Green Imp act Indonesia

Integrated U rban, D rainage and Environ ental m Planning and D esign
CP: Gu nawa n Ta nuwidjaja MSc, Env, Mg t, (NUS) B.Arch (ITB) Email: g u nteit b@ ya ho o.com, Web:ht tp://g reeni mpac tind o. word press.com/ab ou t/

Applying Integrated Ecologi cal Planning a nd Adaptive Landscape Evaluation Tool for Developing Countrie s i n the Framework of Sustainable Spatial Planning and Development, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, I ndone sia
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W ritten by : Tanu widjaja, Gun awan. & 2 Malon e-L ee, L ai Choo.

MSc. Env ironment al Managem ent (NUS), S. T. (ITB) Urban Planner & Researcher, Green Impact Indonesia, Integrated Urban, Drainage and Environmental - Planning and Design Studio Mobile: +62 812 212 20842 Em ail: gunt eitb@y ahoo.com
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Ph.D. (Toky o), Masters U rban Planning (Sydney ), B.Sc R eal Est ate (NUS) Direct or of Centre f or Sust ainable Asian Cities School of Design and Env ironm ent, National U niv ersity of Singapore Em ail: sdem alon@nus. edu.sg Presented in:

Abstr act. Developing countries, like Indonesia, f ace great dev elopm ent press ure due to economic developm ent f or great num ber of populations. Various env ironmental problems later emerge due to unplanned, unc ontrolled and uns ustainable land use dev elopment as well as sev ere env ironm ent al destructions. The need f or integrated ec ologic al planning actually emerges from this concern. The integrated ec ological planning could be def ined as “Planning proc ess that cons ider the ecological condition, env ironm ental carry ing capacity , and other s ocial economy that af f ect the location. Lat er on, int egration of

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Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

infrastructure planning such as water management, mass transportation, waste management, energy conserv ation, etc. Involvement of stakeholders would be integrated in the proc ess application. “ The real ecological planning application f ace constraints s uch as the lack of political will, lack of expertise, tools, res earch, and funding in gov ernment as well as cons ultants. But still t he int egrated ec ological planning should be applied to ac hiev e the more s ustainable dev elopm ent as well as to conserv e of strategic or important ecological areas. One of the important steps of ecological planning is the landsc ape evaluation methodology . The ev aluation method researc h was started in 2005, f or National Univ ersity of Singapore, MSc Environmental Managem ent program. Later t hrough real applic ation, we redef ine the method with real application in other planning projects in ot her countries. Our researc h involv es identify ing the k ey elements of all ev aluation methods, which were lat er distilled and ref ined to build on Adaptive Landscape Evaluation Tool or ”ALi T”. The strengths of sy stem lie mainly in establishing evaluation met hods, adaptiv e list of data, and scoring thres holds t hat embraces sustainable land dev elopm ent principles. The method was validated in Bintan Buyu, Bintan Island, Indones ia and prov en to be applicable f or loc al gov ernm ent. While the criteria and other scoring system would need to be adjust ed to eac h dif f erent cases. The proposed sy stem is comprehensive y et manageable and practic able. It encom pass es f our important elements as part of the development and evaluation process, namely, initial sec ondary data collection, rapid survey to v erify critical data, m ulti-disc iplinary analysis with Geographic Information System (GI S), and lastly , stakeholders’ inputs. The authors believ e that ALi T can be a very useful tool for reducing environmental destruction while acc om modating economic dev elopment in dev eloping countries. We understands that there are c onstrains in method application due to lack of politic al will as well as limited f unding to gather all env ironmental, social and economic al as pects. Bec ause of that, the v ision f or dev eloping Sust ainable Spatial Planning must be made f irst bet ween stak eholders of the region comprising Public, People and Priv ate (Government, the People and the Priv ate sect or). And Integrat ed Spatial Planning with Focus on Ec ological Approach would be t he near-f uture t rend for the World. Keywords: Integrated Ecological Planning, Landsc ape Evaluation, Land Evaluation, Sust ainable Planning, Sustainable Land Development.

Applying Integrated E cological Planning and Adaptive 3 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia

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Introduction

In the p re sen t yea r, t he wo rld face s extreme en vironmental problems that threat en it s livelihood. The problem s are re sou rce depletion, global clim ate change, extinction of plant s a nd anim als, lo ss of wildlife habitats , increasing pollution, and povert y (M iller, 2003). We believe that the s e environmental issues were ca u s ed by 2 main factors, which were exponential population growth and the ri se of anth ropo cent ri sm and liberalism. First, the world’s population ha s increased e xponentially from 2.521 billion in 1950 to 6.782 billion in 2009. With the current population gro wth, it wa s predicted to reach 9 billion by 2040 and to put more pre ssu re to the Ea rth. Further, the world’s population wa s not dist ributed eq ually according to a vailability of resource s Thi s al s . o stre sse d to ce rtain areas on Earth. 1 Secondly, we al so believe that ant hrop ocentri sm and liberalism justify hum an conduct to the un sustainable development. The anthropocent ri sm sugg ested that “human beings a re the cent ral of the universe and the nature is creat ed only to s rve hum an interest. ” This e wa s pa rallel to Liberalis which uph eld “the a utonomy of the individual m and political liberties”. Unfortunately, the se principal s we re u sed to justify the ext rem e exploitation of the earth . 2 The current economic s ystem wa s al s foun d unsu stainable because of o speculative and inefficient production; over-utilis ation of non-ren e wable reso urces and exce ssi ve pollution. Therefore, seve re re sou rce depletion, biodiversity loss and increasing pollution happened. Similarly to that, environmentalis s believed that if the im pact of great population, t un sust ainable con sum ption pattern and technological advan cem ent in the wo rld were combined, enorm ou s environmental im pact would occur. And finally, it would increase Ea rth’s environm ental vulnerability index (Miller, 2003, Kaly et all, 2004; Kaly et all, 2005).

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http://www.census.go v/ipc/www/popclockworld.h l, estim ated by U nited State tm s Census Bureau on 5th Septe ber 2009; m http://au.encarta.m sn.co /en m cyclopedia_1461501471/Population_Explosion.htm l; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Popula tion-m ile stones.jpg 2 http://dictionary.re erence.com/; f http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/; http://www.m erriam-webster.com/

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Figure 1 Population Dens ity Map of the World. (So urce:
http://sedac .ciesin. org /wdc/ map _gallery.js p; Ce nter f or In tern ational Earth Scienc e Infor mati on Ne twor k (CIESIN) Colu mbia Uni versit y, a nd Centro Int ernaci onal de Agriculture Tropical (CIAT), Grid de d Pop ulatio n of Th e W orld (GP W) Versio n).

Figure 2 The C om bined Env ironment al Impact of Population, Cons um ption Pattern and Tec hnologic al Advancem ent to the World.
(Sources: Miller, 200 3)

Applying Integrated E cological Planning and Adaptive 5 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia

Figure 3 Env ironmental Vulnerability Index Map of the W orld. (So urce:
http://sedac .ciesin. org /wdc/ map _gallery.js p; K al y et all, 2004).

Land, a s o ne earth’s resources, also faces de velopment pressure. Due to its limited supply and speculation activities, many important natu ral area s were sacrificed for land developm ent. Eventually, this increa sed rate s of defore station and dese rtification wo rldwide (Millennium Eco system Assessm ent, 2005 )

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Figure 4 The World’s Def orestation in 2000. (Source: Millennium Ecos yst em
Assessmen t, 2 00 5; htt p://i mag es.wri.org ).

Figure 5 The World’s Ant hropogenic Biomes (Land D ev elopment) in 2000. (So urce: htt p://sed ac.ciesin .org/wdc/map_g allery.jsp; Ellis, E.C. and N.
Rama n k t y, 200 8). ut

Applying Integrated E cological Planning and Adaptive 7 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia Understanding the complexity of the developing count rie s cont ext, we decided to evaluate the environm ental issue s in the count rie s fu rthe r in this paper. Be side tho se facto rs mentioned abo ve, povert y al so created great land and natu ral a rea convers ion in the developing cou ntrie s . Unfo rtunately, the se de veloping countries are m ostly located in the “biodiversit y hot spot ” and affected by greater biodive rsity lo ss . (Mulongoy K.J. & Chape S., 2004; UNEP-WCM C, 2002 - Wo rld Atla s of Biodivers UNDP 2004 - Human De velopm ent Report 2004) ity;

Figure 6 Distribution of GDP per capita in 1995. (Source: S achs & Malan ey,
2002).

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Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Figure 7 Relationship bet ween Biodiv ersity Hotspot Location and Dev eloping C ountries. Legend: Developing C ountries HDI = 0.27 – 0. 75.
(Sources: http:// maps.grida. no; Mulongo y K.J. & Ch ape S. , 2 00 4; UNEP- WCMC, 20 02 World Atlas of Bi odi versit y; UNDP 20 04 - Human De velo pment Rep ort 2 004)

One of real exam ple of e xten s ve defore station an d biodiversity loss is i Indone sia. Ext ensive defo restation has happened since 1950 s. In 1998, it was repo rted that fort y percent of the forest s, which wa s repo rted in 1950, had been cleared. From 162 million ha fore st, only 98 million ha fore st was left (FAO - Global Fore st Resources Asse ssme nt, 2005 ). Fu rther, other repo rt s sho wed th at 1,708,750 to 1,871,500 ha of f ore sts we re defo rested annually. While 147 spe cies of mamm als (including orangutan, tiger, rhino ceros, an d elephant ), 114 bird s, 28 reptile s 91 , fishe s and 28 inve rteb rate s h ad become extinct in the process. (WRI et all. (2002) - State of the Fo re s Indone sia; WRI e t all. (2000 ) - Trial by t Fire; FA O - Global Fo rest Re sou rce s Assessment 2005) The exten sive defore s tation also redu ced of biodivers y richne ss in it Indone sia. There a re 3 m ain centre s of specie s richne ss in Indone sia, which are Irian Jaya (with high spe cies richne ss and endemism ), Kalimantan (with high sp ecie s richness but m oderate endem is ), and m Sulawe si (with m oderate specie s richness and high endem ism ). So Indone sia’s biodiversity was affected trem endou sly by unsu stainable land developm ent (WRI et all., 2002 - State of t he Fore st Indo nesia; W RI et all., 2000 - Trial by Fire).

Applying Integrated E cological Planning and Adaptive 9 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia

Figure 8

Natural Forest Cov er Change in Indonesia, 1985 – 1997.

(Sources: WRI et all., 200 2 - St ate of the Fores t In do nesia)

Figure 9 Forest Cov er and 1997-1998 Forest Fires in Western Indonesia.
(Sources: WRI et all., 200 0 - Trial b y Fire, Forest)

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Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Tabel 1 Forest Area and Def orestation, 1985 – 1997 (Governm ent of Indonesia and W orld Bank Estim ates). (So urces: WRI et all., 2 002 - St ate of the
Forest Indo nesi a)

Figure 10 Biotic Ric hness: Percent of World’s Species Found in Indonesia. (So urces: WRI et all., 2 002 - St ate of th e Forest Indo nesia)

It can be con cluded, that major problem s such a s re source depletion, great population, high population den sity and poverty a re very often faced b y de veloping count rie s. Beca u s of that sustainable developm ent e approa ch become s ve ry crucial. And it ha s to be implem ented starting with the adoption of su stainable spatial planning practice. On the cont ra ry, the im plementation of sustainable s patial planning faced a lot of obst acles in developing countrie s. Lack of political wills,

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 11 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia limited government budget, lim ited tim eframe for p roject e xecution, corruption and po verty we re the major hindrances. On the ot her hand, sustainable spatial planning and development co ntrol i s the only solution for s stainable developm ent. One s cce ssful practice i s Singapore. u u (Wong T-C. et all, 2008). The Singapore planning was done with m eticulous effo rt of the Government and achieving Singapo re ’s model of su s tainability (Wo ng TC. et all, 2008). Enhan cing the city condition, the government furt her prepared seve ral s stainable st rategie s such as Singapore’s Green u Plan, and Singapo re’s Su stainable De velopm ent Blueprint. 3

Figure 11 The Singapore Sust ainable City Model. (So urce: Wo ng T-C. et all,
2008, redra wn b y Ta nuwidj aja G.).

Hi storically, the sust ainable s patial planning wa s invented in b y Ian McHarg. He invent ed Ecological Planning, which defined a s , “Comprehensi ve land use planning which co n s ider the so cial, legal,
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http://app.m ewr.gov.sg /web/C ontents/C onten ts.aspx?C ontId=1342 http://app.mewr.gov.sg/data/Im gCont/1292/sustainbleblueprint_forweb.pdf

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econom y, the need, aspiration and perception of the futu re use r,” (McHa rg, 1 992; M cHarg, 1998 ). Ba sed on the pre vious wo rks, we de veloped the “Integ rate d Spatial Planning with Focu s on E cological Approach”, which could be defined as “Planning process which con side r the ecological condition (biodiversit y), environmental capacity, a nd social -econom ic conte xt that influence the site. Fu rther, in the planning process, integration of infrast ruct ure planning such as water resource m anagem ent, etc m ust be evaluated and im plemented. Lastly, but not least the sta keholders’ pa rticipation must be facilitated in all decision making pro cess.” And this co ncept could be de scribed in the following figure.

Figure 12 The Integrated Spatial Planning with Ecological Approach.

And the re a re the critical point s in the app roach, which a re: Condu cting m ultidisciplinary landscape e valuation to determine the con servation area and mitigate m ajor environmental im pact to the site. Con serving of critical ecological area that are important for ecology and other en vironm ental se rvices

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 13 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia Evaluating of local natural re sou rce s, such a s wate r reso urce s , infra s ructu re p rovi s s etc. t ion La stly but not lea st, det ermining the ca rrying capacity of p otential area for development. Therefo re, a simple land scape evaluation tool i s need ed to suppo rt the concep t above which suitable fo r de veloping count ries. The tool m ust be sim ple enough for the users without com promising its validity. Further, it should pre scribe the su stainable recomm endation and cater sta keholders pa rticipation.

1.1

Des cription

This re search was conducted to develop integrated landscape evaluation m ethod for planners and gove rnm ent autho rities of developing count ries. Meanwhile, to validate the tool’s applicability, the authors cho s the ca se in Bintan Island, Indone sia. It was unde rta ken to e understand it s limitations and fu rthe r refinement. And it was cond ucted following these s ps: te To develop integrated method of land s cape evaluation, the autho rs t ried to identify the key elements of se veral pa s evaluation method s. And we t evaluated their st rength, wea kne sse s and po ssible a rea for development with the current te chnology. These previou s re sea rch es in land scape evaluation o r site e valuation are: 1. Approa che s fo r Gene ral A rea s : McHarg (1 992); A nderson (2000); Aylward (2000 ) 2. Approa che s fo r Rural and Natural Area s: Covent ry-Solihull-Warwick (1971); A.O.N.B. (Penning – Ro swell, 1975); Blacksell and Gild (1975); Rat cliffe (1977 ); Li, Wang, Liang & Zhou (2 006) 3. Approa che s fo r Urban A rea s: Wei ss, Donn elly and Kai se r (1966); White (1985); Freem an (1999); Briffet (2001 ); Balm ori & Benoit (2003) Di stilling the relevant methods and crite ria, the authors p rescribed the landscape evaluation tools nam ed ALiT, the a cron ym for Adaptive Landscape E valuation Tool. “Alit” in Sund ane se language (native language of West Java, Indone sia) means “sm all or simple”. This was

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parallel to our intention to deliver a s ple evaluation m ethod for im developing count ries. We fu rther re fined and validated the m ethods du ring application. And later we also integrate d input s from st akeholders in Bintan and experience s with Singapore’s Urban Planning Consultant in various developing count ries. 4

1.1.1 Landscape Evaluation Method
Broadly, the re are eight stage s of ALiT (Ad aptive Land scape E valuation Tool), which a re: Defining the Pu rpo se, Scope & Context of the E valuation Criteria Selection Secondary Data Collection GIS Databa se Pro cessing Rapid Su rve y of Critical Areas (Reconnai ssance S urvey especially for Biological Aspe ct) 6. Expert Con sultation (Sem i-Delphi Consultation) 7. GIS Analysi s (including Ecological Factors, Othe r Natu ral Fact ors and S ocio - Economic Facto rs) 8. Sta keholde rs Evaluation (Sta keholders Participation) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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http ://www.jurong.com/; Gunawan has practiced as Urban Planner with Jurong Consultant Pte Ltd , Planning D ivision f or 2 years

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 15 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia

D EFINING P URPOSE . SCOPE , CON TEXT

CRITERIA SELECTIO N

SECOND ARY D ATA CO LLECTION

GIS DA TABASE

RAP ID SU RVEY

EXP ERT CO N SULTA TION (SEMI-D ELPHI )

OTH ER NA TURAL FACTORS AN ALY SIS (GIS , QUA NTITATIV) E

ECOLOGICAL FA CTO RS AN ALY SIS (G IS, Q UA NTITATIV ) E

SO CIA L & ECON O MIC FA CTO RS A NALYSIS (GIS )

CO N SERVA TION A REA

EXP EN SIVE A REA FOR D EVELOP MEN T

D EVELOP MEN T W ITH SPECIAL TREATMEN T

MO ST SU ITA BLE FO R DEVELOPMENT

STA KEH OLDERS EVALU ATIO (FO CU S GRO UP N D ISCU SSION)

- RECO MMEN DATION O F LA ND - U SES CON SERVATION P LA N - D EVELOP MENT PLAN

Figure 13 ALiT’s (Adaptiv e Landscape Ev aluation Tool) Methodology .

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And we would describe the m ethodology of ALiT in detail below.

1.1.1.1 Defining the Purpose, Scope & Context of t he Evaluation
Dete rm ining the purpo se and t he scope of evaluation is a crucial step for ALiT application. Because it would help dete rmining the s uitable m ethod, reso urce allocation as well a s evaluation tim e frame. We s ugge st compulso ry purp o s which are: e, evaluating and protecting area fo r con s rvation e predicting and reducing environmental impact s from adjacent and future development

Two additional alternative pu rposes a re suggested, such a s: determ ining the suitability of certain development to ce rtain location selecting the mo st suitable location for ce rtain development (site selection)

Originally, we adopted the possible land u s of ALiT from Anderson e (2000), McHa rg (1992) and Singapo re’s Enviro nmental Pollution Control Act (Code of Practice s on Pollution Control, 2000). But con sequently, we sim plified them into categorie s of re sid ential, indust rial and comm ercial & ins titutional faciliti es for simpler application. While other spatial uses we re still under tho rough and further research.

1.1.1.2 Criteria Selection & Secondary Data Collection
Originally, s ixteen general criteria we re selected to repre sent the environmental functions and socio-e conomic consideration s The s . e criteria we re adapted f rom previous work of McHarg (1992,1998), White (1985), Rat cliffe (1977), Ande rson (2000 ), Balm ori and Benoit (2003). These criteria were later divided into three grou ps rep re senting ecological facto rs, othe r natu ral facto rs and socio-e conomic fa ctors. The strat egy wa s conducted to redu ce the po ssible bias of the e valuation result. This strategy was adopted b y Freem an (1999 ) but with simpler criteria. Group 1 Data Set wa s p repa red to measu re the e cological value and con serve natural area s. The ecological value is m ainly repre sented by eco system type which i s not sim ilar in every location. Othe r factors if

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 17 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia available such a s patch size, rarity of plant and animal specie s , ecological connectivity and water bodies’ buffer would reinforce the accu rate re sult s . Group 2A Dat a Set wa s prepared t o mea s ure the suitability for development relating to construction an d cataclys co st s. Tho se criteria m are the exi s ting land use, topog raph y (especially slope), geolog y, soil type s hydrolog y, clim ate, and re s rce s. They are al so con side red as , ou important crite ria because of con s eration of hazardo us p otential such id as flooding, hurricane, typhoon, land slide, erosion, et c. Later on, Group 2B wa s added to the criteria. This group include criteria related to physi cal facto rs, such a s accessibility and existing infra s ructu re, which require major inve stm ent s if needed. The authors t realis that additional parameter can be included, fo r exam ple access to e rail, port s airp ort s an d logistic wa rehou ses for indu strial area suitability for othe r application, such as new indust rial area. Following on, Group 3 Data Set wa s p repa red to measu re social and econom ic a s ct s. The y a re political-legal factors, eco nom ic factors, and pe social factors. Som e of the factors ca n record social-economic condition such a s high crim e rate, or are endemic for ce rtain dis se s, etc. that ea needed by t he policy m ake rs. Finally, the human senso ry a spect, com pri sing vi sual quality and ot her pollution were included in Group 3. Thes criteria are useful in finding e locations for tou ri s areas, ho tel s, reso rts or high-end residential m developments that require be tter visual quality. Ideally, we believe tha t all data de scribed ab ove should be collected. But learning that only limited data are often available in developing cou ntries context , we sugge s ted the e valuators collecting critical data, such a s : ecological, topographical, geology, soil type s, hyd rology and ot her potential natural cata st rophe s. These data m ust be available whet her as second ary data o r the rapid primary a sse ssm ent re sult. Ad ditionally, further detailed studies are still needed to p roduce m ore accurate analysi s.

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1.1.1.3 GIS Dat abase Processing
After data collection, the data ha ve to be proce ssed dire ctly. We su gge s t the evaluators to recon sider the p rocessing method based on the purpose; availability of skill set s, tool s or soft wa re a nd time. We believe th at GIS (Geographic Inform ation Syst em ) software should be u s to produce m ore accurate dat a. On the other hand considering ed the lim itation in developing countries, we p rovided t wo m ajor m ethods for ALiT su ch a s: GIS databa se and manual databa se.

Under the GIS flo w, there are several alternative steps identified: a. Selecting and using GIS Soft wa re (such a s Arc View GI S 3.1) for databa se m anagement and analys s i b. Purcha sing a ba seline vector map from rem ote s n s e ing service provide rs c. If the vector map unavailable, other topog raphical m ap could be digitised with GIS soft ware (Autocad, Mapinfo etc) d. Digitising othe r factors into GI S data set (grid or shapefiles) e. Continuing to analys s pha se i Under the manual flow, we find that M cHa rg’s t ransp arent laye r m ap could be u s ed to produce con servation and developm ent s uitability maps (McHarg, 1998 ). We also note improvement of thi s m ethod with assi s ce of t he late st computer g raphic soft ware application (su ch as tan Photoshop and Power point).

1.1.1.4 Rapid Survey
Con s ring budget a nd time con s ide traint s, the rapid s rvey is sugg ested u to be fo cu sed in the critical area s. These areas could be area s with high biodivers & high scenic values; and a rea s to be developed in the n ear ity future. And the se location s a re better to be identified first f rom aerial image or se conda ry data (GI S or land u se m ap). Fu rther, other im portant po ss ible acce ss or mode of tran sport al so should be surveyed. The s a rea s a re port s, m ajor roads (according to e the road s classifications), railways, light rails, airpo rts, as well as major com mercial – institutional facilities.

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 19 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia Other poten tial hazard s al s mu st be identified, s ch a s: wetland s, flood o u prone areas, slope s with potential lands lide, polluting indu s s trie , hazardous material sto rage, etc. This inform ation is im portant especially for residential and com mercial – institutional facilities. Ha ving tried seve ral survey m ethod s in A LiT application, we re com mend com bination of McHa rg t ransparent m ap s (M cHa rg, 1992), pho tograph s , video documentation, GP S set, a nd survey tables. These method s are found to be effe ctive, well-do cum ented and shorter in time wise.

1.1.1.5 Expert Consult ation ( Semi Delphi)
Interpretation of the seconda ry data should be co nduct ed involving a team of expert s. A team, com prising of a Planner, Land scape Ecologist, Con servationi st, Hyd rologist, Civil Engineer, Geologist, and SocioEconom ic Scienti st, should be recruited. Later on, all data need to be interpreted and t ranslated into ranking criteria following the sustainable principals by the team. The principals we re al ready p re scribed in the previou s work o f M cHarg (1992), White (1985), Ratcliffe (1977 ), Ande rson (200 0), Balmori and Benoit (2003). And s ample of ran king criteria is pre sented in the following table.
Tabel 2
No

Sample of Ranking Criteria f or ALiT
Criteria H ighest C onservation Value Most Suitable f or Development

Group 1 A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B B1 Vegetation Ecosyste Type m Patch Size R arity of Plant Species Ecological C onnectiv ity R iparian & Beaches Buffer Animal R arity of Animal Species Threatened and Endangered Species N o Species Found Highest C onserv ation Value More than 10 ha Threatened and Endangered Species Good Less than 15 m Lowest Conserv a tion Value Less than 0.4 ha N o Species Found Fragm ented More than 165 m

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This approach wa s originally pre scribed by M cHa rg (1998). Late r, we adopted differe nt app roach of sco ring method similar to Freem an (1999). La stly, we redefine the scoring interp retation validity with more assi s ce of Sem i-Delphi discu ssio n. tan Adopting Environmental Im pact Asse ssm ent, we differentiate the important criteria with m ajor environmental im pact from other norm al criteria (Morri s and Therivel, 1995). Thi s concept i s t ran slated into t wo type s of scoring scale s. The first scale (0 t o 30) i s dedica ted for criteria with m ajor im pact (major-weighting). The se cond scale (0 t o 3) is pre scribed for the one s with m inor im pact (m inor-weighting).

Figure 14 Cons erv ation and Dev elopment Suitability Scale in ALiT.

We also produce new app roach in scoring technique, which de s cribed 0 or zero re pre senting the high conse rvation areas or tot ally unsuitable area fo r development. On the cont rary we p re scribed 30 or 3 rep resenting the m ost suitable area for developm ent.
Tabel 3 Criteria Int erpret ation f or ALiT
C riteria Interpretation No C onservation 1 2 H igh C on servation Value Medium Conservation Value D evelopment Suitability N ot Suitable for D e elopm ent v Expensiv e for D e elopm ent v Major W eighting 0–9 10 -19 Minor W eighting 0 1

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 21 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia
3 Low C onservation Value, Partial Hum an Intervention N o C on servation Value, Massiv e H uman Intervention Suitable f or D ev elopment with Special Treatm ent Most Suitable f or D e elopm ent v 20 – 29 2

4

30

3

22

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Tabel 4

Sample ALiT Scoring f or Bintan Ecological Dat a

(Legend: Italic text showed Indonesian tran slation) No C ategory ( ategori) K C riteria Score (Nilai Kriteria)

A A1

Vegetation (Flora) Ecosystem Type (Tipe Ekosistem) W hich specific to Bintan (Spesifik untuk Bintan) Bare Earth (Tanah Terbuka) Mining (Pertambangan) H um an Settlem ent (Permukiman) Agriculture (Pertanian) Scrub (Padang) Marsh (Rawa) Plantation (Kebun) Abandoned Plantation (Kebun yang Ditinggalkan) Secondary Forest (Hutan Sekunder) Mangrov e C oral Reef (Terumbu Karang) Fresh Water Swam p Forest (Hutan Rawa Air Taw ar) Prim ary Forest (Hutan Primer) 30 30 25 20 20 15 15 12 10 5 0 0 0 2 1 0 0

A2

Patch Size (Luas Ekosistem) 0-0.4 ha 0.4 -1 ha 1 -10 ha > 10 ha

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 23 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia
Tabel 5 Sample ALiT Scoring f or Bintan Ecological Dat a continued

Legend: Italic te showed Indonesian translation xt No C ategory ( ategori) K C riteria Score (Nilai Kriteria)

A3

R arity of Plant Species (K elangkaan Flora) N o D ata (Tidak ada Data) C omm on Specie (Spesies Biasa) s Endemic Species to Large Area (Spesies Endem pada ik Daerah yang Luas) Endemic Species to Sm all Area (Spesies Endem pada ik Daerah yang Sempit) Threatened and Endangered Species (Spesies Lang ka dan Terancam Langka)

2 2 2 1 0

A4

Ecological C onnect ivity (Konekt ivitas Ekologi) Good (Baik) Fragm ented (Tidak baik) R iparia & B eaches Buffer (Buffer untuk Sungai, n D anau, R awa dan Panta i) 0 - 15 m 15 - 50 m 50 - 165 m > 165 m

0 2

A5

0 0 1 2

B B1

Animal (Fauna) R arity of Animal Species (Kelangkaan Fa una) N o D ata (Tidak ada Data) C omm on Specie (Spesies Biasa) s Endemic Species to Large Area (Spesies Endem pada ik Daerah yang Luas) Endemic Species to Sm all Area (Spesies Endem pada ik Daerah yang Sempit) Threatened and Endangered Species (Spesies Lang ka dan Terancam Langka) 2 2 2 1 0

We decide to bring Bintan ’s case to explain the rationale of selecting 0 sco re for the high con servation area s. Further, to mea s re a total u con servation score o r de velopment suitability for one a rea, all the critical criteria or facto rs of the location should be calculated f ollowing the se calculations.

24

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Tabel 6

Score C alculation f or ALiT = f actor A score * f actor B sc ore, etc

Cons erv ation suit ability score (Group 1 sc ore) Dev elopment suit ability score (Group 2 or 3 sc ore)

= f actor C sc ore * factor D score * f actor E score, etc

So for e xample, if the area is a prim ary fore s in Bintan; with patch size t of 0.4 ha; po sse sses certain endem ic spe cie s of plant s t o small; not connected with e cological corridor (f ragm ented); located at 1 65 m distance f rom the b each; and po sse sse s one endemic species of animals to large area. The individual factor score would follow this t able.
Tabel 7
No A A1 A2 A3

Sample of Score Calculation f or ALiT f or Ecological Score
C ategory ( ategori) K C riteria Score (Nilai Kriteria)

Vegetation (Flora) Ecosystem Type (Tipe Ekosistem) Prim ary Forest (Hutan Primer) Patch Size (Luas Ekosistem) 0-0.4 ha R arity o Plant Species (Kelangkaan Flora) f Endemic Species to Sm all Area (Spesies Endemik pada D aerah y ang Sem pit) 1 2 0

A4 A5

Ecological Connectivity (Konektiv itas Ekologi) Fragm ented (Tidak baik) R iparian & Beaches Buffer (Buffer untu Sungai D anau, k , R awa dan Pantai) 50 - 165 m 1 Anim al (Fauna) R arity o Anim al Species (Kelangkaan Fauna) f Endemic Species to Large Area (Spesies Endemik pada D aerah y ang Luas) 2 2

B B1

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 25 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia The con s rvation score of the area would be able to calculated as follow e Con servation sco re (Group 1 score ) = A1 * A2 score sco re =0 =0 *2 * A3 * A4 sco re score *1 *2 * A5 * B1 sco re score *1 *2

So, it can be con cluded that the primary f orest pat ch i s not suitable for any developm ent. Further, similar principal also would be able to be applied in development suitability. Flood prone a rea s, high potential area s for land slide and earthquake are not suitable for development acco rding to ALiT.

1.1.1.6 GIS Analysis
GIS an alysi s i s sta rted with co nve rsion of attributes abo ve into sco res by databa se soft ware o r GIS scripting. Later on all GIS data should be com piled and calculated in three g roup s. Sim ilar cla ssification of data set s, we al so p ropose d categori sing sco ring into 3, which are Group 1 sco re for the ecological value; group 2 score fo r suitability in other natural asp ect and gro up 3 score fo r suitability in so cio–econom ic aspect. The conse rvation thre shold need s to b e rede fined again in the expert panel. The threshold is not fixed, but from conve ntion s of the expe rt s , producing balance con s rvation and de velopment recomm endation. e Fo r example, the threshold in Bintan was adju sted to 47%. It was selected in the view o f con serving important a rea and re comm ending less e cological im portant area for development, s uch a s scrubland, agriculture, m ining, barren ea rth. For compari so n, Freem an (19 99) recomm ended score 14 of total 3 0 for con servation th resh old in Leeds case o r 46%. After setting the th re shold, we could find area s with low ecological sco re which could be suitable for development. Potential suitable area s fo r developm ent need to be e valuated for ot her factor suitability. And thre sholds would need to be set fo r each score (score 2 and score 3 ). Finally the analys s would produce 3 i recomm endation of area, s ch a s very suitable area for development, u :

26

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

suitable area with certain treatment, area that expensive to de velop and area not suitable for th e developm ent.

Tabel 8 Sample of Threshold of Cons ervation and Dev elopment Suit ability
No Criteria Interpretation Group 1 Score (C onservation) for Bintan C ase Proposed f or conservation R ecomm ended for developm ent, need further Group 2 and 3 assessm en t Group 2 and Group 3 Scores (Development Suitability) N ot Suitable for D evelopment Expensiv e for Developm ent Suitable f or D evelopm ent with Special Treatm en t Most Suitable f or D e velopm en t Criteria Score

1 2

0 - 47% 47.1 - 100%

1 2 3 4

0 – 33.3% 33.3 – 66 .6% 66.6 – 99.9% 100%

Fu rther, su stainable planning and de s ign concept mu st be prepared for area t hat a re e xpensi ve for development and suitable but need certain treatment. For example, barre n land in Bintan could be de veloped, but with the caref ul s oil erosion p revention. Another example, proper stru ctu ral system with adaptation to the ea rthquake i s needed for development in the earthqua ke p rone areas.

1.1.1.7 St akeholder Evaluation
Sta keholde r evaluation of the interim landscape evaluation result s is needed. It wa s proposed to e nsu re the acceptan ce of the local com munities governm ent a s well a s p rivate sectors an d redu ce the , social impacts f rom the plan. Participato ry approach wa s originally developed in UK and USA. This process wa s later introduce d to the developing count rie s b y the n ongovernment organi s ation, s uch a s A DB, GTZ, USAI D and JICA, to po stdisa ste r areas su ch a s Aceh (Nanggroe A ceh Daru ssalam Province,

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 27 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia Indone sia). Although still facing difficulty, these processes were generally accepted in Indo ne sia and quite succe ssful. 5 The difficulties of implem enting participatory planning are the limitation of project time (e specially government-funded and inte rnational-fund ed) and po ss ible conflict of intere st s. Fu rthe r, we al s found th at the fut ure o spatial development information could create land sp eculation in the countrie s with liberal land m arket, such a s India, Indone sia, Vietnam, etc. But we s believe that the sta keholde rs participation still would bring till ’ po sitive im pact s to th e com muniti es and sustainable s patial planning. Finally, we would like emphasi se t hat afte r ALiT im plementation, an Integrated Spatial Plan should be prepa red by prof essional consultant s . Fu rther to validate ALiT applicability, we will describe its application in Bintan I s land, Indone sia.

1.1.2 Applicat ion of ALiT (Adaptive Landscape Evaluation Tool) in Bint an Buyu
ALiT was applied to re view the e cological condition a s well a s the fea sibility of Bintan Buyu Developm ent, Bintan Island, Indone s ia. The area wa s o riginally des ignated by Bintan Regency Go ve rnment as the new Di strict Cent re (nam ed as Banda r Se ri Bintan) in 2004. Facing resi sta nce from Cent ral Gove rnm ent becau se of co nse rva tion status of the area, the Local Governm ent conduct ed fea sibility re-evaluation with our team a ss stance. i Although the development wa s rejected by the Cent ral Government, we are glad to participate becau se our ability to mitigate the impacts and to produce su stainable spatial development scena rio. And we fo cuse d our evaluation in m easuring the conservation value and re sidential s uitability of the location which described accordingly. First, a gen eral survey and interviews for collecting secondary data were conducted. The p roce ss involved Bintan Planning Agency (BA PPEDA);
5

http://www.relief web.in t/library/docum ents/2005/brr-idn-22sep.pdf http://www.adb.org/D ocum ents/Reports/39127-IN O/FactSheets/village-plans.pdf http://www.scribd.co /doc/13103851/Participatory-Planning-in-Aceh- RDIGTZ-Se inarm U m 2526-July -2008 http://indonesia.usaid.go v/en /Article.361.aspx http://www.jica.go.jp/indonesia/english/activitie s/pdf/JICAinAceh.pdf

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Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Stati s tics Agen cy (BP S); Fore st ry Age ncy (Dinas Kehutan an; Public Works Agency (Dinas PU); and Inve s ent Coordination and Regional tm Promotion Board (BKP MD) of Bintan. The m os -updated critical GIS data set s we re collected from the Public t Works Department (199 3). Other maps we re al so collected f rom Indone sian National Geological Re sea rch Cent re and National Water Re sources Cen tre in Bandung, W est Ja va, Indone si a. And this allowed the application of GIS s wa re (Arc Vie w GIS 3 .1). The data late r were oft scanne d, geo-referenced and co nve rted to shape-files (SHP ). A comprehensi ve site s rvey wa s condu cted with team of four person s u , com pri sing 1 Urban Planner, 2 Biologists and 1 Civil Engineer (Go vernment Officer), in June 200 6. It was exe cuted using ALiT’s recomm ended tools. And we found it very effective and accurate because of adequ ate experti se and tool s. In the survey, some point s for biological assessment were selected rep resenting each ecotype. Many important ecotype s had been converted to agricultu re land or hum an set tlement based on 1993’s e cotype s Thi s finding actually highlighted the importance of latest remote . sen sing im age data in evaluation process. Unfo rtunately, be cau s of e funding lim itation, the data wa s not collected. GIS databa se analysi s wa s late r condu cted focusing only on Ecological sco re a nd Re side ntial De velopm ent Suitability for oth er natu ral factor sco re. The an alysi s was co nduct ed involving of m ultidisciplinary team con sisting of Principal Urban Planne r and Re searche r, Land scape Ecologi st, Con s rvationist , Hyd rologist cum Drainage Enginee r, and e Civil Engineer cum Geologist. Du ring the analysi s p roce ss, we we re al so assi s ted by 2 Senior GIS e xpe rts f or GIS d atabase proce ssing and analysi s f rom National Unive rsit y of Singapo re. All data later were collected and processed following the criteria priority and s ignificance in the evaluation pro ce ss.
Tabel 9 Data Proc essed in Bintan Buyu Ev aluation.

(Legend : Y = Yes, N = No)
Considered in the Gene-ral Analysis Calculated in ALi T Scoring

No

Criteria

Av ailability

R eason

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 29 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia
Considered in the Gene-ral Analysis Calculated in ALi T Scoring

No
Group 1 A
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5

Criteria

Av ailability

R eason

Vegetation
Ecosyste m T ype Patch Size Rarity of Pl ant Sp ecies Ecolog ical Connectivit y Riparian & Be ach es B uffer Y N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

B
B1

Animal
Rarity of Animal Sp ecies Y Y Y Partial d ata a vailable

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Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Tabel 10 Data Proc essed in Bintan Buyu Ev aluation. (Legend : Y = Yes, N = No)
Av ailability Considered in the Gene-ral Analysis Calculated in ALi T Scoring

No

Criteria
Group 2A

R eason

C
C1 C2

Existing Land Use
Comp atibilit y with Existing Lan d Use Existi ng Facility Ad eq uacy N Y Y Y

D
D1 D2

Topogra phy
Ele v n atio Slope Y Y Y Y Y Y

E
E1 E2 E3

Geology
Foundati on Streng th Earthq ua ke and Volc anic Z one Anticline, S ynclin e, an d Fa ult Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Beca use similar fac tor affec ting th e site

F
F1 F2

Soils
Foundati on Streng th Erosion by S oil Type Y Y Y Y Y Y

G
G1 G2 G3 G4

Inland Hydrology
Recharg e Are as Aq uifer Prod ucti vit y Surfac e Waters an d Flood Zone Catch ments Are as Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

H
H1

Marine Hydrology
Marine Fea tures N

I
I1 I2 I3

C limate
Hurricane, T ypho on Ann ual Rai nfall Rainy Days in 1 year, Damp ness, A v ag e er Temp erature, Mo nthl y Temp erature, Wind Pa ttern , Sun Ang le and Traject ory Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N Beca use almost si milar factor aff ecting the site

J
J1

R esources
Mining Resources Y N Beca use not e valuat ed for Mining

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 31 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia

32

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Tabel 11 Data Proc essed in Bintan Buyu Ev aluation. (Legend : Y = Yes, N = No)
Av ailability Considered in the Gene-ral Analysis Calculated in ALi T Scoring

No

Criteria
Group 2B

R eason

N
N1 N2 N3

Location
Distance from th e Main Roa d Averag e Dista nce from Oth er City within Area Averag e Dista nce from Regional a nd Int erna tional Centre Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Beca use similar fac tor affec ting th e site

O
O1 O2

C irc ulat ion
Inland Trans port Wat er Transp ort Y Y Y Y Y Y

P
P1

U tilities
Availability o f Utilities Facilit y Y Y Y

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 33 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia
Tabel 12 Data Process ed in Bintan Buy u Evaluation.

(Legend : Y = Yes, N = No)
Considered in the Gene-ral Analysis Calculated in ALi T Scoring

No
Group 3 K
K1

Criteria

Av ailability

R eason

Politics and Legal Factors
Municipal G o vern ment Economic an d Hu ma n Resources C apacit y Future Gover nment Pla n Y Y N Beca use similar fac tor affec ting th e site Because the Master Plan was ca ncelled

K2

Y

N

L
L1 L2 L3

Economic Factors
Lan d Market Pricing Lan d O wnership Regional Gross D omestic Produc t Tren d N N Y Y N Beca use similar fac tor affec ting th e site Because dat a onl y availabl e in ge neral and similar factor affecting the sit e

M
M1

Social Factors
Hig her Educa tion Level Y Y N

M2 M3 M4 M5 M6

Middle E duca tion Level Criminalities L evel Population Densit y Numb er of Pa tients a nd Deaths b y Diarrho ea Numb er of Pa tients a nd Deaths b y De ng ue/Malaria

Y N Y Y Y

Y

N

Y Y Y

N N N

Because dat a onl y availabl e in ge neral and similar factor affecting the sit e

Q
Q1 Q2

H uman Sensory
Visual Q ualit y Other Pollutio n N N

Becau se we fo und that only limited num bers of da ta were available for Bintan Bu yu, we decided to f ocu s the e valuation to a vailable data and com pleting s e critical data with primary su rve y. om

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Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

From the application, we also found that some data we re only available in regional s cale, not in the local s cale. Therefo re, we decided including the data in general evaluation, but not in cluding them in the total scoring calculation. This was implem ented for simpler ALiT application. Further, only the mos si gnificant data we re di scu sse d in thi s paper. t The ecological condition of the Bintan Buyu wa s o riginally adopted from 1993’s Natural Re sou rce s Inventory (by Bintan Planning Agen cy, cited in BKPMD 20 05) and validated by prim ary rapid biological assessment. Bintan Buyu was hist orically occupied by the ag riculture comm unities in 1950’s. In 1991 by Pre s idential Decree No. 32 (Keputu s Pre s an iden No 32, 1991), the area wa s designated a s protecte d catchment s area, but it wa s im plemented without land acqui s ition and com munity participation. This later cau sed the con servation plan fail, leaving agriculture activities and creating rural - nat ural a rea patchwork (cited in Riau I slands Planning Agency and CV Geometric Tehnik, 2005).

Figure 15 Ecosy stem Ty pe of Bintan Buy u. (Sources: Riau Isl ands Pla nning Agenc y, 200 4; c orrected in th e Rapi d Biol ogical Assess ment, 2006)

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 35 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia Bintan Buyu’s ecological condition was com po sed of seve ral eco -t ype s . First, t he highest ecological areas f ound we re co ral reef, m angrove, prim ary fo re s , and fre sh wat er swam p fore st. We sugge sted t hese to be t con served because of im portant function s such as ha bitat for plant and , animal, coa s tline protection, wa ste assimilator, wate r purification, and nursery ground fo r marine life and birds (Whitten et al., 2000). Fu rther, area s with the second highe s ecological value were the t second ary fo re s s, m arshes and abandoned plantation s. They held t certain fun ctions o f habitat for biodivers y but t hey we re still in the it reco ve ry proce ss afte r hum an inte rvention s. Fo r example, the team found Banded Leaf M on keys in the a bandoned plantation s which could be con side red a g ood habitat. The third e cotype s with the se cond lowe s ecological values, were , t agricultural land and scrubland in the area. The se areas could be con side red a s a man-m ade environm ent and po sse ssed low biodivers ity, which we re the dragonflies and bird s. Therefo re, the se area s were po ssible for d evelopment. On the cont rary s e patches of om scrub should be prese rved fo r local species habitat. Finally, the team found som e very low ecological value areas, which we re could be developed, if the development was perm itted. They were the mining or ex-m ining area s and b arren ea rth. Meanwhile, two im portant endem ic species were also foun d in the area. The Banded Kingfishe r (Lacedo pulchella) and Ba nded Lan gur (Presb ytis sia men sis rhionis) are t wo examples of the endemic s cie s. pe

36

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Figure 16 Elevation of Bintan Buy u. (Source : Bin tan Reg ency Public Wor ks
Depart me nt, 19 93)

Figure 17 Slope of Bintan Buy u. (Source: Binta n Reg e nc y P ublic Wor ks
Depart me nt, 19 93)

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 37 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia Topographically, Bintan Buyu area was located on the altitude of 0 to 255 m from sea level. Bintan Mountain (Gunung Bintan) the highe s t point of the a rea and with 15-45 pe rcent slope. It held im portant function s of wate r cat chm ent s and wildlife habitat. Therefore, thi s area wa s not suitable for de velopm ent (Bintan Reg ency Public Works Department, 1993 ). Meanwhile, exten sive the lowland a rea s, with 0-1 pe rcent slope, were identified in the location. Thes areas were often vege tated by e mangrove, fre sh wate r swam p fore st and m arshe s. And the y were not definitely suitable for developm ent becau s of poo r soil st rength, e extreme land subsi dence, and very high cost of inf ra s ru ctures especially t for landfill and flood protection.

Figure 18 Geological Lay ers of Bint an Buy u. (Source: Kusna ma et .al., 1994)

38

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Figure 19 Soil Ty pes of Bintan Buyu. (Source: A kus et.al., 199 4)

The Geological layer found in Bintan Bu yu a rea wa s Ande site, Goungon Fo rmation, and Alluvium (Kusnama, et al., 1994). Areas with Ande site layer were not suitable for de velopm ent due to the ro ck laye r ha rdne ss and expen sive excavation cost. M ean while, area s with the Alluvium layer were not suitable for developm ent due to poor strength and po ssible soil ero sion. So, o nly areas with Goungon Formation were found feasible for development. Bintan Buyu, were cat egorised a s the Zone VI e arthquake ha zard. Or it wa s consid ered safe f rom earth qua kes or t sunam is An d no anticline, . syn cline, st rike slip fault, or normal fault were found affecting the area (Ku snama, et al., 1994). And it means that the area possessed higher development suitability, but the sco re wa s e xcluded from calculation because similar attribute in the area. Bintan Buyu’s soil wa s composed of 2 t ype s, which were Alluvium and coa stal deposit, (con si s ting of g ravel, sa nd, clay an d m ud deposit); and Acid intrusive rocks - gra nite (Akus et al., 1994). The Alluvium soil was

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 39 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia found to be m ore vulnerable for e rosion and weake st for foundation strength.

Figure 20 Catchm ents Area of Bintan Buy u. (Source: A kus et. al., 1994).

There were th ree main rivers in the a rea, of Bintan Rive r, Kangboi River, and Anculai Rive r. 3 major cat chment s and 1 minor cat chm ent s were also identified. In 1991, these cat chm ent s were de signa ted as prot ected catchm ent s area, but appa rently thi s st rategy wa s not effectively implem ented (Riau I sland s Planning Agency and CV Geometric Tehnik , 2005). And the plan wa s not com patible anymore becau se of th e present of polluting activities, such as mining in Lom esa, Bintan Buyu. The polluting developments we re also n ot com patible with residential development. Bintan’s economy depends heavily on industry, m ining, trade and touri s se ctors with tot al Regional Dome stic Product 1,053.84 Billion m Rupiah (B KPM D, 2005). So the developm ent of new district centre should be adapted to the real econ om ic condition and environmental capacity.

40

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 41 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia
Tabel 13 Table 10. Bintan’s Regional Domestic Product in 2003 – 2004.
(Source: BPS, 2 004)

2003 No Sectors
Billion Rupiah % to Regional Domestic Product Billion Rupiah

2004
% to Regional Domestic Product

Annual Increase % 13.14 11.51 6.94 17.48 13.78 9.23 12.47 8.81 4.53 9.24

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Agriculture Mining Industry Energy Construction Trade and Tourism Transportation and C ommunication Finance Serv ices Total

54.11 259.28 383.17 1.78 43.71 122.96 48.03 19.63 24.72 957.39

5.65 27.08 40.02 0.19 4.57 12.84 5.02 2.05 2.58

61.68 290.48 412.81 2.08 49.83 135.20 54.24 21.51 26.01 1,053.84

5.85 27.56 39.17 0.20 4.73 12.83 5.15 2.04 2.47

Legend:

The highest contribu to tor R egional Dom estic Product

The lowest contributor to R egional D o estic Product m

We also noted the population of Bintan Buyu increa sed 0.88% annually. In April 2006, local population wa s re cord ed rea ching 2,065 persons (Teluk Bintan Di st rict Office, 2006). Most of local population worked in agriculture and fi shers se ctors. On the ot her han d, no detailed local social data was available cau s ing e valuation difficulty. It can be concluded that the Bintan Bu yu comm unity depended heavily in agriculture and fi sherie s Meanwhile, if the location wa s developed, new . econom ic activitie s m ust be int roduced with investments to suppo rt the new di st rict centre.

42

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Figure 21 Bintan’s R oad Net work. (So urce: Bint an R egenc y Public Wor ks Ag e ncy
and Riau Isl an ds Pla nni ng Ag ency, 2004)

Bintan Buyu wa s locat ed cent rally in the island but poorly connected (by dual-lane a s phalt road ) with oth er a rea in 2006. In the futu re, a coa stal ring road along would be const ructed co nnecting the area. Unfo rtunately, the road wa s not planned con s idering the ecological condition and affe cted the important forest s in the a rea (Riau I slands Planning Agency, 2004). Further, Bintan Bu yu was not served by pro per public tran spo rtation and infra stru ctu res. The s eventually would require e heavy inve stm ent s if the city was de veloped. Other description of the area, such as Inland Hyd rology, atmospheric condition, potential re sources, Lo cation, Circulation, Utilities, Politics and Legal Fact ors, Economic Fa ctors, Social Fa cto rs Hum an Se n s ry, etc; , o we re de scribed in our com plete re s rch report (Tanuwidjaja G., 2006 ). ea

1.1.3 Discussion
The re search concluded that Bintan Buyu wa s a fragmented natural area with some important biological area s. The rem aining ecological areas needed a serious con servation and enhancement st rategy. Further, this

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 43 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia strat egy could be com bined with sustainable eco -touri sm. This ha d been implem ented successfully by B anyan Tree Re sort s and Hotels in northe rn a rea of Bintan I sland. We al so recomm ended pre serving an d improving seve ral areas of scrubland, fore s riparian area to im prove ecological connectivity of the t, area. Seve ral area s in the North ern of Bintan Buyu were recomm ended for development due to low e cological value s.

Figure 22 Bintan Buy u’s Group 1 Sc ore (C ons erv ation Sc ore).

44

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Figure 23 Bintan Buy u’s Cons erv ation Area.

The evaluation of other natural factors wa s f urthe r re comm ended for po ssible area s of development in the Nort h. However, critical threat s , such a s landslide pot ential, flooding potential and land sub side nce, m us t receive p rope r attention. Finally, the spatial plan m ust be prepa red carefully with integration with othe r infra structure s.

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 45 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia

Figure 24 Bintan Buy u’s Group 2 (Other Nat ural Fact ors) Score for Residential.

46

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Figure 25 Bintan Buy u’s Group 2 Suitable Area f or Residential.

To be able to a chieve a su stainable township in Bintan Buyu, it is important to set the population according sustainable principal. There we re t wo po ssible recomm endations identified. The first m ethod was sugge sted by McHarg’s with lim iting developm ent to le ss ecological important area s (M cHa rg 1998 ). The scrub, agriculture and s ome of plantation areas, ap pro xim ately 10.5 sq km in the northern of Bintan Buyu, we re suggested for development. Later with multiplying the area with sust ainable population density, we could produce population num ber. McHarg recom mended another wa y to s stainable population setting. u He s ugge sted limiting the city population following the city ecological carrying capacity. This wa s p rescribed for Wilmington and Dover, con side ring se wage di spo sal capacity, ground wate r supply and rese rvoir wate r supply. Re spe ctively, he sugge sted a population of 33,100 people for the resp ective city (McHa rg 1998 ). First, we de cided to follow the se cond re com mendation using local rainwate r sup ply capa city. With calculating the lowe st m onthly rainfall in Bintan, area of Bintan River catchment s runoff coefficient, we could , produce m inim um am ount of possible available rain-wat er. Assuming 30% of the flow was utilised by the municipal water supply, we could pre scribe sustainable to wnship’s population of Banda r Seri Bintan of 57,000 pe rson s. But combining both m ethods, the aut hors recom mended 57,000 populations (19,000 hou sing unit s) to be settled in the less ecological important area s in the Northern area of Bintan Buyu. Further assum ing only 50% of the areas were designated as resid ential, the average residential den sity could reach 109 person s/ ha, with a low to m edium rise de velopment. Later, p roposed developm ent type could be elaborated following mixedused neighbourhood unit concept with 400 - 600 m radius adapt ed from Perry’s Neighbourh ood (Urb an Planning Guide, 1986). Thi s option was recomm ended becau se of limited economic capacity of the developing countrie s Fu rthe r public utilities and integrated wa ste managem ent . should be p rovided fo r the area.

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 47 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia

Figure 26 Propos ed Fiction Scenario of Dev elopm ent of Bandar Seri Bint an.

La stly, sta keholde rs’ evaluation wa s conducted in 2006. It involved of Bintan Planning Agency and p rivate s ctor, Banyan Tree Reso rts e Bintan. The pos itive a s well as negative re sponse wa s re ceived. First, the po sitive re s ponse came from the private secto r who agreed to support the re com mendation and help disseminate this concept to the local Gove rnm ent. On the othe r hand, the Bintan Government di sagreed with our recomm endation and pursued other development or original alternative. But con sequently, the Central Go vernment cancelled the de velopm ent of Bandar Se ri Bintan becau se of th e cat chments con servation regulation.

1.1.4 Evaluation of ALiT approach.
ALiT implementation in Bintan was considered successful. The evaluation method wa s found feasible by Office r of Bintan Planning Agency, becau se of simple ALiT application and improving capacity of local planning agency.

48

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

On the other hand, seve ral obst acle s were found in implem enting the process, including expen si ve GI S s ft ware and rem ote sen sing data. For o example, Arc Vie w GIS 3. 1 s wa re would cost around US$ 7,500, oft while SPOT (rem ote s s ) images wo uld cost US$ 3,000. The s en ing e we re the m ain challenges for its application. The im portant factor of land sca pe evaluation is evaluato r. The authors suggest including a team com prising at least of a civil engineer, planner and ecologi s for compreh en sive application. It i s sugge sted to pre scribe t an ecologically balanced recomm endation. The team m ust wo rk integrally and each of the expert s m ust po sse ss skill set . The skill set needed are compre hension the lo cal ecology; knowledge of exi s ting land use and it s potential, geological condition, soil type s and hyd rology regimes; u nderstanding of social and econom ic potentials and ot her con straint s in the location. The authors believed the importance of screening p roce ss for hazardous potential. The rationale is to reduce t he environmental destru ction s and cost s f rom natural di sa ste rs The ca ses of the hurricane in Ne w Orlean s . , ts unam i and earthqua ke in A ceh signify this need.

1.2

Conclusion

Landscape evaluation proce ss i s an im portant s tep to t he su stainable land developm ent. The evaluation of the previous method s re vealed the importance of s electing the e valuation criteria, pro per weighting, rapid survey, m ulti-disciplinary and stakeholde rs app roach in solving the problem . ALiT (Adaptive Land scape Evaluation Tool) ha s been made specifically for such context s. The tool’s st rengths could be found at five distingui s hing stages. The first i s the criteria (f acto rs) selection. Thi s is important to achieve effective comprehensi ve evaluation. The s econd is the expert con sultation for setting sco res and weight s fo r the fa cto rs . This st ep actu ally validates the biase s from subjective analys s. i The third is rapid survey to complete the abs t of data, with en multidisciplinary team . The fourth i s the st akeholders’ e valuation. The authors believed that participation of the people, p ublic and p rivate sectors would guaran tee better realis ation of the development. Lastly,

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 49 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia the method als red uce s result bias by using t hre e data set s for o evaluation, which are ecological, natu ral and s cio-econom ic facto rs o .

1.3

Reference

1.3.1 Books
a. “A strat egy f or the sub-region”, Coventry-Solihull-W arwickshire SubRegional Planning Study Group, Suppl. R ep. No. 5 Countryside (1971). b. Akus U.T., Sunary a Y., Setiadi H., and Sukris na (1994), Hy dro-geological Map and Report, Tanjung Pinang, 1016, 1017, Scale 1: 250.000, Geological Researc h and D evelopm ent Centre. c. Anderson L. T. (2000), Planning the Built Env ironment, Planner Press, Chic ago, USA. d. Ay lward B. (August 2000), Land Use, Hy drologic al Function and Ec onomic Valuation, UNESCO Sy mposium/ Workshop Forest-W ater-People in the Humid Tropics, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, edited by Bonell M. and Bruijnzel L.A., publis hed by Cambridge U niversity Press. e. Balmori D. and Benoit G. (eds.) (2003), The LAND Code: Guidelines f or Env ironment ally Sustainable Land Dev elopment, Yale School of Forestry and Env ironmental Studies, USA. f . Bint an R egency Public W orks Department, 1993, GIS Map g. BKPMD Kab. Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands Regency Inv estment Coordination and Regional Promotion Board). (2005), Potential Inv estment Researc h Report (Pengk ajian Peluang Investasi Potensi/ Unggulan D aerah) h. Blacksell M. and Gilg A.W. (Nov 1975), “Landsc ape Evaluation in Practic e – the Cas e of South-East Dev on”, Trans actions of Institute of British Geographers, number 66. i. BPS Kab. Kepulauan Riau (Statistic Bureau Riau Island) (2004), Riau Islands Statistics, 2004 j. Brif f et C. (2001), “Is Managed R ecreational Us e Compatible with Eff ective Habitat and Wildlif e Occurrence in Urban Open Space Corridor Sy stems?” in Landscape R esearch 26 (2) pp. 137-163. k. Code of Practice on Pollution C ontrol (2000 Edition) (wit h amendments in Feb 2001, Jun 2002 and Feb 2004). l. Conley , D. (2008), You may ask y ourself: An introduction to thinking like a sociologist, W.W . Norton and Company . New York p392 m. Economic and Social C ommiss ion f or Asia & the Pacif ic (2004), "Off icial Statistics and its Development in Indonesia", Sub Committee on St atistics: First Session 18–20 February 2004. p19. n. Ellis, E.C. and N. Ramankutty (2008), Putting People in the Map: Ant hropogenic Biom es of the World. o. Freeman C. (1999), “Dev elopment of A Sim ple Method f or Site Surv ey and Assess ment in Urban Areas”, Landsc ape and U rban Planning: 44, pp. 1-11. p. International Monetary Fund (2007), R eport f or Selected Countries and Subjects (GD P), World Economic Outlook D atabase, April 2007..

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q. Kaly U.L, Pratt C.R..& Mitchell J. (2004), Manual: How to Use t he Env ironment al Vulnerability Index (EVI). SOPAC Tec hnic al R eport 383. r. Kaly U.L., Pratt C. & Mitchell, J. (2005), The Env ironmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) 2004. SOPAC Technical Report 384. s. Kus nama, K. Sutisna, T.C. Amin, S. Koes oemadinata, Sukardi, B. Hermanto (1994), Systematic Geological Map, Indonesia Sheet Tanjung Pinang, 1016, 1017, Sc ale 1: 250.000, Geologic al Res earch and Dev elopment Centre, Bandung Indones ia. t. Li A., Wang A., Liang S. and Zhou W . (2006), “Eco-env ironmental Vulnerability Ev aluation in Mount ainous Region Using R emote Sensing and GIS – A C ase St udy in the Upper R eac hes of Minjiang Riv er, China”, Ecological Modelling: 192 (1), pp. 175-187. u. Mc Harg I. (1992), Design W ith Nature, John Wileys & Sons, Inc, New York. v. Mc Harg I. (1998), Steiner Frederick R. (ed) To Heal the Earth, Select ed Writings of Ian L. McHarg, Island Press, Was hington D.C. w. Millennium Ecosystem Ass essm ent (2005), Ec osystems and Human W ellbeing: Biodiv ersity Synthesis. W orld Resourc es Institute, Washington, DC. x. Miller G.T. (2003), Env ironmental Scienc e, Working With Earth, 10th edition, Brooks/C ole Thomson Learning USA. y. Morris P. & Therivel R. (1995), Methods of Env ironment al Impact Assess ment, The N atural and Built Env ironm ent Series 2, London z. Mulongoy K.J. & Chape S. (2004), Prot ected Areas and Biodiversity : An Ov erview of Key Issues CBD Secretariat and UNEP-WC MC, February 2004. Biodiv ersity Series No 21. aa. Penning – Ros well E.C. (1975), “Constraints of The Application of Landsc ape Ev aluations”, Transactions of the Institut e of British Geographers: 66 (N ovember), pp. 149 - 155. bb. Ratclif f e D.A. (1977), A Nature C ons erv ation Rev iews, v ols. 1 and 2, Cam bridge Univ ersity Press, Cambridge. cc. Riau Islands Planning Agency (2004), Revision of 2006-2015 General Regional Plan Riau Islands Regency (R anc angan Umum Tata Ruang Wilayah Kab. Kepulauan Riau) dd. Riau Islands Planning Agency and C V Geometric Tehnik (2005), Res earch and Mapping of Water Rec harge and Catchments Potentials in Riau Island Regency (Kajian dan Pemetaan Pot ens i Daerah R esapan dan Tangkapan Air H ujan di Kab. Kepulauan Riau). ee. Sac hs J. & Malaney P. (2002), “The economic and social burden of malaria” in Nature 680-685, p 415, ff. Saragedin, I. (2002), “W orld Pov erty and Hunger: A C hallenge f or Sc ience”, Scienc e, 296 pp. 54-58 gg. Tanuwidjaja G. (2006), Dev eloping a Landscape Evaluation Tool in Dev eloping Countries, Cas e St udies Bint an Island, Indonesia, Diss ertation of Master of Science in Env ironmental Managem ent, National Univ ersity o f Singapore. hh. Teluk Bintan District Of f ice (2006), Dist rict Statistics D ata 2005

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 51 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia
UNDP (2004), Human D ev elopm ent Report 2004: C ultural liberty in today ’s div erse world jj. UNEP-W CMC (2002) W orld Atlas of Biodiversity , kk. Urban Planning Guide (1986) (ASC E Manuals and R eports on Engineering Practice; no 49), American Society of Civ il Engineers, New Y ork. ll. Weiss S.F., Donnelly T.G. and Kaiser E.J. (1966), “Land Value and Land Dev elopment I nf luence Factors: An Analy tical Approach f or Explaining Policy Alternativ es” in Land Economics: 42 (2), pp 230-33. mm. White E.T. (1985), Site Analysis: Diagramming I nformation f or Arc hitectural Design, Arc hitectural Media, USA. nn. Whitten T., Dam anik S.J., Anwar J., and Hisy am N. (2000), Ecology of Sumatra, Periplus, Singapore. oo. Wong T-C., Yuen B., and Goldblum C. (Eds.) (2008), Spatial Planning f or a Sust ainable Singapore, Springer in Ass ociation wit h t he Singapore I nstitute of Planners. Singapore; pp. World Bank (2006), "Indones ia at a Glanc e,.Indonesia Developm ent Indic ators and Data.” qq. World Bank (2006), "Making the New Indonesia Work f or t he Poor Ov erview" (PDF ). Press release. rr. World C omm ission on Environm ent and Dev elopment (1987), Our C omm on Future, Report of the World Com mission on Env ironm ent and Dev elopment, Published as Annex to General Ass em bly doc um ent A/ 42/427, Dev elopment and I nternational C o-operation: Env ironment August 2, 1987. ss. World Resources Institute (2001), World R esourc es 2000– 2001.W ashington DC: p. 246–248. tt. World Res ources Instit ute, Forest Frontiers Initiativ e, WW F-Indonesia & Telapak Indonesia Foundation (2000), Trial by Fire, Forest Fires and Forestry Policy in Indonesia’s Era of Crisis and Reform. uu. World Res ources Instit ute, Forest Watch Indonesia, Global Forest Watch (2002), Stat e of the Forest Indonesia. vv. World R esourc es Instit ute, U nited N ations Environm ent Programme, Unit ed Nations Dev elopment Program me, and the W orld Bank, (1996), World Resourc es: A Guide to the Global Environm ent: 1996-97, New York: Oxf ord U niv ersity Press, 1996, p. xi. ww. Wright R. & Nebel B. (2007) Env ironmental Scienc e, Toward A Sust ainable Future: International Edition, 10th Edition, Pearson Education, I nc, publishing as Benjamin Cummings ii.

1.3.2 Website
a. http://app.mewr.gov .sg/data/ImgCont/1292/sust ainbleblueprint_f orweb.pdf b. http://app.mewr.gov .sg/web/Cont ents/Contents.as px?ContId=1342 c. http://au.enc arta.ms n.com/ency clopedia_1461501471/Population_Ex plosio n.html; d. http://dictionary .ref erenc e.com/; e. http://en. wik ipedia.org/ wiki/;

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Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

f . http://en. wik ipedia.org/ wiki/File:Population-m ilest ones.jpg g. http://indonesia.usaid.gov /en/ Article.361. aspx h. http://www. adb.org/D ocuments/Reports/39127-IN O/F actSheets/v illageplans.pdf i. http://www.c ensus.gov/ipc/ www/popclock world. html, estimated by United States C ens us Bureau on 5t h Sept ember 2009; j. http://www. jica. go.jp/indonesia/englis h/activ ities/pdf /JICAinAceh.pdf k. http://www. jurong.c om/ l. http://www. merriam-webster.com/ m. http://www. relief web.int/library/documents/2005/brr-idn-22sep.pdf n. http://www.sc ribd.com/doc/13103851/Partic ipatory-Planning-in-AcehURDIGTZ-Sem inar-2526-July-2008

1.4

Acknow ledgments

We exp ress ou r highe st appreciation for: Team of expert s P rof Han Sun Sheng, Dr. Ho Hua Ch ew, Dr Sim on : Yanuar Put ra, Mr Be njamin Lee, Mrs Joyce Martha Widjaya, Mr Alfrendo Sa tyanaga and M s Anb arasi Boopal. Scientific Officer and Ex-Di recto r of Spatial Planning Directo rate II, Minis try of Public Wo rks, Indone sia: Dr,Ir.I. F.Poernom osidhi Poerwo,M.Sc,M CIT,M IHT Bintan’s Go vernm ent Agencie s’ staff s Ms Yanti, M r Ahmad and Mr : Buyung. Bintan People: Mr Udin, M r Bun Seng Banyan Tree Hotel s a nd Reso rt: Mr M ichael Kwe e, Mr. Mirza Pedju. Juro ng Con s ultant s Pte Ltd: Mr Yue n Heng M un, Mr Alliste r Yong Winston, M r Loh K wo k Pheng, M rs Noorliza Minis of Trade and I ndu s ry, Singapo re: M s Amanda Ong. try t Re search A ssi stants: Mr Deny St, M r Septian Hornas and Mr Agus Sudarm an.

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Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 53 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia

1.5
1.6

The Writer’s Description
I. Pe rsonal Information : Guna w Tanu widj aj a an : gunteitb@ yaho o.c om : htt p://gree nimpacti nd o. wordpress.co m/ : +62 812 2 12 20 8 4 2 (In do nesia) : Ba nd ung : 08 of Aug ust 19 78 : Male : Indon esia n : Indon esia n : Indon esia n, E ng lish

Full name e-mail website Mobile Phon e Place of Birt h Date of Birth Sex Nation ality Mother Lang u age Lang u age S k ill 1.7 Formal E ducatio n Name of Institution National Univ ersit yof Singapore Bandung Institute of Technology (Institut Teknologi Bandung) 1.8

II. Education Backgrounds

City/Countr y

StudyT ime (Months/Years)

Graduated from (Month and Ye ar)

Speci alization

GPA 3.8 6 from sca le of 5 2.7 3

Singapore

1 year

October 2 006

MSc Environment Management

Bandung / Indonesia

5 year s

Jul y of 2 00 1

Bachelor of Archit ecture

from sca le of 4

III. Informa l Educ ation Name of Institution Sing apore Ins titute o f Pla nner Lee Ku an Yew Scho ol Of Public Policy Nation al University o f Sing apore , Facult y o f E ng ineering , P AC (Profession al Activities Cen tre) Sing apore Ins titute o f Pla nner Course Nam e & Speci alization Spati al Pla nning for a Sust aina ble Sing apore (1-da y se minar) "Lesso ns Not to Le arn fro m American Cities" b y Prof Alan Altshuler (Half-d ay se min ar) Short Course On "A – Z Of Oil & Gas To Petroche micals (3- da ys semin ar) Destinati on Res orts, The Next Wa ve

StudyT ime (Y ear s) 200 8 200 8

200 7

200 7

54

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

StudyT ime (Y ear s)

Name of Institution

Course Nam e & Speci alization (1-da y se minar)

200 7

Sing apore Ins titute o f Pla nner, Malaysia Institut e o f Plann er a nd Universiti K eb angsa an Mal aysia The British Instit ute Lang u ag e Cen ter ITB Gradasi Bulletin St ud ent U nion of Architect ure G unadh arma ( IMAGun adharma) Architect ure De part ment ITB Saint Ang ela’s Eng lish Co urse Saint Ang ela’s Eng lish Co urse

Semi nar o f Pla nning of Is kan dar Developme nt R egion (1-d a y semin ar) IELTS Prep aration Co urse Eng lish Writing Course Journalistic Training

200 1 200 0 199 9

199 7 199 3-19 95 199 0-19 92 1.9

AutoC ad R 14 Traini ng Eng lish Course level C6 to C11 Eng lish Course l evel J2 to J5

IV. W orking Exper ienc e City/ Countries Ban du ng Position Manager Job Des cription Team L ead er and Urban Plann er Contract Periods March 20 03 to no w

Name of Institute/Companies Green Impact Ind onesi a Integ rate d Urban, Drain ag e a nd Environme ntal Planning Consult an t Ag ency f or Research and De velo p men t, Institu te of Water Resources, Ministry of Public W or k s, Repu blic of Ind onesi a, Jurong Cons ultants Pte Ltd ., Pl anning Division Nation al Par k s Board, Rep ublic of Sing apore Ag ency f or Research and De velo p men t, Institu te of Water Resources, Ministry of Public W or k s, Repu blic of Ind onesi a, Sat yamitra J asapuri Eng ineering PT. Trinitas B uana Utama

Ban du ng

Urban Planni ng an d Manag e men t Expert

Assistant

Octob er 2 008 to no w

Sing apore

Plann er

Physical Plann er Researcher

November 2006 t o Octob er 2 008 July 20 06 to Aug 20 06 Jan 200 5 Aug 20 05

Sing apore

Intern

Ban du ng / Indonesi a

Junior Research er

GIS E xpert Assistant (Arc View 3. 2), in Polder T ea m

Ban du ng / Indonesi a Ban du ng / Indonesi a

Junior Architect, Estimator Junior Architect

House, Fact ory and Café Desig n Apart ment Desig n

Aug 20 03 Dec 20 04 Aug 20 02 Aug 20 03

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 55 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia
Name of Institute/Companies PT. I mesco Dito COMBINE City/ Countries Jakarta/ In do nesia Ban du ng / Indonesi a Position Junior Architect Junior Research er Job Des cription Junior Archit ect Urban Develop me nt Research, especi ally on Urban G arbag e Manag e men t Junior Archit ect Garbage Manag e men t , Mechanism Mak and ing Controlling of Coop erati ve Credit Unit Contract Periods Jan 200 2 – Aug 20 02 Aug 2001 Jan 200 2

CV. Cipta Bina Saran a ASPEK

Ban du ng / Indonesi a Ban du ng / Indonesi a

Work Train ee Prog ram Facilitator Communit y Reco ver y Prog ram (CRP-HUI) in RW 11, Cibang kong District

May - J uly 200 1 Jan 200 0 Aug 20 01

1.1 0

V. Resear ch, Planning & De sign W orks Name of Proj ect Position Year

Under Gre en Impa ct Indonesia Assistanc e f or Directorat e of Spati al Pla nning , Pu blic Wor k Depart men t (20 09), s Sustaina ble Urban Impro vemen t Progra m (SUSIP) - Exec uti ve Presen tatio n Drainage Master Plan Revitalisatio n in Summareco n, K elap a Gading , J akarta, I ndonesia Hospital Preliminar y Design and St ud y in Pang aleng an, West J ava , Indo nesia (Proposal to KPB S, Milk Produc er Coopera tive in Pang ale ng an) Communit y Bas ed Develop me nt R evitalisatio n in PT Newmont N usa Teng g ara, Su mba, N usa Tengg ara Barat, I ndon esia (Proposal) Team L eader a nd Urban Plann er Dec 20 09

Team L eader a nd Urban Plann er

Apr – Dec 200 9

Team L eader a nd Senior Architect

Apr – Aug 2 00 9

Team Lead er a nd Environme ntalist

Aug 20 09

56

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Name of Proj ect Tradition al Market Mapping , GIS Dat abase an d Anal ysis in th e fra mewor k of Impl ementi ng Preside ntial Decree No 112/2 007 on Develop ment of Tra dition al Mark a nd Rel ocation of et Modern Mar ket in In don esia (Proposal to Ministr y of Trad e of Republic of Ind onesia) Integ rat ed Wat er Reso urces Manag ement Pla n f or Barang kal Ri ver, sub catchme nt of Bra nt as River Basin, i n relati on wit h S ocial Aspect a nd Instit ution Capacit y Building (Pro posal to JICA) “9 Pe arl” Element ary Sch ool in Ba ndung Proposal 9 9’ers Radi o Sc hool (Proposal) Under Jurong Consultants Pte Ltd. Preliminary Stud y a nd Brief Develop me nt Concept of QEZ3, Petroche mical Compl e x, Q atar Dera Bassi D etaile d Mast er Plan, Great er Moh ali Area, Punja b, Indi a Lib ya Africa Ec on omic City Wonog iri Industrial Par k, Ind onesi a (Guan xi Stat e Farm - Bio fuel Plan t) Master Pla n A n Ta y Industrial Serv e Ce ntre ic Master Pla n Zh angzho u Wat erfront City, Chin a Master Pla n AMRL Intern atio nal T ech City, T amil Nadu, India

Position Team L eader a nd Urban Plann er

Year Aug 20 09

Team Lead er a nd Environme ntalist

Aug 20 09

Team Lead er a nd Architect Team Lead er a nd Architect

200 3 200 3

Plann er

200 7 to 2 008

Plann er

200 7 to 2 008

Plann er Plann er

200 7 to 2 008 200 7 to 2 008

Plann er Assistant Plann er Assistant Plann er

200 7 200 6-20 07 200 7

W ith MSc Env ironmental Management P rogram “Neotie wpia” Ec o Villag e Master Pla n in Kranji Plann er & Environment alist 200 6

Applying Integra ted Ecological Planning and Adaptive 57 Land scape E valuation Tool for Developing Count ries in the Frame work of Su stainable Spatial Planning and Developm ent, Study Ca se Bintan I sland, Indonesia
Name of Proj ect Sing apore Under SJP Engine ering BTC Café Kop omas Fac tor y Privat e Houses Ba nd ung Under PT. Trinitas Buan a Utama Rental H ouses in B an du ng Bukit Resi k Exclusi ve Apar men t Site Pl an “S. Par ma n” Elite Housing Under PT. Imes co Dito Privat e Houses i n Jakarta Freel ance Proj ect Cibang kong Lo w Cost Housing , B and ung I ndon esia Desig n Develop ment of KARANG SETRA Hotel, Spa and Cottag es, B andu ng Ind onesi a u nd er Cipta Bina Sarana Master Pla n o f Cipulir Housing Site Pla n, Ja karta und er Prof Ir. Da nisworo 1.1 1 Awa rds/ Prestige Final Year Stud ent Junior Archit ect, Desig n Develop ment 200 1 200 1 Junior Architect 200 2 Studi o Co ordina tor Studi o Co ordina tor Studi o Co ordina tor 200 2 – 2 003 200 2 – 2 003 200 2 Junior Architect Junior Architect Junior Archit ect, Desig n Develop ment 200 4 200 4 200 3 – 2 004 Position Year

Junior Architect

200 1

VI. Awards, Pre stige, Activ ities, and Publi cation Best Dissert ation Prizes fro m Sh ell, MEM National Uni versity of Sing ap ore, 20 06200 7 Shell Gra nt Bursar y Hold er in MEM Na tion al Uni versit y of Si ng apore , 2 00 5-20 06 Second C ha mpio n of Desig n Co mp etitio n o f I nfor mal Trad ers St and h eld b y Th e Municipal\ G o vern ment of Kot a B andu ng, Pra k dan IMA-Gunad har ma ITB Y ear sis 200 1 Ban du ng Ind epen dent Li v Ce nter (B ILIC) ing 200 3 - 2 004 : Vol untary Att en da nt for Difabl e (Disable) Person 200 3 : Coordi nat or Rese arch Tea m in Accessibilit y Issue for Difa ble (Disable) Person in Se veral Loc ation in Ba ndung Forum Gelar K ot a B and ung (City Devel opme nt Discussion Foru m) 200 2 : F oru m Gel ar Ko ta Secret ariat 200 1 : J uni or Rese archer Ikata n Ma hasiswa Arsite k Gun adhar ma IT B (Gu na dhar ma Stu dent Uni on of tur

Activ itie s

58

Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan. & M alone-Lee, Lai Ch oo

Architect ure Depart men t of ITB) 200 1 Me mb er of L egislative Bodies of IMA - Gu na dh arma Me mb er of Sustain able Hu man S ettle ment Discussi on Group Co ordin ator of TOR T eam of S ustaina ble Huma n S ettlement Se min ar 199 9 – 2 000 Co ordin ator of Gra dasi (Archit ect ure B ulletin of IMA-G) OSIS SMAK I BP K Pen abur (Stu dent Unio n o f B PK P enab ur Se nior High School) OSIS SMP St Alo ysius (Stu de nt Union of St Alo ysius Ju nior Hig h Sch ool) Publications Integ ratio n o f Sustai na ble Pl anni ng Policy a nd D esig n of Lo w-Cost Ap artment , in the C ont e xt of S ustai nable Urba n De velop ment, National Se minar of Lo w-Cost Apart ment, Mar ana th a Uni versit y Ba nd ung, I ndonesia, 2 009. , Bambo os as Sus tainabl e a nd Aff orda ble Mat erial for Ho using as one o f alt erna tife mat erial of Low-Cost Ap artment , Nati on al Se minar of Lo w-Cost Ap artment, Maranat ha Universit y, Ban du ng , In do nesia, 2 009. Guidelin es f or De veloping P older S y m in Indo nesia, Ag ency for Res earch an d ste Developme nt, Instit ut e of Water Resourc es, Ministr y of Pu blic Works, Republic of I ndo nesi a, 2 00 8-20 09 . Developi ng a L an dsca pe E valuatio n To ol for De veloping Countries, Case S tudies Binta n Isla nd, In donesia , MSc E nvironme nt Ma nag e me nt Pr og ram, Na tional Universit y of Singap ore (Best Dissertati on Award) Report of Res earch in Accessibilit y Iss ue for Difa ble (Disable) Perso n in Se veral Loca tion i n Ban dung Reports of B an du ng Urban Discussion F orum o n Urba n S olid W aste Man ag ement, Janu ary 2 002. Reports of B an du ng Urban Discussion F orum in Housing Needs, Aug ust 20 01. Thesis of Design St udio , Cas e o f L ow Eco no my Flat f or Cibang kong Villag e, Ban du ng , In don esia (Keluraha n Ciba ng kong ), The me Pa ttern Lang uag e Architect ure Seminar Re port of Ho using Devel opme nt B ased o n Lo w Ec onomy Pe ople .

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