Translation Jeffrey Spitzer

Talmud Bavli Rosh haShanah 29b to Mishnah 4:1
Mishnah: When the festival of the New Year occurs on Shabbat, they would blow shofar
in the Temple but not in the outlying areas. After the Temple was destroyed, Rabban
Yohanan ben Zakkai established that they would blow in every place in which there is a
Rabbinic court. Said R. Eleazar: Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai only established this for
Yavneh alone. They said to him: Yavneh is the same as any other place in which there is
a Rabbinic court.
Gemara: From where in the Torah does this law
come? Said R. Levi bar Lachma said R. Hama bar
Haninah: One verse says "a day of complete rest
commemorated with the blowing of the shofar,
shabbaton zikhron teruah" (Leviticus 23:24) and
one verse says "it will be for you a day of blowing
the shofar, yom teruah yihyeh lakhem" (Numbers
29:1). There is no problem. This one is when the
festival occurs on Shabbat. This one is when the
festival occurs on a weekday.
Said Rava: If it [i.e. the prohibition to blow shofar on shabbat] is based on the Torah,
how did we blow shofar in the Temple? Furthermore, this [blowing shofar] is not even
melakhah (prohibited work) that it requires a verse to exclude it! As it was taught in the
[school-]house of Shmuel, "no manner of work shall you do" excluding blowing shofar
and removing [already baked] bread [from an oven,] which are skills and not prohibited
work.
Rather, Rava said: [Blowing shofar on shabbat] is permitted by the Torah but it was the
Rabbis who made a decree against it, as this which Rabbah said shows: As Rabbah said:
Everyone is obligated with respect to the blowing of
the shofar but not everyone is an expert at blowing
the shofar. [So the rabbis instituted] a decree, lest
someone grasp it (the shofar) in one's hand and
walk to an expert to learn and carry it four amot (six
feet) in the public domain. And that is the same
reason for lulav and the same reason for megillah.
After the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai established [that they
would blow shofar (when Rosh haShanah fell on shabbat) in any place in which there
was a rabbinic court]. Our rabbis taught: Once, Rosh haShanah fell on shabbat and all of
the cities were gathering. Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai said to B'nei Beteira: Let's blow
shofar. They said to him: Let's discuss/vote [first]. He said to them: Let's blow shofar
and afterwards we will vote. After they blew shofar, they said to him: Let's vote. He said
to them: The horn has already been heard in Yavneh and there is no returning after the
fact.
Rashi: commemorated with
the blowing of the shofar
[Hama b. Haninah reads this as
"a commemoration of blowing
shofar"]: and not a real
blowing; rather, they recite
verses about the blowing of
shofar.
Rashi: a decree lest someone
grasp it--but in the Temple, it
was not decreed, because there
are no rabbinic "shvut"
prohibitions applied to the
Temple.

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