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Q. You determine that 187 J of heat is required to raise the temperature of 93.

45 g of silver from
18.5 oC to 27.0 oC. What is the specific heat capacity of silver?
Sol: The heat change with change in temperature can be related as
q = ms∆T
where q is heat change
m is mass of matter,
s is specific heat capacity, and
∆T is change in temperature.
On solving.
q 187
s= = = 0.2354 JK −1 g −1
m∆T 93.45 × 8.5
Q You add 100.0 g of water at 60 oC to 100 g of ice at 0.00 oC. Some of the ice melts and cools
the water to 0.00 oC. When the ice and water mixture has come to a uniform temperature of
0.00 oC, how much ice has melted?
Sol: heat absorbed by ice during melting = heat lost by water on cooling
There fore
mI L f = mw s∆T where
mI is mass of ice melted = ?
L f is latent heat of fusion of ice = 6.008 kJ/mol = 333.778 J/g
mw is mass of water =100g
s is specific heat of water = 4.18 J/g
∆T is change in temperature = 60
On solving
m s∆T 100 × 4.18 × 60
mI = w = = 75.14 g
Lf 333.778
Q: Suppose that only two 45g ice cubes had been added to your glass containing 5 × 102 ml of tea.
When thermal equilibrium is reached, all of the ice have melted, and the temperature of the
mixture will be some where between 20.0 oC to 0.0 oC. Calculate the final temperature of the
beverage. ( Note: The 90 g of water formed when ice melts must be warmed to final
temperature)
Sol: Heat absorbed by ice cubes during melting + Heat absorbed in increasing temperature of water
= Heat lost in cooling of tea
Therefore
mI L f + mw sw ∆T = − mt st ∆T = 90 × 333.778 + 90 × 4.18 × (t − 0) = −500 × 4.18 × (t − 20)
= 90 × 333.778 + 376.2t = −2090t + 41800
11759.98
= 41800 − 30040.02 = 2466.2t = t = = 4.768
2466.2

Q: Cobalt- 60 is a radioactive isotope used in medicine for treatment of certain cancers. It


produces β particles and γ rays, the latter is having energies of 1.173 and 1.332 MeV (
1MeV = 106 electron volts and 1eV = 9.6485 ×104 J / mol ) What are the wavelength and
frequency of γ ray photon with an energy of 1.173MeV?
Sol: Energy of any radiation can be obtained by using planks equation i.e. E = hυ energy of photon
1.173 × 106 × 9.6485 × 104
is E = = 1.8794 × 10−13 J
6.022 × 10 23

E 1.8794 ×10−13
On solving υ = = = 0.2837 ×1021 = 2.837 × 1020 Hertz
h 6.625 × 10−34
c 3 × 108 o
The wave length is calculated as λ = = = 1.0574 × 10 −12
m = 105 Α
υ 2.837 × 1020
Q: When Sojourner spacecraft landed on Mars in 1997, the planet is approximately 7.8 ×107 Km
from earth. How long did it take for the television picture signal to reach Earth from Mars?
Sol: All electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed of 3 ×108 m / s so from a distance of
7.8 ×107 km is equal to 7.8 × 1010 m. Time required for traveling of signal = distance/speed that
7.8 × 1010
is t = = 2.6 × 102 sec.
3 × 108
Q: Why is the radius of Li + , so much smaller that the radius of lithium? Why is the radius of
F − so much larger than the radius of F?
Sol: Radius of an atom is defined as the distance from center of nucleus to the point where
significant probability of finding electron exists. Radius of lithium ion is smaller then the
radius of lithium because lithium is having electronic configuration 1s 2 2s1 which on ionization
becomes 1s 2 2 s 0 thus last electron of lithium ion is in first shell and not second as in lithium
atom.
Radius of fluoride ion is greater then fluorine atom because direct measurement of radius is not
possible so radius is measured by alternate means for fluorine the radius is covalent radius that
is mean of internuclear distance of covalent molecule. While radius of fluoride ion is its ionic
radius that is mean of internuclear distance of its compounds. Further addition of an extra
electron increases repulsion among electrons of the valence shell.
Q: Compare the configurations below with two electrons located in p orbitals. Which would be
the least stable? Explain your answers.

a) b) c) d)
Sol: The lowest energy is represented by option d as here electrons are unpaired and having
parallel spin. Spin of electron is giving it a magnetic character, parallel spin means same
magnetic orientation. In (A) electron with parallel spin are in same orbital thus huge
repulsions. In (B) electrons have opposite spin thus attract each other, but in this configuration
multiplicity is limited, whereas electron tends to attain maximum multiplicity. In (C) spin is
opposite as well as unpaired but reversal of spin is energy consuming. So the best
configuration is option (D).

Q: Write electron configurations to show the first two ionization process for potassium. Explain
why second ionization energy is much greater then the first.
Sol: The electronic configuration of potassium atom is 1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 4 s1 .
While that of K + = 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6
and that of K 2+ = 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 5
Second ionization energy of potassium is much higher then first because by using first
ionization energy potassium is acquiring configuration of a noble gas which is relatively stable
system, but by using 2nd ionization energy ion loses noble gas configuration hence become
unstable. Half filled and fully filled configuration are relatively more stable then other
configurations because in these configuration distribution of electrons is symmetrical around
the nucleus