B94H

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INTRODUCTION:
In this first lesson, the student will learn some
expressions of common everyday use. In these
expressions, the verb HB (to be) is understood
and is not explicitly used.
Sanskrit, like other classical languages, has three
genders- masculine (m), feminine (f) and neuter (n).
These are indicated in the examples given. The student
is advised to learn these expressions by memory.
The prelude to these tutorial lessons introduced the
vowels and consonants of Sanskrit and also indicated
how they are to be pronounced. The student is advised
to refer to this prelude as well to memorize the basic
letters.
1.1 Here are some common expressions
in the first person.
PP +lP ¹lP- My Name is Rama (m)
mama n¡ma r¡ma©
PP +lP Bl6l My Name is Sita (f)
mama n¡ma s¢t¡
PP +lP HG¹- My Name is Sekhara (m)
mama n¡ma ¹¦khara©
PP +lP 7Pl My name is Uma (f)
mama n¡ma um¡
PP 74- |H4- My God is Siva (m)
mama d¦vaha ¹iva©
PP 74l 9l46l My Goddess is Parvati (f)
mama d¦v¢ p¡rvat¢
PP 9-'- Pl«4- My son is Madhava (m)
mama putra© m¡dhava©
PP 9-'l |4=4l My daughter is Vijaya (f)
mama putr¢ vijay¡
PP ¬6l |4!T My husband is Vishnu (m)
mama bhart¡ viº²u
PP ¬l4l 9Tl My wife is padma (f)
mama bh¡ry¡ padm¡
PP |96l =474- My father is Jayadeva (m)
mama pit¡ jayad¦va©
PP Pl6l B¬7l My mother is subhadra (f)
mama m¡t¡ subhadr¡
PP ¬l6l |4=4- My brother is Vijay (m)
mama bhr¡t¡ vijaya©
PP F4Bl P|~¬Tl My sister is Mallika (f)
mama svas¡ mallik¡
PP |P-' T!T- My friend is Krishna (n)
mama mitra¨ k¤º²a©
PP 4lr+ 6l4l6l My vehicle is Toyota (n)
mama v¡hana¨ t§y§t¡
Note that the verb "to be" (i.e., the form "is" in English)
is not used in any of the expressions. The explicit
form of the verb HB (to be) is always implied in
expressions of this nature and in Sanskrit, as in most
languages, the personal pronoun PP has no gender.
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1.2 Simple expressions involving a question.
This subsection deals with expressions invoving
a question, the answers to which are similar
to the expressions in section 1.1.
64 +lP |T What is your name?
tava n¡ma ki¨
64 74- T- Who is your God?
tava d¦va© ka©
64 74l Tl Who is your Goddess?
tava d¦v¢ k¡
64 9-'- T- Who is your son?
tava putra© ka©
64 9-'l Tl Who is your daughter?
tava putr¢ k¡
64 ¬l6l T- Who is your brother?
tava bhr¡t¡ ka©
64 F4Bl Tl Who is your sister?
tava svas¡ k¡
64 |P-' |T Who is your friend?
tava mitra¨ ki¨
64 4lr+ |T What is your vehicle?
tava v¡hana¨ ki¨
Observe that there are no question marks in any
of the sentences. In Sanskrit, no punctuation is
ever used. Generally, the punctuation is recog-
nized from the intonation.
Even in the interrogative form, the verb HB
(to be) is not explicitly used.
Gender becomes apparent in these sentences as
can be observed with the ending akshara of the
words i.e., T- , Tl and |T .
T- is the masculine form known as
9|¬*- (pumli°ga©)
Tl is the feminine form known as
F-'l|¬*- (str¢li°ga©)
|T is the neuter form known as
+9BT|¬*- (napumsakali°ga©)
Among the words used in the sentences given
above, the following words are masculine
in gender.
¹lP-, HG¹-, 74-, 9-'-, |H4-, Pl«4-,
=474-, |4=4-, |96l, ¬l6l
The following are feminine words
Bl6l, 7Pl, 9l46l, |4=4l, 74l, 9-'l,
¬l4l, Pl6l, F4Bl, 9Tl, B¬7l, P|~¬Tl
Some examples of nouns in the neuter gender are
|P-', 4lr+P , +lP, «+P , =¬P ,
TP¬P , Hl¬¹TP
In Sanskrit, gender is not decided by the meaning
of the word but is fixed by other considerations
such as the form of the word and its ending.
A Note on the word 64 .
The form of address 64 , it should be noted , is
mostly used in circumstances involving persons
who enjoy a close relationship with the person
speaking the sentence. Often, the form with respect
¬46- (m) or ¬4t4l- (f) is used.
However, it is observed that the form 64 was in
regular use in earlier times and did not mean any
disrespect. In keeping with modern trends, we are
following the practice of using 64 for the familiar
form of address and ¬46-/¬4t4l- for the respectful
form. This is similar to the usage of the German
words "dein" and "ihr".
Demonstrative pronouns.
Masculine 99- He (who is nearby)
B- He (who is farther away)
Feminine 99l She (who is nearby)
Bl She (who is farther away)
Neuter 966 This
66 That
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The use of the demonstrative pronoun will
depend on whether the speaker is refering to a
person in the immediate vicinity or someone
at a distance. Essentially, this is equivalent to
the difference between "this" and "that". In
Sanskrit this distinction applies for all the
three genders.
99- and B- (masculine)
¦ºa© sa©
99l and Bl (feminine)
¦º¡ s¡
966 and 66 (neuter)
¦tat tat
Let us look at some examples.
99- TlT- This (is a) crow
¦ºaha k¡ka©
99l Pl¬l This (is a) garland
¦º¡ m¡l¡
99- PP ¬=- This (is) my elephant
¦ºaha mama gaja©
99l PP ¬l4l This (is) my wife
¦º¡ mama bh¡ry¡
966 TP¬P This (is a) lotus
¦tat kamalam
966 64 TP¬P This (is) your lotus
¦tat tava kamalam
B- T!T- That (is) Krishna
sa© k¤º²a©
Bl T!Tl That is Krishnaa (f)
(Krishnaa is a feminine name)
66 HlB+P That (is a) seat
tat ¡sanam
66 64 HlB+P That (is) your seat
tat tava ¡sanam
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1.3 Some common expressions used in
daily life.
+PF6 Greeetings
namast¦
B9¬l6P Good Morning
suprabh¡tam
TH¬P 4l How do you do?
ku¹alam v¡
«-44l7l- Thank you, Thanks
dhanyav¡d¡:
F4l¬6P Welcome
sv¡gatam
«-4l|FP I am thankful
(I am grateful)
dhany§smi
9+|P¬lP- See you again
punarmil¡ma©
¬¹46lP Please excuse me
kºamyat¡m
H¬PF6 Best wishes
¹ubhamastu
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Glossary:
Words already seen in the sections.

74- - God 74l - Goddess
|P-'P - friend
|96l - father Pl6l - mother
+lP - name
9-'- - son 9-'l - daughter
4lr+P - vehicle
¬l6l - brother F4Bl - sister
PP - my
¬6l - husband ¬l4l - wife
Here are some more (new) words.

1. Masculine gender
+¹- - man TlT- - crow
P4¹- - peacock
4l+¹- - monkey H+T- - dog
T¹- - hand
¬=- - elephant H¬¬- - mountain
Pl=l¹- − cat
HH- - horse
2. Feminine gender
Pl¬l - garland T¤l - story
74l - mercy
B¬l - hall ¬l9l - language
T9l - sympathy
¬6l - creeper H+l - female dog
4l+¹l - female monkey
474l - mare P4¹l - peahen
Pl=l¹l - female cat
+l¹l - woman
Hl¹7l - name of a Goddess
B¹F46l - Goddess of learning
3. Neuter gender
¬4+P - house TP¬P - lotus
Hl++P - face
HlB+P - seat =¬P - water
«+P - wealth
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Exercises.
1. Learn to pronounce all the words introduced in the earlier
sections. Correct pronounciation is essential for Sanskrit.
Make use of the Roman transliteration given alongside when
necessary.
Try and pronounce the following words.
¬l|4-7- ¬¹6- 4lP+- 9F6TP
¬l6P6l H6Tl ¬|¬6l H¹4l
¬lFT¹- ¬|T6- ¬lT- 9|'76-
BT-4l ¬÷Pl 4lTl ¬lP|6
2. Using the words intoduced in section 1.4, try
to form sentences similar to those in
sections 1.1 and 1.2.
3. Try and form sentences in Sanskrit.
This is your husband.
That is your son.
This is my lotus.
That is your lotus.
This is Govinda. (m)
That is Vimalaa. (f)
Salutations, Krishna.
See you again, daughter.

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