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TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER No DESCRIPTION PAGE No
ABSTRACT v
LIST OF FIGURE vi
LIST OF TABLE viii
1

INTRODUCTION
1
1.1

Textile Printing and Dyeing Process
1
1.2

Production of Textile Industry Pollution 4

1.3

Textile Dyeing Wastewater Risk
7
1.4
The Textile Industry Standards For Water
Pollutants
8

1.4.1

Textile Industry Standards For Water
Pollutants in Salem
9

1.4.2

Textile Industry Standards For Water
Pollutants
9

1.4.3

Textile Industry Standards For Water
Pollutants Printing And Dyeing Wastewater

10
2.


LITERATURE REVIEW
12
3.




TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY
15
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3.1

Textile Operations
16


3.2
Effluent Treatments
19



3.2.1
Biological Treatments.
23



3.2.2
CoagulationFlocculation Treatments.
24



3.2.3 Adsorption on Powdered Activated Carbon.
24




3.2.4
Electrochemical Processes.
25



3.2.5
Ozone Treatment.
26
4.
TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATER
TREATMENT PROCESSES
27


4.1
Physicochemical Wastewater Treatment
27



4.1.1
Equalization And Homogenization
28



4.1.2
Floatation
28



4.1.3
Coagulation Flocculation Sedimentation
28



4.1.4
Chemical Oxidation
29



4.1.5
Adsorption
31



4.1.6
Membrane Separation Process
32
5.
BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER
TREATMENT METHOD
35


5.1
Aerobic Biological Treatment
35
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5.2
Activated Sludge Process
38



5.2.1
Oxidation Ditch Process
39


5.2.2
Sequencing Batch Reactor Activated Sludge
Process
40



5.2.3
Biofilm
42



5.2.4
Biological Contact Oxidation
42



5.2.5 The Form of Biological Contact Oxidation
43



5.2.6
The Choice of Filler
43


5.3
Rotating Biological Contactor
45



5.3.1
Biological Fluidized Bed
46



5.3.2
Anaerobic Biological Treatment
47
5.4
Biochemical and Physicochemical
Combination Processes
48
5.4.1
Hydrolytic Acidification-Contact
Oxidation-Air Floatation Process
49
5.4.2
Anaerobic-Aerobic-Biological Carbon
Contacts
51

5.4.3 Coagulation-Air-Oxidation Ditch Process
53
5.4.4
UASB-Aerobic-Physicochemical Treatment
Process
54


5.5


Cutting-Edge Treatment Process 56
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5.5.1

Photochemical Oxidation
56

5.5.2

Electrochemical Oxidation
57

5.5.3

Ultrasonic Technology 57

5.5.4

High Energy Physical Process
58
6
CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
59

REFERENCES
61


















v

ABSTRACT
The process was investigated in a textile dying unit and subsequently
wastewater generation profile was studied for the development of a viable
treatment. The dyeing unit under the study generated a considerable volume
of wastewater containing inorganic chemicals and organic reactive
green dye. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) resulting from all
the chemically oxidizible substances and the residual color of the dye
were targeted for removal. The wastewater samples were collected from
different sub processes and then characterized for the parameters viz.
pH, Total solid, Suspended solid, dissolved solid, COD and Alkalinity.
A composite wastewater sample was prepared according to the measured
wastewater discharge from various unit operations and used for treatability study.
In the first stage, coagulation-flocculation with alum and chemical oxidation with
bleaching powder were performed separately. Subsequently, adsorption
study was conducted with Crushed Burnt Coal (CBC) on the composite
wastewater, initially treated with 10% bleaching powder solution. After several
trials, this combination was found to be effective for a CBC content
of 10% under a contact period of 90 minutes, which showed 100% colour
and about 95% COD removal.








vi

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
No
DESCRIPTION PAGE
No
1.1
Various Steps Involved in Processing Textile in a Cotton
Mill (B. Ramesh Babu Et Al.,2007).
3
3.1.
A Flow Diagram For Various Steps Involved in Processing
Textile in a Cotton Mill.
18
3.2.
A Flow Diagram For Treatment of Cotton Textile Mill
Waste.
20
3.3

Activites Involving Water in Textile Processing.
21
3.4
Electrochemical Treatment And Recovery of Chemicals
From The Textile Effluent.
22
5.1

The Physicochemical Treatment Process in Textile Dyeing
Wastewater
37, 38
5.2
Oxidation Ditch Plan 39
5.3

The Oxidation Ditch For The Biological Treatment Process
39
5.4

Reaction Process of SBR
41
5.5
The Wastewater Treatment Process Based on SBR 42
5.6

The Schematic Diagram of The Same Flow Contact
44
5.7

The Schematic Diagram of The Reverse Flow Contact
44
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5.8

The Schematic Diagram of Biological Rotating Disk
46
5.9

The Process Flow Diagram
50
5.10

The Process Flow Diagram
52
5.11

The Process Flow Diagram 53
5.12

The Process Flow Diagram
55




























viii

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
No
DESCRIPTION PAGE
No
1.1 The Varieties of Common Used Fiber 4
1.2. Specific Pollutants From Textile and Dyeing Processing
Operations
7
1.3.

Textile Industry Standards For Water Pollutants 8
1.4.

Textile Industry Standards For Water Pollutants
9
1.5.

Emission Standards For Gross Printing and Dyeing
Wastewater
10
1.6.

Emission Standards For Fabric Printing and Dyeing
Wastewater
11
1.7 Emission Standards For Yarn Printing and Dyeing
Wastewater
11

3.1.

Possible Treatments For Cotton Textile Wastes and Their
Associated Advantages and Disadvantages
17
3.2

Composition of Cotton Textile Mill Waste 20
5.1.

Physicochemical Treatment Instance of Textile dyeing
wastewater
36
5.2

The Removal Efficiency of Various Indicators in This
Dyeing Factory
41
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5.3

Average Quality of Each Process Effluent
54
5.4

The Removal of The Processing Units
56