Animal and Veterinary Sciences

2013; 1(2) : 12-17
Published online March 10, 2013 (http://wwwsciencepublishin! !roupco"/#/a$s)
doi: 1011%&'/# a$s2013010211

Ethological problems and learning disability due to
aluminium toxicity in rats
Amira A. Goma
1
, Usama E. Mahrous
2

1
(ept o) *ni"al +usbandr, and wealth de$elop"ent, -acult, o) .eterinar, Medicine, *le/andria 0ni$ersit,, 1!,pt
2
(ept o) *ni"al +usbandr, and wealth de$elop"ent, -acult, o) .eterinar, Medicine, (a"anhour 0ni$ersit,, 1!,pt
Email address:
bab,tuota20023,ahooco" (* * 4o"a) , usa"a 15%%3da"anhouredue! (0 1 Mahrous)
To cite this article:
*"ira * 4o"a, 0sa"a 1 Mahrous 1tholo!ical Proble"s and 6earnin! (isabilit, (ue to *lu"inu" 7o/icit, in 8ats, Animal and
Veterinary Sciences. .ol 1, 9o 2, 2013, pp 12-17 doi: 1011%&'/#a$s2013010211

Abstract: * total o) 32 :pra!ue-(awle, adult rats were used to in$esti!ate the e))ect o) alu"inu" to/icit, on beha$ioral
patterns o) adult )e"ale rats and learnin! abilit, o) o))sprin! 8ats were allotted into & !roups, !roup one recei$ed 2!/l an-
h,drous alu"inu" chloride (n;10), !roup two recei$ed 3!/l anh,drous alu"inu" chloride (n;10), !roup three recei$ed
32!/l anh,drous alu"inu" chloride in drin<in! water (n;10) and control !roup did not recei$e anh,drous alu"inu" chlo-
ride (n;2) )ro" 'th da, o) pre!nanc, till weanin! o) pups 7he obtained results showed that )eedin! ti"e increased si!ni)i-
cantl, in 2!/l and 32!/l anh,drous alu"inu" chloride !roups than control one, while, litter lic<in! )re=uenc, and nursin!
ti"e increased si!ni)icantl, in 2!/l anh,drous alu"inu" chloride than other !roups >n contrar, l,in! ti"e decreased si!-
ni)icantl, in rats treated with 2!/l anh,drous alu"inu" chloride than other !roups, lic<in! and scratchin! decreased in 3!/l
and 32!/l anh,drous alu"inu" chloride !roups ?n considerin!, the ti"e spent in closed ar"s b, o))sprin!, pups spent si!-
ni)icantl, "uch ti"e than control !roup, while, ti"e spent in open ar"s o) ele$ated plus "a@e decreased si!ni)icantl, in all
treated !roups than control !roup >n the other hand, nu"ber o) entries in open ar"s si!ni)icantl, decreased in treated !roups
than control one
Keywords: *lu"inu" 7o/icit,, 8ats, 6earnin! *bilit,, Aeha$ior
1. Introduction
6i$estoc< sub#ected to wide $ariet, o) stressors (e!
ther"al, nutritional, en$iron"ental and producti$e) but
there ha$e been a si!ni)icant increase in interest in ps,cho-
lo!ical or beha$ioral stressors due to concern o$er ani"al
wellbein! 7he e/istence o) beha$ioral needs or instincti$e
deri$es (e! )or e/ercise, social interaction or control o$er
en$iron"ental sti"uli) ha$e beco"e i"portant issues B12C
B7C obser$ed si!ni)icant alterations in )eed and water con-
su"ption durin! !estation in da"s e/posed to alu"inu",
also B15C de"onstrated that "elatonin reduced o/idati$e
da"a!e induced b, alu"inu" in rat <idne, and di))erences
in )eed and water inta<e o) alu"inu" treated rats )ro"
controls * sin!le oral dose o) alu"inu" nitrate "onoh,-
drate 1327 "!/<! !i$en to "ice on !estation da, 12 and
)ound that alu"inu" induced "aternal to/icit, b, reduction
in )eed consu"ption B5C -urther"ore, B1%C when assed the
in)luence o) lon! ter" alu"inu" chloride inta<e on bio-
che"ical para"eters b, ad"inistration o) alu"inu" chlo-
ride in drin<in! water at a dose o) '0 "!/l )or three "onths
)ound that )eed and water inta<e decreased B1C stated that
e/posure to alu"inu" was associated with si!ni)icant re-
ductions in spontaneous loco"otor beha$ior in open )ield
test and not caused an, si!ni)icant alterations o) the ani"alDs
per)or"ance in 8ota-rod test, while there were si!ni)icant
reductions in e/plorator, acti$it, in open )ield test
B2%C reported that )our out o) si/ rats consu"ed alu"inu"
)ro" 1% "onths o) a!e to the conclusion o) their li)espan
(a$era!e 25' "onths) in an a"ount (12 "!/<! bod, wei!ht)
continued to per)or" the "e"or, tas< in old a!e without
si!ni)icant de)icit and the re"ainin! two obtained si!ni)i-
cantl, lower "ean "e"or, scores in old a!e than in "iddle
a!e *lso, there are considerable interest !enerated in pre-
natal in)luence o) en$iron"ental and nutritional )actors on
ph,sical and "ental de$elop"ent o) o))sprin! where, pre-
natal e/posure o) rat pups to alu"inu" and lead produced
neurobeha$ioral i"pair"ents and learnin! de)icits charac-
teri@ed b, learnin! disabilities, h,poacti$ites and hi!h
e"otionalit, ?n addition, e/peri"ental desi!ns and "odels
o) laborator, ani"als are one o) !reat chance to sti"ulate
hu"an "aternal en$iron"ent and e/plorin! the potential
ris< o) such a!ents B12C
7he ob#ecti$es o) this stud, are to in$esti!ate the e))ect o)
*ni"al and .eterinar, :ciences 2013, 1(2): 12-17 13

anh,drous alu"inu" chloride to/icit, on wel)are o) rats b,
"easurin! beha$ior o) adult )e"ale rats and learnin! abilit,
o) their o))sprin!
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Animals
7his in$esti!ation was carried out at *ni"al +usbandr,
and ani"al Eealth (e$elop"ent (epart"ent, -acult, o)
.eterinar, Medicine, *le/andria 0ni$ersit,, 2012
* total o) 32 :pra!ue-(awle, pre!nant )e"ale rats (3
"onths F 110-130!) were allotted into )our !roups, !roup
one recei$ed 2!/l anh,drous alu"inu" chloride in drin<in!
water (n;10) B13C, !roup two recei$ed 3!/l anh,drous alu-
"inu" chloride in drin<in! water (n;10) B22C, !roup three
recei$ed 32!/l anh,drous alu"inu" chloride in drin<in!
water (n;10) B20C and !roup )our recei$ed water without
anh,drous alu"inu" chloride (n;2) dail, )ro" da, '
pre!nanc, till weanin! B'C
2.2. Management
8ats were )ed ration containin! 1%3G crude protein, %' G
)at and 32 G crude )iber, housed in 32 indi$idual breedin!
plastic ca!es (37/30/1&c") with 1-2 c" wood sha$in!
beddin! replaced two ti"es per wee< 8ats were <ept under
natural li!ht-dar< c,cle without an, alteration in li!htin!
pro!ra"
.a!inal s"ears were done to detect the ti"e o) positi$e
estrus accordin! to B1&C then "atin! too< place b, "ono-
!a"ous s,ste" where one )e"ale was re!ularl, "ated b,
one "ale introduced to )e"ales in breedin! ca!es B10C and
then persists with pups till weanin! Pre!nanc, was detected
b, $a!inal s"ears on the ne/t "ornin! and the da, o) )ind-
in! sper"s was called da, @ero o) !estation B1'C
2.3. Behavioral Observations
8ats were obser$ed three ti"es wee<l, and )our hours
dail, within periods o) late "ornin! and earl, a)ternoon
-ocal sa"ple obser$ation was carried out accordin! to B21C
7he obser$ed patterns were in!esti$e, bod, care, restin!,
"o$e"ent, in$esti!ator, beha$ior, while, "aternal beha$ior
carried out accordin! to B11C includin! lic<in! (!roo"in!),
nursin!, nest buildin! and retrie$in!
6earnin! abilit, was "easured b, usin! the ele$ated plus
"a@e accordin! to B22C, where the ele$ated plus H"a@e
apparatus was "ade o) s"ooth brown opa=ue plat)or"s with
two open ar"s (20/10 c") and two closed ar"s o) the sa"e
si@e, the wall o) this cha"ber was &0 c" hi!h and the whole
apparatus was ele$ated 20 c" abo$e )loor 1ach rat was
placed in the central s=uare (10/10c") )acin! closed ar" *t
the end o) each trial lastin! 2 "in, the ar"s was cleaned and
dried to re"o$e e/creta 7he recorded para"eters were ti"e
spent in open or closed ar"s, ti"e o) latenc, in seconds that
rats too< to enter open or closed ar", nu"ber o) entries into
open and closed ar"s and ratio spent in open and/or closed
ar"s e/pressed as percenta!e
2.4. Statistical Analysis
7he beha$ioral data was anal,@ed b, two wa, anal,sis o)
$ariance and learnin! abilit, data was anal,@ed b, one wa,
anal,sis o) $ariance proc 46M b, :*: so)tware $ersion %,
&
th
1dition, :*: ?nstitute, Iar,, 9I 0:*
. !esults and "iscussion
7he data presented in 7able (1) showed that )eedin! ti"e
increased si!ni)icantl, (pJ002) in rats treated with 2!/l
(5%2K0%% "in/hr) and 32!/l anh,drous alu"inu" chlo-
ride (7'7K0%1 "in/hr) than control !roup (2%2K025
"in/hr), while, standin! ti"e decreased si!ni)icantl,
(PJ002) in rats treated with 3!/l anh,drous alu"inu"
chloride (020K002 "in/hr) than control !roup (0%2K01'
"in/hr), "oreo$er, l,in! ti"e decreased si!ni)icantl,
(PJ002) in rats treated with 2!/l anh,drous alu"inu"
chloride (2''5K1'3 "in/hr) than other !roups
Table 1. least square means and their standard error of the effect of aluminum chloride (Alcl3) and period of pregnancy and lactation on ingestive and resting
behavior of rats.
Item
In#esti$e beha$ior !estin# beha$ior
%eedin#
&Min'hr.(
"rin)in#
&Time'hr.(
*tandin#
&Min'hr.(
+yin#
&Min'hr.(
7reat"ent
Iontrol 2%2K025
c
0%%K00'
a
0%2K01'
a
3%7'K202
a

2!/l *lcl3 5%2K0%%
a
073K00%
a
035K005
ab
2''5K1'3
b

3!/l *lcl3 %1%K035
c
02&K007
a
020K002
b
3%51K1%1
a

32 !/l *lcl3 7'7K0%1
b
0%5K007
a
0&3K00'
ab
3%53K1&2
a

Period


2
nd
Eee< pre!nanc, &27K02%
c
0&2K007
c
07&K012
a
2&5'K0%2
a

3
rd
Eee< pre!nanc, &70K021
c
022K007
bc
0&0K010
b
2221K02'
a

1
st
Eee< lactation 253K0&5
c
0%'K007
b
03%K00'
b
22'2K1&&
b

2
nd
Eee< lactation '&'K0%2
b
0%'K007
b
022K007
b
1552K11%
c

3
rd
Eee< lactation 1127K050
a
05&K010
a
012K007
b
15'1K105
c

Means within the same column under the same category carry different superscripts are significantly different.
(urin! last two wee<s o) pre!nanc, and durin! lactation
period )eedin! ti"e and drin<in! )re=uenc, increased si!-
ni)icantl, (1127K050 "in/hr and 05&K010 ti"e/hr
pJ002) while, standin! ti"e decreased !raduall, durin!
1& *"ira * 4o"a et al.: 1tholo!ical proble"s and learnin! disabilit, due to alu"iniu" to/icit, in rats

e/peri"ental period especiall, durin! last wee< o) lactation,
while rats e/hibited "uch l,in! ti"e durin! last two wee<s
o) pre!nanc, than durin! lactation period with a !radual
decrease durin! lactation period 7hese results are in close
accordance with B7C who )ound no si!ni)icant alterations in
)eed consu"ption or water consu"ption durin! !estation in
da"s e/posed to alu"inu" and B15C who de"onstrated that
"elatonin reduces o/idati$e da"a!e induced b, alu"inu"
in rat <idne, and )ound that )eed and water inta<e o) alu-
"inu" treated rats were not di))erent )ro" controls Ehile,
B5C )ound that sin!le oral dose o) alu"inu" nitrate "ono-
h,drate 1327 "!/<! !i$en to "ice on !estation da, 12 in-
duced "aternal to/icit, b, reduction in )eed consu"ption
-urther"ore, B1%C when assed the in)luence o) lon! ter"
alu"inu" chloride inta<e on bioche"ical para"eters b,
ad"inistration o) alu"inu" chloride in drin<in! water at a
dose o) '0 "!/l )or three "onths )ound that )eed and water
inta<e decreased
6ic<in! and scratchin! )re=uencies (7able 2) decreased
si!ni)icantl, (PJ002) in rats treated with 3!/l and 32!/l
anh,drous alu"inu" chloride than control !roup (210K015
and 15'K015 $s 312K021 7i"e/hr), while treat"ent had
no si!ni)icant e))ect on "o$e"ent acti$ities and in$esti!a-
tion o) ca!e and trou!h )re=uencies +owe$er, there were
Moreo$er, )indin!s concernin! e))ect o) !radual increase in
the "o$e"ent acti$ities and trou!h e/ploration throu!hout
pre!nanc, and lactation period with hi!hest incre"ent dur-
in! last wee< o) lactation (15'K020 and 005K002
7i"e/hr), while, da"s e/hibited si!ni)icantl, (PJ002) and
!radual decline in lic<in! )re=uenc, and ca!e in$esti!ation
)ro" 2
nd
wee< o) pre!nanc, (3%0K0&0 and 1'1K023
7i"e/hr) till 3
rd
wee< o) lactation in lic<in! (12'K022
7i"e/hr) and 2
nd
wee< o) lactation )or ca!e e/ploration
(055K01& 7i"e/hr) 7he in)luence o) treat"ent on "o$e-
"ent acti$ities a!reed with B%C who reported that e/posure
o) rats to alu"inu" nitrate "onoh,drate had no si!ni)icant
e))ect on loco"otor acti$it, in an open )ield test -urther-
"ore, B7C )ound no alterations in the "otor acti$it, in the
open )ield test )or alu"inu" treated rats *lso, B23C reported
that e/posin! rats to alu"inu" in drin<in! water did not
alter si!ni)icantl, "otor acti$it, in the open )ield test while,
B1C stated that e/posure to alu"inu" was associated with
si!ni)icant reductions in spontaneous loco"otor beha$ior in
open )ield test and not caused an, si!ni)icant alterations o)
the ani"alDs per)or"ance in 8ota-rod test, while there were
si!ni)icant reductions in e/plorator, acti$it, in open )ield
test
Table 2. least square means and their standard error of the effect of aluminum chloride (Alcl3) and period of pregnancy and lactation on movement activities
body care and investigatory behavior of rats.
Item
,ody care beha$ior In$esti#atory beha$ior
Mo$ement
&Time'hr.(
+ic)in#
&Time'hr.(
*cratchin#
&Time'hr.(
-a#e
&Time'hr.(
Trou#h &Time'hr.(
7reat"ent
Iontrol 312K021
a
30'K02&
a
121K027
a
007K002
a
123K01'
a

2!/l *lcl3 301K022
a
3&'K022
a
1&5K01%
a
00%K001
a
132K00'
a

3!/l *lcl3 210K015
b
237K020
b
115K013
a
011K002
a
12'K013
a

32 !/l *lcl3 15'K015
b
211K01&
b
1&2K01&
a
007K001
a
1'2K021
a

Period


2
nd
Eee< pre!nanc, 3%0K0&0
a
&20K0&2
a
1'1K023
a
010K002
a
112K01&
c

3
rd
Eee< pre!nanc, 2%2K02%
b
2&2K02&
c
137K017
ab
007K002
a
125K01&
bc

1
st
Eee< lactation 2'0K021
b
317K02&
b
13'K01'
ab
00'K002
a
17%K01&
ab

2
nd
Eee< lactation 172K015
c
20&K01%
c
055K01&
b
002K001
a
171K022
ab

3
rd
Eee< lactation 12'K022
c
171K01'
c
1&2K01'
ab
005K002
a
15'K020
a

Means within the same column under the same category carry different superscripts are significantly different.
*"on! the )our t,pes o) treat"ents the "aternal beha$ior
o) rats includin! lic<in! )re=uenc, o) pups and nursin! ti"e
were si!ni)icantl, hi!her (PJ002) in da"s treated with 2!/l
anh,drous alu"inu" chloride (3&'K037 ti"e/hr and
37&5K1&0 "in/hr, than other !roups and non-si!ni)icantl,
hi!her in nest buildin! and retrie$in! )re=uencies
(072K012 and 027K0077i"e/hr , respecti$el,) *ltera-
tions in beha$ior o) "other are <nown to a))ect in)ant de-
$elop"ent and se$eral dru!s ha$e been shown to disrupt
ele"ents o) "aternal beha$ior thus an, disturbance to "a-
ternal care or the delicate "other-pup relationship "a, e/-
plain di))erential patterns o) beha$ior in the o))sprin! rather
than direct e))ects o) prenatal e/posure to a to/icant and the
result o) a pilot stud, su!!ested that di))erences e/ist in the
pattern o) "aternal beha$ior displa,ed b, control and alu-
"inu" e/posed "others as control "others spent "ore ti"e
in$ol$ed in the pup-directed beha$iors o) nursin! and lic<-
in! and less ti"e in nest buildin! durin! the )irst two post-
natal wee<s than da"s treated with alu"inu" durin! !esta-
tion while treated "others had a lon!er latenc, to retrie$e on
postnatal da, 3 althou!h this di))erence did not reach si!ni-
)icance B17C
(urin! lactation period, da"s e/hibited si!ni)icantl,
(PJ002) !raduall, decline in lic<in! )re=uenc, o) pups and
nursin! ti"e )ro" 1
st
wee< (3&5K033 ti"e/hr and
3712K133 "in/hr) till 3
rd
wee< (1&0K01'ti"e/hr and
3257K05' "in/hr) +owe$er, nest buildin! and retrie$in!
)re=uencies were hi!her durin! 2
nd
wee< lactation
*ni"al and .eterinar, :ciences 2013, 1(2): 12-17 12

(0'3K01% and 032K00% 7i"e/hr) and lower durin! last
wee< o) lactation (033K007 and 002 7i"e/hr) 7he rapid
onset o) "aternal beha$ior in newl, parturient rat is sti"u-
lated in parturition b, the hor"onal chan!es acco"pan,in!
pre!nanc,, the parturient )e"ale displa,s )ull co"ple"ent
o) "aternal beha$ior at birth and in so"e cases be)ore par-
turition then decline with !rowth o) pups B2C B2C reported
that alu"inu" treated "others had no si!ni)icant e))ect on
nest buildin!, retrie$al o) pups to nest and ti"e spent with
,oun! )ollowin! e/posure to *6I6
3
in the da"Ds diet )ro"
da, ' o) !estation till parturition
Table 3. least square means and their standard error of the effect of aluminum chloride (Alcl3) and period of lactation on maternal behavior of rats.
Item
+ic)in#
&Time'hr.(
.ursin#
&Min'hr.(
.est buildin#
&Time'hr.(
!etrie$in#
&Time'hr.(
7reat"ent
Iontrol 230K03&
b
333'K&5'
b
035K00%
a
010K001
a

2!/l *lcl3 3&'K037
a
37&5K1&0
a
072K012
a
027K007
a

3!/l *lcl3 20'K021
b
3&'1K110
ab
0%&K017
a
015K00&
a

32!/l *lcl3 1%3K017
b
3272K131
b
021K005
a
015K00&
a

Period

1
st
Eee< lactation 3&5K033
a
3712K133
a
0%&K013
ab
023K00%
a

2
nd
Eee< lactation 22%K017
b
3&15K11&
ab
0'3K01%
a
032K00%
a

3
rd
Eee< lactation 1&0K01'
c
3257K05'
b
033K007
b
002K002
b

Means within the same column under the same category carry different superscripts are significantly different.
Pups which parentall, e/posed to alu"inu" had a !reater
e))ect on all neurobeha$ioral para"eters and su))ered )ro"
learnin! de)icits in which the ti"e needed )or correct choice
in "a@e leanin! test was si!ni)icantl, hi!her as co"pared to
control ones B12C Moreo$er, the a"ount alu"inu" chloride
in!ested b, rats had si!ni)icantl, lon!er (PJ002) ti"e spent
in latenc, to closed ar"s and ti"e spent in closed ar" )or
3!/l !roup (%'0K132 and 222&1K'22 sec) and shorter ti"e
in o))sprin! o) rats treated with 2!/l alu"inu" chloride
(&25K05% and 22&&3K721 sec) and $er, short ti"e in pups
)ro" da" )ed no alu"inu" (175K053 and 17072K2223
sec) +owe$er, the nu"ber o) entries to closed ar"s was
si!ni)icantl, hi!her in o))sprin! )ro" da" in!ested 32!/l
alu"inu" (3&'K02') than those in!ested 3! /l alu"inu"
(272K02') and 2!/l alu"inu" (22&K022)
7he presented data in 7able (&) deducted that pups )ro"
da"s that did not recei$e an, alu"inu" spent $er, short
ti"e to enter open ar"s in ele$ated plus "a@e (107K0&5 sec)
and spent $er, lon! ti"e in open ar"s (12735K22&' sec)
with "uch nu"ber o) entries into open ar"s (207K02%) and
hi!hl, open/closed ar" ratio (553'K020) >n contrar,
da"s consu"ed 2!/l alu"inu" chloride spent si!ni)icantl,
(PJ002) lon!er ti"e to enter open ar"s (1%5K022 sec),
spent short ti"e in it (3%2%K7%2 sec) and less nu"ber o)
entries (131K021) and low le$el o) open/closed ration
(5732K05) 7his could be attributed to se$eral M!
K2
de-
pendent en@,"e s,ste"s which could be disturbed as a
result o) its substitution with alu"inu"; "oreo$er, in)ants
"i!ht be at particular ris< o) alu"inu" to/icit, because o)
the i""aturit, o) the blood-brain barrier, the !ut and renal
s,ste" -urther"ore, the hippoca"pus and the cerebral
corte/ are the <e, structures o) "e"or, )or"ation because
the hippoca"pus is especiall, indispensable in the inte!ra-
tion o) spatial )or"ation, a decline in learnin! abilit, "a, be
induced b, the deterioration o) hippoca"pal )unction and
howe$er the )rontal corte/ pla,s a critical role in both spatial
and no spatial wor<in! "e"or, ?n addition, there "a, be
do"ain-speci)ic subdi$isions within dorsal and $entral re-
!ions o) the lateral pre)rontal corte/ which sub ser$e
wor<in! "e"or, )or spatial and no spatial in)or"ation B3C
Table 4. least square means and their standard error of the effect of aluminum chloride (Alcl3) on learning ability of rat!s offspring.
Item
+atency to
closed arm
&*ec(
Time s/ent in
closed arm &*ec(
.o o0 entries in
closed arm
+atency to o/en
arm &*ec(
Time s/ent in
o/en arm &*ec(
.o o0 entries in
o/en arm
!atio o0
o/en'closed arms
7reat"ent
Iontrol 175K053
b
17072K2223
b
33%K0&5
ab
107K0&5
a
12735K22&'
a
207K02%
a
553'K020
a

2!/l *lcl3 &25K05%
ab
22&&3K721
a
22&K022
b
32'K050
a
3'20K%%'
b
1&1K021
b
572&K022
b

3!/l *lcl3 %'0K132
a
222&1K'22
a
272K02'
ab
1%5K022
a
3%2%K7%2
b
131K021
b
5732K0&5
b

32!/l *lcl3 %72K13&
a
2&'&'K753
a
3&'K02'
a
152K071
a
&2'2K757
b
1&0K01%
b
5711K023
b

Means within the same column under the same category carry different superscripts are significantly different.
Moreo$er, $ital processes in$ol$in! rapid IaK2 e/-
chan!es between e/tracellular and intracellular calciu"
co"part"ents would be i"paired b, substitution o) *lK3 B&C
?n this re!ard, the i"pair"ent o) neural e/chan!e o) IaK2
ions b, alu"inu" would result in $itiation and spoilin! o)
dopa"iner!ic pathwa,s ((*) since the accu"ulation o)
dopa"iner!ic pathwa,s ((*) is "ainl, "ediated throu!h
its e))ects on potassiu" and calciu" channels B27C
-ro" these results it could be concluded that ad"inistra-
tion o) alu"inu" chloride to rats in drin<in! water resulted
1% *"ira * 4o"a et al.: 1tholo!ical proble"s and learnin! disabilit, due to alu"iniu" to/icit, in rats

in de$iations in the nor"al beha$ior o) adult )e"ale rats and
this de$iation e/tend to the o))sprin! o) the da" drin< water
containin! alu"inu" chloride which was ob$ious in the
)or" o) incre"ent in the ti"e spent in closed ar"s o) ele-
$ated plus "a@e and a$oidance o) open ar"s o) the "a@e

!e0erences
B1C *bdel-*al, 8*; *ssi, ** and Lostand,, AA 8i$asti!-
"ine re$erses alu"inu" induced beha$ioral chan!es in rats
1uropean Mournal Aeha$ioral Phar"acolo!, %25:1%5-17%
(2011)
B2C Aernu@@i, .; (esor, ( and 6ehr, P8 1))ects o) prenatal
alu"inu" e/posure on neuro"otor "aturation in the rat
9eurobeha$ 7o/icol 7eratol ':112-115 (15'%)
B3C Ai"onte-9elson, +*; +unter, I6; 9elson, M1 and
4ranhol", *I -rontal corte/ A(9- le$els correlate with
wor<in! "e"or, in an ani"al "odel o) (own s,ndro"e
Aeha$Arain8es135:&7-27 (2003)
B&C Aonnie, 6 and Iarson, : *lu"inu" co"pound * re$iew o)
to/icolo!ical literature *brid!ed )inal report, :cott, M
(2000)
B2C Arid!es, 8: and 8onshei", PM Prolactin re!ulation o)
"aternal beha$ior in rats: Aro"ocriptine treat"ent dela,s
and prolactin pro"otes the rapid onset o) beha$ior 1ndo-
crinolo!, 12%:'37-'&' (1550)
B%C Iolo"ina, M7; 8oi!, M6; :anche@, (M and (o"in!o, M6
?n)luence o) a!e on alu"inu" induced neurobeha$ioral e)-
)ects and "orpholo!ical chan!es in rat brain 9euroto/icol-
o!, 23:772-7'1 (2002)
B7C Iolo"ina, M7; 8o!i M6; 7orrente, M; .icens, Pand (o-
"in!o, M6 Ioncurrent e/posure to alu"inu" and stress
durin! pre!nanc, in rats: 1))ects on postnatal de$elop"ent
and beha$ior o) the o))sprin! 9euroto/icol7eratol27:
2%2-27& (2002)
B'C (el$ille, N 1/posure to lead durin! de$elop"ent alters
a!!ressi$e beha$ior in !olden ha"sters 9euroto/icol 7e-
ratol 21:&&2-&&5 (1555)
B5C (o"in!o, M6; 4o"e@, M and Iolo"ina, M7 8is<s o)
alu"inu" e/posure durin! pre!nanc, Iontributions to
:cience 1: &75-&'7 (2000)
B10C -at"a, +: ?n)luence o) so"e en$iron"ental stressors on
response and beha$ior o) laborator, rats M.:I, 7hesis,
Iairo uni$ersit,, beni-sue) branch, )acult, o) $eterinar,
"edicine (2002)
B11C -erreira, *; Pereira, M; *!rati, (; 0riarte, 9 and -er-
"ande@-4uasti, * 8ole o) "aternal beha$ior on a!!ression,
)ear and an/iet, Ph,siolo!, and Aeha$ior 77:157-20&
(2002)
B12C -riend, 7+ :,"posiu": 8esponse o) ani"als to stress M
(air, :ci 7&:252-303 (1551)
B13C 4ro",s@-Lal<ows<a, L; Lanoniu<, (; :@ubartows<a, 1
and 0n<iewic@-Einiarc@,<, * ?n)luence o) drin<in! wa-
ter-ad"inistered alu"inu" on "orpholo!, and respirator,
)unction o) blood in rats Polish Mournal o) 1n$iron"ental
:tudies 13: 212-215 (200&)
B1&C +ar<ness, M1 and Ea!ner, M1 Aiolo!, and +usbandr, ?n:
the biolo!, and "edicine o) rabbits and rodents (2
nd
ed), 6ea
and -ei!er: 3%-21 (15'3)
B12C Laoud, +*; La"el MM and *bd 168a@e< *+ 1))ect
o) neuroto/ic "etals on neurobeha$ioral and learnin! abilit,
in rat pups M 1!,pt .et Med *ssoc %': 1-1& (200')
B1%C Lowalc@,<, 1; Lop)), *; Led@iora, M; Alas@c@,<, M; Lop)),
M; 9iedworo<, M and -i#al<ows<i, P 1))ect o) lon!-ter"
alu"inu" chloride into/ication on selected bioche"ical pa-
ra"eters and o/idati$e Hantio/idati$e balance in e/peri-
"ental ani"als Polish Mournal o) 1n$iron"ental :tudies
13:&1-&3 (200&)
B17C 6a$iola, 4; :edowo)ia, <; ?nnes, M; Ila,ton, 8 and Man-
nin!, * 4enetic di))erences in "aternal beha$ior patterns in
"ice ad"inistered phenobarbital durin! pre!nanc, Ps,-
chophar"acolo!, 102: 3'3-350 (1550)
B1'C 6una, 64 Aer!Ds "ethod )or sper"ato@oa ?n: Manual od
histolo!ical stainin! "ethods o) the ar"ed )orces institute o)
patholo!,, 3
rd
edition, 117-11', Mc4raw-+ill, 9ew ,or<
(15%')
B15C Mahieu, :; Iontini, M(I; 4on@ale@, M and Miller, 9I
Melatonin reduces o/idati$e da"a!e induced b, alu"inu"
in rat <idne, 7o/icolo!, 6etters150:5-12 (2005)
B20C Misawa, 7 and :hi!eta, : Aeha$ioral e))ects o) repeated
alu"inu" ad"inistration in the rat 7a<aiMo1/p(in Med
17: 122-125 (1552)
B21C Mori"oto, *; 9a<a"on, 7; Mori"ot, <; 7an, . and Mu-
ra<a"i, 9 7he central role o) corticotrophin-releasin! )actor
(I8--&1) in ps,cholo!ical stress in rats Mournal o) Ph,si-
olo!,&%0:221-225 (1553)
B22C Pellow, :; Ihopin, P; -ile, :1 and Arile,, M .alidation o)
open-closed ar" entries in an ele$ated plus-"a@e as a
"easure o) an/iet, in the rat M 9eurosci Methods
1&:1&5-1%7 (15'2)
B23C 8oi!, M6; -uentes, :; 7eresa, IM; Iolo"ina, M; .icens,
P and (o"in!o, M6 *lu"inu", restraint stress and a!in!:
Aeha$ioral e))ects in rats a)ter 1 and 2 ,ears o) alu"inu"
e/posure 7o/icolo!, 21':112-12& (200%)
B2&C :chetin!er, M8I; Aonan, I(; Morsch, .M; Aoher, (;
.alentin, 6M and 8odri!ues, :8 1))ects o) alu"inu"
sulphate on delta-a"inole$ulinate deh,dratase )ro" <idne,,
brain and li$er o) adult "ice
Ara@MMedAiol8es32:7%1-7%% (1555)
B22C Ealton, M8 * lon!itudinal stud, o) rats chronicall, e/posed
to alu"inu" at hu"an dietar, le$els 9eurosci 6ett
&12:25-33 (2007)
B2%C Ea/"an, :4 Iorrelati$e neui-oanato", 23, 3
rd
ed, *ppet-
ton and lan!, Iali)ornia (1557)
B27C Aernu@@i, .; (esor, ( and 6ehr, P8 1))ects o) prenatal
alu"inu" e/posure on neuro"otor "aturation in the rat
9eurobeha$ 7o/icol 7eratol ':112-115 (15'%)
B2'C Ai"onte-9elson, +*; +unter, I6; 9elson, M1 and
4ranhol", *I -rontal corte/ A(9- le$els correlate with
wor<in! "e"or, in an ani"al "odel o) (own s,ndro"e
Aeha$Arain8es135:&7-27 (2003)
B25C Aonnie, 6 and Iarson, : *lu"inu" co"pound * re$iew o)
*ni"al and .eterinar, :ciences 2013, 1(2): 12-17 17

to/icolo!ical literature *brid!ed )inal report, :cott, M
(2000)
B30C Arid!es, 8: and 8onshei", PM Prolactin re!ulation o)
"aternal beha$ior in rats: Aro"ocriptine treat"ent dela,s
and prolactin pro"otes the rapid onset o) beha$ior 1ndo-
crinolo!, 12%:'37-'&' (1550)
B31C Iolo"ina, M7; 8oi!, M6; :anche@, (M and (o"in!o, M6
?n)luence o) a!e on alu"inu" induced neurobeha$ioral e)-
)ects and "orpholo!ical chan!es in rat brain 9euroto/icol-
o!, 23:772-7'1 (2002)
B32C Iolo"ina, M7; 8o!i M6; 7orrente, M; .icens, Pand (o-
"in!o, M6 Ioncurrent e/posure to alu"inu" and stress
durin! pre!nanc, in rats: 1))ects on postnatal de$elop"ent
and beha$ior o) the o))sprin! 9euroto/icol7eratol27:
2%2-27& (2002)
B33C (el$ille, N 1/posure to lead durin! de$elop"ent alters
a!!ressi$e beha$ior in !olden ha"sters 9euroto/icol 7e-
ratol 21:&&2-&&5 (1555)
B3&C (o"in!o, M6; 4o"e@, M and Iolo"ina, M7 8is<s o)
alu"inu" e/posure durin! pre!nanc, Iontributions to
:cience 1: &75-&'7 (2000)
B32C -at"a, +: ?n)luence o) so"e en$iron"ental stressors on
response and beha$ior o) laborator, rats M.:I, 7hesis,
Iairo uni$ersit,, beni-sue) branch, )acult, o) $eterinar,
"edicine (2002)
B3%C -erreira, *; Pereira, M; *!rati, (; 0riarte, 9 and -er-
"ande@-4uasti, * 8ole o) "aternal beha$ior on a!!ression,
)ear and an/iet, Ph,siolo!, and Aeha$ior 77:157-20&
(2002)
B37C -riend, 7+ :,"posiu": 8esponse o) ani"als to stress M
(air, :ci 7&:252-303 (1551)
B3'C 4ro",s@-Lal<ows<a, L; Lanoniu<, (; :@ubartows<a, 1
and 0n<iewic@-Einiarc@,<, * ?n)luence o) drin<in! wa-
ter-ad"inistered alu"inu" on "orpholo!, and respirator,
)unction o) blood in rats Polish Mournal o) 1n$iron"ental
:tudies 13: 212-215 (200&)
B35C +ar<ness, M1 and Ea!ner, M1 Aiolo!, and +usbandr, ?n:
the biolo!, and "edicine o) rabbits and rodents (2nd ed),
6ea and -ei!er: 3%-21 (15'3)
B&0C Laoud, +*; La"el MM and *bd 168a@e< *+ 1))ect
o) neuroto/ic "etals on neurobeha$ioral and learnin! abilit,
in rat pups M 1!,pt .et Med *ssoc %': 1-1& (200')
B&1C Lowalc@,<, 1; Lop)), *; Led@iora, M; Alas@c@,<, M; Lop)),
M; 9iedworo<, M and -i#al<ows<i, P 1))ect o) lon!-ter"
alu"inu" chloride into/ication on selected bioche"ical pa-
ra"eters and o/idati$e Hantio/idati$e balance in e/peri-
"ental ani"als Polish Mournal o) 1n$iron"ental :tudies
13:&1-&3 (200&)
B&2C 6a$iola, 4; :edowo)ia, <; ?nnes, M; Ila,ton, 8 and Man-
nin!, * 4enetic di))erences in "aternal beha$ior patterns in
"ice ad"inistered phenobarbital durin! pre!nanc, Ps,-
chophar"acolo!, 102: 3'3-350 (1550)
B&3C 6una, 64 Aer!Ds "ethod )or sper"ato@oa ?n: Manual od
histolo!ical stainin! "ethods o) the ar"ed )orces institute o)
patholo!,, 3rd edition, 117-11', Mc4raw-+ill, 9ew ,or<
(15%')
B&&C Mahieu, :; Iontini, M(I; 4on@ale@, M and Miller, 9I
Melatonin reduces o/idati$e da"a!e induced b, alu"inu"
in rat <idne, 7o/icolo!, 6etters150:5-12 (2005)
B&2C Misawa, 7 and :hi!eta, : Aeha$ioral e))ects o) repeated
alu"inu" ad"inistration in the rat 7a<aiMo1/p(in Med
17: 122-125 (1552)
B&%C Mori"oto, *; 9a<a"on, 7; Mori"ot, <; 7an, . and Mu-
ra<a"i, 9 7he central role o) corticotrophin-releasin! )actor
(I8--&1) in ps,cholo!ical stress in rats Mournal o) Ph,si-
olo!,&%0:221-225 (1553)
B&7C Pellow, :; Ihopin, P; -ile, :1 and Arile,, M .alidation o)
open-closed ar" entries in an ele$ated plus-"a@e as a
"easure o) an/iet, in the rat M 9eurosci Methods
1&:1&5-1%7 (15'2)
B&'C 8oi!, M6; -uentes, :; 7eresa, IM; Iolo"ina, M; .icens,
P and (o"in!o, M6 *lu"inu", restraint stress and a!in!:
Aeha$ioral e))ects in rats a)ter 1 and 2 ,ears o) alu"inu"
e/posure 7o/icolo!, 21':112-12& (200%)
B&5C :chetin!er, M8I; Aonan, I(; Morsch, .M; Aoher, (;
.alentin, 6M and 8odri!ues, :8 1))ects o) alu"inu"
sulphate on delta-a"inole$ulinate deh,dratase )ro" <idne,,
brain and li$er o) adult "ice Ara@ M Med Aiol 8es 32:
7%1-7%% (1555)
B20C Ealton, M8 * lon!itudinal stud, o) rats chronicall, e/posed
to alu"inu" at hu"an dietar, le$els 9eurosci 6ett
&12:25-33 (2007)

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