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First of all, I would like to express my appreciation to everyone who had assist me
with my Science folio by wishing thank you to my Science Teacher, Pn.Noor
Azah for her guidance in explaining how to do my science folio entitled the
Limitation of Sight and Hearing.
Special thanks are also given my mother, Puan Jamillah for her effort in helping
me for my financial or moral support. Without her support and guidance, this
portfolio will not be able to meet it success.Lastly,I thanked to my friends for
sharing their knowledges with me about the title.



Especially for science our sense of vision is very
limited. Much of the world and the universe is
either too far away or too small for us to observe
with our naked eyeballs. As we so often do, we
overcome our limitation of sight by using
appropriate optical devices such as microscope,
binocular and others. In 1609 when
Galileo capitalized on centuries of experimentation
with glass optics by popularizing a practical
telescope; he not only provided something
that extended the human sense of sight but also
opened new worlds for us to discover the very small and
the very far away.


At certain distance from the eye, some object that you can see
previously may disappear, after certain moment, it will reappear.
This phenomenon occurs because the image of the object has fallen
onto the blind spot in your eye.This blind spot does not have any
photoreceptors. As result, the image of the cross that falls on this spot
cannot be detected, and that's why you can't see it.


Optical illusion are caused by disturbances to the nerve impulses going
to the brain.The disturbances may caused by the object or condition
around the object.The brain cannot accurately interpret the
information sent by the receptors in eye.Thats why you will incorrectly
interpret what you actually see.


Sounds are produced by vibrations. Sounds needs a
medium to travel. Sound can travel through solids,
liquids and gasses. Sound cannot travel through a
vacuum. Hard and smooth surfaces like walls are good
reflector of sound. Soft and rough surfaces like curtains
are good absorbers of sound. Reflected sound are called
echo. Humans also have hearing limitation.Without
any devices, our hearing was limited. Limitation of
hearing can overcome by using appropriate hearing
aids such as stethoscope, megaphone, microphone,
headphone and others. The range of frequency of
hearing in human is 20 Hz and 20000 Hz. It was
different according to the age of a person.



The objectives of learning about the limitation of
sight and hearing :
- I have learnt that our hearing and sight has its
- I have learnt that we van overcome the
limitation of our sight and hearing by using or
wearing technology devices.
- The technology devices have make our live
easier :
(i) Doctors use stethoscope to hear our heartbeats.
(ii) Teachers use microphone in the assembly.
(iii) Scientists use microscope to see the virus.



It use to magnify the objects that very tiny which cannot be seen by our
naked eyes such as bacteria , virus , protozoa , fungus and others.
Invented in 1625 by Zacharias Jansson.
Compound microscope : It has at least 2 lenses.In a compound microscope,
the lens closer to the eye is called the eyepiece. The lens at the other end is
called the objective. It can give a clear magnification by 300 to 2000
times.These types of microscopes are commonly used in schools such as
high schools to benefit their students in science classes such as biology or
chemistry class.
High power microscope : It uses extensively in research .For example is
electron microscope.It can reveal the structure of smaller objects such as
virus and other tiniest objects because electrons have wavelengths about
100,000 times shorter than visible light photons.It uses electron beams and
can magnify an object up to one million times.


Zacharias Jansson
Compound microscope
Electron microscope


It is used too see distant objects from outer space appear as bright and clear
such as stars and planets.
Invented 1608 by Hans Lippershey.
The first known practical telescopes were invented in the Netherlands at
the beginning of the 17
century by using glass lenses.
An instrumentent that aids in the observation of remote objects by
collecting electromagnetic radiation.
Consists of two convex lenses such as objective lens and eyepiece lens.

Reflecting telescope : Reflecting telescope is telescope that use mirrors. It
most commonly use a concave main mirror at the bottom of the tube,
which focuses light back up to the top of the tube. There, a small flat mirror
deflects the light at right angles to an eyepiece on the side of the tube.
Refracting telescope : Refracting telescope is telescope that use lenses to
gather and focus light. Refractors deliver sharp, high-contrast images with
crisp views of the moon, planets and stars.It is easy to aim.


Hans Lippershey
Reflecting Telescope
Refracting Telescope


It is used to see tiny distant objects such as bird in sky.
Invented in 1825 by J.P. Lemiere
It is a pair of short telescope.
Symmetrical telescope mounted side by side and aligned to point accurately
in the same direction allowing the viewer to use both eyes when viewing
distant objects.

J.P. Lemiere


Old Binocular
Latest Binocular


It is an instrument to see a view beyond and obstructing object that used in
war and submarine.
Invented by Sir Howard Grubb in 1902
An instrument for observation from a concealed position.
Consists of an outer case with mirrors at each end set parallel to each other
at 45 degree angle.
A simple one is made of two mirrors while a complex one many consist of
reflecting prisms and several lenses to give clearer and magnified images.

Sir Howard Grubb


Captain Raymond W.
Alexander in control
room of a U.S. Navy
submarine in World
War II in 1942.
Principle of the
a Mirrors
b Prisms
c Observer's eye


It is an instrument to examine the tiny objects appear larger than the
Invented by Roger Bacon.
Convex lens that is used to produce a magnified image of an object.
It also called as a hand lens in a laboratory context.

Roger Bacon


Magnifying Glass


It is use to see the internal organs.
Example is to determine the location of a fracture in a bone.
It is also use to inspect baggage at the airports.
Inverted by Wilhelm Conrad Rntgen a German physicist on 8 November
Types of x-ray machines :
1. CT Scanner
2. Bone X-Ray Machine
3. Backscatter X-Ray Machine
4. Linear Accelerator
5. X-Ray Fluorescence


Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen
X ray machine


It is used to scan and see the condition of the baby in a pregnant mother.
It is invented by Ian Donald in 1957.
A cyclic sound pressure wave with frequency greater than the upper limit
of the human hearing range.
This is used for obstetrics, for heart and for biopsy Ultrasonic waves -
create images -organ, fetus.
Device shaped like microphone is pressed against the area being scanned.
This device sends out very high frequency sound waves into the area
being scanned.
The waves bounce back upon hitting an organ and an image of the organ
is then obtained on computer screen.


Ultrasound machine
Ian Donald



It is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an
electrical signal.
Invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.
Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, tape
recorders, karaoke systems, hearing aids, motion pictureproduction, live and
recorded audio engineering, FRS radios, megaphones,
in radio and television broadcasting and in computers for recording
voice,speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as
ultrasonic checking or knock sensors.
Most microphones today use electromagnetic induction (dynamic
microphone), capacitance change (condenser
microphone), piezoelectric generation, or light modulation to produce an
electrical voltage signal from mechanical vibration.


Alexander Graham Bell


It allows medical professionals to listen to sounds produced by the
internal sounds of an animal or human body. Any abnormal function
within these systems in the body can be immediately spotted with proper
use of a stethoscope.
Invented by Rene Laennec in France.
It is often used to listen to heartbeat sounds. It is also used to listen
to intestines and blood flow in arteries and veins.
A stethoscope that intensifies auscultatory sounds is called


Rene Laennec


It boosts weak sounds and increases the volume of sound.
Invented by Samuel Morland and Athanasius Kicher in 1655.
The megaphone also known as loud hailer.
The term megaphone was first associated with Thomas Edisons instrument
200 years later.In 1878,Edison developed that device
The sound is introduced into the narrow end of the megaphone, by holding it
up to the face and speaking into it, and the sound waves radiate out the wide


Samuel Morland and
Athanasius Kicher


It collects and amplifies sounds before sending them to the middle ear.
Invented by Nathaniel Baldwin in 1937.
There are sometimes known as ear speakers or colloquially.
The in ear versions are also known as earphones or earbuds.
The earphone is very small headphones that are fitted directly in the outer ear,
facing but not inserted in the ear canal.
It is portable and convenient.

Nathanial Baldwin




It is an electronic sound amplification and distribution system with a
microphone, amplifier and loudspeakers, used to allow a person to address a
large public.
It amplifies voices so that they can be heard from far away.
Invented by Edwin Jensen and Peter Pridham.
Simple PA systems are often used in small venues such as school auditoriums,
churches, and small bars.


Nathanial Baldwin
Public Address System ( PA System )



Limitation of sight :
We cannot see objects that are either too close to or too far away from our
eyes.Objects that are too small or are blocked by other opaque objects are
also invisible to us.To overcome our limitations of sight ,we use optical
devices such as microscope,binocular and other devices to help us see objects
more clearly.


Limitation of hearing:
We cannot hear all the sounds around us.Different people have different
limitation of hearig.For example, old people generally cannot hear as well
as young people.Our ear drums become less sensitive to sound as we grow
older.Our ears cannot hearv sounds of either very high pitch,such as
soundsproduced by bats,or very low pitch,such as sounds from low pitched
notes of a double bass.To overcome the limitations of hearing,scientists
have invented a number of devices.




Borders :