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STRATEGIES AND PRIORITIES FOR

LOWLAND OILCROPS RESEARCH


BACKGROUND
Resource Base
Two major oil crops viz. sesame Sesamum indicum L. and groundnut Arachis
hypogaea L. grow well in warm climate (20 to 30
o
c) at an altitude below 1600 m.a.s.l.
or optimum !ield" a well distributed precipitation o# $00 to 1000 mm #or groundnut
and 300 to %&0 mm #or sesame are needed during t'e growing period o# t'e crops.
(imilarl!" well)drained and lig't)te*tured soils wit' p+ values o# &.& to ,.0 are
considered ideal #or t'ese crops.
-t'iopia is .nown to be t'e center o# origin and diversit! #or cultivated sesame. T'is
potential is 'ig'l! valuable #or t'e success o# researc' wor.s in ac/uiring necessar!
genes #rom t'e available gene pools. 0t is widel! grown in 1m'ara (2onder 3 4ello)"
Tigra! ((etit'umera)" 5ens'angule (6awi and 5eles)" 7rom!a (4ellega 3 +arar) and
2ambella regions. 8ecentl! wit' t'e #ormation o# t'e private economic sector" large
'ectare o# t'e 2ibe valle!" 9in.a plain" lower and middle 1was' valle! and lowlands o#
nort'ern 7mo 'ave been covered wit' sesame.
2roundnut is t'e second important lowland oilseed o# warm climate" w'ic' is
relativel! new to -t'iopia. 0t was #irst introduced to -ritrea and t'en to +ararg'e in
earl! 1:20s b! t'e 0talian e*plorers (;ebio" 1:,$). T'ese da!s" 'owever" groundnut is
well distributed in t'e warm lowlands o# t'e countr!. <ore speci#icall!" eastern
+ararg'e produces substantial amounts w'ile some ot'er lowland areas" o# 2amo 2o#a"
0lubabor" 2ojam" ('oa" 4ello and 4ellega are also o# immense potential ((eegler"
1:,3" 1dugna 1::1) (Table 2).
T'ese crops are .nown #or t'eir 'ig' nutritive values" oil or #at" protein"
carbo'!drate and ric' source o# calorie. 1ll t'ese #actors clearl! indicate t'e importance
o# bot' sesame and groundnut and en'ance t'e contribution o# lowland oilseeds towards
t'e dietar! needs o# our nation w'ere 'anger and malnutrition are t'e dail! e*periences.
<oreover" 'ig' /ualit! edible oil can be e*tracted #rom bot' crops" w'ile t'e remaining
ca.es serve as valuable source o# crude protein #or cattle #eed.
Importance of the commodity
0n -t'iopia" sesame and groundnut are mainl! grown #or #ood" oil production and #or
e*port. 8oasted seeds o# groundnut are consumed as snac. w'ile cras'ed seeds are
added into di##erent dis'es= it is also used in t'e preparation o# peanut butter" candies
and ot'er con#ectioner! products.
0n t'e oil pressing mills" at several areas in t'e countr! groundnut and sesame are
used as row material #or domestic industr!" and t'e! serve as income generation #or t'e
emplo!ees. T'e pressed oil is an e*cellent coo.ing medium= 'ence it 'as 'ig' demand
in local mar.et. 1 production o# about 'al# a million litters o# groundnut oil and a
million >ilogram o# meal was reported in 1::$ b! t'e +amaressa oil #actor!.
7il crops in general are t'e t'ird major crops a#ter cereals and pulses in -t'iopia
bot' in area and production o# w'ic' sesame and groundnut are o# great s'are. T'e land
allotted to sesame production increased #rom :"000 'ectares in 1::&?:6 to 2$"000
'ectares in 1::%?:, (Table 1).
Table 1. Area, Yield, and production of groundnut and sesame in Ethiopia
(1979-1997)
Years Total area( ha) Yield (!g"ha) #roduction ( $t)
Year" %rop & ' & ' & '

1979 () *+ +,- +( *7 -
19, () )7 +,- +9 *7 -,
19,+ (* *- +,- ,7+ *7 -,
19,( (* ** +,7 ,9- *7 -9
19,7 (* ) +,7 1-+ *7 +
19,, (* ) +,7 1-+ *7 +
199) (1 )* +, 1-+, *1 +)
199+ 9 1* +) +) +( +(
199( 19 17 *9* 719 , 1-
1997 -) 11 )1( 7( 11 7
Note: S= Sesame; G= Groundnut
Agro-ecological Distribution
(esame and groundnut widel! grow in 'ot to warm semi)arid lowlands ((1
1
) 'ot to
warm 'umid lowlands (+")" 'ot to warm moist lowlands (<
1
) and 'ot to warm sub)
'umid lowlands ((+
1
). T'ese crops can also grow in t'e arid 'ot to warm lowland plain
(1
1
) onl! under irrigation.
Table -. &uitable ecological factors for the production of lo.land oil crops in Ethiopia.
%rop &ites Temperature(

c) /ainfall &oil t0pe Altitude


#roduction
potential
$a1 $in (mm) (m)
&esame 2umera ))) $a3or
#a.e *-. 1(. 1*,7 1-
Abobo *).* -.1 91+ )+
4edessa -+ *. cla0 1), $oderate
2arar -9. 1+. (,( &and0 cla0 1(-
5obo )(* &and0 loam 1)+
4ubti *7. -1. , cla0 *, 2igh
6erer *+. -1. *11 &ilt0 cla0 7+
'roundnut 7abile -9. 1+. (,( &and0 cla0 1(+ $a3or
7isidimo --. )9 &and0 cla0 1)+
'ursum --. 1). 779 &and0 cla0
loam
1,
#a.e $oderate
'offa
5ucha 1-
Abobo *). -. 9( %la0 loam +-
$iesso 7 1( $arginal
5obo
8orth &hoa
9o.er A.ash 2igh
$iddle A.ash

Marketing and economic Value
T'e crops provide a cas' revenue to t'e small #armers and t'eir #amil! on local mar.et
(a .ilo o# sesame seeds or groundnut .ernels #etc'es 2)$ and $ -t'iopian Birr
respectivel!) and to t'e countr! on national bases. 0n t'is regard" t'e -t'iopian oilseeds
and pulses e*porting corporation (-76-@) 'as reported a cas' income o# about
,"300"000 A B( in 1:%0 b! e*porting sesame seeds. 0n 1:,6?,% season sesame
accounted #or almost %0 C t'e total e*port value o# all oilseeds. (esame was t'e t'ird
e*port commodit! to -t'iopia in 1:::. 0n t'e !ear 1::, and 1::: 6$"$6&.% and
$1"62:.: tons o# sesame seeds were e*ported respectivel!. 0n monetar! value t'e above
/uantit! #etc'ed a total o# over 306 million and $1 million -t'iopian Birr in respective
!ears.
2roundnut is also o# considerable importance and a revenue o# $.& million Birr was
obtained b! its e*port in t'e !ear 1:,1 (-76-@" 1::0). 7n t'e ot'er 'and" t'e average
annual earning #rom groundnut alone during t'e past #i#teen !ears was about #i#teen
million Birr.
0n general t'e contribution o# bot' crops to bot' t'e local and national econom! is
great mainl! #or t'eir 'ig' dietar! value muc' more relevant to t'e small #armers and
#or t'eir economic values as #ood and cas' crops.
Need for research strategy
5ot' sesame and groundnut respond poorl! to applied nutrients. 7n t'e ot'er 'and t'e
major groundnut producing areas come under marginal rain#all areas w'ic' are
#re/uentl! su##ering #rom seasonal droug't. 7n top o# t'ese t'e alread! generated
tec'nologies (varieties) 'ave not been success#ull! popularized. 1s a result t'e national
average productivit! did not e*ceed 12 and & /uintals?'a #or groundnut and sesame
respectivel!" w'ic' is /uite ver! low as compared to t'e results obtained under researc'
condition (Table 2).
8esearc' objectives are t'ere#ore" to address t'e production problems o# bot' crops.
or t'is" well organized" continuos and s!stematic researc' approac' s'ould be devised.
1ccordingl!" researc' areas and strategic plan #or t'e lowland oil crops is described in
t'is document.
T'e major bottlenec. t'at 'inders t'e productivit! o# sesame is t'e low !ielding
nature o# t'e crop and seed s'attering problems w'ic' need #ull #lagged researc' e##orts.
@ollaborative researc' e##orts wit' 0@80(1T are ver! essential and o# great advantage
to -t'iopian groundnut researc' program as it is worldDs largest repositor! as #ar as
groundnut is concerned.
Current Research Status
Past and present organiational structure
T'e evaluation o# e*otic materials toget'er wit' some local cultivars started in mid
1:60Ds continued till 1:%1 and ultimatel! national variet! trials were initiated at 4erer"
2ambella" Tenda'o" (etit'umera" Eidessa and 2ode. 0n 1:,0s" t'e program was
organized on t'e basis o# multi)disciplinar! team approac' and was promoted to a
commodit! level and named Fational Lowland 7il @rops 8esearc' 6rogram.
0mprovement" 1gronom! and crop protection (-ntomolog! and 6at'olog!) are member
disciplines and t'e core team is located at 4erer" t'e national coordinating center to)
date.
Research achie!ements
Crop Improvement
6rior to 1:,0s trials on t'e two crops were limited to t'e selection o# more adaptable
varieties along wit' some cultural practices. +owever" a#ter 1:,0s" w'en it received
support #rom 0nternational Eevelopment 8esearc' @enter (0E8@) some progress were
made in t'e areas o# manpower" training" e/uipment and supplies. 1s t'e result" t'e
researc' wor.s e*tended to cover t'e major agro)ecologies w'ere t'e crops are largel!
grown. (o #ar si* groundnut and nine sesame 'ig' !ielding varieties were released #or
production (Table 3).
Table *. $ean 0ield and other agronomic attributes of the released groundnut and
sesame :arieties in Ethiopia.
%rop ;ariet0
Year of
release Yield (<"ha)
=il
content
(>)
$aturit0
period
?rrigated /ainfed
'roundnut &hulamith 197( +-(+ --*+ ))-)9 1*-1(+
8%-)@ 19,( +-7 --) )--)9 1*-1(
8%-*)* 19,( )-( -+-* )+-+ 1)-1(
/oba 19,, +-7 *-+ ))-+ 1*-1(
&edi 199* *--)7 11--+ )+-+- 1-11
&esame 5elafo-7) 197( 1-1( )-7 )*-), 11--11+
T-,+ 197( 1-- +-7 )+-), 1-11+
E 197, 1--1, )-9 )--)( 1-1-
& 197, 1--1( )-1 ))-)7 9-11+
$ehado-, 19,9 1+--- +-, ))-)7 9-11
Abasena 199 1--19 (-1- )*-)7 9-11+
Argene 199* 1+-1, - )*-)( 9+-1+
Adi 199* 1(--- - ),-+ ,+-9+
&er!amo 199* 1+-1, - ))-), 9+-1+
our o# t'e released groundnut varieties are late maturing Girginia t!pes t'at re/uire
130)160 da!s to attain t'eir p'!siological maturit!. 5ut t'e variet! Sedi" w'ic' was
released in 1::3" is earl! maturing and it is particularl! important #or s'ort)season areas
and #or double cropping purposes under irrigation. 0t also possesses desirable /ualities
suc' as 'ig'er oil content (&2C)" sweet taste and better blanc'ing propert!.
Agronomy /Physiology
<arc' to (eptember sowing dates #or groundnut 'ave s'own better !ield over most o#
t'e growing regions. 5ut <a! to 9une is t'e most suitable sowing time #or rain)#ed areas
to cope)up wit' t'e rain! season. <id 1pril to mid 9une during t'e main season and
Fovember to Eecember during t'e o##)season is optimum sowing time #or sesame in t'e
middle 1was'. T'is could be e*trapolated to t'e lower 1was' as well. 7ctober to
Eecember sowing #or 2ode" 9une #or Eidessa and mid 9ul! #or 5isidimo were
recommended.
(pacing o# 60),0 cm. between rows and 10 cm. between plants gave better !ields in
groundnuts= ma.ing a densit! o# about 1&0"000 plants per 'ectare. T'e seed rate varies
#rom 60)110 .g?'a depending on t'e seed size. 1 seed rate o# &)10 .g?'a #or sesame and
plant population o# about 2&0"000?'a wit' spacing o# $0 cm. between rows and 10 cm.
between plants were recommended.
0rrigation water o# about 12 cm. at two to t'ree wee.sD intervals" depending on
weat'er conditions was #ound to be optimum. Two to t'ree 'and weeding starting #rom
30 to 3& da!s a#ter planting gave better groundnut !ields and were recommended #or
small #armers w'ile 'erbicide li.e <et'olaclor :60 -@ 2.& l?'a was recommended #or
a##ordable #arms. -arl! 'and weeding" $)& wee.s a#ter emergence gave t'e best !ield
and among 'erbicide 1lac'lor $)& l?'a and <etolac'lor 2.& l?'a gave good control o#
weeds #or a prolonged time o# application in sesame under <iddle 1was' and (etit
'umera conditions.
(tudies on #ertilizers and planting met'ods did not s'ow an! signi#icant !ield
responses. (imilarl!" t'e e##ects o# ridging (earte'ning up) did not s'ow signi#icant
!ield returns in groundnut.
Crop protection
0nsect pest surve!s 'ave demonstrated t'at termites" ap'ids" 1#rican 5oll 4orms
(154) and 5lister beetles are t'e major pests o# groundnut w'ile web worm was #ound
to be t'e most destructive insect pest o# sesame in -t'iopia. To control t'e termites
treating a /uintal o# s'elled groundnut seeds wit' 1ldrin or treating t'e soil wit' 1ldrin
at t'e rate o# &00 gram per s/uare meter are t'e measures w'ile 7ctalic" T'iodin and
<alat'ion are important to control ap'ids" 154" web)worm and beetles. 1luminum
p'osp'ide" 5a!t'ion and enit'erit'ion were recommended #or t'e control o# insect
pests (i.e. weevils and webworms) on stored sesame seeds. Li.ewise" enit'erit'ion 3
CE and 6ermet'rion & C E was also recommended #or t'e control o# weevils on stored
groundnut seeds.
6at'ological surve! 'ave revealed t'at earl! and late lea# spots" rust" wilts and pod
rots were t'e major diseases o# groundnut w'ile bacterial blig't and p'!llod! were t'e
major diseases o# sesame. 1t Eidessa" 5enlate #ungicide was recommended to control
t'e lea# spots in groundnut t'at caused a !ield loss o# 6& C on e*perimental plots. (ome
sesame varieties were identi#ied to be tolerant to bacterial blig't namel! -" ( and
1basena. our doses o# (treptom!cin (2&0" &00" %&0 and 1000 66<) were #ound to
control t'e seed) borne bacterial blig't. (oa.ing t'e seed #or 30 min. wit' t'is levels 'as
controlled t'e disease ade/uatel! but wit' no signi#icant di##erence among t'e levels.
Human resources
Trained manpower is indispensable #or researc'" but t'is important part o# t'e researc'
is poorl! developed #or bot' crops. T'e commodit! at its main center 'as onl! two
junior researc'ers w'o are wit' t'eir #irst degree and limited !ears o# e*perience (Table
$).
Table ). %urrent manpo.er status of lo.land oil crops research at 6erer

Aualification 7reeding Agronom0 Entomolog0 #atholog0 Total
#h4 - - - - -
$&c. - - 1B 1B -B
7&c. 1 1 - - -
4ip. - 1 - - *
Total * - 1B 1B 7
= Only 20 % of their time
Facilities
acilities" w'ic' aim at promoting t'e improvement o# t'e basic and applied researc'"
are o# 'ig' priorities. 5ut t'e e*isting situation is ver! similar wit' t'at o# manpower.
T'e program at its coordinating center 'as one outdated computer and some laborator!
e/uipment. T'e situation is /uite worse at t'e cooperating researc' centers.
Fevert'eless" t'ere are a lot to be done to improve bot' t'e #acilit! and t'e manpower
status o# t'is commodit!.
Budget (past and present)
T'e budget #or t'e Fational Lowland 7il crops researc' since 1::0 (-@) is indicated in
Table &.
Table +. 7udget allocated for 8ational 9o.land =il %rops research program
(199-199-) E%.
Year Amount /eleased Amount Csed
199 1,1,+,1
1991 9+),-
199- *91,-
Research planning and implementation
T'e w'ole target groups (#armers" clients" e*porters etc.) need to participate in t'e
researc' reviews to give t'eir views about t'e newl! proposed researc' activities.
8esearc'able problems are to be identi#ied on t'e presence o# bot' researc'ers and
target groups. 6roposals are prepared b! t'e concerned researc'ers and reviewed
se/uentiall! at division" center zonal" regional commodit! and national levels.
Monitoring and valuation
8esearc' activities are evaluated on /uarterl! bases #our times annuall!. 6rogress
reports" annual reports and presentations in societ! meetings are also o# t'e #orums #or
researc' out put evaluation. @'anges or modi#ications could be made as necessar! a#ter
evaluation in respective review meetings.

GAPS AND CONSTRAINT ANALYSIS
Research "aps
6eriodic visits and surve!s done to major sesame and groundnut growing areas 'ave
revealed t'e #ollowing researc' constraintsH
Crop Improvement
Lac. o# improved varieties #or speci#ic environments and inade/uate number o#
improved varieties
0nade/uate on)#arm e*perimentation and low participation o# #armers in
selection o# cultivars adaptable to t'eir circumstances
Lac. o# basic genetic .nowledge on some important traits
('ortage o# 'ig' /ualit! basic seed o# t'e released varieties
1ll sesame cultivars under production are de'iscent t!pes
5reeding programs to generate varieties wit' speci#ic merit (resistance to
droug't" diseases insect pests and ot'ers) 'ave not !et started
Agronomy/ Physiology
Lac. o# suitable cropping s!stems #or most sesame and groundnut growing
areas
0nade/uate in#ormation on weeds and t'eir control measures
Lac. o# .nowledge on stress p'!siolog!
<et'ods o# #ertilizer application" time" rate and t!pes o# #ertilizers to be used
are not studied #or man! groundnut and sesame producition areas.
-conomic t'res'old levels #or major weeds are not #ull! developed
Eetermination o# weeds did not cover most sesame and groundnut production
areas
Crop Protection
0nade/uate in#ormation on t'e occurrence" distribution and status o# sesame and
groundnut diseases in various 1-Is
0nade/uate in#ormation on pre and post 'arvest losses due to insect pests
Lac. o# integrated practical and durable control measures #or t'e major diseases
0nade/uate researc' sta##" laborator!" #acilities to wor. on di##erent aspects o# t'e
major diseases
0nade/uate in#ormation on pre and post 'arvest losses due to major diseases
Agricultural conomics
Lac. o# well documented agro)ecolog! based in#ormation on sesame and
groundnut production
armersD adoption rate o# t'ese crops are not studied
1gricultural mar.ets o# t'eses crops are not studied
0nade/uate? ver! little deterministic on)#arm trials
Research !tension "ervice
Lac. o# e*tension researc' sta##
Lac. o# e*tension bulletins in local languages
0nade/uate training o# subject matter specialists
Lac. o# participator! secondar! seed multiplication
#ac$ o% harvesting technologies
Lac. o# groundnut li#ter #or small scale #armers
Lac. o# groundnut)s'eller #or bot' large and small scale #armers are t'e major
constraints w'ic' deserve researc' input. T'us large)scale #arming is 'ig'l!
discouraged to produce groundnut because it is labor intensive and costl!.
Resource constraints
Human Resource
1s it is indicated in t'is document" t'e lowland oil crops researc' program 'as got t'e
onl! 2 junior researc'ers (#ull time) and 2 <sc 'olders (('aring onl! 20 C o# t'eir time
to t'e two crops).
Facility
T'is program 'as poor storage s!stem" ver! poor laborator! and o##ice e/uipment.
Eue to lac. o# appropriate researc' #acilities and s'ortage o# trained manpower t'e
activities underwa! are limited.
THEMATIC AREAS AND PRIORITY
6riorit! setting was done b! t'e researc'ers o# oil crops in t'e wor.s'op 'eld at
<el.assa 8esearc' @enter" on 2&)2% 1pril 1::: and it was re#ined on t'e ot'er
wor.s'op 'eld at -187Js +ead Kuarters" 20)2$ (eptember 1:::. @onsensus was
reac'ed to use t'e scoring met'od o# priorit! setting based on t'e relative value o# t'e
crops to bot' local and national economies in t'at sesame 'as ran.ed #irst #ollowed b!
groundnut. 6air)wise ran.ing was emplo!ed to ran. t'e production constraints. 5ased
on t'ese" t'e priorities o# t'e disciplines were set as s'own in Tables 6 and %.
#igh priority thematic areas
('attering" bacterial blig't low !ield and lac. o# popularization activities in sesame and
termite attac." lea# spot diseases" a#lato*in contamination" lac. o# widel! adaptable and
droug't tolerant varieties in groundnut were identi#ied as 'ig' priorit! areas o# researc'.
Medium priority thematic areas
@ontrol measure studies #or various insect pests and diseases o# bot' sesame and
groundnut suc' as seed bugs" galmidge" p'!llod!" groundnut rust" ap'ids" blister beetle
and development o# proper weed management practices were identi#ied as medium
priorit! areas.
$o% priority thematic areas
(tudies on boll)worm" jassids" t'rips" viruses and #ertilizer responses were categorized
as low priorit! researc' t'eme.
Table (. 8ational research priorit0 for lo.land oil crops in Ethiopia.
8o %/?TE/?A &esame 'roundnut 8o %/?TE/?A &esame 'roundnut
1 Dood securit0
;alue of prod.
;alue of food
4emand
11.
(.)
(.
(.(
(.)
*.(
+ ?ncome
Emplo0ment
?ncome from the produces
+.
).
*.
-.)
- ?mport &ub. 11.- ,.) ( %onser:ation
&oil fertilit0
/educe erosion
Ecos0stem
1.-
1.-
1.-
*.
-.)
1.(
* /a. materials ,.) 11.- 7 #otential impact
on research
#robabilit0 of success
/esearchabilit0
/esearch opportunit0
-.)
1.(
1.(
1.,
1.-
1.- ) E1port
%urrent :alue
Duture mar!et
#otential
11
,.)
(.(
).,
, Adaptabilit0 *.- -.)
Total ,*.) ((.*
/an! 1 -
Table 7. /elati:e priorit0 le:els (high, medium and lo.) of production constraints for
lo.land oil crops in Ethiopia.
%rop 9e:el of priorities
2igh $edium 9o.
&esame &hattering, bacterial
blight, poor e1tension
ser:ices and lo. 0ield
&esame galmidge, .eb
.orm, drought ph0lod0
and .eeds
African ball .orm
and poor fertiliEer
response
'roundnut Termite, leaf spot 4rought, rust aphids,
blister beetle ball .orm
and .eeds
/osset :irus,
3ussid and thrips
Table ,. #rioritiEed discipline for lo.land oilseeds
4iscipline &esame 'roundnut
7reeding " 'enetics F F F F F F
Agronom0 F F F F
Entomolog0 F F F F F
#atholog0 F F F F F F
#h0siolog0 F F F
&eed technolog0 F F
Dood science F F F
&ocio - economics F F F F
7io - technolog0 F F F F
/esearch e1t. F F F F F
Engineering F F F F
Note: + + + = High priority; + + = Medium priority; + = o! priority
GENERAL GOALS AIMS
T'e lowland oil crops researc' program principall! loo.s #or t'e improvement o# t'e
productivit! o# t'e two crops (i.e. !ield per unit area) t'ereb! meat t'e e*tensive oil
seed demands #or e*port and consumption in t'e countr!.
SPECIFIC OB!ECTI"ES
-nric' germplasm resource #or bot' crops
Eevelopment o# varieties wit' 'ig' !ield" disease and insect pests resistance and
wide adaptabilit!
Eevelopment o# proper crop and weed management practices
(tud! control measures o# major pests
Eevelop integrated disease or insect management met'ods (0E<?06<)
Eevelop non s'attering varieties o# sesame
@onduct loss assessment studies
0ncrease oil !ield
0mprove #arm implements #or groundnut 'arvest
Eevelop varieties #or moisture stress areas
Eevelop e##ective tec'nolog! dissemination mec'anism
(trengt'en researc' #acilities and improve manpower status
RESEARCH STRATEGY
&hort term strategy '(-) years*
Breeding and &enetics
5roadening t'e genetic basis o# t'e two crops t'roug' continued collection"
0ntroduction" '!bridization and mutation tec'ni/ues
Eevelopment o# 'ig' !ielding "non?partiall! s'attering and disease and insect pests
resistant varieties
To maintain t'e purit! o# released varieties" multipl! and suppl! to target groups
Agronomy and crop physiology
Eetermine optimum crop densit! and planting time #or di##erent 1-Is to reduce
disease intensities?incidences
0nter)cropping and weed control studies
To initiate integrated weed management studies
To stud! t'e rotation and tillage practices
Crop protection
;ield loss assessment #or major diseases in bot' crops
@ollection and introduction o# germplasm #or successive screening trials
0denti#ication o# resistance sources #or '!bridization purposes (to incorporate
relevant genes to t'e e*isting 'ig' !ielders but susceptible to major diseases)
Research and e!tension
To demonstrate and disseminate t'e alread! developed varieties and ot'er
production tec'ni/ues
To encourage participator! researc' and e*tension activities and prepare
publications to be used b! di##erent clients
Medium - term strategy ')-(+ years *

Breeding and &enetics
To continue wit' t'e '!bridization and selection breeding #or desirable traits
Eevelopment o# droug't tolerant varieties
To stud! t'e level o# 1#lato*in in various groundnut varieties and develop
resistant varieties against #ungal in#ection
To continue maintaining "multipl! and suppl! t'e released varieties to t'e target
groups
Agronomy/Physiology
To establis' e##ective cropping s!stems w'ere oilseeds can be intensivel!
cultivated along wit' cereals "pulses and vegetables
To carr! out basic p'!siological studies on indigenous crop li.e (esame
To assess critical period o# crop re/uirement #or a particular nutrient and to assess
a s!stem to utilize t'e b!)products as a source o# organic #ertilizers
Crop Protection
To stud! t'e biolog! and 'ost ranges o# t'e major diseases and insect pests and to
develop basic tec'ni/ues #or t'eir manipulation
To determine t'e economic importance o# major diseases and insect pests and to
device t'eir control met'ods
Research and !tension
To veri#! and popularize t'e evolving production tec'nologies
To .eep on #ostering t'e participator! researc' and e*tension services t'roug'out
t'e researc' and development s!stem
$ong term strategy ',(+ years*
Breeding and &enetics
To continue t'e above activities based on t'e d!namics o# circumstances
To initiate and implement basic studies on genetics o# sesame mainl! wit' its
s'attering and non)responsiveness to #ertilizers applied
To appl! molecular biolog! (bio)tec'nolog! ) #or #ast and e##ective breeding results
Agronomy /Physiology
To stud! mineral nutrition o# bot' macro and micro elements" plant water and sin.)
source relations t'at would increase t'e e##icienc! o# t'e crop and 'ence increase
!ield
To investigate means o# controlling lodging "s'attering and s!nc'ronize #lowering
and ripening
To establis' cropping s!stem and tec'ni/ue t'at will permit intensi#ication and
diversi#ication o# production
Crop Protection
To continue stud!ing t'e biolog! and 'ost ranges o# uncovered diseases and insect
pests and to develop basic tec'ni/ues #or t'eir manipulation
To stud! biological pest control met'ods
E#PECTED OUTPUTOUTCOME
0n general" t'e e*pected output s'all be agronomicall! and nutritionall! superior
varieties= improved crop production and protection tec'ni/ues= basic .nowledge t'at
assists in t'e improvement e##orts= more e##icient researc' ) e*tension lin.ages and
better e/uipped researc' #acilities.
T'e possible impact will be an increased productivit! o# oilseeds in terms o# !ields
per unit area" per capita edible oil and suppl! o# ade/uate raw materials to t'e agro)
industries. @onse/uentl!" increased income #or #armers and wor.ers" better revenues o#
#oreign currenc! #rom e*ports and improved standard o# li#e #or t'e nation will be t'e
#inal e*pected output.
BENEFICIARIES
T'e end users o# t'e improved varieties and t'eir production tec'ni/ues will be t'e
#armers and t'eir #amilies (small to large) traders" oil millers (processors) and t'e
consumers o# oils and t'eir ca.es. T'e incomes o# oilseeds growers and t'at o# wor.ers
in t'e agro)industries are e*pected to increase #inall! wit' muc' contribution to t'e
national econom!.
FUTURE APPRAISAL OF THE RESEARCH
STRATEGYMONITORING AND E"ALUATION
T'e content o# t'e #irst dra#t (strateg! document) set b! t'e team 'as under gone
di##erent evaluation processes= it was #irst evaluated at t'e center level b! t'e concerned
researc'ers and t'en at t'e regional meeting wit' di##erent e*perts. 1#ter incorporating
relevant views and suggestions o# all levels t'is strateg! document was developed to its
present #orm.
6eriodical assessments o# t'e researc' strateg! are re/uired to evaluate its progress"
relevance" per#ormance" e##icienc! and impact in accordance wit' its objectives and
wor. plans. T'e appraisals are done to ma.e adjustments and to measure t'e e##ects and
impacts. T'e ultimate contributions o# improved production tec'nologies o# oilseeds
could be measured b!H
'ig' adoption rates=
increased national productivit! (!ield per 'a)=
ade/uate production o# oilseeds #or oil millers" e*porters" and ot'er oilseeds
based industries and ample #eeds (ca.es) #or livestoc. producers.
T'e assessment (<3-) can be done atH
1. 1t program level b! t'e program leader" team members and t'e users=
2. 1 t center level b! t'e center manager" senior researc'ers and t'e planning unit=
3. 1t -187 level b! crop researc' director" planning department and ot'er
relevant bodies. T'ese <3- activities can be done t'roug' periodical reports"
#ield visits" annual researc' reviews and t'e li.e.
urt'er improvements will be made in t'e #uture as #ound necessar!.