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8 views7 pagesMost of the existing techniques for
network reliability evaluation are based on
assumptions that all the nodes are perfect and the
communication links are static and irreplaceable.
However, these assumptions are not applicable for
mobile ad hoc networks because of the rapid changes
in connectivity and link characteristics due to nodes’
mobility. Reliability computations in mobile ad hoc
networks should consider the failures of nodes and
links in addition to the dynamic of network
connectivity caused by nodes’ mobility. This paper
studies three common approaches for achieving
scalable reliable broadcast in ad-hoc networks,
namely probabilistic flooding, counter based
broadcast, and lazy gossip. Specifically, the analysis
in this paper focuses on the tradeoffs between
reliability, latency, and the message overhead of the
protocol.

May 21, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Most of the existing techniques for
network reliability evaluation are based on
assumptions that all the nodes are perfect and the
communication links are static and irreplaceable.
However, these assumptions are not applicable for
mobile ad hoc networks because of the rapid changes
in connectivity and link characteristics due to nodes’
mobility. Reliability computations in mobile ad hoc
networks should consider the failures of nodes and
links in addition to the dynamic of network
connectivity caused by nodes’ mobility. This paper
studies three common approaches for achieving
scalable reliable broadcast in ad-hoc networks,
namely probabilistic flooding, counter based
broadcast, and lazy gossip. Specifically, the analysis
in this paper focuses on the tradeoffs between
reliability, latency, and the message overhead of the
protocol.

© All Rights Reserved

8 views

Most of the existing techniques for
network reliability evaluation are based on
assumptions that all the nodes are perfect and the
communication links are static and irreplaceable.
However, these assumptions are not applicable for
mobile ad hoc networks because of the rapid changes
in connectivity and link characteristics due to nodes’
mobility. Reliability computations in mobile ad hoc
networks should consider the failures of nodes and
links in addition to the dynamic of network
connectivity caused by nodes’ mobility. This paper
studies three common approaches for achieving
scalable reliable broadcast in ad-hoc networks,
namely probabilistic flooding, counter based
broadcast, and lazy gossip. Specifically, the analysis
in this paper focuses on the tradeoffs between
reliability, latency, and the message overhead of the
protocol.

© All Rights Reserved

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Reliable Computing In Ad Hoc Networks

Mrs. K.Deeepika Reddy*1, K.Ramakrishna*2

Assistant Professor, Dept of Computer Applications, SNIST, Ghatkesar, Hyderabad, AP, India

M.C.A Student, Dept of Computer Applications, SNIST, Ghatkesar, Hyderabad, AP, India

ABSTRACT: Most of the existing techniques for

network reliability evaluation are based on

assumptions that all the nodes are perfect and the

communication links are static and irreplaceable.

However, these assumptions are not applicable for

mobile ad hoc networks because of the rapid changes

in connectivity and link characteristics due to nodes

mobility. Reliability computations in mobile ad hoc

networks should consider the failures of nodes and

links in addition to the dynamic of network

connectivity caused by nodes mobility. This paper

studies three common approaches for achieving

scalable reliable broadcast in ad-hoc networks,

namely probabilistic flooding, counter based

broadcast, and lazy gossip. Specifically, the analysis

in this paper focuses on the tradeoffs between

reliability, latency, and the message overhead of the

protocol.

I.INTRODUCTION

Ad-hoc networks

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are an

emerging technology that allows establishing instant

communication infrastructures for civilian and

military applications. MANET is a network

architecture that can be rapidly deployed without

relying on pre-existing fixed network infrastructure.

The nodes in a MANET can dynamically join and

leave the network, frequently, often without warning,

and possibly without disruption to other nodes

communication. The nodes in the network can be

highly mobile, thus the network topology is rapidly

changing. Nodes in the MANET exhibit nomadic

behavior by freely migrating within some area,

dynamically creating and tearing down associations

with other nodes. Groups of nodes that have a

common goal can create formations (clusters) and

migrate together, similarly to military units on

missions or to guided tours on excursions. MANETs

are intended to provide a data network that is

immediately deployable in arbitrary communication

environments and is responsive to changes in

network topology. MANETs are distinguished from

other ad-hoc networks by rapidly changing network

topologies, influenced by the network size and node

mobility. Such networks typically have a large span

and contain hundreds to thousands of nodes.

Features needed for

MANET

Robust routing and mobility management

algorithms to increase the networks reliability

and availability; e.g., to reduce the chances that

any network component is isolated from the rest

of the network.

Adaptive algorithms and

protocols to adjust to

frequently changing radio

propagation, network, and

traffic conditions.

Low-overhead algorithms

and protocols to preserve

the radio communication

resource.

Multiple (distinct) routes between a

source and a destination -to reduce

congestion in the vicinity of certain

nodes, and to increase reliability and

survivability.

Robust network architecture to avoid

susceptibility to network failures,

congestion around high-level nodes, and

the penalty due to inefficient routing.

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 6June 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1539

Fig: 1. Ad-hoc networks

In this paper we discuss the growing dependency

of the information and communication technology on

wireless networks, network reliability becomes one

of the primary concerns in the design, planning and

deployment of wireless networks. The degree to

which a wireless network is able to provide the

required services needs to be quantitatively assessed

by designing proper measurable quantities. These

measurable quantities are called the network

reliability measures. The typical network reliability

problem is to calculate the probability that a certain

set of nodes can communicate with each other for a

given period of time. Based on the number of

communicating nodes, there are three main

formulations of the network reliability problem: two-

terminal, K-terminal and all-terminal reliabilities [2].

In this paper we deal with the two-terminal reliability

computation in mobile ad hoc networks. Two nodes

are distinguished as source and destination nodes.

The rest of the nodes function as relays to provide a

communication path between the source and

destination nodes. In wireless environment, relays

and wireless links connecting them may fail

randomly. Therefore, network operation is supported

by the redundancy relays whose interconnections

provide redundant paths between source and

destination nodes. By understanding the contribution

of redundant paths to the network operation, network

designer can analyze the potential impact of nodes

and links failures on the network performance.

Hence, the methods for computing the network

reliability are a valuable tool in network design and

evaluation. The two-terminal reliability problem has

been studied extensively for wired networks with

unreliable links under assumptions that the nodes are

fault-free, static and their locations are known. In

addition, links connecting the nodes are assumed to

be irreplaceable with known probabilities of

operation [1] [3] [4]. However, the two-terminal

reliability problem in wireless networks is quite

different from that for wired networks. Wireless

networks have several aspects that make them more

susceptible to failures and loss of connectivity. These

aspects include the medium characteristics and the

properties of wireless devices [5]. For instance, the

broadcast nature of wireless communication links

makes them unique in their vulnerability to loss of

connectivity due to interference, weather conditions,

terrain effects and security breaches. Additionally,

wireless mobile devices have limited power supplies,

limited transmission range and ability to change their

locations. Thus, the reliability computation

techniques developed for wired networks cannot

directly be utilized in wireless networks. A little

research has been conducted in two-terminal

reliability problem in wireless networks.

II.Related Work

The study of broadcasting and multicasting

protocols for wireless ad hoc networks. Here, we

only discuss the most relevant protocols to our work.

The simplest probabilistic broadcast protocol is

probabilistic flooding. In this scheme, each node

rebroadcasts a message with a fixed probability P.

Works by Haas et al. and Sasson et al. study the

rebroadcasting probability P with regard to the so

called phase transition phenomena. Both works

establish that the delivery distribution has a bimodal

behavior with regard to some threshold probability P,

in a sense that for any P >P almost all nodes will

receive the message and for P <P almost none. Both

works show that the threshold probability P is around

0:59 0:65; in [33] this is done analytically based on

percolation theory while in [14] it is obtained by

simulations. It is also noted in [14] that the threshold

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 6June 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1540

probability depends on nodes density, yet without

providing any theoretical means to evaluate this

dependence We have shown that by making a few

probabilistic assumptions, the delivery distribution

function behaves in a concave manner rather than

being bimodal. That is, nodes coverage initially

grows fast with P. Then, at some critical point, the

added coverage becomes negligible with further

increase of P. Our protocol is designed with

corrective measures that compensate for situations in

which the simplifying assumptions do not hold. A

generic epidemic model for information diffusion in

MANETs has appeared in [24]. Other probabilistic

approaches include counter-based, distance-based,

and location-based mechanisms. The main idea in

these schemes is that the additional space coverage

obtained by each additional broadcast decreases with

the number of broadcasts. For example, presents a

variant of the probabilistic protocol in which every

node monitors the transmissions of its neighbors and

rebroadcasts a message if it has not heard M

transmissions of the same message. Yet, those

protocols suffer from increased latency due to the

packet delay introduced at each hop and none of them

guarantees reliable dissemination of messages to all

nodes The works in utilize an adapted probabilistic

flooding that makes use of local density. The

approaches of those works are based on the

observation that the retransmission probability P

should be adjusted relatively to the local nodes

density. In [47] this is done through counters, while

in [35] the uniform density is assumed. In [28] a local

nodes density is compared to a network-wide average

nodes density (which is is assumed to be known) and

the retransmission probability is set to a higher/lower

value if the number of neighbors of a retransmitting

node is less/more than the network average number

of neighbors.

However, those works contain little

theoretical analysis of the proposed schemes and like

other counter-based or probabilistic based schemes

can also fail to provide reliability on certain

topologies. To the best of our knowledge, our work is

the first to provide a theoretical analysis of the

optimal usage of nodes density in order to set P. The

work in studies three variants of the above ideas. The

first is to retransmit with probability k=ni, where k is

some constant and ni is the size of the neighborhood.

The second method is based on having each node

learn its 2-hop

Neighborhood and then computing the rebroadcasting

probability based on 1-hop neighborhoods

intersections. The final scheme also computes the

probability according to k=n, but adds a mechanism

in which if a node suspects that some of its neighbors

did not receive the message, it rebroadcast the

message regardless of its initial decision. Unlike the

work in [6], we formally analyze the value of k. Also,

we include a gossip and recovery mechanism,

whereas none of the protocols in [6] do so.

Consequently, RAPID is more reliable than any of

the schemes of [6]. Moreover, RAPID has a variant

that can deal with many forms of malicious behavior

while the other protocols do not. We present the

effect of nodes reliability on network's performance

parameters such as packet loss and control message

overhead. It is apparent that more research should be

conducted in investigating the reliability problem in

wireless networks.

III.Assumption and Problem Statement

In this section, we formalize the problem statement

and the assumptions considered in computing the

two-terminal reliability in mobile ad hoc networks.

A. Problem statement

Given an ad hoc network G with N nodes, E edges, a

source node, s, and a destination node, d. Each node

has an operation probability of p

n

. The problem is to

compute the probability that there exists an

operational path between source node, s, and

destination node, d, which is denoted as Rel

s;d

(G). All

nodes, but source and destination nodes, are allowed

to move freely according to a known mobility model.

In addition, the nodes fail according to an exponential

distribution with a parameter p (i.e., 1/pe

-1p/t

).

Therefore, the two-terminal reliability is a function of

time and changes frequently due to nodes'

movements and nodes' failures. Each edge in E has

an operational probability, p

e

, which depends on the

operational probabilities of the nodes the edge is

connecting. Therefore, p

e

of edge e connecting node

n

i

and n

j

can be expressed as p

e

=Pr(e exists j n

i

and n

j

are operating). Since each of the Edges can have one

of two states, working or failed, the state of the

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 6June 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1541

network can be represented using a vector

S(t)=[S1(t),S2(t), . . . , SE(t)]. The eth component of

S(t) equal to 1 if edge e is working and 0 otherwise.

Thus, the probability of a given state S(t) is

P

r

(S(t)) =

e=1

E

p

e

Se(t)

(1-p

e

)

1-Se(t)

B. Assumptions

we consider a wireless network consisting of N nodes

with omnidirectional antennas and equal transmission

ranges, R. In this network, wireless links, if exist, are

assumed to be bidirectional. A bidirectional wireless

link exists between two nodes if and only if these

nodes are within each other transmission range and

signal-to-interference-plus-noise-radio (SINR)

exceeds a certain threshold value at both nodes. For

two nodes to communicate with each other, there

should be at least one operating path between them.

An operating path implies that all the intermediate

nodes and links are operating. A node is operating if

and only if it preforms its indicated functions. A

wireless link is operating if and only if it allows

communication from its initial node to its terminal

node. At any moment of time, the components of the

network can be either in operational or failed state.

Once a node fails, it stays in the failed state. On the

other hand, wireless links can be brought back to the

operational state if the two mobile nodes come close

again in each other transmission range and satisfy the

SINR requirement. At any time, the locations of the

nodes are known or can be determine using the GPS

techniques [11]. Fig. 2 depicts an ad hoc wireless

network of five nodes.

Fig. 2. Wireless multi-hop network with five

nodes.

IV.COMPUTING RELIABILITY

A. Probabilistic Flooding

In the probabilistic approach, whenever a node

receives a message, it applies some locally

computable probabilistic mechanism to randomly

determine whether it should broadcast the message or

not. Probabilistic protocols are appealing since they

are very simple and are inherently robust to failures

and mobility. Moreover, these protocols enable

messages to advance asynchronously, and therefore

they exhibit very low latency in delivering messages.

In order to obtain very high reliability levels with

pure probabilistic broadcasting, one has to set the

retransmission probability to high values. This in turn

translates into a very large number of redundant

messages. Below, we obtain the following results:

We provide a model for analyzing an upper bound on

the tradeoff in probabilistic flooding between the

retransmission probability and reliability. In other

words, this analysis formally captures the tradeoff

between efficiency and reliability offered by pure

probabilistic flooding. This enables designers to

decide on a forwarding probability based on their

goals w.r.t. this tradeoff. Second, our formal analysis

shows that in order to achieve a given tradeoff point

between reliability and efficiency, it is enough that a

constant number of nodes in each one hop

neighborhood will retransmit a message. Constant

here means independent of the nodes density. This

means that the forwarding probability of each node

should be set in reverse proportion to the size of its

neighborhood. However, for boosting the reliability

beyond these levels, it makes more sense to utilize

some complementing measures.

Finally, we show that regardless of the forwarding

probability, pure probabilistic protocols cannot

ensure 100% reliability. This again hints that

probabilistic flooding should be aided by another

mechanism if one wishes to ensure extremely high

levels of reliability. We now turn to the details of the

analysis.

1) Formal Analysis of Probabilistic Flooding

Probability: The theoretical analysis in this section

relies on a formal graph model of wireless ad hoc

networks. The network connectivity graph

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 6June 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1542

G =(V;E) of an ad hoc network is a special case of a

2-dimensional Unit Disk graph, in which n nodes are

embedded in the surface of a 2-dimensional unit

torus, and any two nodes within Euclidean distance r

of each other are connected. In our case we assume n

nodes are placed uniformly at random in the

rectangular area [a; b] and form a connected graph.

We stress here that the uniform distribution of nodes

in the space is only used in the theoretical analysis of

this section, in order to set the retransmission

probability in the most efficient way. The correctness

of RAPID does not depend on this assumption. If the

uniformity assumption does not hold, In this analysis

we aim to estimate the reliability that can be provided

by probabilistic forwarding alone. Specifically, we

ask the following question: Suppose that each node in

the system is given an independent opportunity to

broadcast the same message m with probability

min(1; _nq). How many nodes will receive the

message m? Formally, let Yp be a random variable

corresponding to the number of times that node p has

received a given message.

B. Counter Based Broadcast

The short coming of probabilistic flooding has led to

the development of the counter-based approach and

its distance-based and location-based derivatives and

their combinations. The idea in these schemes is that

rather than placing the randomness directly on the

retransmission probability, the randomness is placed

on the timing of the rebroadcasting. That is, every

node p that receives a message m for the first time,

decides to rebroadcast the message after some

random time. If during this chosen period p hears k

(the counter) retransmissions of m, then p decides to

abort its retransmission. Interestingly, this is another

way to ensure a constant number of retransmissions

in each neighborhood. But, as opposed to the

probabilistic method, the number of retransmissions

is deterministically guaranteed by the protocol. Even

counter based approach cannot guarantee reliable

delivery of all messages on an arbitrary topology. In

fact, if we assume that the nodes are uniformly

distributed in the network, and that the random

function used for setting the retransmission time is

independent of the nodes location, then we can

utilize our formal analysis.1 to calculate the

reliability level of a counter-based protocol for a

given k. Empirical studies have shown that counter-

based schemes can obtain high delivery ratios with

relative efficiency. Yet, these works do not include a

formal analysis of this behavior. Moreover, as we

now discuss, counter-based schemes are inherently

slower than probabilistic schemes.

1) Latency: As mentioned before, the rebroadcasting

time of each node is set randomly. However, in order

for the protocol to succeed, the values should be set

from a sufficiently large range so that the number of

collisions will be small, or even zero. In other words,

the range from which the rebroadcast timing is

chosen must be proportional to the number of nodes

in each neighborhood. For ensuring zero collisions,

by using the birthday paradox, we can deduce that the

range should be roughly where sl is the minimal slot

required for a message transmitted by one node to be

heard by any other node in its neighborhood and ni is

the size of the neighborhood of node i.

2) On the Impossibility of Absolute Reliability: We

claim that no counter-based scheme can guarantee

reliable delivery of all messages on an arbitrary

topology. When node s broadcasts a message m,

nodes p and n1, nk receive it. If some of ni nodes

rebroadcasts the message before node p, p will refrain

from rebroadcasting m and therefore q will not

receive m.

C. Lazy Gossip

In lazy gossip nodes periodically gossip with their

neighbors about the ids of messages they have

received. This gossiping is performed in a

deterministic manner, in the sense that each node

sends such a gossip message as a broadcast to all its

neighbors. Whenever a node q learns than one of its

neighbors p has a message that q has missed, q

explicitly asks p to retransmit this message. Here,

there can be a few optimizations such as broadcasting

requests for retransmissions, etc. Lazy gossip incurs a

constant per node message overhead due to the need

to periodically gossip about messages. The overall

network overhead grows with the network density.

However, due to its deterministic nature, lazy gossip

can obtain absolute reliability.

The shortcoming of lazy gossip mainly comes from

its very high latency and the fact that for reliability, it

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 6June 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1543

must gossip multiple times for each message. The

latency stems from the fact that

Messages are propagated only due to gossips, and

these only occur periodically. In order to keep the

message overhead reasonable, gossips might be

performed once every several seconds, in which case

forwarding a message across multiple hops can take

dozens of seconds. Also, due to message loss,

obtaining absolute reliability involves unlimited

memory consumption and unbounded message sizes,

at least in theory.

V.Performance

Simulations:

In this simulation, we first study the effect of

different failure rates of nodes on the networks

performance parameters such the packet lost rate and

number of control messages. Then, we present the

effect of network dynamics on the two terminal

reliability. We have consider ad hoc networks of 6,

11 and 27 nodes placed in 600m_600m plane to

construct a grid structure as

shown. Grid structure was selected to ensure that

high level of reliability can be obtained in each case.

The transmission range of the wireless nodes was

chosen to be 250m with two-ray ground propagation

model [5]. Therefore, three hops at least are needed

to create a path between the source node the

destination node. Random way

(a) 6 nodes (b) 11 nodes (c) 27 nodes

Fig. 3. Ad hoc networks with nodes placed in

grid structure.

Point mobility model (RWP) [12] is used to

resemble the movement pattern of the wireless nodes.

In this model, nodes are initially stay stall (i.e.,

paused) for a certain time. Then, they start to move

around within the area of simulation with a known

average speed for a given time. After the nodes reach

their destination, they stay stall in their position for

some time (i.e, pause time). After that, nodes again

choose another random destination in the simulation

field and move towards them. The whole process is

repeated again and again until the simulation ends. If

a node hits the simulation edge during its movement,

it bounces back to the simulation area with the same

speed and with an angle equal to the one it hits the

border with. In this simulation, we consider different

values for the average speed and pause time. The

simulation environments and parameters of the ad

hoc networks are shown in Table I

Parameters and constants used in all the

simulations:

Field space 600 x 600 _at space

Number of nodes 6, 11, 27

Average node speed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 ,30

(m/s)

Node mobility Random waypoint model

[12]

Simulation run time 500 sec

Node pause time 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 ,30 sec

MAC layer type IEEE 802.11

Transmission range 250 m

Number of packet 1000 packet

Size of the packet 1000 byte

Interval between packets

Routing Protocol AODV [13]

VI.CONCLUSION

In this paper, a simple algorithm for evaluating the

two terminal reliability in mobile ad-hoc networks

was developed. The proposed algorithm is an

extension of algorithms for wired networks. It

overcomes the limitation of the existing techniques

which consider only the failures of static nodes.

Additionally, this algorithm considers links failures

and the connectivity changes due to nodes mobility.

We find that the reliability of a wireless network

depends not only on the components' reliability but

also on the degree of redundancy in the network's

topology and the distribution of nodes in the network.

VII.REFERENCES

[1] D. Allen Hidden terminal problems in Wireless

LANs. In IEEE 802.11 Working Group Papers,

1993.

[2] Z.Bar-Yossef, R.Friedman, and G Kliot. RaWMS

- Random Walk based Lightweight Membership

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ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1544

Service for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks. In Proc. of

the 7th ACM Intr. Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc

Networking and Computing (MobiHoc), pages 238

249, 2006.

[3] K. Birman, M. Hayden, O. Ozkasap, Z. Xiao, M.

Budiu, , and Y. Minsky. Bimodal Multicast. ACM

Transactions on Computer Systems, 17(2):4188,

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[4] J . Broch, D. A. Maltz, D. B.Johnson, Y.-C.Hu,

and J . J etcheva. A performance comparison of multi-

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[5] T. Camp, J.Boleng, and V. Davies. A survey of

mobility models for ad hoc network research.

Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing

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[6] J. Cartigny and D.Simplot. Border Node

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[7] S. Rai, A. Kumar, and E. V. Prasad, .Computing

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[10] K. K. Aggarwal and S. Rai, .Symbolic

Reliability Evaluation Using Logic Signal Relations,.

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[10] D. P. Agrawal and Q.-A. Zeng, Introduction to

wireless and mobile systems. Paci c Grove,

California: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2003.

[11] X. Chen and M. R. Lyu, .Reliability analysis for

various communication schemes in wireless

CORBA,. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, vol.

54,no. 2, pp. 232.242, J une 2005.

[12] H. M. F. AboElFotoh, S. S. Iyengar, and K.

Chakrabarty, .Computing Reliability and Message

Delay for Cooperative Wireless Distributed Sensor

Networks Subject to Random Failures,. IEEE

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145.155, March 2005.

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