/0.78)=20.5%

X=0 so F=0A3. If the line didnt pass through the origin that means that there is an error,

because if the force is zero ( the jet doesnt touch the vane) the should be placed at the

origin which means

uo because we neglect reduction of speed so that u=uo fo = 2muo but the force on the

hemispherical cup less than twice that on the flat plate.>4. F = m (uo = u) u

5. to find the thickness of the water film at the circumference of the hemispherical case:

.uo.Amo =

.u1.Am1 for the water film is equal to

rt and u0 = u1twhere A = 2

r = 0.03m and the mass flow is constant then

*0.03)= 0.4167mmt*0.01*0.01)/(8*tt = (

upward will be a moment in the x-direction which will decrease the moment in the y-

direction F=m (1.99uo) and it wont effect the results too much.6. The effect on the

calculated force on the flat plate if the jet was assumed to leave the plate at 1

7. a. The effect will be:

X]/0.1525A 0.001) gF = [(0.610

b. The effect will be:

0.001)X)/(01525AF = (0.610*g

c. The effect will be:

0.0001))} -2gs]^1/2(DtF = m [{(m)/(

8. If the velocity in the jet wasnt uniform we will divide the jet into a two separate regions in

which we solve for each one separately.

X using time intervals measured experimentally.A in our experiment we have learned lots

of things, we have had a close look on how the hydraulic bench and how a water jet work.

We also have learned to calculate the force caused by a water jet experimentally using

different sets of data and also learned how to calculate the mass flow rate and speed of

water using the mass of weights and their

there is for sure a difference between our results and the theoretical ones because of

different sources of errors that have been discussed earlier in this report.

Posted by Dr. Shihab Al-Abed at 5:59 AM

Labels: Thermal Lab

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