This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Responsibility (CSR) is an effort to operate a company or a business organization in an economical and socially sustaining environment. This paper is written keeping in view, the increasing importance and adaptation of CSR in organizations. This paper slightly discusses the cooperate environment of DUBAI and international organizations and spots some areas, where CSR is non-existent yet e.g. in education sector, and impact of having CSR in that areas on society and business. It then compares the Islamic ideological system and present CSR concept. Some new CSR indicators and dimensions are yet to be uncovered. It is never important to start CSR department in some organizations, there should be some CSR performance measures and analysis tools. This paper proposes not only some major analysis tools but also gives the new concept of proper and improper implementation of CSR, CSR levels and their impact on corporate business, ethical social values and corporate reputation. Concluding the discussion and depending upon the above-mentioned techniques the CSR system design and implementation technique, in any general corporate body will be proposed. Authors:  - H. M. Umer Arfi  - Fahad M. Mirza CV’s with contact information of both the authors are attached
Hafiz Muhammad Umer Arfi Phone (Res):0092515537968 Phone (Mob): 00923455935070 Phone (Off): 0092512871700 EXT-325 E-mail: email@example.com Address (Home): P-736 St. No. – 4 Muhallah Banni Rawalpindi Pakistan Qualification: • Bsc. Electrical Engineering ( 7 Semesters ) SS-Care school of Engineering G-5/1 Attaturk Avenue Islamabad Pakistan (Affiliated with UET Taxila) Fsc. Pre-Engineering (1st division) FG Sir Syed College Mall Road Cantt Rawalpindi Metric with (Biology, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics) with A+ grade Siddiq Public School 6th Road Rawalpindi
Experience: • • • Four months experience in AC-Nielsen marketing research company as a surveyor for doing interviews (During my FSc.) Part of admissions in SS-Care School of Engineering since last two years. (It held for One and a Half month every year) Work as an organizer for IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET 2005) held on 17-18 September 2005, at Islamabad organized by Center for Advance Studies in Engineering (CASE) Worked as an internee at Centre for advance studies in engineering (CASE) under DR. SHOAB A. KHAN during June 20, 2006 to September 01, 2006 I have worked here on
Research: • I have written a research paper with Fahad M. Mirza “ETHICAL CODE OF CONDUCT RESULTS IN THE GROWTH OF TOTAL PRODUCTIVITY FACTOR IN AN ORGANIZATION” I have got my abstract accepted in 4th International Conference ERGON-AXIA held on July 912, 2007 at Poznan, Poland but due to financial constraints I was unable to publish my paper in conference. Worked on organizational analysis techniques (SWOT, PESTELI etc) under Mr. Tariq Hameed Butt, a Phd Scolar doing Phd in Engineering Management from CASE.
Fahad Mehmood Mirza Phone (Res):0092519258577 Phone (Mob): 00923445509276 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Address: Case 19th Attaturk Avenue G-5/1 Islamabad Pakistan Qualification: • Bsc. Electrical Engineering ( 7 Semesters ) SS-Care school of Engineering G-5/1 Attaturk Avenue Islamabad Pakistan (Affiliated with UET Taxila) Fsc. Pre-Engineering (1st division) Bahria College Islamabad Metric with (Biology, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics) Bahria College Islamabad
Experience: • Two years experience in SUKH (Social Uplift through knowledge and health). I am the only undergraduate co-founder with Dr. Ali Sajid and is assistant associate manager. www.sukhonline.com Part of admissions in SS-Care School of Engineering since last two years. (It held for One and a Half month every year)
Research: I have written a research paper with H. M. Umer Arfi “ETHICAL CODE OF CONDUCT RESULTS IN THE GROWTH OF TOTAL PRODUCTIVITY FACTOR IN AN ORGANIZATION” I have got my abstract accepted in 4th International Conference ERGON-AXIA held on July 912, 2007 at Poznan, Poland but due to financial constraints I was unable to publish my paper in conference.
CSR, AN OVERALL SYSTEM DESIGN AND EFFECT OF ITS PROPER AND IMPROPER IMPLEMENTATION ON ORGANIZATIONS
Abstract Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an effort to operate a company or a business organization in an economical and socially sustaining environment. This paper is written keeping in view, the increasing importance and adaptation of CSR in organizations. This paper slightly discusses the cooperate environment of DUBAI and international organizations and spots some areas, where CSR is nonexistent yet e.g. in education sector, and impact of having CSR in that areas on society and business. It then compares the Islamic ideological system and present CSR concept. Some new CSR indicators and dimensions are yet to be uncovered. It is never important to start CSR department in some organizations, there should be some CSR performance measures and analysis tools. This paper proposes not only some major analysis tools but also gives the new concept of proper and improper implementation of CSR, CSR levels and their impact on corporate business, ethical social values and corporate reputation. Concluding the discussion and depending upon the abovementioned techniques the CSR system design and implementation technique, in any general corporate body will be proposed. Research Strategy We have gone through the fundamental concepts of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility), paid visits to the governmental and private organizations having CSR departments being implemented in Pakistan, and also studied CSR departments, some international
organizations are running, in the course of their websites. In addition we have learnt the proper business ethics’ rules and regulation, The Islamic ethics, statistical analysis tools and contacted few cost management and budgeting professionals. We found some organizations; responsive and oblivious of corporate social responsibility but no department of the subject as such; still they are helping the society to some degree, observing business ethics and educating their people for the improvement of the society and environment. Going through this research we found out that society still needs more betterment because there are people not being helped in the society yet. We investigated for the reason. Many organizations know CSR concept but least has adopted it as a department, else are those who did not have CSR departments but helping the society from Islamic perspective. The least who have the departments implemented, no regulatory authority or CSR assuring authority is there to ensure CSR implementation is up to the mark or not. The many, who have not implemented the departments, give reasons to do so but we are to point out some areas out of many where CSR is least or non-existent and pointed out some reasons for them. One of the above mentioned areas is the education sector. We proposed a concept through which CSR will be having no limitations. For the organizations in which CSR is implemented in the form of departments, we derived a formula which will check the performance and the proper and improper implementation of the CSR relating CSR budgeting and society needs. By putting the values in that formula, we get either positive or negative value showing us being proper and improper respectively. And the magnitude of the output will tell the level of properness; greater the value
of the magnitude, greater will be the impact on sides and vice versa. Introduction CSR, Corporate Social Responsibility, is an extensive area to cover. It is adapted and perceived by different organization around the world, and in this IT age when world is a global village, so giving one definition of CSR is very difficult but usually it is perceived to be the tool for any company to improve the quality of life of the employees, their families , local community, society and quality of environment This paper does not describe the old and already mentioned areas of CSR internationally discussed, but it is unique in its own way. As a child plays with the colors for the first time; colors are old but the combination of the colors will be unique and have some influence on him, the other artists and on the society. This paper describes CSR not from the scratch as well but when it will come to an end then we will be having some picture of CSR system design which can be adopted by different organizations’ by type, operations, local community and environmental needs. Importance of adapting CSR A man is a social animal, lives in society and cannot exist alone. This is not only the human need but an intrinsic property by birth from God. Farmers farm crops and other eatables, constructor construct homes for others to live in, some make cloth and some sew it, educationists provide education to behave in society just as parents teach their young one a mother language to interact with each other. Technocrats give us technology without which life is not
possible now. This whole concept is of give-and-take and every facility one is availing come up with some responsibility. The same way God has gifted us the facility of the society but we have obligations for its responsibility, known as social responsibility. It is said that this concept comes fifty years back , but the true picture of social responsibility has its roots from the start of the universe when first man was there on earth and he then formed a society. Every person in the society has a right to have all the basic facilities the society is adorned with. Remaining, he should avail through his hard work. Providing basic facility to the people is the responsibility of the Government but now population has grown up to an extent that Government alone cannot get into every street. Sometimes the social and environmental hazards are much bigger than the government capacity. Importance of social responsibility can be proven the other way round. What happens, if people in the society don’t help each other? If educationist doesn’t help a milkman when he needs him/her, maybe he will not be provided by milk anymore and vice versa. If some people in the society which are having each and every facility, say X group of people and the other divine of basic facility Y group of people then a misbalance will be created in the society, which will be having bad impact on X group of people as well, one is deprived of basic facilities then he executes crime. Social responsibility through organizations make its implementation effective. Every individual belongs to a family where some people serve in organizations, so every organization is made of people with different thoughts and backgrounds making it easy for them to educate and train people to contribute in helping the society and getting a good name for
organization as an offshoot. This way, CSR adaptation is necessarily important for every organization. Dubai- International Corporations and Organizations CSR is wanted everywhere the globe, essentially after the internet revolutionized it to a global village. Every country has impact on the other by some means. Internationally so many types of organizations are there and different cultures are being followed by them. To pack under our small box of discussion, we only take some major sectors to derive the non-existent CSR organizations. Major types of organizations are: a. b. c. d. Technology-oriented Industries Media Education
system and extensive foreign trade networks. Many multilevel and multiregional people are work with full cooperation together. So, as far as media fruition is concerned, Dubai is in front in this race. Nevertheless, it has greatest market of gold as well. Dubai is now taking notice towards educational project, the Dubai Knowledge Village (DKV) . Also for the last decade, the progress of educational sector can be seen; so many worldwide institutes have opened branches there . Dubai is sincerely putting effort to observe CSR for this DCCV (Dubai Centre of Cooperate Values) work is appreciable . OSR equates the CSR CSR is adapted by companies, public and private sectors but nonexistent in many sectors. Sectors of education, hospitals and media, we traced, have CSR either least or nonexistent. Rather it is understood that they have more obligation towards society. A familiar case is with media and hospitals. Hospitals should create departments of CSR because poor patients need charity, attention, care, time and sympathy, all summarizing to the definition of social responsibilities. The same way media is an example. It has a direct impact on growing minds. In this era, children to adults get rapid inspirations from TV today. We believe there should be an adaptation of social responsibility and an authority that regulates it, as the bad side of the media leaves deprived impact on the audience. People of educational sector reply with the simple reason, when asked that why CSR not implemented as departments in education. The reason behind is the
The Technology-oriented organizations are doing good business and earning huge in today’s world. Microsoft, Oracle, Intel and Google are such examples among many. As already mentioned, facility comes with responsibility. As they are doing good business and have more impact on people internationally, so their obligations to the society have also been raised. The same way industries like steel mills have emerged effectively as Lakshmi Mittal; an Indian Steel-king is now one of the richest men in the world . Some private organizations are CSR concerned, but are infrequent in government sectors. Dubai is a multicultural domain and a major business centre where most of the organizations enjoy their headquarters or business offices due to its strategic location, political and economic environment, open and free economic
definition of ‘Corporate’. In Pakistan and usually in international societies, a corporate has some rules and regulations defined in corporate ordinance or law, which does not include educational organizations. Indeed they are working to some extent for the society but not as such structure has been implemented for social accountability. As these organizations have direct influences on public. Corporate and other organizations have different ingredients and different output products, but as far as educational sector is concerned, these organizations have both humans, at the input and the output product and course of action includes knowledge of books and teachers. It is where we don’t only acclimatize and execute social responsibility but can also do really well for its promotions. Increasing CSR in educational sector means increase the quality of the output product as education gives elevation to the quality of humans. Output quality = Ingredient quality + Process quality + People quality Concept of OSR (Organizational Social Responsibility) OSR takes the same concept and perception as CSR does, but OSR enhances the adjustment criteria. OSR also helps up the wider concept of societal responsibility. Calling OSR removes the constraint of CSR and frees the social responsibility from being corporate only. Every organization of any type now, education, hospitals, NGO’s, shops, small and big business industries, public and private sectors, now have ease of opening departments of OSR. Every people now have an advantage of serving the society through OSR, as group
of people working together is called as organization. OSR does not limit the concept of CSR but gives improvement, promotion and betterment to the concept. We call CSR as OSR from now onwards. OSR and Islamic Ideology Whenever we discuss under religion and society then the answer is very common and obvious. Every religion forbids disturbance and anarchy in a society. It never asks to observe theft, murder and torture someone physically and mentally. Every religion asks his followers to be tranquil, help the disadvantaged and so on. Religions are defined already; having differing social and religious obligations. As far as Islam is concerned, if we say that it is the religion of social obligations only, then it will not be wrong. Islam is the only religion who gives complete code of conduct to its followers. We know the history of Arabs before and after Muhammad (PBUH). He leaves behind Holy Quran and his practices which complete the society obligations. A few verses of Quran and the holy expressions from Muhammad (PBUH) and his companions will prove that the OSR concept is not a fifty years old concept but this type of society had been started about fourteen hundred years back. Religion play a vital role in personality building and spiritual growth but SNSRE (Spiritual, Natural Social Responsibility Effect) can always be seen in them by one way or the other. “It means that every child is born with pure and sinless nature” Muhammad (PBUH) 
Organization is nothing but a group of people working together and when
organizations combined together, then a society will be formed. Thus OSR is nothing but every individual’s social responsibility as sea is nothing but a combination of drops of water. Muhammad (PBUH) explained seven rights of humans towards each other to create balance in the society. “It is the duty of every person to observe the given rights of his brother in faith. a. One should not fail to show him respect and reverence. b. One should really love him from the bottom of one’s heart. c. One should share one’s belonging with him equally. d. One must refrain from back biting him and mentioning unseemly things about him in his absence. e. One should visit him when he falls ill. f. One should attend his funeral on his death. g. One should not mention him except kindly after his death.” Muhammad (PBUH) 
Now appreciate the seriousness and concern of Islam about a society. ALLAH (SW) asks HIS followers for observing Islamic basic rules and regulations i.e. Kalma, Namaz (prayer), Roza, Zakat (alms), and Haj. Where ever, HE asks for prayer, HE asks to pay alms. What is Zakat, a liability for rich and a right for poor and needy? It is 2.5% of one’s extra money which have not been used for the whole year. Islam gives the complete system of Zakat to observe balance in a society. It is the duty of Islamic government according to Islam to collect and give Zakat from rich and distribute among poors. Islam thus gives the concept of some department and organization for social responsibility. ALLAH (SW) clearly states that HE will forgive all HIS rights and liabilities towards HIM but not forgive one who does not provide rights to others. In a verse ALLAH (SW) in two lines talks about what we call the Islamic obligations, but the whole remaining verse is dedicated to social obligations which prove the seriousness and importance of Social responsibility in the eye of Islam. “It is not piety that you turn you faces to the east and to the west, true piety is this to have faith in GOD and the last day, the angels, the book and the prophets, to give of one’s substance, however cherished to kinsmen and orphans, the needy, the traveler, beggars, to ransom the slaves, to perform the prayer, to pay the alms, and they who fulfill their covenant when they have engaged in a covenant and endure with fortitude misfortune, hardship, and peril, they are they who are true in their faith, these are truly GOD fearing.” (2:177) 
Now we will appreciate the importance of social responsibility in front of Muhammad (PBUH). He does not declares the best person, one who performs Islamic obligations but the one, sincere to the society “The best of works near GOD is to make happy a brother in faith by relieving him of hunger, distress and sorrow.” Muhammad (PBUH) 
“The dearest of the human being is someone with the greatest benefit to the people.” Muhammad (PBUH) 
According to MUHAMMAD (PBUH) if one completes his every obligation to Islam and not serving the society any way then he is not a Muslim. “If someone hears a person calling Muslim for help does not respond positively to his call and request for help and does not assist him he is not a Muslim.” Muhammad (PBUH) 
all the dimension of OSR. The OSR dimensions increase in the level of OSR and better will be the implementation of OSR. That’s what Islam says about social responsibility and we have seen the completeness of Islamic values concerning society. Under the light of Islam we have sort out some indicators of social responsibility Dimensions and Indicators of OSR The dimensions of OSR are countless, and many of them vary on the basis of community needs, .e.g. cultivating job for the jobless people can be the dimension of OSR Many such have been adopted by the organizations’ CSR departments, such as education, poverty, illness, natural disasters and senior citizens’ old houses etc. A few important indicators of OSR, although not considered and recognized as a responsibility by many, involves; a) care for the others from the depth of one’s heart, b) sharing the belongings with others equally, c) refraining from viciousness, d) inquiring the illness and e) looking after the deprived and underprivileged society, f) bid people unto virtue and honor and g) forbid from vice and dishonor and h) appreciation of successful work. These are a very few indicators of OSR, we and almost everyone will believe, that give a pure reflection of the subject in any organization. That group, any certain group, is socially liable towards these indicators running an organization because ethics involve such social responsibilities. Levels of OSR This is the first step towards the OSR system design and involves true
Now what are these? Some new dimensions and indicators of OSR are being derived but it is Quran, MUHAMMAD (PBUH), and his companions sayings not us. Social responsibility has no limitations. Some organizations have CSR departments but the organizational culture and behavior of the big bosses are not good to the employees, their families and other stake holders but giving charities, here is another entity or a qualitative measure for improper implementation which is needed to be quantize but it is open to researchers. Coming formula below does not include this factor. Islam has complete rules for this system as well According to Islam, there should be some department i.e. OSR, where social responsibility is divided into sub departments or areas, and they have the capability of solving problems concerning that areas, e.g. a poor student but intelligent needs money for education, there should be some dedicated money coming from charity, Zakat or whatever resources by the people of organization or may be outside the organization. Secondly, one come up with education and need job, so there should be some department concerning jobs, thirdly, some patient come and need treatment, there should be some department for this type of thing as well and same is the case with
transparency of the dimensions and areas being mentioned and covered in some OSR department agenda. As the statement goes, the levels of OSR here mean the number of dimensions covered, by seriousness and concentration, falling under OSR. More the dimensions, the more will be the levels and vice versa. One important thing is that the dimensions should be logical and should base on the community needs presently. For example, a) education, b) poverty and c) natural disasters are a few among them. We will assume these three dimensions as our mathematical parameters for comprehending the OSR model and it’s working. We denote the levels by ‘L’ and every dimension will be given the degree 1. The formula derived for the model is (from 1 to n dimensions): L = D1 + D2 + D3 ……… + Dn … (1)
By the help of surveys, organizations can get the fair idea that what lacks the most in their society, and should apply OSR properly towards the issue. Here the idea of applying OSR, properly relates the local community needs and budget allocation for those areas, if some area in society needs more attention, more should be the budget weight towards it in OSR department. So if we say that this is the quantitative analysis of qualitative measures then it won’t be wrong. Now the model will be explained taking the example of OSR department working on three dimensions of social responsibility, that is already mentioned, education, poverty and Natural disasters, D1, D2, and D3 respectively. More dimensions can be taken which will increase ‘L’ i.e. levels. Arfi Proper and Improper OSR Model Before the model is explained, the terminologies and its working should be understood, remaining one can easily understand by looking at its picture. On the name of one of the authors, “Umer Arfi” this model is named as “Arfi Proper and Improper OSR Model” AP AP is Attribute Percentage; percentage, by which society lacks, should have been calculated by previous ten years records and trends. e.g. in local community there are 70% people uneducated, 56% poor, 7% are affected by Natural Disasters every year on average, here education, poverty and Natural Disasters are attributes and attribute percentages are AP1=70%, AP2=56%, AP3=7.
Here, D1, D2 and D3 till Dn are the dimensions being added together to give us the level. From the three dimensions mentioned in the above paragraph as an example, the level L will be L=1+1+1=3 Proper and Improper OSR Being a complex area to understand, the concept has been summarized to its basic most level. The society needs change variably and have never been certain in almost any era of the centuries. Although the fundamental needs of any society do not differ, but it is the percentage or requirements that varies time to time. Under this argument, we define the OSR being proper or improper.
A, B, C, D, E SV SV is Smallest Value among the entire attribute percentages, e.g. in above case it is 7%. W W is the Weight of attribute percentages, it is about to find that which attributes in the society is most important and which is needed by society the most among the dimensions on which OSR department is working; e.g. in above example 70% people in the local society are uneducated and need more attention, although poverty is important but while budgeting education should be given more weight as its percentage is maximum, Wn =integer (APn / SV) … (2) These are calculated budget weights, tells weight in fraction and sum of all equals to 1. A=W1/N, B = W2 / N …, Z = Wn / N … (4) A+B+C…+Z=1 E.g. in above case there are only A, B, C. the calculated budget weights for above example will be (A = 10/19 = 0.52), (B = 8/19 = 0.42), (C=1/19 = 0.05). It mean for attribute AP1, AP2 and AP3, 52%, 42% and 5% of the budgets will be allocated. It is to be noted A + B + C = 0.99 around 1. By doing this we have calculated the budget for contingent and dependant attributes by doing simple mathematics.
a, b, c, d, e The small letters are different from capital letters. These are the budget weights organization is manually allocating to the attributes in OSR departments, sum of these will also be 1, as this is the distribution of 100% of the OSR department budget among different areas or dimensions. Let’s suppose (a = 0.6), (b=0.3), (c = 0.1) and we have calculated these weights in previous page, to be (A = 0.52), (B = 0.42), (C = 0.05). These values are not equal to our values but we can see the properness of the OSR, as some of the values are close. We set a band in our model whose value can be set, the band is some things OSR assuring organizations can play with and set a rule. We take example with band of 0.2, a, b, and c can deviate from A, B, and C respectively from 0.1 only, either on the negative side or on the positive side,
E.g. in above case weights are W1 = (70/7 = 10), W2 = (56/7 = 8) and W3 = (7/7 = 1) respectively. It means money which is to be allocated for education and poverty should be 10 and 8 times of the money allocated to Natural Disasters respectively. N Sum of all the weights or we can say total weight. N = W1 + W2 + W3 ….. +Wn … (3) E.g. in above case it N = 10 + 8 + 1 = 19.
According to this a, b, and c should be around (0.32 –> 0.52), (0.42 –> 0.62) and (0 –> 0.15) respectively. P.F P.F, Proper Factor is the factor which decides the proper and improper implementation of OSR concerning budget allocation, if values of a, b, and c lies in defined bands then P.F will be equal to the allocated budget weight and is positive, else if a, b, and c don’t lies in bands then P.F will be the difference between the calculated and manually allocated weights and will be negative. P.F1 = - 1 * mod (A - a) … (5) P.F2 = - 1 * mod (B - b) P.Fn = - 1 * mod (Z - z) E.g. P.F1, P.F2, and P.F3 are (P.F=-1*mod (A-a) = 0.6 (as lies inside the band)), (P.F2 = -0.12 (as a lies outside the band)) and (P.F3 = 0.1 (as lies inside the band)) respectively. P.Ft Total proper factor tells us the properness of the entire system, its value is in between -1 to 1 (Most Improper to Most Proper), P.Ft = 0, does not means improperness rather infectiveness. P.Ft = P.F1 + P.F2 + P.F3 … + P.Fn … (6) E.g. in above case (P.Ft = 0.6 - 0.12 + 0.1 =0.58), for the best case scenario, if (a = 0.4, b = 0.5, c=0.1) then according to above rules P.Ft = 1 means proper budgeting is done and organization seriously shows concern about society.
According to above rules P.Ft will vary from -2 to +1, so what we did is, if (P.Ft<0), it will be divided by 2, this gives us two fold advantage, make P.Ft vary from -1 to 1 thus setting a standard and secondly increase in improperness is down scaled and estimation became easy. P.L Properness Level is the output of the entire model P.L = P.Ft*L … (7) E.g. in above example it is P.L = 0.58*3 = 1.74, so is clear if P.L comes out to be equal to L i.e. Levels then best implementation as far as budgeting is concerned and if P.L comes out to be -L then most improper implementation.
ARFI Proper and Improper OSR Model
Attribute %age AP1 Attribute %age AP2 Attribute %age AP3 Attribute %age AP4 Attribute %age AP5
Loop unless find smallest value among attributes Smallest Value = SV Weight of AP1 = W1 = int (AP1 / SV) Weight of AP1 = W2 = int (AP2 / SV) Weight of AP1 = W4 = int (AP4 / SV) Weight of AP1 = W5 = int (AP5 / SV)
Weight of AP1 = W3 = int (AP3 / SV)
Total Weight = n = W1 + W2 + W3 +W4 + W5
Calculated Budget Weight A = (W1 / n)
Calculated Budget Weight B = (W2 / n)
Calculated Budget Weight C = (W3 / n)
Calculated Budget Weight D = (W4 / n)
Calculated Budget Weight E = (W5 / n)
Input Budget a
Input Budget b
Input Budget c
Input Budget d
Input Budget e
If(a>=(A-k) && a<=(A+k))
If(b>=(B-k) && b<=(B+k))
If(c>=(C-k) && c<=(C+k))
If(d>=(D-k) && d<=(D+k))
If(e>=(E-k) && e<=(E+k))
YesNo P.F (Proper Factor) P.F1 = a P.F (Proper Factor) P.F2 = b P.F2 = -1 * |B – b|
Yes No P.F (Proper Factor) P.F3 = c P.F3 = -1 * |C – c|
Yes No P.F (Proper Factor) P.F4 = d
Yes No P.F (Proper Factor) P.F5 = e
P.F1 = -1 * |A – a|
P.F4 = -1 * |D – d|
P.F5 = -1 * |E – e|
P.Ft = P.F1 + PF2 + P.F3 + PF4 + PF5
P.F total = +ve
P.Ft = (P.Ft/2)
P.L = P.Ft * L
Future Research Strategies Our major research area relates to the quantitative analysis of OSR indicators. Besides, our current work is deriving an assuring standard for OSR only, as we have SA8000, AA1000 and ISO14000 for social accountability and environmental guarantee respectively.
References 1. Corporate Social Responsibility at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corpor ate_Social_Responsibility 2. The Concept of CSR http://www.dccv.ae/what-iscsr.html at
3. Lakshmi Mittal the billionaire at http://www.forexguide.net/lakshmi-mittal.html 4. Dubai Knowledge http://www.kv.ae Village at
5. Licensed Institutions at http://www.caa.ae/CAAweb/Deskto pModules/Institutions.aspx 6. DCCV forms CSR committee at http://www.dccv.ae/Dubai-Centrefor-Corporate-Values-forms-CSRcommittee-1.html 7. Sayyid Mujtaba Musawi Lari (1997) Ethics and Spiritual Growth, Foundation of Islamic Cultural and Propagation in the World, Tehran
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.